Science.gov

Sample records for aggregated journal-journal citations

  1. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Distance Education," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Eric H.; Griffiths, Ty; Luke, Brandon; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the authors analyzed articles published in the "Journal of Distance Education" from 2003-2012. They analyzed the frequency of author-provided keywords and common abstract phrases, type and frequency of authorship, the type of research method employed, and the number of citations the journal and specific articles received.…

  2. Aberration of the Citation.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Multiple inherent biases related to different citation practices (for e.g., self-citations, negative citations, wrong citations, multi-authorship-biased citations, honorary citations, circumstantial citations, discriminatory citations, selective and arbitrary citations, etc.) make citation-based bibliometrics strongly flawed and defective measures. A paper can be highly cited for a while (for e.g., under circumstantial or transitional knowledge), but years later it may appear that its findings, paradigms, or theories were untrue or invalid anymore. By contrast, a paper may remain shelved or overlooked for years or decades, but new studies or discoveries may actualize its subject at any moment. As citation-based metrics are transformed into "commercial activities," the "citation credit" should be considered on a commercial basis too, in the sense that "citation credit" should be shared out as a "citation dividend" by shareholders (coauthors) averagely or proportionally to their contributions but not fully appropriated by each of them. At equal numbers of citations, the greater number of authors, the lower "citation credit" should be and vice versa. Overlooking the presence of distorted and subjective citation practices makes many people and administrators "obsessed" with the number of citations to such an extent to run after "highly cited" authors and to create specialized citation databases for commercial purposes. Citation-based bibliometrics, however, are unreliable and unscientific measures; citation counts do not mean that a more cited work is of a higher quality or accuracy than a less cited work because citations do not measure the quality or accuracy. Citations do not mean that a highly cited author or journal is more commendable than a less cited author or journal. Citations are not more than countable numbers: no more, no less.

  3. Tracking Our Writing Theorists through Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshnick, Damian C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Working between bibliometrics and theories in the sociology of knowledge, this research demonstrates a method for aggregating and studying the content of citations in order to both quantitatively capture and qualitatively describe significant patterns in the uses of prominent writing theorists and their books over time. Realized specifically as a…

  4. Predicting Future Citation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2003-01-01

    Develops the theory for a stochastic model for the citation process in the presence of obsolescence to predict the future citation pattern of individual papers in a collection. Shows that the expected number of future citations is a linear function of the current number, interpreted as an example of a success-breeds-success phenomenon. (Author/LRW)

  5. Statistical Physics of Citations

    SciTech Connect

    Redner, Sidney

    2005-09-28

    This talk will begin with basic empirical facts about the network of scientific citations, based on the entire corpus of Physical Review publications from the past 110 years. Intriguingly, the evolution of citations appears to be described by linear preferential attachment. A master equation approach will be developed to characterize this popularity-driven network. One basic attribute is the citation distribution of the network, namely, the probability that a publication has a given number of citations. The conditions that give rise to exponential, power-law, or more singular citation distributions will be elucidated. Comparison between the theory and the citation data of Physical Review will be made. Finally, the Google page-rank algorithm will be used to uncover hidden gems within Physical Review publications.

  6. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  7. Legal Citation at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Carol; Harrell, Susan W.

    2004-01-01

    Legal citation, seemingly unchanged for years, has approached a crossroads. The year 2003 marked the publication of the second edition of the "ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation." This new citation manual may soon be preferred over "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" as the primary reference in legal writing classes…

  8. Citations Prize 2012 Citations Prize 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The authors of the winning paper. The authors of the winning paper. The winner of the 2012 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2007-2011) is Image reconstruction in circular cone-beam computed tomography by constrained, total-variation minimization Authors: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan Reference: Emil Y Sidky and Xiaochuan Pan 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4777-807 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/51868). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Simon Cherry Editor-in-Chief Jon Ruffle Publisher

  9. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  10. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  11. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  12. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  13. Citation Networks of Communication Journals, 1977-1985: Cliques and Positions, Citations Made and Citations Received.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the citation pattern among all communication journals covered by the first nine years of the "Journal Citation Reports" volume of the "Social Sciences Citation Index" (1977-1985). Notes that the communication field exhibits clustering and inbreeding, consisting of cliques of interpersonal journals, mass media journals, and residual…

  14. Characterizing and Modeling Citation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well. PMID:21966387

  15. The citation wake of publications detects nobel laureates' papers.

    PubMed

    Klosik, David F; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    For several decades, a leading paradigm of how to quantitatively assess scientific research has been the analysis of the aggregated citation information in a set of scientific publications. Although the representation of this information as a citation network has already been coined in the 1960s, it needed the systematic indexing of scientific literature to allow for impact metrics that actually made use of this network as a whole, improving on the then prevailing metrics that were almost exclusively based on the number of direct citations. However, besides focusing on the assignment of credit, the paper citation network can also be studied in terms of the proliferation of scientific ideas. Here we introduce a simple measure based on the shortest-paths in the paper's in-component or, simply speaking, on the shape and size of the wake of a paper within the citation network. Applied to a citation network containing Physical Review publications from more than a century, our approach is able to detect seminal articles which have introduced concepts of obvious importance to the further development of physics. We observe a large fraction of papers co-authored by Nobel Prize laureates in physics among the top-ranked publications.

  16. CiteRivers: Visual Analytics of Citation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Florian; Han, Qi; Koch, Steffen; Ertl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The exploration and analysis of scientific literature collections is an important task for effective knowledge management. Past interest in such document sets has spurred the development of numerous visualization approaches for their interactive analysis. They either focus on the textual content of publications, or on document metadata including authors and citations. Previously presented approaches for citation analysis aim primarily at the visualization of the structure of citation networks and their exploration. We extend the state-of-the-art by presenting an approach for the interactive visual analysis of the contents of scientific documents, and combine it with a new and flexible technique to analyze their citations. This technique facilitates user-steered aggregation of citations which are linked to the content of the citing publications using a highly interactive visualization approach. Through enriching the approach with additional interactive views of other important aspects of the data, we support the exploration of the dataset over time and enable users to analyze citation patterns, spot trends, and track long-term developments. We demonstrate the strengths of our approach through a use case and discuss it based on expert user feedback.

  17. Data Citation in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Many observatories maintain bibliographies to document their impact and justify their continued funding[1], an effort that requires humans to discover and curate links between the scientific papers and the data that was used as evidence. The "Best Practices for Creating a Telescope Bibliography", endorsed by IAU C5 WG Libraries, recommends full text searching and human examination of each paper.[2] These efforts do not scale well.It is unlikely that articles published in journals from other disciples would be found. This is particularly a problem for solar physics, as solar data has applicability in astrophysics, space weather, and even the earth sciences.As our scientists are not on the editorial boards of the journals from other disciplines, we can't ensure proper attribution to allow these relationships to be discovered via full text searching.To better deal with tracking cross-discipline data usage, a number of groups have come up with guidelines and principles for data citation. In 2012, the National Academy's Board on Research Data and Information released the report "For Attribution-Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards" [3] and it was followed last year by the CODATA-ICSTI report "Out of Cite, Out of Mind".[4]Participants from a number of groups synthesized a single set of principles for data citation that could be endorsed by all groups involved in research.[5] Implementing these principles can help to improve the scientific ecosystem by giving proper attribution to all contributors to data, improving transparency and reproducability, and making data more easily reusable to both astronomers and other researchers.We will present the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles, discuss the implications of them for astronomical data, and recommend steps towards implementation.References:[1] Accomazzi, et.al, 2012. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8448E..0KA[2] Bishop, Grothkopf & Lagerstrom, 2012. http://iau-commission5

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  19. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  20. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  1. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  2. Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Succi, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    Recent science of science research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate production and impact using the rank-citation profile ci(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper rank r, we fit each ci(r) to a common distribution function. Since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index can have significantly different ci(r) profiles, our results demonstrate the utility of the βi scaling parameter in conjunction with hi for quantifying individual publication impact. We show that the total number of citations Ci tallied from a scientist's Ni papers scales as . Such statistical regularities in the input-output patterns of scientists can be used as benchmarks for theoretical models of career progress. PMID:22355696

  3. Case Citations 1991. Eleventh Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Linda A., Ed.

    Case citations from five legal areas--college students, liability on campus, sport law, employment, and employment discrimination--are presented in this document. Each section offers brief summaries of cases and concludes with a table of cases. The first section on college students examines litigation involving student finances, disciplinary…

  4. Citation in Biomedical Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Betty Lou

    1988-01-01

    Examination of how biomedical scientists cite the published work of others in their own journal articles revealed that subjects tended to summarize or generalize others' articles and used few direct quotations and little paraphrasing. The results suggest ethical and instructional questions relating to which citation forms should be taught to…

  5. Data Accuracy in Citation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Bert R.; Banning, Carolyn Sue

    1979-01-01

    Four hundred eighty-seven citations of the 1976 issues of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and the Personnel and Guidance Journal were checked for accuracy: total error was 13.6 percent and 10.7 percent, respectively. Error categories included incorrect author name, article/book title, journal title; wrong entry; and…

  6. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  7. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  8. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  9. Writing references and using citation management software

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized. PMID:26328132

  10. Writing references and using citation management software.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  11. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  14. Data Citation Impediments: Human and Institutional Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Data citations are growing in visibility in scientific and public policy circles. Data citations directly link scholarship and data, and as such provide a mechanism through which data can be discovered and accessed, scholarly use of data can be tracked, and the impact of data facilities can be identified. The interest in data citations is coming from many research stakeholders, including funders, policy makers, professional societies and their publication entities, research organizations, and individual researchers. Most of the efforts to date around data citations have focused on the challenges of assigning unique identifiers to digital data sets. While these challenges are significant, an additional challenge has gone relatively unaddressed, namely, the fact that data citation is not a common practice within scientific communities. This presentation will present findings from an interview study within the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research / National Center for Atmospheric Research (UCAR/NCAR). Through interviews with 14 scientists and engineers, we have found that there is little evidence that data citations have gained momentum as a common practice. Currently, data users acknowledge their use of particular data sets in either the research methods or acknowledgements sections of their papers, not as formal citations in a paper's bibliography. Data users are often 1) unaware that they can and should cite data sets, 2) unsure of how to cite data sets, and 3) lacking career motivations to forward data citations as a common activity. Data citation initiatives will have minimal impact on the scientific community if they do not address this practical inertia. Data users are a critical stakeholder in the data citation process. Their voice needs to be central to the data citation discussion. We will discuss how outreach efforts need to focus on raising the profile of data citations by informing scientists and administrators, being proactive in providing

  15. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  16. The Measurement of the Effect on Citation Inequality of Differences in Citation Practices across Scientific Fields

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Juan A.; Li, Yungrong; Ruiz–Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two aims: (i) to introduce a novel method for measuring which part of overall citation inequality can be attributed to differences in citation practices across scientific fields, and (ii) to implement an empirical strategy for making meaningful comparisons between the number of citations received by articles in 22 broad fields. The number of citations received by any article is seen as a function of the article’s scientific influence, and the field to which it belongs. A key assumption is that articles in the same quantile of any field citation distribution have the same degree of citation impact in their respective field. Using a dataset of 4.4 million articles published in 1998–2003 with a five-year citation window, we estimate that differences in citation practices between the 22 fields account for 14% of overall citation inequality. Our empirical strategy is based on the strong similarities found in the behavior of citation distributions. We obtain three main results. Firstly, we estimate a set of average-based indicators, called exchange rates, to express the citations received by any article in a large interval in terms of the citations received in a reference situation. Secondly, using our exchange rates as normalization factors of the raw citation data reduces the effect of differences in citation practices to, approximately, 2% of overall citation inequality in the normalized citation distributions. Thirdly, we provide an empirical explanation of why the usual normalization procedure based on the fields’ mean citation rates is found to be equally successful. PMID:23516542

  17. Hand hygiene deficiency citations in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas; Wagner, Laura; Ferguson, Jamie; Handler, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as an effective way to decrease transmission of infections. Little research has been conducted surrounding HH in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, deficiency citations representing potential problems with HH practices by staff as identified in the certification process conducted at almost all US NHs were examined. The aims of the study were to identify potential relationships between these deficiency citations and characteristics of the NH and characteristics of the NH environment. We used a panel of 148,900 observations with information primarily coming from the 2000 through 2009 Online Survey, Certification, And Reporting data (OSCAR). An average of 9% of all NHs per year received a deficiency citation for HH. In the multivariate analyses, for all three caregivers examined (i.e., nurse aides, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Registered Nurses) low staffing levels were associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Two measures of poor quality (i.e., [1] Quality of care deficiency citations and [2] J, K, or L deficiency citations, that is deficiency citations with a high extent of harm and/or more residents affected) were also associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Given the percentage of NHs receiving deficiency citations for potential problems with HH identified in this research, more attention should be placed on this issue.

  18. Mining a Web Citation Database for Author Co-Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yulan; Hui, Siu Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a mining process to automate author co-citation analysis based on the Web Citation Database, a data warehouse for storing citation indices of Web publications. Describes the use of agglomerative hierarchical clustering for author clustering and multidimensional scaling for displaying author cluster maps, and explains PubSearch, a…

  19. VCCA Journal: Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges Association, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Darrell, Ed.; Jobin, Robert, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Volume 5 of the "VCCA Journal" contains the following articles: (1) "Outcomes Assessment Weather Forecast: A Cold Wind Blowing from the North," by David C. Hanson; (2) "The National Endowment for the Humanities Grant at Piedmont Virginia Community College," by Evelyn Edson, Jane Kingston, William Owen, and Samuel Westbrook; (3) "Spring Break in…

  20. 41 CFR 128-1.152 - Citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 128-1.152 Section 128-1.152 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 128-1.152 Citation. The JPMR will...

  1. 41 CFR 105-1.150 - Citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation. 105-1.150 Section 105-1.150 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.150 Citation....

  2. 36 CFR 1150.42 - Citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citations. 1150.42 Section 1150.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Proceedings Prior to Hearings; Pleadings and Motions § 1150.42 Citations. (a) If there appears to...

  3. Citation Managers and Citing-Cited Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simboli, Brian; Zhang, Min

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the trend for library resources to enable identification of cited and citing reference lists, i.e., lists of items cited by documents as well as items that in turn cite those documents. Describes citation management software, EndNote and RefWorks, and considers the role of publishers in facilitating the use of citation managers.…

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.18 - Citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Citations. 60-3.18... position in the area of prohibiting discrimination in employment practices on grounds of race, color.... The specific additional citations are as follows: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.18 - Citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Citations. 60-3.18... position in the area of prohibiting discrimination in employment practices on grounds of race, color.... The specific additional citations are as follows: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR...

  6. Academic Citation Practice: A Sinking Sheep?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekdal, Ole Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    An explosion in access to electronic databases and digital information is changing the way we view source citation. While the original purpose of referencing--showing the reader exactly where the author got his or her input--is clearly more important than ever, citation is increasingly taking on other roles, ones that have little to do with good…

  7. Citation Searching: Search Smarter & Find More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Chelsea C.; Brown, Stephanie Willen

    2008-01-01

    The staff at University of Connecticut are participating in Elsevier's Student Ambassador Program (SAmP) in which graduate students train their peers on "citation searching" research using Scopus and Web of Science, two tremendous citation databases. They are in the fourth semester of these training programs, and they are wildly successful: They…

  8. Data Realities : Citation Equals Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourclé, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Solar physics has a problem with tracking the impact of solar data's use in scientific literature. Data collected by solar-observing missions is used in many other fields, but we do not have good information about who is using our data. Solar data is useful not only in solar physics, but also general astronomy, planetery, space weather, space physics and earth science.The sun is the only star that we can see in high detail; solar data is used to erase moonlight from night-time images; coronagraphs have found more comets than night-observing telescopes; space weather affects life on earth, communications, air traffic, and manned space-flight.As our missions' continued funding is justified through use of our data, missing too many of these uses could decrease our future funding or lead to cancellation. As our current methods of finding data use is through human review of the literature, we are much more likely to miss usage in fields outside of solar physics.To better deal with tracking cross-discipline data usage, a number of groups have come up with guidelines and principles for data citation.[1,2,3] We provide an update on the efforts of multiple groups working on standards to implement both data and software citation.[1] National Research Council, 2012. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13564[2] CODATA, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2481/dsj.OSOM13-043[3] 2014. http://www.force11.org/datacitation

  9. A Reverse Engineering Approach to the Suppression of Citation Biases Reveals Universal Properties of Citation Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of information contained in bibliographic databases has recently boosted the use of citations, and other indicators based on citation numbers, as tools for the quantitative assessment of scientific research. Citations counts are often interpreted as proxies for the scientific influence of papers, journals, scholars, and institutions. However, a rigorous and scientifically grounded methodology for a correct use of citation counts is still missing. In particular, cross-disciplinary comparisons in terms of raw citation counts systematically favors scientific disciplines with higher citation and publication rates. Here we perform an exhaustive study of the citation patterns of millions of papers, and derive a simple transformation of citation counts able to suppress the disproportionate citation counts among scientific domains. We find that the transformation is well described by a power-law function, and that the parameter values of the transformation are typical features of each scientific discipline. Universal properties of citation patterns descend therefore from the fact that citation distributions for papers in a specific field are all part of the same family of univariate distributions. PMID:22479454

  10. Analyzing Data Citations to Assess the Scientific and Societal Value of Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Downs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stakeholders in the creation, distribution, support, funding, and use of scientific data can benefit by understanding the value that the data have for society and science. For decades, the scientific community has been using citations of articles in the published scientific literature as one of the primary measures used for evaluating the performance of scientists, departments, institutions, and scientific disciplines. Similarly, citations in the published literature of scientific data may be useful for measuring and assessing the value of the scientific data and the performance of the individuals, projects, programs, and organizations that have contributed to the data and their use. The results of citation analysis and other assessments of the value of data also can contribute to planning for future data collection, development, distribution, and preservation efforts. The planned release of new data citation indexes and the more widespread adoption of unique data identifiers and automated attribution mechanisms have the potential to improve significantly the capabilities for analyzing citations of scientific data. In addition, rapid developments in the systems and capabilities for disseminating data, along with education and workforce development on the importance of data attribution and on techniques for data citation, can improve practices for citing scientific data. Such practices need to lead not only to better aggregate statistics about data citation, but also to improved characterization and understanding of the impact of data use in terms of the benefits for science and society. Analyses of citations in the scientific literature were conducted for data that were distributed by an interdisciplinary scientific data center during a five-year period (1997 - 2011), to identify the scientific fields represented by the journals and books in which the data were cited. Secondary citation analysis also was conducted for a sample of scientific publications that used

  11. Statistical regularities in the rank-citation profile of scientists.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene; Succi, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    Recent science of science research shows that scientific impact measures for journals and individual articles have quantifiable regularities across both time and discipline. However, little is known about the scientific impact distribution at the scale of an individual scientist. We analyze the aggregate production and impact using the rank-citation profile c(i)(r) of 200 distinguished professors and 100 assistant professors. For the entire range of paper rank r, we fit each c(i)(r) to a common distribution function. Since two scientists with equivalent Hirsch h-index can have significantly different c(i)(r) profiles, our results demonstrate the utility of the β(i) scaling parameter in conjunction with h(i) for quantifying individual publication impact. We show that the total number of citations C(i) tallied from a scientist's N(i) papers scales as [Formula: see text]. Such statistical regularities in the input-output patterns of scientists can be used as benchmarks for theoretical models of career progress.

  12. Data Publications Correlate with Citation Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Florian; Bielza, Concha; Hill, Sean L.; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience and molecular biology have been generating large datasets over the past years that are reshaping how research is being conducted. In their wake, open data sharing has been singled out as a major challenge for the future of research. We conducted a comparative study of citations of data publications in both fields, showing that the average publication tagged with a data-related term by the NCBI MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) curators achieves a significantly larger citation impact than the average in either field. We introduce a new metric, the data article citation index (DAC-index), to identify the most prolific authors among those data-related publications. The study is fully reproducible from an executable Rmd (R Markdown) script together with all the citation datasets. We hope these results can encourage authors to more openly publish their data. PMID:27679558

  13. Data Publications Correlate with Citation Impact.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Florian; Bielza, Concha; Hill, Sean L; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience and molecular biology have been generating large datasets over the past years that are reshaping how research is being conducted. In their wake, open data sharing has been singled out as a major challenge for the future of research. We conducted a comparative study of citations of data publications in both fields, showing that the average publication tagged with a data-related term by the NCBI MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) curators achieves a significantly larger citation impact than the average in either field. We introduce a new metric, the data article citation index (DAC-index), to identify the most prolific authors among those data-related publications. The study is fully reproducible from an executable Rmd (R Markdown) script together with all the citation datasets. We hope these results can encourage authors to more openly publish their data. PMID:27679558

  14. What is the dimension of citation space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, James R.; Evans, Tim S.

    2016-04-01

    Citation networks represent the flow of information between agents. They are constrained in time and so form directed acyclic graphs which have a causal structure. Here we provide novel quantitative methods to characterise that structure by adapting methods used in the causal set approach to quantum gravity by considering the networks to be embedded in a Minkowski spacetime and measuring its dimension using Myrheim-Meyer and Midpoint-scaling estimates. We illustrate these methods on citation networks from the arXiv, supreme court judgements from the USA, and patents and find that otherwise similar citation networks have measurably different dimensions. We suggest that these differences can be interpreted in terms of the level of diversity or narrowness in citation behaviour.

  15. Rescaling citations of publications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the citation distributions of all papers published in Physical Review journals between 1985 and 2009. The average number of citations received by papers published in a given year and in a given field is computed. Large variations are found, showing that it is not fair to compare citation numbers across fields and years. However, when a rescaling procedure by the average is used, it is possible to compare impartially articles across years and fields. We make the rescaling factors available for use by the readers. We also show that rescaling citation numbers by the number of publication authors has strong effects and should therefore be taken into account when assessing the bibliometric performance of researchers.

  16. Data Publications Correlate with Citation Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Florian; Bielza, Concha; Hill, Sean L.; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience and molecular biology have been generating large datasets over the past years that are reshaping how research is being conducted. In their wake, open data sharing has been singled out as a major challenge for the future of research. We conducted a comparative study of citations of data publications in both fields, showing that the average publication tagged with a data-related term by the NCBI MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) curators achieves a significantly larger citation impact than the average in either field. We introduce a new metric, the data article citation index (DAC-index), to identify the most prolific authors among those data-related publications. The study is fully reproducible from an executable Rmd (R Markdown) script together with all the citation datasets. We hope these results can encourage authors to more openly publish their data.

  17. Data Publications Correlate with Citation Impact.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Florian; Bielza, Concha; Hill, Sean L; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience and molecular biology have been generating large datasets over the past years that are reshaping how research is being conducted. In their wake, open data sharing has been singled out as a major challenge for the future of research. We conducted a comparative study of citations of data publications in both fields, showing that the average publication tagged with a data-related term by the NCBI MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) curators achieves a significantly larger citation impact than the average in either field. We introduce a new metric, the data article citation index (DAC-index), to identify the most prolific authors among those data-related publications. The study is fully reproducible from an executable Rmd (R Markdown) script together with all the citation datasets. We hope these results can encourage authors to more openly publish their data.

  18. Antimatter: (Latest citations from the INSPEC Database)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning physical theory, testing, and practical applications of antimatter. Related nuclear phenomena, matter-antimatter interactions, relativity, antigravity, formation of the universe, and space-time configurations are described. The roles of cosmic rays, black holes, antiprotons, and positrons are discussed. Antimatter propulsion spacecraft are briefly cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Antimatter. (Latest citations from the INSPEC Database)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning physical theory, testing, and practical applications of antimatter. Related nuclear phenomena, matter-antimatter interactions, relativity, antigravity, formation of the universe, and space-time configurations are described. The roles of cosmic rays, black holes, antiprotons, and positrons are discussed. Antimatter propulsion spacecraft are briefly cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Citation Sentiment Analysis in Clinical Trial Papers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain.

  1. Citation Sentiment Analysis in Clinical Trial Papers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain. PMID:26958274

  2. Science Citation Index Expanded: The Effect of Journal Editorial Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Citation attributes were found to be strongly associated with the omission of citations from the cited article lists in 603 "SCIE" records from six chemistry journals. By requiring well-documented citations and by making it easier to identify where one citation ends and the next one begins, journals can help minimize the number of omitted…

  3. Investigating the AAU Citations Admission Criterion and the History of Papers, Citations and Impact at USF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    This research sought to determine which factors relate to higher and lower production of papers, citations and impacts (citations divided by papers), because this is one of the AAU Phase I Indicators and to serve as guiding principles as The University of South Florida (USF) works toward becoming an AAU institution. The time period under…

  4. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  5. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. This paper describes CiTO and illustrates its usefulness both for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. The latest version of CiTO, which this paper describes, is CiTO Version 1.6, published on 19 March 2010. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/. This site uses content negotiation to deliver to the user an OWLDoc Web version of the ontology if accessed via a Web browser, or the OWL ontology itself if accessed from an ontology management tool such as Protégé 4 (http://protege.stanford.edu/). Collaborative work is currently under way to harmonize CiTO with other ontologies describing bibliographies and the rhetorical structure of scientific discourse. PMID:20626926

  6. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology.

    PubMed

    Shotton, David

    2010-01-01

    CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for describing the nature of reference citations in scientific research articles and other scholarly works, both to other such publications and also to Web information resources, and for publishing these descriptions on the Semantic Web. Citation are described in terms of the factual and rhetorical relationships between citing publication and cited publication, the in-text and global citation frequencies of each cited work, and the nature of the cited work itself, including its publication and peer review status. This paper describes CiTO and illustrates its usefulness both for the annotation of bibliographic reference lists and for the visualization of citation networks. The latest version of CiTO, which this paper describes, is CiTO Version 1.6, published on 19 March 2010. CiTO is written in the Web Ontology Language OWL, uses the namespace http://purl.org/net/cito/, and is available from http://purl.org/net/cito/. This site uses content negotiation to deliver to the user an OWLDoc Web version of the ontology if accessed via a Web browser, or the OWL ontology itself if accessed from an ontology management tool such as Protégé 4 (http://protege.stanford.edu/). Collaborative work is currently under way to harmonize CiTO with other ontologies describing bibliographies and the rhetorical structure of scientific discourse.

  7. An increasing citation black hole in ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Anthony R; Wong, Bob B M; Chapple, David G

    2015-01-01

    Citations published in online supplementary material (OSM) are invisible to search engines used to calculate citation counts, potentially negatively impacting popular performance indices and journal rankings that rely on citation counts for quantification. To quantify the number of citations that are “lost” in OSM, we conducted a systematic survey of supplementary citation practices in four high-ranking, society-run journals from two geographical locations (Europe and North America). In 2012, 6% of all citations were only included in the OSM and were therefore not included in citation counts. We found a significant increase in the number of references invisible to citation counting services over the last two decades. A solution to this problem is urgently required and could include journal indexing of citations in OSM or the inclusion of all references in the main text. PMID:25628876

  8. Distance measures for dynamic citation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommarito, Michael J.; Katz, Daniel Martin; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-10-01

    Acyclic digraphs arise in many natural and artificial processes. Among the broader set, dynamic citation networks represent an important type of acyclic digraph. For example, the study of such networks includes the spread of ideas through academic citations, the spread of innovation through patent citations, and the development of precedent in common law systems. The specific dynamics that produce such acyclic digraphs not only differentiate them from other classes of graphs, but also provide guidance for the development of meaningful distance measures. In this article, we develop and apply our sink distance measure together with the single-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm to both a two-dimensional directed preferential attachment model as well as empirical data drawn from the first quarter-century of decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Despite applying the simplest combination of distance measure and clustering algorithm, analysis reveals that more accurate and more interpretable clusterings are produced by this scheme.

  9. A new generation of relational charts for comparative assessment of citation impact.

    PubMed

    Glänzel, Wolfgang; Schubert, Andreas; Thijs, Bart; Debackere, Koenraad

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in comparative bibliometric studies at the meso and micro level is the differentiation and specialization of research profiles of the objects of analysis at lower levels of aggregation. In this study, institutional profile clusters are used to examine which level of the hierarchical subject classification should preferably be used to build subject-normalized citation indicators. It is shown that a set of properly normalized indicators can serve as a basis of comparative assessment within and even among different clusters, provided that their profiles still overlap and such comparison is thus meaningful. Using the example of 24 European universities, a new version of relational charts is presented for the comparative assessment of citation impact.

  10. Review Citations for Best-Selling Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1979-01-01

    Compares "Book Review Digest,""Book Review Index," and "Current Book Review Citations" for their coverage of titles appearing on the best-seller lists of "Publishers Weekly." Methodology is described and results are provided for both 1976 and 1978 titles. (Author/JD)

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.18 - Citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1978).” When the guidelines are cited in connection with the activities of one of the issuing agencies.... The specific additional citations are as follows: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1607 Department of Labor Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 41 CFR Part 60-3 Department...

  12. What 37,000 Citations Can Tell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanepoel, Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study at the TUT (Tshwane University of Technology) used citation analysis to analyze the reference lists of 480 Master's and Doctoral (M and D) theses and dissertations submitted at TUT between 2004 and 2007. The purpose was to determine what types of information sources M and D students at TUT use most, how the patterns of use…

  13. Superconducting magnets. Citations from NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimherr, G. W.

    1980-10-01

    The cited reports discuss research on materials studies, theory, design and applications of superconducting magnets. Examples of applications include particle accelerators, MHD power generation, superconducting generators, nuclear fusion research devices, energy storage systems, and magnetic levitation. This updated bibliography contains 218 citations, 88 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  14. Data Citation Concept for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, M.; Toussaint, F.; Lautenschlager, M.; Lawrence, B.

    2015-12-01

    There is a broad consensus among data centers and scientific publishers on Force 11's 'Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles'. To put these principles into operation is not always as straight forward. The focus for CMIP6 data citations lies on the citation of data created by others and used in an analysis underlying the article. And for this source data usually no article of the data creators is available ('stand-alone data publication'). The planned data citation granularities are model data (data collections containing all datasets provided for the project by a single model) and experiment data (data collections containing all datasets for a scientific experiment run by a single model). In case of large international projects or activities like CMIP, the data is commonly stored and disseminated by multiple repositories in a federated data infrastructure such as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). The individual repositories are subject to different institutional and national policies. A Data Management Plan (DMP) will define a certain standard for the repositories including data handling procedures. Another aspect of CMIP data, relevant for data citations, is its dynamic nature. For such large data collections, datasets are added, revised and retracted for years, before the data collection becomes stable for a data citation entity including all model or simulation data. Thus, a critical issue for ESGF is data consistency, requiring thorough dataset versioning to enable the identification of the data collection in the cited version. Currently, the ESGF is designed for accessing the latest dataset versions. Data citation introduces the necessity to support older and retracted dataset versions by storing metadata even beyond data availability (data unpublished in ESGF). Apart from ESGF, other infrastructure components exist for CMIP, which provide information that has to be connected to the CMIP6 data, e.g. ES-DOC providing information on models and

  15. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the causes, effects, sources, and controls of acid precipitation and acidification. Techniques and technology for measurement and analysis of acid precipitation are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Structural Modeling of Network Systems in Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaru, Dang

    1997-01-01

    Describes construction of citation network systems and some subsystems (time sequence network, cocitation network, couple network). Establishes structural modeling of these systems by means of system engineering. Explains and analyzes citation network systems. Includes graphs and charts. (JAK)

  17. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Cosmology. (Latest Citations from the NTIS Bibliographic Database)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theories and explorations into the origin of the universe. Citations focus on various genesis models including perturbation, unified field and string theories. Large scale structure of the universe, galactic evolution, quantum gravity, dark matter, black holes, entropy, Feynman diagrams and multi-dimensional systems represent areas of coverage. The citations include theoretical investigations and astronomical observations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Journal Article Citation Classics in School Psychology: Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Five School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Smithson, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the top 100 most highly cited articles of all time as well as the 25 most highly cited articles of the last decade from within 5 school psychology journals: "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology International," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School…

  3. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 211 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Maglev technology. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning magnetic levitation (Maglev) technology. The citations discuss the use of permanent and electromagnets, superconducting magnets, and superconductors in the design of transportation and energy saving systems. Future markets for Maglev technology are also examined.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Maglev technology. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning magnetic levitation (Maglev) technology. The citations discuss the use of permanent and electromagnets, superconducting magnets, and superconductors in the design of transportation and energy saving systems. Future markets for Maglev technology are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Maglev technology. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning magnetic levitation (Maglev) technology. The citations discuss the use of permanent and electro- magnets, superconducting magnets, and superconductors in the design of transportation and energy saving systems. Future markets for Maglev technology are also examined. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Maglev technology. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning magnetic levitation (Maglev) technology. The citations discuss the use of permanent and electromagnets, superconducting magnets, and superconductors in the design of transportation and energy saving systems. Future markets for Maglev technology are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Maglev technology. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning magnetic levitation (Maglev) technology. The citations discuss the use of permanent and electro-magnets, superconducting magnets, and superconductors in the design of transportation and energy saving systems. Future markets for Maglev technology are also examined. (Contains a minimum of 142 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Observations on Citation Practices in Mathematics Education Research. Research Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that the field of mathematics education as a whole can and should improve its citation practices. He discusses 4 forms of citation practice and considers how they vary with respect to transparency of voice. He also discusses several ways that citation practices may misrepresent cited authors' ideas. He concludes with suggestions…

  11. Salt marshes. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental protection of coastal marshes. The citations explore the fauna and flora of the marshes, geological and ecological processes, and the effects of marine pollution. Seasonal and environmental variations, the effects of erosion, and stabilization techniques of marshes are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Stealth Aircraft Technology. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, manufacture, and history of aircraft incorporating stealth technology. Citations focus on construction materials, testing, aircraft performance, and technology assessment. Fighter aircraft, bombers, missiles, and helicopters represent coverage. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Deforestation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning deforestation. Citations include forest destruction methods, effects on global warming, pollution effects, forestry economics, and environmental consequences. Analysis of deforestation in the United States, Europe, and developing countries is discussed. Methods to analyze deforestation, including the use of satellite remote sensing, are described. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Desertification. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning desertification. Citations reference satellite monitoring; methods to halt or reverse desertification; and international treaties and national policies to stop desertification. Desertification causes, including cattle overgrazing, salinization, deforestation, and soil erosion, are discussed. Analyses of how desertification contributes to global warming and famine are described. (Contains a minimum of 54 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning Stirling engine technology. Design, development, performance testing, and applications are discussed, including power generation, cryogenic cooling, solar power applications, and ground and marine vehicles. The citations also examine engine component design and material testing results. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Newton

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

  18. A Ten Year Citation Analysis of Major Australian Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterham, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the Excellence in Research for Australia scheme has heightened debate amongst research institutions over the use of metrics such as citations, especially given the ready availability of citation data. An analysis is presented of the citation performance of nine Australian universities and the Commonwealth Scientific, Industrial…

  19. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by...

  20. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by...

  1. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by...

  2. Ceramic tribological materials. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and evaluation of ceramic tribological materials and composites. Citations discuss tribochemistry, friction and wear mechanism, high temperature ceramic seals, high speed cutting tools, tribology of coated and lubricated ceramic composites, and ceramic bearings. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 1 CFR 21.43 - Placing and amending authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... full text of the authority citation for each part affected by the document. (1) If a document sets out an entire CFR part, the agency shall place the complete authority citation directly after the table... CFR part, the agency shall present the complete authority citation to this part as the first item...

  4. 1 CFR 21.43 - Placing and amending authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... full text of the authority citation for each part affected by the document. (1) If a document sets out an entire CFR part, the agency shall place the complete authority citation directly after the table... CFR part, the agency shall present the complete authority citation to this part as the first item...

  5. 1 CFR 21.43 - Placing and amending authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... full text of the authority citation for each part affected by the document. (1) If a document sets out an entire CFR part, the agency shall place the complete authority citation directly after the table... CFR part, the agency shall present the complete authority citation to this part as the first item...

  6. Ceramic bearings. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and evaluation of ceramic bearings. Citations discuss roller, ball, fuel-lubricated, and dry-lubricated bearings. Applications in machinery, automobiles, rails, and air transport are examined. References to surface hardness, wear, and fatigue tests are presented. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Co-Citation Analysis and the Invisible College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noma, Elliot

    1984-01-01

    Argues that co-citation methods combine citing behavior of authors by assuming they share common view of scientific literature which affects assessments of dimensionality and clustering of articles. Co-citation matrices, effects of shared point-of-view assumption, and co-citation compared with bibliographic coupling and centroid scaling are…

  8. Rankings and Trends in Citation Patterns of Communication Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Journal citations are increasingly used as indicators of the impact of scholarly work. Because many communication journals are not included in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), SSCI impact factors are potentially misleading for communication journals. The current paper reports a citation analysis of 30 communication journals based on…

  9. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by...

  10. 1 CFR 5.8 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of citation. 5.8 Section 5.8 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.8 Form of citation. Without prejudice to any other form of citation, Federal Register material may be cited by...

  11. Citation Patterns of Engineering, Statistics, and Computer Science Researchers: An Internal and External Citation Analysis across Multiple Engineering Subfields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a multidimensional approach to citation analysis, examining citations in multiple subfields of engineering, from both scholarly journals and doctoral dissertations. The three major goals of the study are to determine whether there are differences between citations drawn from dissertations and those drawn from journal articles; to…

  12. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  13. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  14. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  15. A generalized view of self-citation: direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of self-citation can present in many different forms, including direct, co-author, collaborative, and coercive induced self-citation. It can also pertain to the citation of single scientists, groups of scientists, journals, and institutions. This article presents some case studies of extreme self-citation practices. It also discusses the implications of different types of self-citation. Self-citation is not necessarily inappropriate by default. In fact, usually it is fully appropriate but often it is even necessary. Conversely, inappropriate self-citation practices may be highly misleading and may distort the scientific literature. Coercive induced self-citation is the most difficult to discover. Coercive Induced self-citation may happen directly from reviewers of articles, but also indirectly from reviewers of grants, scientific advisors who steer a research agenda, and leaders of funding agencies who may espouse spending disproportionately large funds in research domains that perpetuate their own self-legacy. Inappropriate self-citation can be only a surrogate marker of what might be much greater distortions of the scientific corpus towards conformity to specific opinions and biases. Inappropriate self-citations eventually affect also impact metrics. Different impact metrics vary in the extent to which they can be gamed through self-citation practices. Citation indices that are more gaming-proof are available and should be more widely used. We need more empirical studies to dissect the impact of different types of inappropriate self-citation and to examine the effectiveness of interventions to limit them.

  16. CPAD, Curated Protein Aggregation Database: A Repository of Manually Curated Experimental Data on Protein and Peptide Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Thangakani, A Mary; Nagarajan, R; Kumar, Sandeep; Sakthivel, R; Velmurugan, D; Gromiha, M Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distinction between peptide sequences that can form amyloid-fibrils or amorphous β-aggregates, identification of potential aggregation prone regions in proteins, and prediction of change in aggregation rate of a protein upon mutation(s) are critical to research on protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as biotechnological production of protein based therapeutics. We have developed a Curated Protein Aggregation Database (CPAD), which has collected results from experimental studies performed by scientific community aimed at understanding protein/peptide aggregation. CPAD contains more than 2300 experimentally observed aggregation rates upon mutations in known amyloidogenic proteins. Each entry includes numerical values for the following parameters: change in rate of aggregation as measured by fluorescence intensity or turbidity, name and source of the protein, Uniprot and Protein Data Bank codes, single point as well as multiple mutations, and literature citation. The data in CPAD has been supplemented with five different types of additional information: (i) Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides, (ii) Amorphous β-aggregating hexa-peptides, (iii) Amyloid fibril forming peptides of different lengths, (iv) Amyloid fibril forming hexa-peptides whose crystal structures are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and (v) Experimentally validated aggregation prone regions found in amyloidogenic proteins. Furthermore, CPAD is linked to other related databases and resources, such as Uniprot, Protein Data Bank, PUBMED, GAP, TANGO, WALTZ etc. We have set up a web interface with different search and display options so that users have the ability to get the data in multiple ways. CPAD is freely available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/CPAD/. The potential applications of CPAD have also been discussed. PMID:27043825

  17. Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC): Evaluating Scholary Journals Based on Citation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrad, Jaffar; Arastoopoor, Sholeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Citation analysis is currently one of the most widely used metrics for analyzing the scientific contribution in different fields. The Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC) aims at promoting technical cooperation among Muslim scientists and their respected centers based on these theories. It also facilitates the accessibility of knowledge and research contribution among them. This paper aims at revealing some of the outmost features of ISC databases, in order to give a fairly clear view of what it is and what are its products. The paper consists of three major parts. After an introduction about the Islamic World Science Citation Center, the paper deals with major tools and products of ISC. In the third part ISCs’ journal Submission system is presented as an automatic means, by which users can upload journals’ papers into the respected databases. Conclusion: Some complementary remarks have been made regarding the current state of ISC and its future plans. PMID:23322953

  18. Universality of Citation Distributions for Academic Institutions and Journals

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2016-01-01

    Citations measure the importance of a publication, and may serve as a proxy for its popularity and quality of its contents. Here we study the distributions of citations to publications from individual academic institutions for a single year. The average number of citations have large variations between different institutions across the world, but the probability distributions of citations for individual institutions can be rescaled to a common form by scaling the citations by the average number of citations for that institution. We find this feature seems to be universal for a broad selection of institutions irrespective of the average number of citations per article. A similar analysis for citations to publications in a particular journal in a single year reveals similar results. We find high absolute inequality for both these sets, Gini coefficients being around 0.66 and 0.58 for institutions and journals respectively. We also find that the top 25% of the articles hold about 75% of the total citations for institutions and the top 29% of the articles hold about 71% of the total citations for journals. PMID:26751563

  19. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  20. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  1. Data Identifiers and Citations Enable Reproducible Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Modern science often involves data processing with tremendous volumes of data. Keeping track of that data has been a growing challenge for data center. Researchers who access and use that data don't always reference and cite their data sources adequately for consumers of their research to follow their methodology or reproduce their analyses or experiments. Recent research has led to recommendations for good identifiers and citations that can help address this problem. This paper will describe some of the best practices in data identifiers, reference and citation. Using a simplified example scenario based on a long term remote sensing satellite mission, it will explore issues in identifying dynamic data sets and the importance of good data citations for reproducibility. It will describe the difference between granule and collection level identifiers, using UUIDs and DOIs to illustrate some recommendations for developing identifiers and assigning them during data processing. As data processors create data products, the provenance of the input products and precise steps that led to their creation are recorded and published for users of the data to see. As researchers access the data from an archive, they can use the provenance to help understand the genesis of the data, which could have effects on their usage of the data. By citing the data on publishing their research, others can retrieve the precise data used in their research and reproduce the analyses and experiments to confirm the results. Describing the experiment to a sufficient extent to reproduce the research enforces a formal approach that lends credibility to the results, and ultimately, to the policies of decision makers depending on that research.

  2. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  3. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Cermets. (Latest citations from Ceramics Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning patents and technical papers on cermets. Patents cover methods by which cermets are processed, including combustion synthesis and metal infiltration. The citations discuss applications of cermets in coatings, electronic packages, cutting tools, and electrodes. Some of the materials mentioned are carbides of tungsten, titanium, and molybdenum. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. National parks. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning U.S. and foreign national parks. Citations discuss terrestrial biology, botany, coastal biology, fire ecology, endangered and exotic species, and resource analysis. Topics also include the impact of park visitors on natural resources in the parks, resource management, planning, and mapping. Information about specific parks including Rocky Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains, Redwood, Grand Canyon, Sequoia, Glacier Bay, and others is presented. (Contains a minimum of 55 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Deforestation. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning deforestation. Citations include forest destruction methods, global climatic alterations, forestry economics, reforestation, and the effects of deforestation on plant and animal extinction, atmospheric chemistry, and global economics. International and governmental policies to halt or reverse deforestation are described. Analyses of deforestation in the industrial and developing countries are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Toxicity of nickel. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects, carcinogenicity, environmental pollution, and other hazards of nickel and nickel compounds. The citations include the management of wastes in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments, the effects of nickel on aquatic animals, contamination of potable water and agricultural products, and occupational exposure to nickel. (Contains a minimum of 184 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 194 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Diesel pollution. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning pollution from diesel systems. Articles are included for automotive systems, large scale diesel generators, marine diesel engines, and other applications of diesel fuels. Citations examine the toxic and environmental effects of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions from combustion sources. Pollution control measures from a fuel and post-combustion aspect are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 176 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. A Tri-Citation Analysis Exploring the Citation Image of Kurt Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Linda S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the initial phase of a comparison of cocitation and social network analysis methods for the study of scholarly communication, based on a case study of the intellectual contributions of Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist. Highlights include an author tri-citation analysis; cluster analysis; multidimensional scaling; and diffusion of ideas.…

  12. Using Citation Indexes, Citation Searching, and Bibliometrics to Improve Chemistry Scholarship, Research, and Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Citation searching and bibliometrics are terms foreign to many chemists and educators, yet well-known and used by librarians and information specialists. This article aims to help chemistry students, educators, and other readers of this "Journal" to better appreciate and use these powerful and profound methods. Although these subjects…

  13. On-line access to geoscience bibliographic citations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    On-line geoscience bibliographic citations and access points to citations are exponentially increasing as commercial, non-profit, and government agencies worldwide publish materials electronically. On-line bibliographic tools capture cited works, and open access content allows for freely obtained citations and documents. For this newsletter, citations from the numerous journals and books listed in the "Recent Papers" section of the EXPLORE newsletters from 2008-2011 were used to provide freely-accessible web sites to determine the availability of bibliographic information.

  14. Database citation in full text biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services.

  15. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  16. 15 CFR 30.8 - Time and place for presenting proof of filing citations, and exemption and exclusions legends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... citations, postdeparture filing citations, AES downtime filing citation, exemption or exclusion legends. The... citations, AES downtime filing citation, exemption or exclusion legends required in § 30.4(e) to the...) Postal exports. The proof of filing citations, postdeparture filing citations, AES downtime...

  17. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  18. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  19. Paleoclimatology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of climate in the geologic past. Glacial deposits, fossils, and paleogeographical data are reviewed. Topics include geologic formations, sediments and ocean bottom sampling, geological age determination, climatic changes, and greenhouse effects. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Borrowed Authority: The American Catholic Bishops' Argument by Citation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Meaghan M.

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical use of citation is a means of indirectly reaffirming authority while avoiding the appearance of argument. It is therefore an especially useful strategy for people and institutions with compromised public images. This article compares the American Catholic bishops' written citational patterns in the United States Conference of Catholic…

  1. Distributions of Journal Citations in Small Collections of Reading Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Bea

    The distribution of reading-research citations was investigated in three populations of journals. The rule of Pareto-like distribution was confirmed as appropriate for determining the number of journals that would contribute half the citations in populations of 26 to 112 journals. In populations of 42 to 112 journals, 24% to 29% of the…

  2. 1 CFR 21.43 - Placing and amending authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... full text of the authority citation for each part affected by the document. (1) If a document sets out an entire CFR part, the agency shall place the complete authority citation directly after the table of contents and before the regulatory text. (2) If a document amends only certain sections within...

  3. Library Journal Use and Citation Age in Medical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsay, Ming-Yueh

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in a Taiwan hospital library that explored the in-house use age distribution of journals, their citation age distribution, and the difference between them. Discusses use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which showed that the use age distribution does not fit the citation age distribution. (Author/LRW)

  4. Toxicity of nickel. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and environmental pollution of nickel and nickel compounds. Studies of uptake and toxic effects on marine animals and organisms are presented. Topics include nickel carcinogenesis, nickel-related cancers, contamination of drinking water and agricultural products, and occupational exposure. (Contains a minimum of 121 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the wet and dry precipitation of acid, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Some attention is focused upon the worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Cibbarelli's Surveys: User Ratings of Bibliographic Citation Management Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela

    1995-01-01

    This user ratings survey focuses on bibliographic citation management software; its value to manage citation databases; and its ability to provide reports that adhere to standard bibliographic styles for publications. Service and support, reliability, ease of use, vendor integrity, and user satisfaction are discussed for each of seven software…

  7. Citation Matching in Sanskrit Corpora Using Local Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhinandan S.; Rao, Shrisha

    Citation matching is the problem of finding which citation occurs in a given textual corpus. Most existing citation matching work is done on scientific literature. The goal of this paper is to present methods for performing citation matching on Sanskrit texts. Exact matching and approximate matching are the two methods for performing citation matching. The exact matching method checks for exact occurrence of the citation with respect to the textual corpus. Approximate matching is a fuzzy string-matching method which computes a similarity score between an individual line of the textual corpus and the citation. The Smith-Waterman-Gotoh algorithm for local alignment, which is generally used in bioinformatics, is used here for calculating the similarity score. This similarity score is a measure of the closeness between the text and the citation. The exact- and approximate-matching methods are evaluated and compared. The methods presented can be easily applied to corpora in other Indic languages like Kannada, Tamil, etc. The approximate-matching method can in particular be used in the compilation of critical editions and plagiarism detection in a literary work.

  8. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research of acid precipitation, and the resultant acidification of land and water. Topics include composition, causes, effects, sources, measurements, and controls of acid precipitation. Worldwide geographical distribution of acid precipitation and acidification are covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Acid precipitation. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and analysis of acid rain and acidification of areas by precipitation. Both global and regionalized areas of acid rain effects are examined. Control techniques applicable to the sources and causes are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Attachment and Children: Citations From Selected Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Linda B., Comp.

    This bibliography compiles citations from seven selected data bases on the topic of attachment and children. The citations are grouped into eight categories: (1) Attachment -- General; (2) Institutions -- Hospitals, Prisons; (3) Day Care and Attachment; (4) Handicapped Children and Attachment; (5) Separation; (6) Child Abuse and Attachment; (7)…

  14. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  15. 29 CFR 1903.16 - Posting of citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Act, the employer shall immediately post such citation, or a copy thereof, unedited, at or.... Where, because of the nature of the employer's operations, it is not practicable to post the citation at... location to which employees report each day. Where employees do not primarily work at or report to a...

  16. Metals for cryogenic applications. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology and development of metals for cryogenic applications. The processing, mechanical properties, and compositions of specific alloys are detailed. Applications include aircraft, rockets, spacecraft, and equipment used to store and transport cryogenic fluids. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Electric automobiles. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the research and development of the electric automobile. Various sources of energy to accommodate electric cars, environmental effects, energy consumption and efficiency, and computer simulation and modeling relative to electric vehicle transportation are considered. Design variations are also included. (Contains a minimum of 194 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. 1 CFR 21.43 - Placing and amending authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Placing and amending authority citations. 21.43 Section 21.43 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION Citations of Authority Placement § 21.43 Placing and...

  2. Core Communication Journals: Character Profiles, Citation Networks, and Research Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Clement Y. K.

    To examine the change in the communication literature in the past five years, a content analysis was made of the 1985 edition of the Social Sciences Citation Index's Journal Citation Reports, which reports the 1984 survey of more than 3,000 journals and provides answers to the following types of questions: How often has a particular journal been…

  3. Automotive engineering. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning various aspects of engineering as related to foreign and domestic automobiles. Topics include design, suspension systems, bodies, exhaust components, transmissions, chassis, collision research, human factors engineering, and fuel economy. (Contains a minimum of 198 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. [American School and University Interiors Showcase: 1998 Citations].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents 12 citation awards for exceptional learning-environment designs as determined by an expert panel of judges. Each citation provides the school name and location, the name of the architectural firm, cost and square-footage figures, and a brief summary of the project. Photographs and some floorplan drawings are included. (GR)

  5. Bionics. 1970-October, 1982 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    Recent advances in visual information processing, electronic models of nerve cells, and biological sonar systems are discussed in these citations. Theory and applications are included, along with computerized simulation and signal processing. Electrophysiology and modeling of the central nervous system are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 143 citations, 8 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Citation Analysis of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta," 1951-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshin, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    A citation analysis of the first 10 years of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta" from 1951 to 1960 is described. A shift from German to English language citations and the emerging importance of the journal in the field, which is undergoing a change resulting from technological innovation, are shown. Tables and graphs are included. (EAM)

  7. Altitude acclimatization. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers aspects of altitude acclimatization. Included are articles concerning high altitude environments, hypoxia, heart function and hemodynamic responses, physical exercise, human tolerances and reactions, physiological responses, and oxygen consumption. This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  8. Aircraft maintenance. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature concern various aspects of aircraft maintenance. Both military and civil aviation experience are included. Articles cited concern airline operations, engine and avionics reliability, the use of automatic test equipment, maintenance scheduling, and reliability engineering. This updated bibliography contains 347 citations, 85 of which are new additions to the previous edition.

  9. Hot wire anemometry. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Citations include principles; calibrating; circuit diagrams; flow measurement; hypersonic, supersonic, transonic, and subsonic characteristics; boundary layer studies; turbulence; jet, pipe, and tunnel flow; mathematical models; wind tunnel model tests, airport structure simulation; mass transfer and flow stability; probe modifications; flow about geometric forms; flow patterns; and related topics. This updated bibliography contains 249 citations, 28 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  10. Thermal energy storage. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-09-01

    The cited reports of federally-funded research concern thermal energy storage. The citations cover the design of equipment, performance evaluation, theory, materials used, and experimental design. This updated bibliography contains 240 citations, 128 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  11. Gas dynamic lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-07-01

    The citations cover research on kinetic and energy transfer processes, design, optics, nozzles, and performance of gas and chemical lasers relying on gas dynamic effects for lasing enhancement. Diffusion and flow studies specifically applicable to such lasers are also included. This updated bibliography contains 253 citations, 6 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  12. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included. (Contains a minimum of 69 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Bioremediation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the decomposition of toxic materials by biological means. Bacterial decomposition of jet fuel, wood preservatives, explosives, crude oil, halogenated organics, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, and creosote is discussed. Enhancement of decomposition rates by addition of nutrients is also included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Computer Architecture. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development in the field of computer architecture. Design of computer systems, microcomputer components, and digital networks are among the topics discussed. Multimicroprocessor system performance, software development, and aerospace avionics applications are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Presidential Citation for Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    AGU presented its Presidential Citation for Science and Society to three recipients at a reception on 1 May 2012 in the Rayburn House Office Building as part of the inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference. Google Earth, Jane Lubchenco, who is the under secretary of Commerce for oceans and atmosphere and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine) were recognized for their leadership and vision in shaping policy and heightening public awareness of the value of Earth and space science. “This is an important award because with it AGU brings to light the importance of cutting-edge use-inspired science that helps people, communities, and businesses adapt to climate change and sustainably manage our oceans and coasts,” Lubchenco said.

  19. Data Publication & Citation practices in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August

    2011-05-01

    We investigated author behaviors around the practices of publishing and citing data products within refereed astronomical journals. We set the scope of this investigation to encompass AAS publications over the last decade, including the AAS publisher transition that took place in 2008-09. Our analysis focused on parsing the journal articles’ source material (LaTeX, XML) to catalog hyperlinks between the published text and extended data products that were provided by authors as part of the standard editorial process for refereed publications. We quantitatively and rhetorically analyzed this catalog of hyperlinks to decipher (some of) the authors’ behaviors with regard to data citation and publication. We focused on authors’ adoption and utilization of two specific data-literature links: journal hosted supplementary material and the NASA ADEC recommended system of dataset "identifiers,” which were designed to provide persistent links between articles and packages of relevant, reusable data located at trusted, established astronomy archives. These types of hyperlinks are, however, minor subsets of the overall catalog, where the bulk of author inserted links provide descriptive elements to otherwise "unpublished” material but not to unique, reusable datasets. In general our investigation reveals a consistent level of effort by authors to cite and publish some data products, although case by case examples darkly illuminate individual author's experiences with data publication and citation within the standard editorial process. Finally, we point out a couple of functional issues with existing data-literature links as specifically related to the suite of author behaviors examined in this project.

  20. Journal rankings by citation analysis in health sciences librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, M L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify objectively a hierarchical ranking of journals for health sciences librarians with faculty status. Such a guideline can indicate a journal's value for promotion and tenure consideration. Lists of recent research articles (1982-1986) in health sciences librarianship, and articles written by health sciences librarians, were compiled by searching Social SCISEARCH and MEDLINE. The journals publishing those articles are presented. Results show BMLA as the most prominent journal in the field. Therefore, citations from articles in BMLA from 1982 to 1986 were chosen as a sample for citation analysis. Citation analysis was employed to identify the most frequently cited journals. Some characteristics of the citations in BMLA are also discussed. The ranking of journals based on citation frequency, as a result, was identified. PMID:2655785

  1. The incidence and role of negative citations in science

    PubMed Central

    Catalini, Christian; Lacetera, Nicola; Oettl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Citations to previous literature are extensively used to measure the quality and diffusion of knowledge. However, we know little about the different ways in which a study can be cited; in particular, are papers cited to point out their merits or their flaws? We elaborated a methodology to characterize “negative” citations using bibliometric data and natural language processing. We found that negative citations concerned higher-quality papers, were focused on a study’s findings rather than theories or methods, and originated from scholars who were closer to the authors of the focal paper in terms of discipline and social distance, but not geographically. Receiving a negative citation was also associated with a slightly faster decline in citations to the paper in the long run. PMID:26504239

  2. Effects of article retraction on citation and practice in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Budd, J M; Sievert, M; Schultz, T R; Scoville, C

    1999-01-01

    At times, there are reasons for authors to make a formal statement of retraction of work they publish in biomedical journals. This study examines 235 retracted articles and looks at the reasons for these retractions and citations to the articles subsequent to retraction. The primary reasons for retraction are error of various kinds (such as problems with method or sample, including contamination of samples) and misconduct. The 235 articles are cited a total of 2,034 times after retraction. This set of citations can be divided into two groups: citations that appear in journals included in the Abridged Index Medicus and those that appear in other journals included in MEDLINE. While most of the citations in these two groups of journals can be categorized as "implicitly positive," 275 make explicitly positive mention of retracted articles. The implications for continued citation for biomedical research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:10550028

  3. Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) citation database. Volume 3: New citation review procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddingius, Nicolaas; Kugler, Andrew B.

    1989-12-01

    The Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) includes a database of several thousand references to the literature on the impact of noise and sonic booms on humans, animals and structures. Bibliographic data, abstracts and critical reviews of key documents can be retrieved. A systematic methodology for the selection and evaluation of new citations to be added to the database consistent with the procedures used in CITASAN is described.

  4. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P.A.; Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators) and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011–2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the

  5. College Alcohol Citations Result in Modest Reductions in Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, John T.P.; Eaton, Erica M.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2010-01-01

    College students who are cited for violating campus alcohol policy are often fined or sanctioned to complete an intervention or public service. While some interventions have been found efficacious for mandated students, it is possible that being cited for an alcohol-related incident alone may be sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of alcohol consumption patterns following a citation for an alcohol policy violation. Participants were college students (N = 445) who received a citation for a campus alcohol policy violation at a small northeastern liberal arts college. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) indicating their daily alcohol use 2 weeks prior to the citation through 2 weeks after the citation. Results indicated that participants decreased their alcohol use following a citation event. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption was modest, suggesting that the citation event itself has a very temporary influence on the drinking of college students. Additional research is needed to reconcile these findings with those from other studies that found a more meaningful citation effect. PMID:21193284

  6. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  7. A Falsification of the Citation Impediment in the Taxonomic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Florian M.; Pautasso, Marco; Zettel, Herbert; Moder, Karl; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.

    2015-01-01

    Current science evaluation still relies on citation performance, despite criticisms of purely bibliometric research assessments. Biological taxonomy suffers from a drain of knowledge and manpower, with poor citation performance commonly held as one reason for this impediment. But is there really such a citation impediment in taxonomy? We compared the citation numbers of 306 taxonomic and 2291 non-taxonomic research articles (2009–2012) on mosses, orchids, ciliates, ants, and snakes, using Web of Science (WoS) and correcting for journal visibility. For three of the five taxa, significant differences were absent in citation numbers between taxonomic and non-taxonomic papers. This was also true for all taxa combined, although taxonomic papers received more citations than non-taxonomic ones. Our results show that, contrary to common belief, taxonomic contributions do not generally reduce a journal's citation performance and might even increase it. The scope of many journals rarely featuring taxonomy would allow editors to encourage a larger number of taxonomic submissions. Moreover, between 1993 and 2012, taxonomic publications accumulated faster than those from all biological fields. However, less than half of the taxonomic studies were published in journals in WoS. Thus, editors of highly visible journals inviting taxonomic contributions could benefit from taxonomy's strong momentum. The taxonomic output could increase even more than at its current growth rate if: (i) taxonomists currently publishing on other topics returned to taxonomy and (ii) non-taxonomists identifying the need for taxonomic acts started publishing these, possibly in collaboration with taxonomists. Finally, considering the high number of taxonomic papers attracted by the journal Zootaxa, we expect that the taxonomic community would indeed use increased chances of publishing in WoS indexed journals. We conclude that taxonomy's standing in the present citation-focused scientific landscape could

  8. Data Citation: An International Oceanographic Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Leadbeter, A.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.; Pikula, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have assembled a team of librarians, data managers and scientists who are collaborating to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers. One successful outcome of this collaborative effort includes tools and procedures developed by the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) that automate the ingestion of metadata from BCO-DMO for deposit with a copy of each data set into the Institutional Repository (IR) Woods Hole Open Access Server (WHOAS). The system also incorporates functionality for BCO-DMO to request a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) from the Library. This partnership allows the Library to work with a trusted data repository to ensure high quality data while the data repository utilizes library services and is assured that a permanent archived copy of the data is associated with the persistent DOI. The assignment of persistent identifiers enables accurate data citation. The Library can assign a DOI to appropriate datasets deposited in WHOAS. We are particularly interested in working with authors to deposit datasets associated with published articles. The DOI would ideally be assigned before submission and be included in the published paper so readers can link directly to the dataset, but DOIs are also being assigned to datasets that support papers that have already been published. WHOAS metadata records link the article to the datasets and the datasets to the article. Because of the assignment of DOIs, Elsevier Publishing sought a collaboration with the Library. Article records in Science Direct now contain

  9. Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 116 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 133 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Citation Metrics: A Primer on How (Not) to Normalize

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.; Boyack, Kevin; Wouters, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Citation metrics are increasingly used to appraise published research. One challenge is whether and how to normalize these metrics to account for differences across scientific fields, age (year of publication), type of document, database coverage, and other factors. We discuss the pros and cons for normalizations using different approaches. Additional challenges emerge when citation metrics need to be combined across multiple papers to appraise the corpus of scientists, institutions, journals, or countries, as well as when trying to attribute credit in multiauthored papers. Different citation metrics may offer complementary insights, but one should carefully consider the assumptions that underlie their calculation. PMID:27599158

  13. Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains a minimum of 113 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Citation Metrics: A Primer on How (Not) to Normalize.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Boyack, Kevin; Wouters, Paul F

    2016-09-01

    Citation metrics are increasingly used to appraise published research. One challenge is whether and how to normalize these metrics to account for differences across scientific fields, age (year of publication), type of document, database coverage, and other factors. We discuss the pros and cons for normalizations using different approaches. Additional challenges emerge when citation metrics need to be combined across multiple papers to appraise the corpus of scientists, institutions, journals, or countries, as well as when trying to attribute credit in multiauthored papers. Different citation metrics may offer complementary insights, but one should carefully consider the assumptions that underlie their calculation. PMID:27599158

  15. Homo Citans and Carbon Allotropes: For an Ethics of Citation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Roald; Kabanov, Artyom A; Golov, Andrey A; Proserpio, Davide M

    2016-09-01

    Cite we must, cite we do. We cite because we are links in a chain, using properties and methods validated by others. We also cite to negotiate the anxiety of influence. And to be fair. After outlining the reasons for citation, we use two case studies of citation amnesia in the field of hypothetical carbon allotropes to present a computer-age search tool (SACADA) in that subsubfield. Finally, we advise on good search practice, including what to do if you miss a citation. PMID:27438532

  16. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  17. Citation indexing and evaluation of scientific papers.

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1967-03-10

    Evaluation by means of citation patterns can be successful only insofar as published papers and their bibliographies reflect scientific activity and nothing else. Such an innocent descrip tion is becoming less and less tenable. The present scientific explosion gave rise to more than a proportional pub lication explosion, which not only re flects the scientific explosion but has its own dynamics and vicious circles. Publication of results is probably the main means of accomplishing the al most impossible task of accounting for time and money spent on research. Inevitably, this puts a premium on quantity at the expense of quality, and, as with any other type of inflation, the problem worsens: the more papers are written, the less they count for and the greater is the pressure to publish more. What makes matters worse is the fact that the sheer volume of the"litera ture" makes it increasingly difficult to separate what is worthwhile from the rest. Critical reviews have become somewhat of a rarity, and editorial judgment is usually relegated to ref erees, who are contemporaries and, per haps, competitors of the authors-a situation which has its own undesirable implications (11, 18). It requires little imagination to discover other vicious circles, all arising from distortion of the primary reasons for publishing the results of scientific inquiry. There are, it is true, signs of ad justment to this crisis, partly due to some easing of the pressure to pub lish at all costs, and partly due to the readers' changing attitudes toward the flood of publications. An increasing amount of research is now being car ried out in the form of collective proj ects in large institutions where publica tion is no longer the standard method of accounting for individual work. At the same time there is apparent an in creasing tendency for scientific journals to polarize into the relatively few leading ones which carry important informa tion and the many subsidiary journals which serve as

  18. Parsing Citations in Biomedical Articles Using Conditional Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Cao, Yong-Gang; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Citations are used ubiquitously in biomedical full-text articles and play an important role for representing both the rhetorical structure and the semantic content of the articles. As a result, text mining systems will significantly benefit from a tool that automatically extracts the content of a citation. In this study, we applied the supervised machine-learning algorithms Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to automatically parse a citation into its fields (e.g., Author, Title, Journal, and Year). With a subset of html format open-access PubMed Central articles, we report an overall 97.95% F1-score. The citation parser can be accessed at: http://www.cs.uwm.edu/~qing/projects/cithit/index.html. PMID:21419403

  19. James Stewart Polshek & Partners: Glenfield Middle School, Montclair, NJ, Citation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Recipient of an architectural design citation from the 28th Progressive Architecture Awards is the fifth renovation and addition to a New Jersey school that has grown in increments from eight rooms. (Author/MLF)

  20. Suggested Citations for the DHQ II & Diet*Calc

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  1. Mars environment. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-09-01

    Research dealing with atmospheric and surface properties of Mars is discussed. A few abstracts pertain to instrumentation used in the space exploration. This updated bibliography contains 266 citations, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  2. Fuel cells. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Fuel cell applications, components, fabrication, design, catalysts, and chemistry are covered. The citations discuss different types of fuel cells such as hydrogen oxygen cells, hydrocarbon air cells, and biochemical cells.

  3. Cosmic Rays. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-04-01

    Measurement techniques, isotopic composition, distribution, intensity, anisotropy, and sources of cosmic rays are covered in the citations. This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  4. Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range are presented in approximately 96 citations. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered.

  5. Kinetics of protein aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the kinetics of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.

  6. Structure of Viral Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Stephen; Luijten, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The aggregation of virus particles is a particular form of colloidal self-assembly, since viruses of a give type are monodisperse and have identical, anisotropic surface charge distributions. In small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, the Qbeta virus was found to organize in different crystal structures in the presence of divalent salt and non-adsorbing polymer. Since a simple isotropic potential cannot explain the occurrence of all observed phases, we employ computer simulations to investigate how the surface charge distribution affects the virus interactions. Using a detailed model of the virus particle, we find an asymmetric ion distribution around the virus which gives rise to the different phases observed.

  7. Filled plastics. (Latest citations from Materials Business file). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the manufacture and uses of filled plastics. The effects of fillers on mechanical, electrical, and tribological properties are considered, including tensile strength, abrasion resistance, heat stability, impact resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability and flame retardancy. Methods for processing filled plastics, and applications in aircraft, electronic and automotive industries are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the global system of navigation satellites developed to provide immediate and accurate worldwide three-dimensional positioning by air, land, and sea vehicles equipped with appropriate receiving equipment. Technological forecasting, reliability, performance tests, and evaluations are discussed. Developments and applications of the NAVSTAR system are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Metal-Air Batteries: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Coal desulfurization. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the removal of sulfur from coal. Oxydesulfurization, washing, electrochemical separation, oxidation, molten salts, microwave radiation, biodegradation, supercritical extraction, magnetic techniques, chlorinolysis, and flotation are among the processes considered. Sulfur pollution standards, environmental regulations and considerations, and process analyses and evaluations are discussed. Desulfurization of coal derived liquids and coal liquefaction are examined in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Pentachlorophenol toxicity. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicological studies of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its effects on humans, aquatic and laboratory animals, and livestock. Topics include PCP determination and analysis methods, PCP accumulation in animals, assessment and control of PCP contamination in waters and soils, health risk assessment of pesticides and insecticides, and PCP degradation and decomposition techniques. Biochemical studies of occupational exposure and clinical reports are included. (Contains a minimum of 241 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Wetlands. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coastal and fresh water wetlands. Studies of regional regulations and management of specific sites are included. Topics include acid mine drainage, environmental impacts, hydrology, marshes, swamps, and natural resources management. Also covered are waste disposal, water pollution, water quality, and wastes as related to wetlands. The National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands by state are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the global system of navigation satellites developed to provide immediate and accurate worldwide three-dimensional positioning by air, land, and sea vehicles equipped with appropriate receiving equipment. Technological forecasting, reliability, performance tests, and evaluations are discussed. Developments and applications of the NAVSTAR system are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Energy star. (Latest citations from the Computer database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a collaborative effort between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and private industry to reduce electrical power consumed by personal computers and related peripherals. Manufacturers complying with EPA guidelines are officially recognized by award of a special Energy Star logo, and are referred to in official documents as a vendor of green computers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Carbon dioxide lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-10-01

    Citations on theory, design, operation, output and diagnostics of CO2 lasers are presented. Studies relating to excitation, frequency conversion, modulation, laser pumping, reaction kinetics, gas dynamics, and plasmas are included. The development and efficiency of optical components such as mirrors, resonators, tuning devices, infrared optical materials, amplifiers, and gratings are also discussed. This updated bibliography contains 214 citations, 70 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  20. Artificial islands. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the construction, economics, and environmental impact of man-made islands. Technology and engineering requirements are considered, including design, building materials, and site selection. The uses of artificial islands as ports, harbors, recreational areas, waste disposal areas, and in oil and natural gas production are examined. The legal considerations, sociological aspects, and socioeconomic changes surrounding the development of artifical islands are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. S-index: Measuring significant, not average, citation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2009-03-01

    We recently [1] introduced the ``citation density curve'' (or cumulative impact factor curve) that captures the full citation performance of a journal: its size, impact factor, the maximum number of citations per paper, the relative size of the different-cited portions of the journal, etc. The citation density curve displays a universal behavior across journals. We exploit this universality to extract a simple metric (the ``S-index'') to characterize the citation impact of ``significant'' papers in each journal. In doing so, we go beyond the journal impact factor, which only measures the impact of the average paper. The conventional wisdom of ranking journals according to their impact factors is thus challenged. Having shown the utility and robustness of the S-index in comparing and ranking journals of different sizes but within the same field, we explore the concept further, going beyond a single field, and beyond journals. Can we compare different scientific fields, departments, or universities? And how should one generalize the citation density curve and the S-index to address these questions? [1] M. Antonoyiannakis and S. Mitra, ``Is PRL too large to have an `impact'?'', Editorial, Physical Review Letters, December 2008.

  2. Environmental health citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research seeks to understand the publication types and ages cited most often in environmental health literature and the most commonly cited journal titles. Methods: From the 43,896 items cited in Environmental Health Perspectives and the Journal of Environmental Health during 2008–2010, 2 random samples were drawn: First, 1,042 items representing all citations were analyzed with respect to publication type, age, and Internet link. Second, the cited journal name and citation age were recorded for 1,038 items culled from only citations to journal articles. All journal titles were classified into Bradford zones and assigned subject disciplines. Results: Journal articles (n = 891, 85.5%) were the most heavily cited publication type. Cited items' publication years ranged from 1951 to 2010. Close to half (49.1%) of all cited items were published 5 or fewer years previous. Sixteen journal titles (3.9%) accounted for 32.5% of all cited journal articles. The 3 most common subject disciplines—“Public, Environmental & Occupational Health,” “Environmental Sciences,” and “Toxicology”—accounted for 21.6% of all unique journal titles and 45.3% of all citations. Conclusions: Environmental health citation patterns differ from other public health disciplines in terms of cited publication types, cited journals, and age of citations. PMID:23405046

  3. Citation classics: Top 50 cited articles in 'respiratory system'.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wilson W S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Wong, Faye C Y; Hui, David S C

    2013-01-01

    Identifying citation classics in the field is one of the key methodologies used to conduct a systematic evaluation of research performance. The objective of this study was to determine the most frequently cited articles published in journals that are placed under the 'respiratory system' subject category (Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Journal Citation Reports) and to compare them with the most frequently cited respiratory-related articles published in any journal, regardless of subject category. The authors utilized the ISI Journal Citation Reports: Science Edition 2010 database in April 2012 to determine the most frequently cited articles by respiratory system subject category and by respiratory-related keywords. The top 50 most-cited articles were identified in each category and evaluated according to various characteristics. The majority of these papers originated from the United States. The median numbers of citations for the top 50 cited articles stratified by respiratory system subject category and respiratory-related keywords were 841.5 and 2701, respectively. Half of the top 50 cited articles identified by respiratory-related keywords were published in general medical or basic science journals, whereas only three out of these were published in journals under the respiratory system subject category in ISI Journal Citation Reports. In summary, respiratory-related articles published in general medical or science journals attracted more citations than those published in the specific respiratory journals.

  4. Citation Classics in "Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior": A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior" ("SLTB") citation classics is described here. The impact of "SLTB" citation classics is compared to their counterparts in…

  5. Rotating biological contactors: Wastewater treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment using rotating biological contactors (RBC). Citations focus on reaction kinetics, operational modeling, and removal efficiencies. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrogen removal are discussed. Citations examine performance of RBCs in industrial and municipal applications. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  7. Holographic characterization of protein aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Zhong, Xiao; Ruffner, David; Stutt, Alexandra; Philips, Laura; Ward, Michael; Grier, David

    Holographic characterization directly measures the size distribution of subvisible protein aggregates in suspension and offers insights into their morphology. Based on holographic video microscopy, this analytical technique records and interprets holograms of individual aggregates in protein solutions as they flow down a microfluidic channel, without requiring labeling or other exceptional sample preparation. The hologram of an individual protein aggregate is analyzed in real time with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure that aggregate's size and optical properties. Detecting, counting and characterizing subvisible aggregates proceeds fast enough for time-resolved studies, and lends itself to tracking trends in protein aggregation arising from changing environmental factors. No other analytical technique provides such a wealth of particle-resolved characterization data in situ. Holographic characterization promises accelerated development of therapeutic protein formulations, improved process control during manufacturing, and streamlined quality assurance during storage and at the point of use. Mrsec and MRI program of the NSF, Spheryx Inc.

  8. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, B Ian; Yuan, Xin; Anderson, James M; Santangelo, George M

    2016-09-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov.

  9. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, B. Ian; Yuan, Xin; Santangelo, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov. PMID:27599104

  10. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, B Ian; Yuan, Xin; Anderson, James M; Santangelo, George M

    2016-09-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov. PMID:27599104

  11. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  12. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity. PMID:27606817

  13. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity.

  14. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  15. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-05-04

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract.

  16. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity. PMID:27606817

  17. 100 classic papers of interventional radiology: A citation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Matthew T; Browne, Ronan FJ; MacMahon, Peter J; Lawler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To define the 100 citation classic papers of interventional radiology. METHODS: Using the database of Journal Citation Reports the 40 highest impact factor radiology journals were chosen. From these journals the 100 most cited interventional radiology papers were chosen and analysed. RESULTS: The top paper received 2497 citations and the 100th paper 200 citations. The average number of citations was 320. Dates of publication ranged from 1953 - 2005. Most papers originated in the United States (n = 67) followed by Italy (n = 20) and France (n = 10). Harvard University (n = 18) and Osped Civile (n = 11) were the most prolific institutions. Ten journals produced all of the top 100 papers with “Radiology” and “AJR” making up the majority. SN Goldberg and T Livraghi were the most prolific authors. Nearly two thirds of the papers (n = 61) were published after 1990. CONCLUSION: This analysis identifies many of the landmark interventional radiology papers and provides a fascinating insight into the changing discourse within the field. It also identifies topics, authors and institutions which have impacted greatly on the specialty. PMID:25918585

  18. Coauthorship and citation patterns in the Physical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Travis; Ball, Brian; Karrer, Brian; Newman, M. E. J.

    2013-07-01

    A large number of published studies have examined the properties of either networks of citation among scientific papers or networks of coauthorship among scientists. Here we study an extensive data set covering more than a century of physics papers published in the Physical Review, which allows us to construct both citation and coauthorship networks for the same set of papers. We analyze these networks to gain insight into temporal changes in citation and collaboration over the long time period of the data, as well as correlations and interactions between the two. Among other things, we investigate the change over time in the number of publishing authors, the number of papers they publish, and the number of others with whom they collaborate, changes in the typical number of citations made and received, the extent to which individuals tend to cite themselves or their collaborators more than others, the extent to which they cite themselves or their collaborators more quickly after publication, and the extent to which they tend to return the favor of a citation from another scientist.

  19. Coauthorship and citation patterns in the Physical Review.

    PubMed

    Martin, Travis; Ball, Brian; Karrer, Brian; Newman, M E J

    2013-07-01

    A large number of published studies have examined the properties of either networks of citation among scientific papers or networks of coauthorship among scientists. Here we study an extensive data set covering more than a century of physics papers published in the Physical Review, which allows us to construct both citation and coauthorship networks for the same set of papers. We analyze these networks to gain insight into temporal changes in citation and collaboration over the long time period of the data, as well as correlations and interactions between the two. Among other things, we investigate the change over time in the number of publishing authors, the number of papers they publish, and the number of others with whom they collaborate, changes in the typical number of citations made and received, the extent to which individuals tend to cite themselves or their collaborators more than others, the extent to which they cite themselves or their collaborators more quickly after publication, and the extent to which they tend to return the favor of a citation from another scientist.

  20. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  1. Topics in Probabilistic Judgment Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Guanchun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a compilation of several studies that are united by their relevance to probabilistic judgment aggregation. In the face of complex and uncertain events, panels of judges are frequently consulted to provide probabilistic forecasts, and aggregation of such estimates in groups often yield better results than could have been made…

  2. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  3. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  4. Nanoparticle aggregation: principles and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles usually results in highly reactive and colloidal instability compared to their bulk counterparts. Aggregation as well as many other transformations (e.g., dissolution) in the environment may alter the physiochemical properties, reactivity, fate, transport, and biological interactions (e.g., bioavailability and uptake) of nanoparticles. The unique properties pertinent to nanoparticles, such as shape, size, surface characteristics, composition, and electronic structures, greatly challenge the ability of colloid science to understand nanoparticle aggregation and its environmental impacts. This review briefly introduces fundamentals about aggregation, fractal dimensions, classic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeak (DLVO) theories, aggregation kinetic modeling, experimental measurements, followed by detailed discussions on the major factors on aggregation and subsequent effects on nanomaterial transport and reactivity.

  5. Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Protein Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab M; Panchal, Jainik P; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Blum, Janice S; Joubert, Marisa K; Narhi, Linda O; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins have a propensity for aggregation during manufacturing, shipping, and storage. The presence of aggregates in protein drug products can induce adverse immune responses in patients that may affect safety and efficacy, and so it is of concern to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies. In this vein, there is a lack of understanding of the physicochemical determinants of immunological responses and a lack of standardized analytical methods to survey the molecular properties of aggregates associated with immune activation. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic immune mechanisms in the context of interactions with protein aggregates. We then critically examine the literature with emphasis on the underlying immune mechanisms as they relate to aggregate properties. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our current understanding of this issue and offer recommendations for future research. PMID:26869409

  6. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks.

  7. Mechanics of fire ant aggregations.

    PubMed

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Liu, Zhongyang; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fire ants link their bodies to form aggregations; these can adopt a variety of structures, they can drip and spread, or withstand applied loads. Here, by using oscillatory rheology, we show that fire ant aggregations are viscoelastic. We find that, at the lowest ant densities probed and in the linear regime, the elastic and viscous moduli are essentially identical over the spanned frequency range, which highlights the absence of a dominant mode of structural relaxation. As ant density increases, the elastic modulus rises, which we interpret by alluding to ant crowding and subsequent jamming. When deformed beyond the linear regime, the aggregation flows, exhibiting shear-thinning behaviour with a stress load that is comparable to the maximum load the aggregation can withstand before individual ants are torn apart. Our findings illustrate the rich, collective mechanical behaviour that can arise in aggregations of active, interacting building blocks. PMID:26501413

  8. Adsorption-induced colloidal aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. M.; Petit, J.-M.; Beysens, D.

    1998-03-01

    Reversible colloidal aggregation in binary liquid mixtures has been studied for a number of years. As the phase separation temperature of the liquid mixture is approached the thickness of an adsorption layer around the colloidal particles increases. Beysens and coworkers have demonstrated experimentally that this adsorption layer is intimately connected with the aggregation of the colloidal particles, however, no definitive theory has been available which can explain all of the experimental observations. In this contribution we describe an extension of the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek theory of colloidal aggregation which takes into account the presence of the adsorption layer and which more realistically models the attractive dispersion interactions. This modified theory can quantitatively account for many of the observed experimental features such as the characteristics of the aggregated state, the general shape of the aggregation line, and the temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient for a lutidine-water mixture containing a small volume fraction of silica colloidal particles.

  9. Geographic bias in citation rates of conservation research.

    PubMed

    Meijaard, Erik; Cardillo, Marcel; Meijaard, Emily M; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the impact of conservation science is greater for research conducted in countries with more pressing conservation problems. We quantified research impact for 231 countries based on 2 citation metrics (mean cites per paper and h index) and fitted models predicting research impact based on number of threatened bird and mammal species (as a measure of conservation importance of a country) and a range of demographic variables. Citation rates of conservation research increased as a country's conservation need increased and as human population, quality of governance, and wealth increased. Even after accounting for these factors, citation rates among regions and countries within regions varied significantly. The conservation research community needs to consider ways to begin addressing the entrenched disadvantages some countries have when it comes to initiating projects and producing high-quality research.

  10. Geographic bias in citation rates of conservation research.

    PubMed

    Meijaard, Erik; Cardillo, Marcel; Meijaard, Emily M; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the impact of conservation science is greater for research conducted in countries with more pressing conservation problems. We quantified research impact for 231 countries based on 2 citation metrics (mean cites per paper and h index) and fitted models predicting research impact based on number of threatened bird and mammal species (as a measure of conservation importance of a country) and a range of demographic variables. Citation rates of conservation research increased as a country's conservation need increased and as human population, quality of governance, and wealth increased. Even after accounting for these factors, citation rates among regions and countries within regions varied significantly. The conservation research community needs to consider ways to begin addressing the entrenched disadvantages some countries have when it comes to initiating projects and producing high-quality research. PMID:25817796

  11. Ten citation classics from the New Zealand Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R

    2007-12-14

    Although their contribution may go unrecognised at the time, if journal citations are indeed the "currency" of science, then citation classics could justifiably be regarded as the "gold bullion". This article examines the 10 most highly-cited articles published by the New Zealand Medical Journal (NZMJ), as of August 2007. By topic, the top cited article described a study of risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among New Zealand infants, while 3 of the remaining 9 articles focused on asthma. Most citation classics from the NZMJ were comparatively recent, with the top cited article being published in 1991, 7 having been published in the 1980s, and 2 in the 1970s. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the international relevance of New Zealand medical researchers, and the significant global impact of their findings for human health.

  12. [Evaluation of "Japanese Journal of Psychology" using citation analysis].

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa; Baba, Mamiko; Tabata, Naoya; Shimoda, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Mildki; Okubo, Nobutoshi

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the professional impact of "Japanese Journal of Psychology." Thirty four psychological journals written in Japanese were selected to register articles in a new database. This database included approximately 23,900 articles published through 2010. Using citations extracted from the references and footnotes in these scholarly journals, the Psychology Citation Index for Japanese Papers was created. The citation impact factors in Japanese psychology was determined on the basis of the number of times a journal was cited, cumulative impact factors, and the cited half-life of the journal; five years was a valid period for impact factor of psychological journals in Japan. The changes in the 5-year impact factors of "Japanese Journal of Psychology" were reviewed by comparing it with other journals.

  13. [Medycyna Pracy: the scopus-based analysis of citations].

    PubMed

    Przyłuska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Medycyna Pracy, a Polish bimonthly published since 1950, forms a long-standing documentation of studies carried out in the area of workers' health protection. The journal is primarily addressed to occupational health physicians and work hygiene specialists in Poland. It is indexed by numerous foreign information services (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS PREVIEWS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS, SCOPUS) and thus promotes Polish research in occupational medicine throughout the world. The quantitative analysis for the years 1996-2005, grounded on the SCOPUS database, presents an average number of citations concerning a given volume, frequency of citations, articles most frequently cited, and countries, in which articles published in Medycyna Pracy have been referred to. A growing number of citations observed in the recent years signify the importance of issues investigated and discussed in the journal as well as its role in the world-wide circulation of scientific information.

  14. Thomson Reuters to release Book Citation Index later this year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldred, Maxine

    2011-08-01

    Thomson Reuters will launch its new Book Citation Index later this year. Projected to include 25,000 volumes from major publishers and university presses in science, social science, and the humanities, the Book Citation Index will cover scholarly books (both series and nonseries) that present original research or literature reviews. The current effort regarding the science section is focused on books published from 2005 to the present. AGU has sent copies of its catalog for inclusion in the Book Citation Index, but the final selection will be made by Thomson Reuters, using its internal selection criteria, which may be found at http://wokinfo.com/wok/media/pdf/BKCI-SelectionEssay_web.pdf.

  15. [Medycyna Pracy: the scopus-based analysis of citations].

    PubMed

    Przyłuska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Medycyna Pracy, a Polish bimonthly published since 1950, forms a long-standing documentation of studies carried out in the area of workers' health protection. The journal is primarily addressed to occupational health physicians and work hygiene specialists in Poland. It is indexed by numerous foreign information services (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS PREVIEWS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS, SCOPUS) and thus promotes Polish research in occupational medicine throughout the world. The quantitative analysis for the years 1996-2005, grounded on the SCOPUS database, presents an average number of citations concerning a given volume, frequency of citations, articles most frequently cited, and countries, in which articles published in Medycyna Pracy have been referred to. A growing number of citations observed in the recent years signify the importance of issues investigated and discussed in the journal as well as its role in the world-wide circulation of scientific information. PMID:17125037

  16. Classic Citations in Main Primary Health Care Journals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiyan; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Mei; Lu, Yan; Jia, Fukun; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The impact of a publication in a particular medical area is reflected by the number of times the article is included as a citation. It is not known, however, which articles are cited the most in primary care journals. In our study, we aimed to identify the 100 most cited articles in primary care medicine and analyze their characteristics. We searched the Science Citation Index Expanded for articles published in 18 primary care journals using the subject category “Primary health care.” We identified 100 articles in primary health care that were the most cited. We analyzed the characteristics of these articles using the title, number of citations, citation density, year of publication, journal source, decade published, country of origin, institution, author names, and type of article. The 100 articles that were cited the most were published between the years 1977 and 2009. The 1990s decade was the most productive decade. The number of citations ranged from 117 to 775. The articles were published in 9 journals and the journal with the largest number of most cited articles (n = 33) was the Journal of Family Practice. This was followed by the British Journal of General Practice (n = 17) and the journal Family Practice (n = 16). The United States was the most productive country (n = 59); the United Kingdom was next (n = 25) and this was followed by Canada (n = 5) and The Netherlands (n = 5). The most popular article type was a review article and this was followed by a qualitative study and then methodological study. Our study provides insight into the historical development of primary care studies, based on citations, and provides the foundation for further investigations. PMID:26656360

  17. Hypersonic Wind Tunnels: Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, operation, performance, and use of hypersonic wind tunnels. References cover the design of flow nozzles, diffusers, test sections, and ejectors for tunnels driven by compressed air, high-pressure gases, or cryogenic liquids. Methods for flow calibration, boundary layer control, local and freestream turbulence reduction, and force measurement are discussed. Intrusive and non-intrusive instrumentation, sources of measurement error, and measurement corrections are also covered. The citations also include the testing of inlets, nozzles, airfoils, and other components of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. Comprehensive coverage of supersonic and blowdown wind tunnels, and force balance systems for wind tunnels are covered in separate bibliographies.

  18. Citations to Federally-Funded and Unfunded Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H. A.

    1984-07-01

    The 1409 papers published in 1974 in the three general American astronomical research journals produced 21,106 citations (references) during the years . Papers coming from most kinds of organizations (universities, NSF and NASA centers, foundations, and miscellaneous governmental and military organizations) have statistically the same average citation rates, whereas papers from commercial companies rank higher and foreign papers (in 1974) rank lower. Sloan Fellows and university authors receiving most furms of auxiliary outside funding (NASA, NSF) produce higher-cited papers than papers without such funding.

  19. The correlation between pertinence and rate of citation duplication in multidatabase searches.

    PubMed

    Neway, J M; Lancaster, F W

    1983-07-01

    The rate of citation duplication was examined in three databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and LIFE SCIENCES COLLECTION. Duplicate citations were found to be more pertinent than unique citations. The duplicate citations came from a highly compact literature, while those from a single database were very widely scattered. The pertinent duplicated citations were more likely to be retrieved in searches that had more terms overall, had a higher percentage of thesaurus terms, and had terms which appeared in both title and abstract. These results suggest that the rate of duplication of citations in multidatabase searches may be used to rank output according to probable pertinence.

  20. Fractal aggregates in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabane, M.; Rannou, P.; Chassefiere, E.; Israel, G.

    1993-04-01

    The cluster structure of Titan's atmosphere was modeled by using an Eulerian microphysical model with the specific formulation of microphysical laws applying to fractal particles. The growth of aggregates in the settling phase was treated by introducing the fractal dimension as a parameter of the model. The model was used to obtain a vertical distribution of size and number density of the aggregates for different production altitudes. Results confirm previous estimates of the formation altitude of photochemical aerosols. The vertical profile of the effective radius of aggregates was calculated as a function of the visible optical depth.

  1. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  2. Comparing Medline citations using modified N-grams

    PubMed Central

    Nawab, Rao Muhammad Adeel; Stevenson, Mark; Clough, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aim to identify duplicate pairs of Medline citations, particularly when the documents are not identical but contain similar information. Materials and methods Duplicate pairs of citations are identified by comparing word n-grams in pairs of documents. N-grams are modified using two approaches which take account of the fact that the document may have been altered. These are: (1) deletion, an item in the n-gram is removed; and (2) substitution, an item in the n-gram is substituted with a similar term obtained from the Unified Medical Language System  Metathesaurus. N-grams are also weighted using a score derived from a language model. Evaluation is carried out using a set of 520 Medline citation pairs, including a set of 260 manually verified duplicate pairs obtained from the Deja Vu database. Results The approach accurately detects duplicate Medline document pairs with an F1 measure score of 0.99. Allowing for word deletions and substitution improves performance. The best results are obtained by combining scores for n-grams of length 1–5 words. Discussion Results show that the detection of duplicate Medline citations can be improved by modifying n-grams and that high performance can also be obtained using only unigrams (F1=0.959), particularly when allowing for substitutions of alternative phrases. PMID:23715801

  3. Semi-Automatic Determination of Citation Relevancy: User Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, G. David

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of online bibliographic database searches focuses on a software system, SORT-AID/SABRE, that ranks retrieved citations in terms of relevance. Results of a comprehensive user evaluation of the relevance ranking procedure to determine its effectiveness are presented, and implications for future work are suggested. (10 references) (LRW)

  4. Results of a Citation Analysis of Knowledge Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Eris, Hasan; Ozcinar, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine research and trends in knowledge management in education (KME) published in selected professional sources during the period 1990-2008. Citation analysis was used in this study to investigate documents related to KME, which were indexed in the Web of Science, Education Researches Information Center and…

  5. Who's Who in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: A Citation Analysis Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Christopher, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    It is important to assess periodically how introductory textbooks portray our discipline because introductory psychology is the most popular psychology course, almost all teachers use textbooks for it, and textbooks play a major role in defining the course for students. To do so, past studies have used textbook citation analyses. We analyzed…

  6. Constructing Indices from Citations in Collections of Research Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Shannon; Hammond, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Rosetta, an indexing and retrieval system indexes papers in a collection based on the way they have been described when referenced by other papers in the collection. Using Rosetta, simple natural language queries retrieve high-precision results in which descriptions based on citations clearly summarize retrieved papers, allowing users to quickly…

  7. Citation Analysis of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior:" 1984-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, S.; O'Hora, D.; Whelan, R.; O'Donovan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study undertook an updated citation analysis of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior". All articles that cited "Verbal Behavior" between 1984 and 2004 were recorded and content analyzed into one of five categories; four empirical and one nonempirical. Of the empirical categories, studies that employed a verbal operant from Skinner's…

  8. Periodical Citations by Freshmen Using Chapel Hill's Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Audrey Sylvia

    This study reports an analysis of some aspects of the use of periodicals by freshmen at the University of North Carolina, as related to the undergraduate and other campus libraries. The study also asks whether the dispersion of citations, among periodicals cited by freshmen in bibliographies of required term papers, conforms to a general law of…

  9. Data Citation in Solar Physics: 2015 Update & Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourclé, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Last year's Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles has triggered much discussion about the best ways to handle citation of data across research disciplines. Many communities have gotten together to design solutions to the issues of giving proper credit and attribution, although many fields, including solar physics, have yet to implement them. Issues still exist regarding data citation as a record for scientific reproducability.Solar physics data is particularly difficult to cite due to the nature of our collection methods and the method in which our data are used. Other than sounding rocket or balloon flights, our data collection from a given instrument spans years or decades but observing modes, cadence and field of view may vary daily. Researchers may only analyze a short timespan of the data, only given observing modes, at a slower cadence, and/or only a portion of each image; this reduction should be described to ensure that the analysis is reproducible.Many archives keep only the current, best calibrated data, making updates in place. It can be difficult to determine if the data used in a publication is the same as the currently available data.We discuss the current progress by the Research Data Alliance's Dynamic Data Citation Working Group, and tools and services that would be useful to identify when data may have been changed by an archive. As it may be some time before standards can be developed, we include a checklist for authors to improve reproducibility of their published articles.

  10. 47 CFR 1.14 - Citation of Commission documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference to the FCC Record shall be included as part of the citation to any document that has been printed... FCC Rcd. 1 (1986). Older documents may continue to be cited to the FCC Reports, first or second series, if they were printed in the Reports (e.g., 1 FCC 2d 1 (1965))....

  11. Quick bibliography series: GASOHOL, 1979-1980, 78 citations

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, S.

    1980-08-01

    A bibliography on gasohol is compiled from an on-line search of the AGRICOLA Data Base. The production, use, and economics of ethanol and methanol fuels are included. The citations provided are updated every six months so that the references presented are from recent publications. (DMC)

  12. Cyber-Bullying in School Settings: A Research Citation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on school-aged children. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest in the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using…

  13. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume I. Citation extracts. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This annoted bibliography contains 1131 citations. It represents reports, papers, and articles appearing over the past eighteen years covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources. Six indexes include: author, conference title, descriptor, journal title, report number, and sponsor. (MHR)

  14. Night vision devices. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography contains 323 citations in which various types of night vision devices are investigated. Most were developed for military applications but they can readily be adapted for civil usage, as for example, law enforcement. Abstracts on display screens, equipment design and effectiveness, electronic components, spurious noise reduction, and test methods are cited.

  15. Fitting the Jigsaw of Citation: Information Visualization in Domain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chaomei; Paul, Ray J.; O'Keefe, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of information visualization in modeling and representing intellectual structures associated with scientific disciplines and visualizes the domain of computer graphics based on bibliographic data from author cocitation patterns. Highlights include author cocitation maps, citation time lines, animation of a high-dimensional…

  16. Citations to Australian Astronomy: 5- and 10-Year Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Katherine H.; Paramasivam, Arjun; Tu, Jiachin; Zhang, Albert; Graham, Alister W.

    2012-03-01

    Expanding upon Pimbblet's 2011 analysis of career h-indices for members of the Astronomical Society of Australia, we provide additional citation metrics which are geared to quantifying the current performance of all professional astronomers in Australia. We have trawled the staff web-pages of Australian Universities, Observatories and Research Organisations hosting professional astronomers, and identified 384 PhD-qualified, research-active, astronomers in the nation. 132 of these are not members of the Astronomical Society of Australia. Using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System, we provide the three following common metrics based on publications in the first decade of the 21st century (2001-2010): h-index, author-normalised citation count and lead-author citation count. We additionally present a somewhat more inclusive analysis, applicable for many early-career researchers, that is based on publications from 2006-2010. Histograms and percentiles, plus top-performer lists, are presented for each category. Finally, building on Hirsch's empirical equation, we find that the (10-year) h-index and (10-year) total citation count T can be approximated by the relation AS12011_IE1.gif for h>~5.

  17. Analysis of bibliometric indicators to determine citation bias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Publications from the 1995 to 2004 period (and cited throughout July 2013) were analyzed to determine if the plant species used in research studies influenced the number of citations that papers received. Bibliometric data of papers from 108 plant species were obtained for the research fields of Gen...

  18. 1 CFR 8.9 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section, and the short form “CFR” may be used for “Code of Federal Regulations.” For example, “1 CFR 10.2” refers to title 1, Code of Federal Regulations, part 10, section 2. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Form of citation. 8.9 Section 8.9...

  19. 1 CFR 8.9 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section, and the short form “CFR” may be used for “Code of Federal Regulations.” For example, “1 CFR 10.2” refers to title 1, Code of Federal Regulations, part 10, section 2. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form of citation. 8.9 Section 8.9...

  20. 1 CFR 8.9 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section, and the short form “CFR” may be used for “Code of Federal Regulations.” For example, “1 CFR 10.2” refers to title 1, Code of Federal Regulations, part 10, section 2. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Form of citation. 8.9 Section 8.9...

  1. A Review of Citation Analysis Methodologies for Collection Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Kristin; Doucette, Lise

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable body of literature that presents the results of citation analysis studies, most researchers do not provide enough detail in their methodology to reproduce the study, nor do they provide rationale for methodological decisions. In this paper, we review the methodologies used in 34 recent articles that present a…

  2. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  3. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  4. The Synthesis of Specialty Narratives from Co-Citation Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Henry

    1986-01-01

    Applies a method for generating synopses of scientific fields to a co-citation cluster in field of cancer virology and describes the resulting specialty narrative. Implications of procedure for the cognitive processes involved in reviewing a field are discussed. Appended are lists of highly cited and citing papers. (35 references) (EJS)

  5. Adding Value to Scholarly Journals through a Citation Indexing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, A. N.; Abrizah, A.; Raj, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to relate the problems identified about scholarly journal publishing in Malaysia to establish motivation for the system development; to describe the design of MyCite, a Malaysian citation indexing system and to highlight the added value to journals and articles indexed through the generation of bibliometrics…

  6. Important Literature in Endocrinology: Citation Analysis and Historial Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study comparing two approaches to the identification of important literature in endocrinology reveals that association between ranking of cited items using the two methods is not statistically significant and use of citation or historical analysis alone will not result in same set of literature. Forty-two sources are appended. (EJS)

  7. Looking at Citations: Using Corpora in English for Academic Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul; Tribble, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Presents a classification scheme and the results of applying this scheme to the coding of academic texts in a corpus. The texts are doctoral theses from agricultural botany and agricultural economics departments. Results lead to a comparison of the citation practices of writers in different disciplines and the different rhetorical practices of…

  8. Competitive Funding, Citation Regimes, and the Diminishment of Breakthrough Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    At first glance Sweden looks like a researcher's paradise with high levels of GDP investment in research and high scores on citation indexes, yet recent studies have suggested that Sweden might be losing its edge in groundbreaking research. This paper explores why that is happening by examining researchers' logics of decision-making at a large…

  9. Analysis of Publications and Citations from a Geophysics Research Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Cliff; Resler, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Performs an analysis of all 1128 publications produced by scientists during their employment at the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, thus assessing research performance using as bibliometric indicators such statistics as publications per year, citations per paper, and cited half-lives. Evaluates five different methods for determining…

  10. Light communication systems. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    The design, performance, and application of laser, infrared, and visual communication systems are covered in the cited research reports. Transmission and equipment studies for space, atmospheric, and underwater light communication are presented. Topics covered include lasers, fiber optics, signal processing, transmission links, and data transmission. This updated bibliography contains 87 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  11. Ultraviolet lasers. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Reports cited from the international literature describe various aspects of ultraviolet lasers including laser output, far ultraviolet radiation, electron pumping, optical pumping, and laser materials. Gas lasers, pulsed lasers, dye lasers, CO2 lasers, xenon fluoride lasers, and transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) lasers are considered. This updated bibliography contains 283 citations, 66 of which are new additions to the previous edition.

  12. Space Colonies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 204 citations to the international literature concerning various aspects of space colonies are presented. Topics include the design and construction of space colonies, the effects on humans of long term life in a variety of spaceborne environments, and the potential uses of orbital space stations and lunar bases.

  13. Fuel cells. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Fuel cell applications, components, fabrication, design, catalysts, and chemistry are covered. The bibliography includes different types of fuel cells, such as hydrogen oxygen cells, hydrocarbon air cells, and biochemical cells. This updated bibliography contains 139 citations, 97 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  14. Nickel cadmium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, fabrication, components, testing, and assembly of nickel cadmium batteries are covered in the bibliography. The majority of these citations deal with the development of power supplies for aircraft and spacecraft. This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  15. Hot film anemometry. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The principles of hot film anemometer operation are summarized; wind tunnel and laboratory tests are described; flow field dynamics are discussed involving turbulence, boundary layers, separation, shock waves, and stresses; mathematical models and analysis are presented; computer techniques are outlined; and a number of applications are given. This updated bibliography contains 58 citations, 3 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  16. Printed circuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-04-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and applications of printed circuits are presented in these citations of Federally-sponsored research reports. Research on computer aided design, soldering, etching, plating, photolithography, and materials are cited. This updated bibliography contains 175 abstracts, 41 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  17. Battery electrolytes. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    Many types of solid, liquid and gaseous battery electrolytes are described and analyzed in the cited abstracts. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also delineated. Included are 196 citations.

  18. Laser gyroscopes. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    Laser inertial rotation sensors are discussed in approximately 27 citations. Ring lasers, fiber optic ring lasers, and laser or optical gyroscopes are discussed. Technical problems, such as mode coupling and competition, stray scattering, error sources, and analyses, are treated. The design, engineering, construction, and performance of operational hardware are described.

  19. Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography covers studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  20. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  1. The Influence of Consistent Assignment on Nursing Home Deficiency Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The association of consistent assignment of nurse aides (NAs) with quality of care and quality of life of nursing home residents is examined (using 5 groups of deficiency citations). Methods: Data used came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The…

  2. 1 CFR 8.9 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section, and the short form “CFR” may be used for “Code of Federal Regulations.” For example, “1 CFR 10.2” refers to title 1, Code of Federal Regulations, part 10, section 2. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Form of citation. 8.9 Section 8.9...

  3. 1 CFR 8.9 - Form of citation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, and the short form “CFR” may be used for “Code of Federal Regulations.” For example, “1 CFR 10.2” refers to title 1, Code of Federal Regulations, part 10, section 2. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of citation. 8.9 Section 8.9...

  4. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates. PMID:19257067

  5. Surface fractals in liposome aggregation.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Barnadas-Rodríguez, Ramon; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Estelrich, Joan; Callejas-Fernández, José

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the aggregation of charged liposomes induced by magnesium is investigated. Static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used as experimental techniques. In particular, multiple intracluster scattering is reduced to a negligible amount using a cross-correlation light scattering scheme. The analysis of the cluster structure, probed by means of static light scattering, reveals an evolution from surface fractals to mass fractals with increasing magnesium concentration. Cryotransmission electron microscopy micrographs of the aggregates are consistent with this interpretation. In addition, a comparative analysis of these results with those previously reported in the presence of calcium suggests that the different hydration energy between lipid vesicles when these divalent cations are present plays a fundamental role in the cluster morphology. This suggestion is also supported by infrared spectroscopy data. The kinetics of the aggregation processes is also analyzed through the time evolution of the mean diffusion coefficient of the aggregates.

  6. Electromagnetic charges in aggregation phenomena.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Claude; Slobodrian, R. J.

    Introduction The mechanism of fine particles aggregation is of great importance in many areas of research, in particular environment sciences where the state of aggregation defines the removal speed of dust from the atmosphere. The study of this mechanism is also important to understand the first stage of planet formation from the solar nebula. The aggregates formed are generally fractals and, as mentioned in the literature [1], the fractal dimensions and the site growth probability measures of the resulting fractal structures strongly depend on the properties of the forces that cause the aggregation. Theory and experimental apparatus We began this study by the aggregation between two charged particles and we are now consid-ering the aggregation between two magnetized particles. The aggregations are produced in a gas at a pressure between 10 and 1000 mbar and by using the applicable simplifications; we find that the distance (r) between the particles as a function of time (t) is given by the following equations: r=Ce(tf -t)1/3 for the electrical attraction r=Cm(tf -t)1/5 for the magnetic dipoles aligned in an external magnetic field. The apparatus built for these measurements consists of an experimental cell from which two perpendicular views are combined via an optical system in one image recorded by a video camera. From the video, we can then measure the distance between the particles as a function of time and reconstruct the trajectories in 3-D. The horizontal and vertical resolutions are respectively 0.86 and 0.92 microns per pixel. With a depth of field of 250 microns, the usable volume for 3-D observation in then 250 microns x 250 microns x 443 microns. Results and discussion A first version of the apparatus was tested on an electrical force aggregation and the results [2] show that the corresponding equation is a good representation of the phenomenon. Preliminary results, from an experiment using iron particles, show that the magnetic force can be seen in

  7. Aggregate breakdown of nanoparticulate titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Navin

    Six nanosized titanium dioxide powders synthesized from a sulfate process were investigated. The targeted end-use of this powder was for a de-NOx catalyst honeycomb monolith. Alteration of synthesis parameters had resulted principally in differences in soluble ion level and specific surface area of the powders. The goal of this investigation was to understand the role of synthesis parameters in the aggregation behavior of these powders. Investigation via scanning electron microscopy of the powders revealed three different aggregation iterations at specific length scales. Secondary and higher order aggregate strength was investigated via oscillatory stress rheometry as a means of simulating shear conditions encountered during extrusion. G' and G'' were measured as a function of the applied oscillatory stress. Oscillatory rheometry indicated a strong variation as a function of the sulfate level of the particles in the viscoelastic yield strengths. Powder yield stresses ranged from 3.0 Pa to 24.0 Pa of oscillatory stress. Compaction curves to 750 MPa found strong similarities in extrapolated yield point of stage I and II compaction for each of the powders (at approximately 500 MPa) suggesting that the variation in sulfate was greatest above the primary aggregate level. Scanning electron microscopy of samples at different states of shear in oscillatory rheometry confirmed the variation in the linear elastic region and the viscous flow regime. A technique of this investigation was to approach aggregation via a novel perspective: aggregates are distinguished as being loose open structures that are highly disordered and stochastic in nature. The methodology used was to investigate the shear stresses required to rupture the various aggregation stages encountered and investigate the attempt to realign the now free-flowing constituents comprising the aggregate into a denser configuration. Mercury porosimetry was utilized to measure the pore size of the compact resulting from

  8. Amorphous solar cells: Characteristics and efficiency. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning development, efficiency, and design of amorphous solar cells. Film properties, deterioration, hydrogenation, cell stability, and performance characteristics are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Laser oscillators. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning laser oscillators. Topics cover gas, solid state, semiconductor, unpolarized, phased array, longitudinal pump, composite, and tunable laser oscillators. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Editorial: Citation of the Serbian Astronomical Journal in the Period 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbutina, B.

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers conceived with an idea in mind to track the Serbian Astronomical Journal citation. Full citation information for the last three years, necessary for calculating impact factors, is given.

  11. Editorial: Citation of the Serbian Astronomical Journal in the Period 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbutina, B.

    2010-06-01

    This editorial provides results of research on the Serbian Astronomical Journal citation. We give full information on citation for the last three years, and the impact factors calculated for the period 2003-2009.

  12. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Technology and Teacher Education," 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Karen; Juncker, Janeel; Aitken, Meghan; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the "Journal of Technology and Teacher Education" to determine research trends from the past decade (2001-2010). Topical (via EBSCO subject term analysis), article types, and authorship trends were all analyzed. A few of "JTATE"'s seminal articles were also identified using "Publish or Perish." Findings were…

  13. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," 2002-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kyle R.; Zabriskie, Grant D.; Ashton, Scott M.; Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the "Journal of Computer Assisted Learning," in order to understand the research topics methods, major contributing authors, and most-cited publications. Over the 10-year period, they found the journal has explored educational uses of computer…

  14. Educational Technology Research Journals: Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Matthew; Manwaring, Kristine; Fry, Leanna; West, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined articles published in the "Journal of Computing in Higher Education" between 2003 and 2012 with the purpose of determining the main themes of these articles, the types of research published, the major contributing authors, and the most-cited articles. An analysis was made of 129 original papers published by…

  15. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Journal of Educational Computing Research," 2003-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Rob; Anderson, Noelle; Beckstrom, Tyler; Boren, Michael; Thomas, Rebecca; West, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes articles published in the "Journal of Educational Computing Research" ("JECR") from 2003 to 2012. The authors analyzed the articles looking for trends in article types and methodologies, the most common topics addressed in the articles, the top-cited articles, and the top authors during the period. The…

  16. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  17. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  18. HPT Roots and Branches: Analyzing over 45 Years of the Field's Own Citations. Part 1--Journal Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huglin, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series of three that reviews the citation patterns of references cited in the entire collection of International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) journal articles (1962-2007) and all chapters published in the three editions of "Handbook of Human Performance Technology" (1992, 1999, and 2006). It includes an…

  19. Solar eclipses. 1964-February 1981 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Feb 81. [171 citations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The bibliography cites observations of solar radiation, solar corona, and effects on the earth's atmosphere, taken during solar eclipses. Observations of eclipses from 1961 are included. (This updated bibliography contains 171 citations, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

    2008-03-01

    Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

  1. Remote sensing applied to pollution monitoring. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensors to aid in the monitoring of air and water pollution. Citations address the use of lasers, optical radar systems, aerial photography, and satellite observations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Hazardous materials transportation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the transfer of hazardous materials primarily by road, rail, and cargo vessels. The citations include risk assessment, accident analyses, response programs, and shipping container designs. Federal legislation, state programs, and test procedures for a variety of containers are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Hazardous materials transportation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the transfer of hazardous materials primarily by road, rail, and cargo vessels. The citations include risk assessment, accident analyses, response programs, and shipping container designs. Federal legislation, state programs, and test procedures for a variety of containers are also discussed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Hazardous materials transportation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the transfer of hazardous materials primarily by road, rail, and cargo vessels. The citations include risk assessment, accident analyses, response programs, and shipping container designs. Federal legislation, state programs, and test procedures for a variety of containers are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Hazardous materials transportation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the transfer of hazardous materials primarily by road, rail, and cargo vessels. The citations include risk assessment, accident analyses, response programs, and shipping container designs. Federal legislation, state programs, and test procedures for a variety of containers are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Remote sensing applied to pollution monitoring. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensors to aid in the monitoring of air and water pollution. Citations address the use of lasers, optical radar systems, aerial photography, and satellite observations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature

    PubMed Central

    Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Design Bibliometric analysis. Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Data extraction Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n=648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Conclusions Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia. PMID:24603564

  8. Fresnel lenses. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and implementation of Fresnel lenses. Citations focus on manufacturing methods and designs for specific applications. Fresnel lenses used in overhead projectors, solar concentrators, and infrared motion detectors are also described. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Laser mirrors. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning design and fabrication of laser mirrors. Citations describe mirror types, focusing and alignment, coatings, and passivation. Topics include laser mode-locking, mirror stability, mirror defect detection, and corrosion-resistant structures. Applications in medicine, industry, and defense are presented. (Contains a minimum of 148 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning lithium batteries and cells, and their application as power sources in electronic and electric devices. Selected patents are included for electrode, electrolyte, and sealing materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries. The citations also describe additives used for stabilization, and safety control methods. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning lithium batteries and cells, and their application as power sources in electronic and electric devices. Selected patents are included for electrode, electrolyte, and sealing materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries. The citations also describe additives used for stabilization, and safety control methods. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Citation Help in Databases: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ullen, Mary; Kessler, Jane

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the authors reviewed citation help in databases and found an error rate of 4.4 errors per citation. This article describes a follow-up study that revealed a modest improvement in the error rate to 3.4 errors per citation, still unacceptably high. The most problematic area was retrieval statements. The authors conclude that librarians…

  13. Manufacture of braided fabrics. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the manufacture of braided goods. The citations examine braiding techniques and machines, including bobbin and bobbin carrier assemblies; fiber and fabrics; and the properties and end uses of braided fabrics. Machine noise emmision and noise reduction are also presented. Patents are included. (Contains a minimum of 215 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Toxicity of cobalt. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity effects of cobalt. Citations include cobalt fetotoxicity, renal toxicity, bioaccumulation, contact dermatitis, carcinogencity, and respiratory disorders. Toxicology assays and industrial sources of cobalt poisoning are considered. In vivo and in vitro human and animal studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI COMPENDEX*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Citation Rate of Highly-Cited Papers in 100 Kinesiology-Related Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    This study extended previous research on several citation-based bibliometric variables for highly cited articles in a large (N = 100) number of journals related to Kinesiology. Total citations and citation rate of the 30 most highly cited articles in each journal were identified by searchers of "Google Scholar (GS)". Other major…

  17. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. National Aerospace Plane Thermal Development. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal properties of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Analysis of thermal stress, and methods for determining thermal effects on the plane's supersonic structure are discussed. The citations also review temperature extremes that the vehicle is likely to encounter. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Contamination of potable water by trihalomethanes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research on trihalomethanes in drinking water. The citations discuss the formation of trihalomethanes, detection methods, toxicity studies, epidemiological statistics, and disinfection procedures. Methods for removing trihalomethanes at water treatment plants are considered. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. 37 CFR 1.902 - Processing of prior art citations during an inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing of prior art... United States on or After November 29, 1999 Prior Art Citations § 1.902 Processing of prior art citations... § 1.502 for processing of prior art citations in patent and reexamination files during an ex...

  8. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning Stirling engine technology. Design, development, performance testing, and applications are discussed, including power generation, cryogenic cooling, solar power applications, and ground and marine vehicles. The citations also examine engine component design and material testing results. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning Stirling engine technology. Design, development, performance testing, and applications are discussed, including power generation, cryogenic cooling, solar power applications, and ground and marine vehicles. The citations also examine engine component design and material testing results. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning Stirling engine technology. Design, development, performance testing, and applications are discussed, including power generation, cryogenic cooling, solar power applications, and ground and marine vehicles. The citations also examine engine component design and material testing results. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Marine biodegradation: Chemical pollutants. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological degradation of marine pollutants. The citations explore the microbial breakdown of petroleum, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other hazardous materials. The chemical details of biotransformation, and the development of microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants are presented. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Microwave heating: Industrial applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial uses and design of microwave heating equipment. Citations discuss applications in food processing, industrial heating, vulcanization, textile finishing, metallurgical sintering, ceramic manufacturing, paper industries, and curing of polymers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Reclaimed water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning reclaimed water. The citations discuss water reclamation facilities and processes and reclaimed water uses and storage. Industrial and domestic wastewater reclamation and reuse systems are examined. Public attitudes and federal policy on this subject are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Plastics in automobiles. (Latest citations from Materials Business File). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic to replace metallic parts in automobiles. Citations discuss the advantages of easy assembly, part consolidation, weight savings, durability, aesthetics, and economics. Examples of specific applications, types of plastic and their formulation are included. (Contains a minimum of 187 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Corrosion resistant coatings. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning anticorrosive protective coatings. Patents include surface treatments, paints, antistatic coatings, silicate coatings, fatty acids, organic and inorganic materials, and techniques for applying various coatings. Citations concerning epoxy coatings, acrylic and acrylate coatings, urethane coatings, and water-borne coatings are excluded and examined in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, fluid dynamics, culture media aspects, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic manufacture, plant cell culture, and hybridoma culture. Topics explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, plant, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Ocean waste disposal: Outfall sewers. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, construction, and environmental effects of outfall sewers. The citations discuss the impact of domestic sewage on aquatic ecosystems, and pollution control of outfall sewers. Monitoring of pollutants in outfall sewage and sludge, and modeling of outfall sewers are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Ozonization used in water and sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of ozone for the purification of industrial wastewater, sewage, and drinking water. The citations include laboratory and field investigations of purification techniques and the toxic effects of byproducts resulting from the use of ozone.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Jean-Jacques Rousseau among the Footnotes: Mapping Interdisciplinary Research in Social Science Citation Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.; Buchanan, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Examination of citations indexed in Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) reveals salient patterns which can be helpful in determining interdisciplinarity and/or disciplinarity. Collection development efforts can be enhanced by examination of citation patterns of published research related to a classical social science author such as Jean-Jacques…

  1. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Oil-spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques used for control, detection, dispersion, and disposal of oil spills particularly within harbors and estuaries. Topics include chemical dispersants, mechanical skimmers, and biodegradation. The citations also explore spill impact on habitats, marine life, and water birds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Age-Specific Citation Rates and the Egghe-Rao Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2003-01-01

    Extends connections between retrospective citation age studies and reliability theory by considering the failure rate function from reliability, re-interpreted as the age-specific citation rate (ASCR). This is linked to earlier studies of retrospective citation distributions by Egghe and Ravichandra Rao who introduced a function claimed to…

  6. Shape memory alloys. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theories and experiments on shape memory effects of various alloys. Alloys studied include nickel, tin, indium, lead, copper, and titanium. Citations discuss shape memory crystallography, properties, processing, alloying, and mechanisms. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. A Co-Citation Network of Young Children's Learning with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kai-Yu; Li, Ming-Chaun; Hsin, Ching-Ting; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This paper used a novel literature review approach--co-citation network analysis--to illuminate the latent structure of 87 empirical papers in the field of young children's learning with technology (YCLT). Based on the document co-citation analysis, a total of 206 co-citation relationships among the 87 papers were identified and then graphically…

  8. Plastics in automobiles. (Latest citations from Materials Business file). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic to replace metallic parts in automobiles. Citations discuss the advantages of easy assembly, part consolidation, weight savings, durability, aesthetics, and economics. Examples of specific applications, types of plastic and their formulation are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials for road construction. Citations discuss asphalt concrete mixtures and recycling, recycled materials testing and evaluation, and pavement bases. Engineering and environmental aspects of recycled materials are examined. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. 37 CFR 1.502 - Processing of prior art citations during an ex parte reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing of prior art... PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.502 Processing of prior art citations during an ex parte reexamination proceeding. Citations by the patent...

  11. 37 CFR 1.902 - Processing of prior art citations during an inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing of prior art... United States on or After November 29, 1999 Prior Art Citations § 1.902 Processing of prior art citations... § 1.502 for processing of prior art citations in patent and reexamination files during an ex...

  12. 37 CFR 1.902 - Processing of prior art citations during an inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Processing of prior art... United States on or After November 29, 1999 Prior Art Citations § 1.902 Processing of prior art citations... § 1.502 for processing of prior art citations in patent and reexamination files during an ex...

  13. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Citation of prior art in... Patents Citation of Prior Art § 1.501 Citation of prior art in patent files. (a) At any time during the period of enforceability of a patent, any person may cite, to the Office in writing, prior art...

  14. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art and written statements in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Citation of prior art and... Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.501 Citation of prior art and written... directed to the following information: (1) Prior art consisting of patents or printed publications...

  15. 37 CFR 1.902 - Processing of prior art citations during an inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing of prior art... United States on or After November 29, 1999 Prior Art Citations § 1.902 Processing of prior art citations... § 1.502 for processing of prior art citations in patent and reexamination files during an ex...

  16. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Citation of prior art in... Patents Citation of Prior Art § 1.501 Citation of prior art in patent files. (a) At any time during the period of enforceability of a patent, any person may cite, to the Office in writing, prior art...

  17. 37 CFR 1.902 - Processing of prior art citations during an inter partes reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing of prior art... United States on or After November 29, 1999 Prior Art Citations § 1.902 Processing of prior art citations... § 1.502 for processing of prior art citations in patent and reexamination files during an ex...

  18. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art and written statements in patent files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Citation of prior art and... Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.501 Citation of prior art and written... directed to the following information: (1) Prior art consisting of patents or printed publications...

  19. 37 CFR 1.502 - Processing of prior art citations during an ex parte reexamination proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Processing of prior art... PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of Patents Citation of Prior Art and Written Statements § 1.502 Processing of prior art citations during an ex parte reexamination proceeding. Citations by the patent...

  20. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Citations discuss exposure assessment, malfunction and misuse of radiation sources, dosimetry, radiation epidemiology, radiation-induced neoplasms, and nuclear facility licensing. Environmental and occupational exposures, case studies, nuclear fallout, and radiation effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. The New Generation of Citation Indexing in the Age of Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mengxiong; Cabrera, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    As the Web is becoming a powerful new medium in scientific publication and scholarly communication, citation indexing has found a new application in the digital environment. The authors reviewed the new developments in Web-based citation indexing and conducted a case study in three major citation search tools, "Web of Science", "Scopus" and…

  3. State-of-the-art reviews and bibliographies on energy. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-07-01

    Citations to bibliographies, state-of-the-art reviews, and literature surveys on various aspects of fossil fuels, wind, solar energy, hydrogen, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and batteries are presented. A few citations pertain to electric power. This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  4. State-of-the-art reviews and bibliographies on energy. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-07-01

    Citations to bibliographies, state-of-the-art reviews, and literature surveys on various aspects of fossil fuels, wind, solar energy, hydrogen, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and batteries are presented. A few citations pertain to electric power. This updated bibliography contains 107 citations, 77 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  5. The Journal Citation Reports as a Tool in Periodical Subscription Decisions: An Illustration and an Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Marvin D.

    This discussion of the use of citation frequency data in judging a cluster or an entire collection of journals in academic libraries discusses the rationale for this methodology, and illustrates its application by examining citation counts in ISI's Journal Citation Reports (JCR) for periodicals in the area of communication research. The…

  6. Developing Data Citations from Digital Object Identifier Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has been processing information for the registration of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for the last five years of which an automated system has been in operation for the last two years. The ESDIS DOI registration system has registered over 2000 DOIs with over 1000 DOIs held in reserve until all required information has been collected. By working towards the goal of assigning DOIs to the 8000+ data collections under its management, ESDIS has taken the first step towards facilitating the use of data citations with those products. When registering DOIs, ESDIS requires certain DOI elements be collected for the DOI landing page as recommended by NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG). The landing page provides sufficient information to 1) identify NASA data as referenced in a science publication, 2) credit data creators and distributors, and 3) access the data itself enabling the trace-ability and reproducibility of the data. However, the required elements for this DOI landing page are also the core required elements for forming an Earth science data citation. Data citations are getting significant attention from the scientific community and data centers alike. So to encourage the citing of Earth science data products, each product DOI landing page displays a sample data citation and makes the required citation elements available to DataCite for use in its Data Citation generation tool. This paper will describe that process. ESDIS data centers are constantly developing technologies to better serve the Earth science user community such as Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), Land and Atmospheric Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE), and advanced tools that support virtual data collections, and virtual data products. These all provide easier access to data and make possible the creation of data products with user specified parameters

  7. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  8. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. PMID:25180204

  9. Novel insights into amylin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Karen; Govender, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Amylin is a peptide that aggregates into species that are toxic to pancreatic beta cells, leading to type II diabetes. This study has for the first time quantified amylin association and dissociation kinetics (association constant (ka) = 28.7 ± 5.1 L mol−1 s−1 and dissociation constant (kd) = 2.8 ± 0.6 ×10−4 s−1) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus far, techniques used for the sizing of amylin aggregates do not cater for the real-time monitoring of unconstrained amylin in solution. In this regard we evaluated recently innovated nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In addition, both SPR and NTA were used to study the effect of previously synthesized amylin derivatives on amylin aggregation and to evaluate their potential as a cell-free system for screening potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. Results obtained from NTA highlighted a predominance of 100–300 nm amylin aggregates and correlation to previously published cytotoxicity results suggests the toxic species of amylin to be 200–300 nm in size. The results seem to indicate that NTA has potential as a new technique to monitor the aggregation potential of amyloid peptides in solution and also to screen potential inhibitors of amylin-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:26019498

  10. Equilibrium structure of ferrofluid aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Tomanek, David

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium structure of large but finite aggregates of magnetic dipoles, representing a colloidal suspension of magnetite particles in a ferrofluid. With increasing system size, the structural motif evolves from chains and rings to multi-chain and multi-ring assemblies. Very large systems form single- and multi-wall coils, tubes and scrolls. These structural changes result from a competition between various energy terms, which can be approximated analytically within a continuum model. We also study the effect of external parameters such as magnetic field on the relative stability of these structures. Our results may give insight into experimental data obtained during solidification of ferrofluid aggregates at temperatures where thermal fluctuations become negligible in comparison to inter-particle interactions. These data may also help to experimentally control the aggregation of magnetic particles.

  11. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  12. Fractal aggregates in tennis ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, J.; Bandín, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-09-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the images of the cluster of balls, following Forrest and Witten's pioneering studies on the aggregation of smoke particles, to estimate their fractal dimension.

  13. Data Citation in Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices for Data Identification and Attribution.

    PubMed

    Honor, Leah B; Haselgrove, Christian; Frazier, Jean A; Kennedy, David N

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and a standardized metadata schema into a XNAT-based repository workflow, allowing for identification of data at both the project and image level. These item and source level identifiers allow any newly defined combination of images, from any number of projects, to be tagged with a new group-level DOI that automatically inherits the individual attributes and provenance information of its constituent parts. This system enables the tracking of data reuse down to the level of individual images. The implementation of this type of data identification system would impact researchers and data creators, data hosting facilities, and data publishers, but the benefit of having widely accepted standards for data identification and attribution would go far toward making data citation practical and advantageous.

  14. Data Citation in Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices for Data Identification and Attribution

    PubMed Central

    Honor, Leah B.; Haselgrove, Christian; Frazier, Jean A.; Kennedy, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and a standardized metadata schema into a XNAT-based repository workflow, allowing for identification of data at both the project and image level. These item and source level identifiers allow any newly defined combination of images, from any number of projects, to be tagged with a new group-level DOI that automatically inherits the individual attributes and provenance information of its constituent parts. This system enables the tracking of data reuse down to the level of individual images. The implementation of this type of data identification system would impact researchers and data creators, data hosting facilities, and data publishers, but the benefit of having widely accepted standards for data identification and attribution would go far toward making data citation practical and advantageous. PMID:27570508

  15. Data Citation in Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices for Data Identification and Attribution.

    PubMed

    Honor, Leah B; Haselgrove, Christian; Frazier, Jean A; Kennedy, David N

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) and a standardized metadata schema into a XNAT-based repository workflow, allowing for identification of data at both the project and image level. These item and source level identifiers allow any newly defined combination of images, from any number of projects, to be tagged with a new group-level DOI that automatically inherits the individual attributes and provenance information of its constituent parts. This system enables the tracking of data reuse down to the level of individual images. The implementation of this type of data identification system would impact researchers and data creators, data hosting facilities, and data publishers, but the benefit of having widely accepted standards for data identification and attribution would go far toward making data citation practical and advantageous. PMID:27570508

  16. Searching for converging research using field to field citations

    PubMed Central

    Noyons, Ed. C. M.; Van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2010-01-01

    We define converging research as the emergence of an interdisciplinary research area from fields that did not show interdisciplinary connections before. This paper presents a process to search for converging research using journal subject categories as a proxy for fields and citations to measure interdisciplinary connections, as well as an application of this search. The search consists of two phases: a quantitative phase in which pairs of citing and cited fields are located that show a significant change in number of citations, followed by a qualitative phase in which thematic focus is sought in publications associated with located pairs. Applying this search on publications from the Web of Science published between 1995 and 2005, 38 candidate converging pairs were located, 27 of which showed thematic focus, and 20 also showed a similar focus in the other, reciprocal pair. PMID:21297857

  17. Thermal batteries. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a class of reserve-type molten salt electrolyte primary cell systems (thermal batteries) that are inert until brought into use by the ignition of a charge of pyrotechnics or raised to their operating temperature by a conventional heating means. The battery remains active for hours or only a few seconds, depending on size, thermal insulation, electrochemical system, ambient temperature, and rate at which power is withdrawn. Various electrochemical systems are discussed and include, calcium, magnesium, and lithium compounds. Design, development, fabrication, and accelerated age testing of thermal batteries are presented. Applications in weapons systems as the primary power source for navigation and ignitor systems are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Perc, Matjaž; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  19. Large-scale structure of time evolving citation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leicht, E. A.; Clarkson, G.; Shedden, K.; Newman, M. E. J.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we examine a number of methods for probing and understanding the large-scale structure of networks that evolve over time. We focus in particular on citation networks, networks of references between documents such as papers, patents, or court cases. We describe three different methods of analysis, one based on an expectation-maximization algorithm, one based on modularity optimization, and one based on eigenvector centrality. Using the network of citations between opinions of the United States Supreme Court as an example, we demonstrate how each of these methods can reveal significant structural divisions in the network and how, ultimately, the combination of all three can help us develop a coherent overall picture of the network's shape.

  20. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In scientific circles, the reference is the information that is necessary to the reader in identifying and finding used sources. The basic rule when listing the sources used is that references must be accurate, complete and should be consistently applied. On the other hand, quoting implies verbatim written or verbal repetition of parts of the text or words written by others that can be checked in original. Authors of every new scientific article need to explain how their study or research fits with previous one in the same or similar fields. A typical article in the health sciences refers to approximately 20-30 other articles published in peer reviewed journals, cite once or hundreds times. Citations typically appear in two formats: a) as in-text citations where the sources of information are briefly identified in the text; or b) in the reference list at the end of the publication (book chapter, manuscript, article, etc.) that provides full bibliographic information for each source. Group of publishers met in Vancouver in 1978 and decided to prescribe uniform technical propositions for publication. Adopted in the 1979 by the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, then the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), whose review in 1982 entered the official application by 300 international biomedical journals. Authors writing articles for publication in biomedical publications used predominantly citation styles: Vancouver style, Harward style, PubMed style, ICMJE, APA, etc. The paper gives examples of all of these styles of citation to the authors in order to facilitate their applications. Also in this paper is given the review about the problem of plagiarism which becomes more common in the writing of scientific and technical articles in biomedicine. PMID:24167381

  1. The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In scientific circles, the reference is the information that is necessary to the reader in identifying and finding used sources. The basic rule when listing the sources used is that references must be accurate, complete and should be consistently applied. On the other hand, quoting implies verbatim written or verbal repetition of parts of the text or words written by others that can be checked in original. Authors of every new scientific article need to explain how their study or research fits with previous one in the same or similar fields. A typical article in the health sciences refers to approximately 20-30 other articles published in peer reviewed journals, cite once or hundreds times. Citations typically appear in two formats: a) as in-text citations where the sources of information are briefly identified in the text; or b) in the reference list at the end of the publication (book chapter, manuscript, article, etc.) that provides full bibliographic information for each source. Group of publishers met in Vancouver in 1978 and decided to prescribe uniform technical propositions for publication. Adopted in the 1979 by the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, then the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), whose review in 1982 entered the official application by 300 international biomedical journals. Authors writing articles for publication in biomedical publications used predominantly citation styles: Vancouver style, Harward style, PubMed style, ICMJE, APA, etc. The paper gives examples of all of these styles of citation to the authors in order to facilitate their applications. Also in this paper is given the review about the problem of plagiarism which becomes more common in the writing of scientific and technical articles in biomedicine. PMID:24167381

  2. Iain Stewart Receives 2013 Athelstan Spilhaus Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tim

    2014-01-01

    It is a great pleasure and an honor to give the citation for the 2013 Athelstan Spilhaus awardee, Iain Stewart, professor of geoscience communication at the University of Plymouth, recognizing his truly exceptional work over the last decade in communicating geoscience to the general public. Iain has been making documentaries for the BBC, National Geographic, and Discovery for nearly a decade. These programs have huge international audiences and wide-reaching impact.

  3. Microwave Antennas: Design. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design of microwave antennas. Topics include a discussion of the recent developments in microwave antennas, and in design techniques such as computer-aided design (CAD). Various types of antenna configurations are covered, including rectangular, elliptical, and reflectarray microstrip antennas, multibeam, circular-disc, Yagi-Uda, and horn reflectors. Applications include microwave antennas for satellite communication systems, telemetry links, and solid state microwave power transmission systems.

  4. Energy conservation: Industry. Citations from the NITS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-07-01

    The 335 citations, 37 of which are new entries, discuss potential methods of conserving energy. Many abstracts deal with reports that also cover processes used, amount of energy consumed, and environmental considerations of energy conserving options. Industries covered include food, paper, chemical, cement, metals, petroleum refining, contract construction, synthetic rubber, plastics, drug manufacturing, and stone, clay, and glass. Energy conservation through the use of waste heat is covered in a related Published Search entitled Waste Heat Utilization.

  5. Acoustic holography. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-07-01

    Aspects of acoustic holography are covered in this bibliography of Federally funded research. Theory, equipment design, uses, and imaging techniques are presented. The applications include underwater and underground object locating, structural geology and tectonics, sonar imaging, non destructive testing, antenna radiation patterns, nuclear reactor inspection, remote sensing, and use in medical examination. This updated bibliography contains 166 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  6. Neodymium YAG Lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-07-01

    Federally funded research reports on lasing of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet are cited. Studies on design, fabrication, quantum efficiency, light pulses, stabilization, and testing are covered. Optical pumping, mode locking, frequency conversion, and modulation of these lasers are discussed. Laser applications such as optical communication, range finding, and tracking are included. Safety hazards and radiation damage related to neodymium YAG lasers are also covered. This updated bibliography contains 181 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  7. Wind power. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility, use and engineering aspects of wind power and windmills are discussed in these citations of Federally funded research reports. Abstracts primarily cover the use of wind power for electric power generation and wind turbine design and performance. General studies dealing with comparative analyses of wind power and alternative energy sources are included, as are energy storage devices which can be used in these systems. This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 112 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  8. Wind power. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility, use, and engineering aspects of wind power and windmills are discussed in these citations of Federally funded research reports. Abstracts primarily cover the use of wind power for electric power generation and wind turbine design and performance. General studies dealing with comparative analyses of wind power and alternative energy sources are included, as are energy storage devices which can be used in these systems. This updated bibliography contains 253 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  9. Lithium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Federally funded research on design, development, components, testing corrosion, electrolytes, sealing, hazards of lithium cells are presented. Batteries studied include lithium organic cells, lithium sulfur cells, lithium water air cells, and lithium nickel fluoride cells. Applications cover use in spacecraft, electric vehicles, off peak energy storage, and forklift trucks. This updated bibliography contains 151 citations, 57 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  10. Stochastic Dynamical Model of a Growing Citation Network Based on a Self-Exciting Point Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2012-08-01

    We put under experimental scrutiny the preferential attachment model that is commonly accepted as a generating mechanism of the scale-free complex networks. To this end we chose a citation network of physics papers and traced the citation history of 40 195 papers published in one year. Contrary to common belief, we find that the citation dynamics of the individual papers follows the superlinear preferential attachment, with the exponent α=1.25-1.3. Moreover, we show that the citation process cannot be described as a memoryless Markov chain since there is a substantial correlation between the present and recent citation rates of a paper. Based on our findings we construct a stochastic growth model of the citation network, perform numerical simulations based on this model and achieve an excellent agreement with the measured citation distributions.

  11. Stochastic dynamical model of a growing citation network based on a self-exciting point process.

    PubMed

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2012-08-31

    We put under experimental scrutiny the preferential attachment model that is commonly accepted as a generating mechanism of the scale-free complex networks. To this end we chose a citation network of physics papers and traced the citation history of 40,195 papers published in one year. Contrary to common belief, we find that the citation dynamics of the individual papers follows the superlinear preferential attachment, with the exponent α=1.25-1.3. Moreover, we show that the citation process cannot be described as a memoryless Markov chain since there is a substantial correlation between the present and recent citation rates of a paper. Based on our findings we construct a stochastic growth model of the citation network, perform numerical simulations based on this model and achieve an excellent agreement with the measured citation distributions. PMID:23002894

  12. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  13. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  14. Invoking Thomas Kuhn: What Citation Analysis Reveals about Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loving, Cathleen C.; Cobern, William W.

    This paper analyzes how Thomas Kuhn's writings are used by others, especially science education researchers. Previous research in citation analysis is used to frame questions related to who cites Kuhn, in what manner and why. Research questions first focus on the variety of disciplines invoking Kuhn and to what extent Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) is cited. The Web of Science database provides material from 1982 for this analysis. The science education literature is analyzed using back issues from 1985 of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching and Science Education. An article analysis reveals trends in terms of what Kuhnian ideas are most frequently invoked. Results indicate a wide array of disciplines from beekeeping to law cite Kuhn - especially generic citations to SSR. The science education journal analysis reveals pervasive use of the term paradigm, although use is quite varied. The two areas of research in science education most impacted by Kuhn appear to be conceptual change theory and constructivist epistemologies. Additional uses of Kuhn are discussed. The degree to which Kuhn is invoked in ways supporting the theoretical framework of citation analysis, whether his work is misappropriated, and the impact of Kuhn are discussed.

  15. From Excessive Journal Self-Cites to Citation Stacking: Analysis of Journal Self-Citation Kinetics in Search for Journals, Which Boost Their Scientometric Indicators.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations. We analyzed the journals published the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nature Publishing Group, and Editura Academiei Române. We found that although the kinetics of journal self-cites is generally faster compared to foreign cites, it shows some field-specific characteristics. Particularly in information science journals, the initial increase in a share of journal self-citations during post-publication year 0 was completely absent. Self-promoting journal self-citations of top-tier journals have rather indirect but negligible direct effects on bibliometric indicators, affecting just the immediacy index and marginally increasing the impact factor itself as long as the affected journals are well established in their fields. In contrast, other forms of journal self-citations and citation stacking may severely affect the impact factor, or other citation-based indices. We identified here a network consisting of three Romanian physics journals Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A, Romanian Journal of Physics, and Romanian Reports in Physics, which displayed low to moderate ratio of journal self-citations, but which multiplied recently their impact factors, and were mutually responsible for 55.9%, 64.7% and 63.3% of citations within the impact factor calculation window to the three journals

  16. From Excessive Journal Self-Cites to Citation Stacking: Analysis of Journal Self-Citation Kinetics in Search for Journals, Which Boost Their Scientometric Indicators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations. We analyzed the journals published the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nature Publishing Group, and Editura Academiei Române. We found that although the kinetics of journal self-cites is generally faster compared to foreign cites, it shows some field-specific characteristics. Particularly in information science journals, the initial increase in a share of journal self-citations during post-publication year 0 was completely absent. Self-promoting journal self-citations of top-tier journals have rather indirect but negligible direct effects on bibliometric indicators, affecting just the immediacy index and marginally increasing the impact factor itself as long as the affected journals are well established in their fields. In contrast, other forms of journal self-citations and citation stacking may severely affect the impact factor, or other citation-based indices. We identified here a network consisting of three Romanian physics journals Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A, Romanian Journal of Physics, and Romanian Reports in Physics, which displayed low to moderate ratio of journal self-citations, but which multiplied recently their impact factors, and were mutually responsible for 55.9%, 64.7% and 63.3% of citations within the impact factor calculation window to the three journals

  17. From Excessive Journal Self-Cites to Citation Stacking: Analysis of Journal Self-Citation Kinetics in Search for Journals, Which Boost Their Scientometric Indicators.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations. We analyzed the journals published the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nature Publishing Group, and Editura Academiei Române. We found that although the kinetics of journal self-cites is generally faster compared to foreign cites, it shows some field-specific characteristics. Particularly in information science journals, the initial increase in a share of journal self-citations during post-publication year 0 was completely absent. Self-promoting journal self-citations of top-tier journals have rather indirect but negligible direct effects on bibliometric indicators, affecting just the immediacy index and marginally increasing the impact factor itself as long as the affected journals are well established in their fields. In contrast, other forms of journal self-citations and citation stacking may severely affect the impact factor, or other citation-based indices. We identified here a network consisting of three Romanian physics journals Proceedings of the Romanian Academy, Series A, Romanian Journal of Physics, and Romanian Reports in Physics, which displayed low to moderate ratio of journal self-citations, but which multiplied recently their impact factors, and were mutually responsible for 55.9%, 64.7% and 63.3% of citations within the impact factor calculation window to the three journals

  18. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  19. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  20. Cyclosporine A enhances platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A; Barradas, M A; Mikhailidis, D P; Jeremy, J Y; Moorhead, J F; Sweny, P; Dandona, P

    1987-12-01

    In view of the reported increase in thromboembolic episodes following cyclosporine A (CyA) therapy, the effect of this drug on platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release was investigated. The addition of CyA, at therapeutic concentrations to platelet rich plasma from normal subjects in vitro was found to increase aggregation in response to adrenaline, collagen and ADP. Ingestion of CyA by healthy volunteers was also associated with enhanced platelet aggregation. The CyA-mediated enhancement of aggregation was further enhanced by the addition in vitro of therapeutic concentrations of heparin. Platelets from renal allograft recipients treated with CyA also showed hyperaggregability and increased thromboxane A2 release, which were most marked at "peak" plasma CyA concentration and less so at "trough" concentrations. Platelet hyperaggregability in renal allograft patients on long-term CyA therapy tended to revert towards normal following the replacement of CyA with azathioprine. Hypertensive patients with renal allografts on nifedipine therapy had normal platelet function and thromboxane release in spite of CyA therapy. These observations suggest that CyA-mediated platelet activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the thromboembolic phenomena associated with the use of this drug. The increased release of thromboxane A2 (a vasoconstrictor) may also play a role in mediating CyA-related nephrotoxicity.

  1. Sequence-dependent Internalization of Aggregating Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Couceiro, José R.; Gallardo, Rodrigo; De Smet, Frederik; De Baets, Greet; Baatsen, Pieter; Annaert, Wim; Roose, Kenny; Saelens, Xavier; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a number of aggregation disease polypeptides have been shown to spread from cell to cell, thereby displaying prionoid behavior. Studying aggregate internalization, however, is often hampered by the complex kinetics of the aggregation process, resulting in the concomitant uptake of aggregates of different sizes by competing mechanisms, which makes it difficult to isolate pathway-specific responses to aggregates. We designed synthetic aggregating peptides bearing different aggregation propensities with the aim of producing modes of uptake that are sufficiently distinct to differentially analyze the cellular response to internalization. We found that small acidic aggregates (≤500 nm in diameter) were taken up by nonspecific endocytosis as part of the fluid phase and traveled through the endosomal compartment to lysosomes. By contrast, bigger basic aggregates (>1 μm) were taken up through a mechanism dependent on cytoskeletal reorganization and membrane remodeling with the morphological hallmarks of phagocytosis. Importantly, the properties of these aggregates determined not only the mechanism of internalization but also the involvement of the proteostatic machinery (the assembly of interconnected networks that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation of proteins) in the process; whereas the internalization of small acidic aggregates is HSF1-independent, the uptake of larger basic aggregates was HSF1-dependent, requiring Hsp70. Our results show that the biophysical properties of aggregates determine both their mechanism of internalization and proteostatic response. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cellular response contribute to the particular role of specific aggregated proteins in disease. PMID:25391649

  2. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  3. An Aggregation Advisor for Ligand Discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, John J; Duan, Da; Torosyan, Hayarpi; Doak, Allison K; Ziebart, Kristin T; Sterling, Teague; Tumanian, Gurgen; Shoichet, Brian K

    2015-09-10

    Colloidal aggregation of organic molecules is the dominant mechanism for artifactual inhibition of proteins, and controls against it are widely deployed. Notwithstanding an increasingly detailed understanding of this phenomenon, a method to reliably predict aggregation has remained elusive. Correspondingly, active molecules that act via aggregation continue to be found in early discovery campaigns and remain common in the literature. Over the past decade, over 12 thousand aggregating organic molecules have been identified, potentially enabling a precedent-based approach to match known aggregators with new molecules that may be expected to aggregate and lead to artifacts. We investigate an approach that uses lipophilicity, affinity, and similarity to known aggregators to advise on the likelihood that a candidate compound is an aggregator. In prospective experimental testing, five of seven new molecules with Tanimoto coefficients (Tc's) between 0.95 and 0.99 to known aggregators aggregated at relevant concentrations. Ten of 19 with Tc's between 0.94 and 0.90 and three of seven with Tc's between 0.89 and 0.85 also aggregated. Another three of the predicted compounds aggregated at higher concentrations. This method finds that 61 827 or 5.1% of the ligands acting in the 0.1 to 10 μM range in the medicinal chemistry literature are at least 85% similar to a known aggregator with these physical properties and may aggregate at relevant concentrations. Intriguingly, only 0.73% of all drug-like commercially available compounds resemble the known aggregators, suggesting that colloidal aggregators are enriched in the literature. As a percentage of the literature, aggregator-like compounds have increased 9-fold since 1995, partly reflecting the advent of high-throughput and virtual screens against molecular targets. Emerging from this study is an aggregator advisor database and tool ( http://advisor.bkslab.org ), free to the community, that may help distinguish between

  4. Nebular history of amoeboid olivine aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, N.; Petaev, M. I.; Kimura, M.; Miyazaki, A.; Hiyagon, H.

    2009-05-01

    Minor element (Ca, Cr, and Mn) concentrations in amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from primitive chondrites were measured and compared with those predicted by equilibrium condensation in the solar nebula. CaO concentrations in forsterite are low, particularly in porous aggregates. A plausible explanation appears that an equilibrium Ca activity was not maintained during the olivine condensation. CaO and MnO in forsterite are negatively correlated, with CaO being higher in compact aggregates. This suggests that the compact aggregates formed either by a prolonged reheating of the porous aggregates or by condensation and aggregation of forsterite during a very slow cooling in the nebula.

  5. Implementation of data citations and persistent identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Robert B; SanthanaVannan, Suresh; McMurry, Benjamin F; Wright, Daine M; Kidder, James H

    2016-01-01

    A requirement of data archives is that data holdings can be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) since 1998 has issued data citations that have been accepted and used in peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, year, product title, and information to locate), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The approach used at the ORNL DAAC also allows for referring to subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial extent, and parameters used. Data citations allow readers to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. The ORNL DAAC uses a manual method to compile data citations and has developed a database that links research articles and their use of specific ORNL DAAC data products. Automation of the data citation compilation process, as is the case for articles, will enable data citations to become a more common practice. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set.

  6. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  7. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  8. Protein aggregation in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-05-26

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein-protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid-liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer-salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization.

  9. Developing Data Citations from Digital Object Identifier Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Nathan; Wanchoo, Lalit

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has been processing information for the registration of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for the last five years of which an automated system has been in operation for the last two years. The ESDIS DOI registration system has registered over 2000 DOIs with over 1000 DOIs held in reserve until all required information has been collected. By working towards the goal of assigning DOIs to the 8000+ data collections under its management, ESDIS has taken the first step towards facilitating the use of data citations with those products. Jeanne Behnke, ESDIS Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved the poster.

  10. Aggregation of Heterogeneously Charged Colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-28

    Patchy colloids are attractive as programmable building blocks for metamaterials. Inverse patchy colloids, in which a charged surface is decorated with patches of the opposite charge, are additionally noteworthy as models for heterogeneously charged biological materials such as proteins. We study the phases and aggregation behavior of a single charged patch in an oppositely charged colloid with a single-site model. This single-patch inverse patchy colloid model shows a large number of phases when varying patch size. For large patch sizes we find ferroelectric crystals, while small patch sizes produce cross-linked gels. Intermediate values produce monodisperse clusters and unusual worm structures that preserve finite ratios of area to volume. The polarization observed at large patch sizes is robust under extreme disorder in patch size and shape. We examine phase-temperature dependence and coexistence curves and find that large patch sizes produce polarized liquids, in contrast to mean-field predictions. Finally, we introduce small numbers of unpatched charged colloids. These can either suppress or encourage aggregation depending on their concentration and the size of the patches on the patched colloids. These effects can be exploited to control aggregation and to measure effective patch size.

  11. Tau Phosphorylation, Aggregation, and Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J.; Santa-María, I.; Pérez, M.; Hernández, F.; Moreno, F.

    2006-01-01

    Protein aggregation takes place in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is a controversy about the possible toxicity of these protein aggregates. In this review, this controversy is discussed, focussing on the tau aggregation that takes place in those disorders known as tauopathies. PMID:17047313

  12. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  13. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Essential oils: Toxicity and antimicrobial properties. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic properties of essential oils, and the use of essential oils in preventing development of microbes. These essential oils are derived from plants and other living organisms. Citations included cover the toxicological testing of essential oils, and the identification and testing of essential oils and their components for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. (Contains a minimum of 81 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Indoor air pollution: Health effects. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health hazards associated with indoor pollutants. Pollutants discussed include carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, formaldehydes, carbon monoxides, paints, pesticides, solvents, smoke, sealants, soils, adhesives, aerosols, dusts, cleaners, and moisture. The citations address effects such as simple discomfort, sick building syndrome, Legionnaires` disease, and cancer.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Copper containing solar cells: Production and efficiency. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning solar cells that contain copper and copper alloys. Production techniques used to improve solar cell efficiency are described. The citations also review thin film solar cells and examine the causes and rates of degradation in copper containing solar cells. Theoretical and experimental studies are included. (Contains a minimum of 232 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 197 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning lithium batteries and cells, and their application as power sources in electronic and electric devices. Selected patents are included for electrode, electrolyte, and sealing materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries. The citations also describe additives used for stabilization, and safety control methods.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Hydrogen storage materials. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the manufacture of hydrogen storage materials for use in batteries and elecrochemical cells. Citations present the design and production of high capacity, rechargeable metal hydride batteries and cells. Hydrogen-storing characteristics, charging and discharging performance, cost reduction, and battery life are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning lithium batteries and cells, and their application as power sources in electronic and electric devices. Selected patents are included for electrode, electrolyte, and sealing materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries. The citations also describe additives used for stabilization, and safety control methods. (Contains a minimum of 218 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 170 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the Patent bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning lithium batteries and cells, and their application as power sources in electronic and electric devices. Selected patents are included for electrode, electrolyte, and sealing materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries. The citations also describe additives used for stabilization, and safety control methods. (Contains a minimum of 232 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Cadmium exposure: Toxicity in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of cadmium on humans. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is discussed in depth. The effects of cadmium on visual-motor performance, community health, and child and infant development are presented. The citations discuss cadmium as a contributing factor in infertility and renal, kidney, and liver diseases. The effects of smoking on cadmium retention are mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Cadmium exposure: Toxicity in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of cadmium on humans. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is discussed in depth. The effects of cadmium on visual-motor performance, community health, and child and infant development are presented. The citations discuss cadmium as a contributing factor in infertility and renal, kidney, and liver diseases. The effects of smoking on cadmium retention are mentioned. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Cadmium exposure: Toxicity in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of cadmium on humans. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is discussed in depth. The effects of cadmium on visual-motor performance, community health, and child and infant development are presented. The citations discuss cadmium as a contributing factor in infertility and renal, kidney, and liver diseases. The effects of smoking on cadmium retention are mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Powder processing of oxides. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and applications of metal oxide ceramics and refractories. Citations consider cold isostatic pressing, compacting, densification, firing, grinding, hot isostatic pressing, laser beam processing, and sintering. Aluminum oxide, berylium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide are covered. Uses in insulation, propulsion systems, electric devices, and cylinder heads are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Powder processing of nitrides (excluding hot isostatic processing). (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and processing of metal nitride ceramics and refractories. Citations consider compacting and sintering processes. Phase transformations, crystallization, and devitrification processes are considered. Aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and titanium nitride are among materials discussed. The use of hot isostatic pressing is considered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Oil pollution sampling, detection, and analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the monitoring and analysis of pollution resulting from oil production and transport operations. Citations discuss pollution monitoring methods and devices, tracing and analytical techniques, remote sensing, and oil-laden sediment sampling. Marine pollution assessment and control, offshore oil industry discharges, pollution effects on wildlife, and international cooperation on pollution control are also examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Remote sensing of ocean pollution. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of remote sensing for the control and monitoring of ocean pollution. Citations discuss remote sensing techniques and instrumentations, including airborne and satellite-borne photography, microwave radiometry, laser fluorescence, and radar imagery. Topics include oil spills, marine ecosystems, land-based pollutants, ocean dumping, remote sensing capability and reliability, and pollution transport. (Contains a minimum of 109 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Biofiltration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of microbiological cultures in conjunction with filter media to remove organic, inorganic, and biological contaminants in water and wastewater. The citations include sand, carbon, plastic, rock, and wood filter media. Common applications for this process include municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, filtration of groundwater and landfill leachate, and water recirculation systems. (Contains a minimum of 110 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Cadmium exposure: Toxicity in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of cadmium on humans. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is discussed in depth. The effects of cadmium on visual-motor performance, community health, and child and infant development are presented. The citations discuss cadmium as a contributing factor in infertility and renal, kidney, and liver diseases. The effects of smoking on cadmium retention are mentioned. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Toxicity of arsenic in humans. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning arsenic toxicity to humans. Citations examine arsenic assays, neurological effects, epidemiological studies, arsenic levels in drinking water, carcinogenesis, excretion studies, and industrial sources of arsenic poisoning. The interaction of arsenic with other heavy metals such as cadmium and lead is also discussed. In vivo and in vitro studies are described. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Deforestation. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning deforestation. Citations include forest destruction methods; effects on plant and animal species, atmospheric chemistry, and gene pool reserves; deforestation analysis methods; and reforestation. Policy outlines to halt or reverse deforestation are described. Analysis of deforestation in the United States, Europe, and developing nations is discussed. (Contains a minimum of 177 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Volcanic eruptions: Atmospheric effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning gaseous and particulate contributions to the Earth's atmosphere from volcanoes, and the effects these substances have on the climate and the environment. Citations cover case studies of specific volcanic eruptions, detection and measurement of volcanic gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, environmental effects on the biota, long and short term climatological effects, paleoclimatology and volcanoes, atmospheric and transport modeling, and solar radiation inhibition. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Agroforestry: Conifers. (Latest citations from the Cab Abstracts database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of lands forested with conifers for crop and livestock production. Citations cover the grazing of livestock and the production of crops, including tomatoes, soybeans, lespedeza, wheat, rape, taro, cotton, cabbages, ginger, watermelons, and strawberries. Livestock discussed include cattle, sheep, geese, and horses. Economic analyses and economic models are presented. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Wetlands legislation and management. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federal and state legislation governing coastal and fresh water wetlands. Studies of regional regulations and management of specific sites are included. Topics such as reconciling environmental considerations with economic pressures and landowners' rights are covered. Wetlands restoration projects, conservation projects, and development plans are also presented. Many citations discuss wetlands management in relation to the Clean Water Act. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Powder processing of oxides. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and applications of metal oxide ceramics and refractories. Citations consider cold isostatic pressing, compacting, densification, firing, grinding, hot isostatic pressing, laser beam processing, and sintering. Aluminum oxide, berylium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide are covered. Uses in insulation, propulsion systems, electric devices, and cylinder heads are included. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Wastewater treatment using flocculation, coagulation, and flotation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of flocculation coagulation and flotation processes for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes. Citations examine technology requirements and limitations, activated sludge and anaerobic processes, chlorination, runoff pollution control, wastewater recycling and reuse, and materials recovery.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Petroleum engineering: Horizontal drilling. (Latest citations from the Georef database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning horizontal drilling technology for oil well production. Articles discuss techniques and problems associated with geologic formations such as chalk deposits, fractured rock systems, clastic rocks, sandstones, and karst areas. Citations address applications of horizontal drilling to petroleum exploration, extension of existing fields, enhanced oil recovery, targeted zone drilling, and geologically restrained petroleum reservoirs. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Oil pollution detection and sensing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques used to detect and sense oil spills and slicks. Citations discuss remote sensing, chemical and biological monitoring, satellite imagery, surveilllance, and models. Topics include pollution information systems, environmental monitoring, coastal ecology, and paths of pollutants. Pollution effects on fisheries, leak detectors, artificial oil pollution, remedial actions, and international cooperation are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Removal of heavy metals from effluent. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of lead, cadmium, mercury, and other heavy metals from waste waters. Precipitation, reverse osmosis, complexation, ultrafiltration, and adsorption are among the techniques described. The citations examine the efficiency, operational difficulties, cost effectiveness, and optimization of these methods. Prevention and remediation of metal pollution from electroplating, mining, smelting, and other industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Toxicity of cadmium exposure. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of exposure of cadmium on humans and the environment. Citations include laboratory toxicity studies and field studies of environments including freshwater, marine, and soil communities. Emphasis is placed on synergistic interactions of cadmium with other chemical elements in living systems and its metabolism and environmental fate. Carcinogenesis due to heavy metal exposure is addressed in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Gas turbines: Protective coatings for corrosion and erosion protection. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning protective coatings for gas turbines to minimize corrosion and erosion problems. Citations examine erosion of turbine blades resulting from the presence of fly ash and finely divided particles in the environment, and discuss the use of ceramic coatings for erosion protection. The formation of molten sodium sulfide on turbine blades and resulting hot corrosion are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Gas turbines: Protective coatings for corrosion and erosion protection. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning protective coatings for gas turbines to minimize corrosion and erosion problems. Citations examine erosion of turbine blades resulting from the presence of fly ash and finely divided particles in the environment, and discuss the use of ceramic coatings for erosion protection. The formation of molten sodium sulfide on turbine blades and resulting hot corrosion are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Gas turbines: Protective coatings for corrosion and erosion protection. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning protective coatings for gas turbines to minimize corrosion and erosion problems. Citations examine erosion of turbine blades resulting from the presence of fly ash and finely divided particles in the environment, and discuss the use of ceramic coatings for erosion protection. The formation of molten sodium sulfide on turbine blades and resulting hot corrosion are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Nonionizing electromagnetic radiation: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on biological materials. Citations discuss health effects and risks, cellular studies of EMR effects, and composite materials for control of EMR. The effects of electromagnetic irradiation on enzyme kinetics, tumors and bacterial cells, DNA and amino acids, brain cells, bone marrow, and human skin are examined. (Contains a minimum of 92 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Salmonella pollution in ground and surface waters. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of ground waters and surface waters by Salmonella bacteria. Articles discuss the occurence, survival, origin, and control of these bacteria in water sources including rivers, reservoirs, swimming pools, wastewater, aquifers, and ground water. Citations also address the use of Salmonella populations as biological indicators of pollution in aquatic systems. (Contains a minimum of 102 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Combustion control in boilers. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning utility and industrial boiler combustion control systems and methods. Topics include methods to meet emission standards, energy savings, and safety. The use of microcomputers, mathematical models, algorithms, artificial intelligence, and fuzzy logic is considered. Citations on boilers and furnaces fueled by coal, oil, gas, refuse, and multiple fuels are included. (Contains a minimum of 123 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Acrylic coatings: Anticorrosive and antifouling. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the compositions and applications of anticorrosion and antifouling acrylic coatings. Applications include appliances, house siding and windows, manufacturing equipment, marine structures and ships, reinforcing bars in concrete, sheet and construction steel, sheet and plastics for vehicles, and iron and steel pipes. Some of the citations report on effectiveness and durability of the coatings. Powder-coatings and water-based coatings are examined in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Chlorofluorocarbon uses. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and assessment of industrial applications of chlorofluorocarbons (freons). Citations discuss the uses of freons in refrigerants, fire extinguishers, cleaning and drying, aerosol propellants, blowing agents, solvents, artificial blood supplements, and purification of vaccinial viruses. Toxicity, carcinogencity, depletion of the ozone layer, and substitutions of freons are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Passive solar space heating and cooling. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the passive use of solar energy for space heating and cooling in buildings, houses, and homes. Citations discuss the design, performance, models, and economic analysis of heating and cooling systems. Topics include solar architecture, energy consumption analysis, energy conservation, and heat recovery. Also included are thermal comfort, quality of life, and housing for the elderly. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Biodegradation in marine ecosystems. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biochemical decomposition of naturally occurring organic matter in seawater. The citations examine the chemical and physical mechanisms of degredation, and factors that influence the decomposition rate, such as acidity, salinity, temperature and pressure. Other topics include technologies for biofouling control, microbially influenced corrosion, and eutrophication of marine environments. The biodegredation of chemical pollutants is discussed in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Recycling: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Also included are citations on recycling of waste paper fibers and rubber wastes for the production of new products. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Insulating coatings (excluding electrical insulation). (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions and methods of applying coatings that provide insulation. Thermal and acoustic insulation are stressed. Electrically insulating coatings are covered in another bibliography. Paint, films, asbestos, fiber, and plastic coatings are examined. Citations of selected patents are included. Insulation coatings designed for cement, pipes, walls, roofs, building interiors and exteriors, and vehicles are described. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. Topics include technology transfer in aquaculture, energy production, sea bed mining, pollution control, shoreline protection, and coastal engineering. Use of satellite technology in resource location, communication, and navigation is described. The citations also describe technology transfer to assist developing countries. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. One for the road: on the utility of citation data for identifying problem hotels.

    PubMed

    Wood, L J; McLean, S; Davidson, J; Montgomery, I M

    1995-01-01

    Drink drivers arrested in Tasmania are routinely asked by police where they had last been drinking, and these data were examined for 716 drivers arrested in Southern Tasmania during a 4-month period in 1992. Nearly half (43%) of arrested drink drivers cited individual hotels as the place where they had last been drinking. This enabled a citation score to be assigned to each of the 82 hotels in metropolitan Hobart. The distribution of citation scores was highly skewed, with eight hotels accounting for 45% of hotel citations, and two accounting for 20%. The hotels' citation scores were compared in relation to the rank order of their licence fees, since better measures of patronage proved unobtainable. Some hotels with small total alcohol sales did appear to have an unexpectedly large number of citations, suggesting less than responsible serving practices. Hoteliers' comments were sought on the interpretation of citation scores, and incorporated into a discussion of the limitations of the data in determining the extent of individual hotel responsibility for drink drivers. Important questions remaining include (1) what is the validity of citations made by drink drivers at the time of arrest; (2) what appropriate and quantifiable denominator can be used to adjust the number of citations to the level of patronage; and (3) what level of citations is too high and requires action?

  18. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations.

    PubMed

    Chorus, Caspar; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal's impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings. PMID:27560807

  19. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal’s impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings. PMID:27560807

  20. In search of applications of nursing theories: the Nursing Citation Index.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E D

    1989-01-01

    Cited author searches were conducted in Nursing Citation Index to determine its utility in locating clinical studies that apply the conceptual frameworks of Dorothea Orem, Callista Roy, Martha Rogers, Betty Neuman, and Dorothy Johnson. Fully 75 percent of the relevant papers would have been missed by a conventional subject/textword search in the MEDLINE or CINAHL databases. Had Nursing Citation Index not been available, only 22 percent of relevant papers could have been retrieved by cited author searches of Social Science Citation Index. In summary, Nursing Citation Index provides an important indexing link between nursing theory and nursing research. PMID:2655783