Science.gov

Sample records for aggregates solid state

  1. Molecular Structure of Aggregated Amyloid-β: Insights from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides aggregate to form polymorphic amyloid fibrils and a variety of intermediate assemblies, including oligomers and protofibrils, both in vitro and in human brain tissue. Since the beginning of the 21st century, considerable progress has been made to characterize the molecular structures of Aβ aggregates. Full molecular structural models based primarily on data from measurements using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) have been developed for several in vitro Aβ fibrils and one metastable protofibril. Partial structural characterization of other aggregation intermediates has been achieved. One full structural model for fibrils derived from brain tissue has also been reported. Future work is likely to focus on additional structures from brain tissue and on further clarification of nonfibrillar Aβ aggregates. PMID:27481836

  2. Solid-state NMR analysis of membrane proteins and protein aggregates by proton detected spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Comellas, Gemma; Sperling, Lindsay J.; Tang, Ming; Shah, Gautam J.; Brea, Elliott J.; Lemkau, Luisel R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged as an important tool for structural biology and chemistry, capable of solving atomic-resolution structures for proteins in membrane-bound and aggregated states. Proton detection methods have been recently realized under fast magic-angle spinning conditions, providing large sensitivity enhancements for efficient examination of uniformly labeled proteins. The first and often most challenging step of protein structure determination by NMR is the site-specific resonance assignment. Here we demonstrate resonance assignments based on high-sensitivity proton-detected three-dimensional experiments for samples of different physical states, including a fully-protonated small protein (GB1, 6 kDa), a deuterated microcrystalline protein (DsbA, 21 kDa), a membrane protein (DsbB, 20 kDa) prepared in a lipid environment, and the extended core of a fibrillar protein (α-synuclein, 14 kDa). In our implementation of these experiments, including CONH, CO(CA)NH, CANH, CA(CO)NH, CBCANH, and CBCA(CO)NH, dipolar-based polarization transfer methods have been chosen for optimal efficiency for relatively high protonation levels (full protonation or 100 % amide proton), fast magic-angle spinning conditions (40 kHz) and moderate proton decoupling power levels. Each H–N pair correlates exclusively to either intra- or inter-residue carbons, but not both, to maximize spectral resolution. Experiment time can be reduced by at least a factor of 10 by using proton detection in comparison to carbon detection. These high-sensitivity experiments are especially important for membrane proteins, which often have rather low expression yield. Proton-detection based experiments are expected to play an important role in accelerating protein structure elucidation by solid-state NMR with the improved sensitivity and resolution. PMID:22986689

  3. Molecular organization in the native state of woody tissue: Studies of tertiary structure using the Raman microprobe Solid State [sup 13]C NMR and biomimetic tertiary aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    A number of new approaches to the study of native wood tissue complementary to our earlier Raman spectroscopy including solid state [sup 13]C NMR and X-ray diffractometry. A wide variety of native cellulosic tissues were examined which led to the generation of biomimetic tertiary aggregates which simulate states of aggregation characteristic of cell walls. We have also explored charge transport characteristics of lignified tissue. Our Raman spectroscopic studies have advanced our understanding of key spectral features and confirmed the variability of the patterns of orientation of lignin reported earlier. A major effort was dedicated to assessing the contributions of electronic factors such as conjugation and the resonance Raman effect to enhancement of the spectra features associated with lignin. We have now established a solid foundation for spectral mapping of different regions in cell walls.

  4. Tuning of Aggregation Enhanced Emission and Solid State Emission from 1,8-Naphthalimide Derivatives: Nanoaggregates, Spectra, and DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Avinash; Mishra, Lallan

    2016-07-01

    Four new 1,8-naphthalimide based compounds, 4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid (LH), 4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid methyl ester (LMe), 4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-ylmethyl)-benzoyl chloride (LCl), and 4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid hydrazide (LN) are synthesized and characterized using spectral data and X-ray crystallography. They form nanoaggregates in aqueous-DMF solution and exhibited aggregation enhanced emission. The nanoaggregates are characterized using their scanning electron and atomic force microscopy images. The emission intensity follows the order as LH > LMe > LCl > LN. Their photophysical properties are recorded both in solution and in the solid-state and are correlated with the nature of benzoic acid derivatives owing to the combinatorial effect of π-π stacking and intermolecular and intramolecular interactions. The density functional theory calculations empower the understanding of their molecular and cumulative electronic behaviors. Antiparallel dimeric interactions in the solid-state extend a herringbone arrangement to LH and 2D channel and stair-like arrangement for LCl and LN, respectively. PMID:27294534

  5. Solid-State Synthesized Nanostructured Au Dendritic Aggregates Towards Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, A.; Ruffino, F.; D'Andrea, C.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Reitano, R.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    Micrometric Au structures, presenting a dendritic nano-structure, have been fabricated on a Si-based substrate. The fabrication method involves the deposition of a thin Au film on the substrate and a high-temperature annealing (1100°C) using fast heating and cooling ramps. The thermal process produces the growth, from the substrate, of Si micro-pillars whose top surfaces, covered by a crystalline Au layer, present a nanodendritic morphology. In addition to the micro-pillars, the sample surface presents a complex structural and chemical composition including Si3N4 regions due to the silicon-nitrogen intermixing during the heating stage. By studying the kinetic processes at the Au-Si interface during the thermal treatment, we describe the stages involved in the micro-pillars growth, in the dendritic morphology development, and in the Au atoms entrapment at the top of the dendritic surfaces. Finally, we present the analyses of the optical and surface enhanced Raman scattering properties of the Au dendritic aggregates. We show, in particular, that: (1) the Au dendrites aggregates act as effective scattering elements for the electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectral region; and (2) the higher surface area due to the branched dendritic structure is responsible for the improvement in the sensitivity of the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity.

  6. A lock-in-based method to examine the thermal signatures of magnetic nanoparticles in the liquid, solid and aggregated states.

    PubMed

    Monnier, C A; Lattuada, M; Burnand, D; Crippa, F; Martinez-Garcia, J C; Hirt, A M; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Bonmarin, M; Petri-Fink, A

    2016-07-21

    We propose a new methodology based on lock-in thermography to study and quantify the heating power of magnetic nanoparticles. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exposed to a modulated alternating magnetic field were used as model materials to demonstrate the potency of the system. Both quantitative and qualitative information on their respective heating power was extracted at high thermal resolutions under increasingly complex conditions, including nanoparticles in the liquid, solid and aggregated states. Compared to conventional techniques, this approach offers a fast, sensitive and non-intrusive alternative to investigate multiple and dilute specimens simultaneously, which is essential for optimizing and accelerating screening procedures and comparative studies. PMID:27341001

  7. 1,2,4-triazole-derived carbene complexes of gold: characterization, solid-state aggregation and ligand disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Bernhammer, Jan Christopher; Huynh, Han Vinh

    2015-09-14

    Ligand redistribution reactions are well documented for silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of the type [AgX(NHC)] (X = halido ligand), but only two reports have been described in the literature for gold analogues of the general formula [AuX(NHC)]. In both cases, the NHCs in question were exceptionally strong donors. To probe the dependence of ligand redistribution processes on NHC donor strength, a model study was conducted using a weakly donating 1,2,4-triazolin-5-ylidene (tazy) ligand and different halido coligands. For [AuX(tazy)] (X = Cl, Br, OAc, tazy = 4-benzyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolin-5-ylidene), no ligand redistribution was found, while a reversible disproportionation between [AuI(tazy)] in solution and [Au(tazy)2][AuI2] in the solid state was observed and studied by means of X-ray crystallography, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, as well as DFT calculations. PMID:25630764

  8. Non-oxo vanadium(IV) alkoxide chemistry: solid state structures, aggregation equilibria and thermochromic behaviour in solution.

    PubMed

    Westrup, Kátia C M; Gregório, Thaiane; Stinghen, Danilo; Reis, Dayane M; Hitchcock, Peter B; Ribeiro, Ronny R; Barison, Andersson; Back, Davi F; de Sá, Eduardo L; Nunes, Giovana G; Soares, Jaísa F

    2011-04-01

    The reversible thermochromic behaviour of homoleptic [{V(OR)(4)}(n)] complexes in solution [R = Pr(i) (product I), Bu(s) (B(s)), Nep (N) and Cy (C)] is accounted for the existence of an aggregation equilibrium involving dimeric and monomeric species in which vanadium(iv) is respectively five- and four-coordinate. Bulky R groups such as Bu(t) and Pe(t) (tert-pentoxide) prevent aggregation and therefore give rise to exclusively mononuclear compounds (B(t) and P(t), respectively) that are not thermochromic. The complexes and their temperature-dependent interconversion were characterised by single crystal X-ray diffractometry, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electronic, FTIR and EPR spectroscopies in a wide temperature range. Equilibrium constants and enthalpy and entropy changes for the dimerization reactions have been determined and compared with literature data. PMID:21347465

  9. Oligomeric baroeffect and gas aggregation states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The baroeffect is analyzed to include a gas that aggregates into higher-order polymers or oligomers. The resulting pressure change is found to vary independently of the molecular weight of the gas components and to depend only on the aggregation or oligomeric order of the gas. With increasing aggregation, diffusive slip velocities are found to increase. The calculations are extended to include general counterdiffusion of two distinct aggregation states (k-, j-mer) for the gas, and the pressure change is derived as a function that is independent of both molecular weight and the absolute aggregation. The only parameter that determines the baroeffect is the ratio of aggregated states, beta = k/j. For gases that reversibly aggregate, possible oscillatory behavior and complex dynamics for pressure are discussed. Gas aggregation may play a role for low-temperature crystal-growth conditions in which vapor concentrations of one (or more) species are high.

  10. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  12. Solid-state configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts developed for the solar power satellite (SPS) are described. In both concepts, the beam was centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed are results of solid state studies.

  13. Benzo[c,d]indole-Containing Aza-BODIPY Dyes: Asymmetrization-Induced Solid-State Emission and Aggregation-Induced Emission Enhancement as New Properties of a Well-Known Chromophore.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Soji; Murayama, Ai; Haruyama, Takuya; Iino, Taku; Mori, Shigeki; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2015-09-01

    A series of symmetric and asymmetric benzo[c,d]indole-containing aza boron dipyrromethene (aza-BODIPY) compounds was synthesized by a titanium tetrachloride-mediated Schiff-base formation reaction of commercially available benzo[c,d]indole-2(1H)-one and heteroaromatic amines. These aza-BODIPY analogues show different electronic structures from those of regular aza-BODIPYs, with hypsochromic shifts of the main absorption compared to their BODIPY counterparts. In addition to the intense fluorescence in solution, asymmetric compounds exhibited solid-state fluorescence due to significant contribution of the vibronic bands to both absorption and fluorescence as well as reduced fluorescence quenching in the aggregates. Finally, aggregation-induced emission enhancement, which is rare in BODIPY chromophores, was achieved by introducing a nonconjugated moiety into the core structure. PMID:26212774

  14. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  15. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  16. Excited-state dynamics of astaxanthin aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuciman, Marcel; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Keşan, Gürkan; Polívka, Tomáš

    2013-05-01

    Astaxanthin forms three types of aggregates in hydrated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In DMSO/water ratio of 1:1, a red-shifted J-aggregate with maximum at 570 nm is generated, while a ratio of 1:9 produces blue-shifted H-aggregates with peaks at 386 nm (H1) and 460 nm (H2). Monomeric astaxanthin in DMSO has an S1 lifetime of 5.3 ps, but a long-lived (33 ps) S∗ signal was also identified. Aggregation changes the S1 lifetimes to 17 ps (H1), 30 ps (H2), and 14 ps (J). Triplet state of astaxanthin, most likely generated via singlet homofission, was observed in H1 and H2 aggregates.

  17. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  18. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  19. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  20. Capturing a Reactive State of Amyloid Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Yoo, Brian; McElheny, Dan; Tay, William; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of redox-active copper ions with misfolded amyloid β (Aβ) is linked to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which has been associated with oxidative stress and neuronal damages in Alzheimer disease. Despite intensive studies, it is still not conclusive how the interaction of Cu+/Cu2+ with Aβ aggregates leads to ROS production even at the in vitro level. In this study, we examined the interaction between Cu+/Cu2+ and Aβ fibrils by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and other spectroscopic methods. Our photometric studies confirmed the production of ∼60 μm hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from a solution of 20 μm Cu2+ ions in complex with Aβ(1–40) in fibrils ([Cu2+]/[Aβ] = 0.4) within 2 h of incubation after addition of biological reducing agent ascorbate at the physiological concentration (∼1 mm). Furthermore, SSNMR 1H T1 measurements demonstrated that during ROS production the conversion of paramagnetic Cu2+ into diamagnetic Cu+ occurs while the reactive Cu+ ions remain bound to the amyloid fibrils. The results also suggest that O2 is required for rapid recycling of Cu+ bound to Aβ back to Cu2+, which allows for continuous production of H2O2. Both 13C and 15N SSNMR results show that Cu+ coordinates to Aβ(1–40) fibrils primarily through the side chain Nδ of both His-13 and His-14, suggesting major rearrangements from the Cu2+ coordination via Nϵ in the redox cycle. 13C SSNMR chemical shift analysis suggests that the overall Aβ conformations are largely unaffected by Cu+ binding. These results present crucial site-specific evidence of how the full-length Aβ in amyloid fibrils offers catalytic Cu+ centers. PMID:24523414

  1. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  2. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May - 31 July 1996. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, DARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  3. Solid State Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May-31 July 1995. The topics covered are: Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and analog device technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional Support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA and NIST.

  4. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  5. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhorter, Alan L.

    1995-02-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 May through 31 July 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  6. Solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, David C.

    1994-11-01

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 August through 31 October 1994. The topics covered are Electrooptical Devices, Quantum Electronics, Materials Research, Submicrometer Technology, High Speed Electronics, Microelectronics, and Analog Device Technology. Funding is provided primarily by the Air Force, with additional support provided by the Army, ARPA, Navy, BMDO, NASA, and NIST.

  7. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  8. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  9. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  10. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  13. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  14. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  15. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  16. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  17. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  18. Molecular organization in the native state of woody tissue: Studies of tertiary structure using the Raman microprobe solid state 13C NMR and biomimetic tertiary aggregates. Progress report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Atalla, R.H.

    1993-12-31

    We have previously shown that all relatively pure plant and bacterial celluloses are, in their native states, composites of two lattice forms, I{sub {alpha}} and I{sub {beta}}, and that the two forms possess molecular chains in the same conformations but with different hydrogen bonding patterns. In the current period we have demonstrated that in higher plant cell wall matrices, the hemicelluloses are likely to have a regulatory function during the aggregation of cellulose. Different hemicelluloses appear to influence the aggregation in different ways. We have also developed preliminary evidence indicating the hemicelluloses may have a protective function against the action of some cellulolytic enzymes. The specific accomplishments during the current period are detailed. Demonstration that hemicelluloses present during biogenesis can transform bacterial cellulose into a cellulose typical of higher plant celluloses, and that each hemicellulose has a different effect on the pattern of aggregation. Evidence is presented that the hemicelluloses may limit the action of certain cellulolytic enzymes, suggesting that their function may go beyond regulation to include passive resistance to cellulolytic pathogens. Enhancing the potential of the Raman microprobe technique for mapping variability of lignin in the cell wall by identifying the contribution of the different substructures of lignin to the intensity of the key band in the Raman spectrum of lignin. Mapping of the variability of lignin across two cell wall sections. The mappings have convoluted within them both composition and concentration, but they demonstrate the potential of the method and point to the improvements we are now making so as to distinguish between variability of concentration and variability of composition.

  19. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  20. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  1. Solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  2. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  3. Aggregation states of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, S. A.; Hazlett, T. L.; Brunet, J. E.; Jameson, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    The oligomeric state of fluorescein-labeled mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (L-malate NAD+ oxidoreductase; mMDH; EC 1.1.1.37), as a function of protein concentration, has been examined using steady-state and dynamic polarization methodologies. A "global" rotational relaxation time of 103 +/- 7 ns was found for micromolar concentrations of mMDH-fluorescein, which is consistent with the reported size and shape of mMDH. Dilution of the mMDH-fluorescein conjugates, prepared using a phosphate buffer protocol, to nanomolar concentrations had no significant effect on the rotational relaxation time of the adduct, indicating that the dimer-monomer dissociation constant for mMDH is below 10(-9) M. In contrast to reports in the literature suggesting a pH-dependent dissociation of mMDH, the oligomeric state of this mMDH-fluorescein preparation remained unchanged between pH 5.0 and 8.0. Application of hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 kilobars was ineffective in dissociating the mMDH dimer. However, the mMDH dimer was completely dissociated in 1.5 M guanidinium hydrochloride. Dilution of a mMDH-fluorescein conjugate, prepared using a Tris buffer protocol, did show dissociation, which can be attributed to aggregates present in these preparations. These results are considered in light of the disparities in the literature concerning the properties of the mMDH dimer-monomer equilibrium. PMID:9792106

  4. Preparing Synthetic Aβ in Different Aggregation States

    PubMed Central

    Stine, W. Blaine; Jungbauer, Lisa; Yu, Chunjiang; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines protocols that produce homogenous preparations of oligomeric and fibrillar amyloid -β peptide (Aβ). While there are several isoforms of this peptide, the 42 amino acid form is the focus because of its genetic and pathological link to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Past decades of AD research highlight the dependence of Aβ42 function on its structural assembly state. Biochemical, cellular and in vivo studies of Aβ42 usually begin with purified peptide obtained by chemical synthesis or recombinant expression. The initial steps to solubilize and prepare these purified dry peptide stocks are critical to controlling the structural assembly of Aβ. To develop homogenous Aβ42 assemblies, we initially monomerize the peptide, erasing any “structural history” that could seed aggregation, by using a strong solvent. It is this starting material that has allowed us to define and optimize conditions that consistently produce homogenous solutions of soluble oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ42 assemblies. These preparations have been developed and characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to identify the structurally discrete species formed by Aβ42 under specific solution conditions. These preparations have been used extensively to demonstrate a variety of functional differences between oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ42. We also present a protocol for fluorescently labeling oligomeric Aβ42 that does not affect structure, as measured by AFM, or function, as measured by a cellular uptake assay. These reagents are critical experimental tools that allow for defining specific structure/function connections. PMID:20967580

  5. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  6. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  8. Thermocapillary Flow and Aggregation of Bubbles on a Solid Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasumi, Hiroki; Solomentsev, Yuri E.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Anderson, John L.; Sides, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    were equated by using a wall hindrance parameter q: U = qu [1] which shows the velocity of bubble is proportional to the entraining velocity. The hindrance parameter q can experimentally be measured independently. q can also be calculated by solving the equations of motion for a bubble translating parallel to a solid wall. The experimental cell is cylindrical with an ID of 10 cm and consists of a 1 cm deep main cell filled with silicone oil and flanked by two thermal reservoirs. The upper thermal reservoir was heated and the lower thermal reservoir was cooled so that the bubbles aggregate. Two types of silicone oil (eta = 0.02 and 0.50 Pa s) were used. Two equal sized air bubbles were injected into the cell with a syringe. The center-to-center distance of bubbles was observed through a microscope. Bubble radius ranged from 0.40 mm to 0.65 mm and the temperature gradients along with the cell ranged from 1400 to 5000 K/m. The bubbles aggregated when heat flows from the wall to the fluid. The velocities of bubbles were in the range of 1 - 10 microns/s. The separation r decreased more quickly when the temperature gradient was higher, bubble size was larger, and the oil viscosity was lower. r decreased more rapidly as the bubbles approached each other. Dimensionless time was arbitrarily set to be zero when the dimensionless center-to-center distance between the bubbles was 4. All the bubble trajectories fall onto one line, especially in the range of dimensionless distance from 4 to 3. This means the relative movement of the bubble pair is proportional to the temperature gradient and bubble size and it is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. This result strongly suggests that the thermocapillary flow-based aggregation mechanism is correct. A value of q can be estimated by fitting the scaled data to Eq. [1]. A best fit value of q was obtained as q = 0.26 with a standard deviation of 0.03. Independent experimental results for q for a 0.5 mm radius bubble, give

  9. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  10. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  11. Aggregation states of phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Spinach PRK, extracted from either light- or dark-harvested tissue (LHT or DHT) in the presence of DTT, has a M{sub r} of 90 kDa and is fully active. Consistent with an earlier study extraction of LHT in the absence of DTT results in two forms of inactive PRK, M{sub r} 90 kDa (LMW) and M{sub r}> 550 kDa (HMW). If 400 mM (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} without DTT is included during extraction, the active LMW predominates implicating it as the major, functional form in vivo during periods of illumination. Either high- or low-sale extraction of DHT reveals mostly HMW; prolonged incubation of the high-salt extract causes disaggregation of LMW without activation. These data suggest that the dark form of PRK in vivo is an aggregate, formed by either self-association or by interactions with other proteins. Salt-induced disaggregation of HMW is inconsistent with intermolecular disulfides crosslinking the aggregated PRK; therefore, oxidation-induced conformational changes must promote aggregation.

  12. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  13. An overview of aggregate resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000 the USA produced about 2.7 billion tonnes of aggregate worth about $13.7 billion. Both crushed stone and sand and gravel are produced in virtually every State, although limited quantities are available in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Colorado Plateau , the Wyoming Basin and the Great Plains. Prices vary depending on the product and location. Most aggregates are transported by road, and minor amounts by railroad, barge on navigable inland channels, and through the Great Lake ports. Imports and exports of aggregates are very minor. A major amount f crushed stone aggregates is consumed by concrete aggregate. Recycled aggregates account for about 8% of total demand, although the amount recycled is thought to be increasing. Current issues facing the inductry unclude the differences in quality specifications between States, adjusting to the increasing concern for the impact of aggregate mining on the environmentm, health issues from particulate matter and crystalline silica, and the complexity of obtaining permits for extraction. Redcustion in the number od companies extracting aggregrates is likely to occur through acquisitions.

  14. XANES: Solid state mineral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Researchers in the field of mineral physics have become aware of new analytical techniques for studying the electronic structure of solids; one such technique is the X ray absorption fine structure (XFAS) method. In this technique the fine structure of the X ray K-edge, for example, can b e employed as a critical probe of t h e intricacies of a crystal structure (P. A. Lee, P. H. Citrin, P. Eisenberger, and B. M. Kincaid, Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 799, 1981).A similar, related technique, X ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), is a relatively unknown method of studying the electronic structure of solids. XANES is new, and due to its complex nature, data on all but very simple solids have not yet been applied rigorously. Among the first XANES results on minerals is the recent study reported by G. Knapp, B. Veal, H. Pan, and T. Klipper (Solid State Comm. 44, 1343, 1982) on perovskites, magnesiowustites, and other 3d oxides in the zircon and spinel groups. The interpretation of these results is still semiquantitative, being based on ground state and basic selection rule considerations. The results show, however, a strong correlation between near-edge spectra and crystal structure.

  15. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  16. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  17. Radiation sensitive solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A mechanically operable solid state switch suited for use in achieving a variable circuit-switching function is described. This switch is characterized by an annular array of photoresponsive switching devices, disposed in communication with an included source of radiation, and a plurality of interchangeable, mechanically operable interrupter disks. Each disk has a predetermined pattern of transparent and opaque portions. Operative displacement of each disk serves to make and break selected electrical circuits through the photo responsive devices of said array.

  18. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  19. Singular perturbation, state aggregation and nonlinear filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hijab, O.; Sastry, S.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to a state process evolving in R(n), whose motion is that of a pure jump process in R(n) in the 0(1) time scale, upon which is superimposed a continuous motion along the orbits of a gradient-like vector field g in R(n) in the 0(1/epsilon) time scale. The infinitesimal generator of the state process is, in other words, of the form L + (1/epsilon)g. It follows from the main results presented that the projected filters converge to the finite state Wonham filter corresponding to the problem of estimating the finite state process in the presence of additive white noise.

  20. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Tau Aggregation Propensity Engrained in Its Solution State.

    PubMed

    Eschmann, Neil A; Do, Thanh D; LaPointe, Nichole E; Shea, Joan-Emma; Feinstein, Stuart C; Bowers, Michael T; Han, Songi

    2015-11-12

    A peptide fragment of the human tau protein which stacks to form neat cross β-sheet fibrils, resembling that found in pathological aggregation, (273)GKVQIINKKLDL(284) (here "R2/WT"), was modified with a spin-label at the N-terminus. With the resulting peptide, R2/G273C-SL, we probed events at time scales spanning seconds to hours after aggregation is initiated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thioflavin T (THT) fluorescence, ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) to determine if deliberate changes to its conformational states and population in solution influence downstream propensity to form fibrillar aggregates. We find varying solution conditions by adding the osmolyte urea or TMAO, or simply using different buffers (acetate buffer, phosphate buffer, or water), produces significant differences in early monomer/dimer populations and conformations. Crucially, these characteristics of the peptide in solution state before aggregation is initiated dictate the fibril formation propensity after aggregation. We conclude the driving forces that accelerate aggregation, when heparin is added, do not override the subtle intra- or interprotein interactions induced by the initial solvent conditions. In other words, the balance of protein-protein vs protein-solvent interactions present in the initial solution conditions is a critical driving force for fibril formation. PMID:26484390

  2. Highly Efficient Far Red/Near-Infrared Solid Fluorophores: Aggregation-Induced Emission, Intramolecular Charge Transfer, Twisted Molecular Conformation, and Bioimaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongguang; Zheng, Yadan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Wang, Lijuan; Ma, Suqian; Han, Xiongqi; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The development of organic fluorophores with efficient solid-state emissions or aggregated-state emissions in the red to near-infrared region is still challenging. Reported herein are fluorophores having aggregation-induced emission ranging from the orange to far red/near-infrared (FR/NIR) region. The bioimaging performance of the designed fluorophore is shown to have potential as FR/NIR fluorescent probes for biological applications. PMID:26576818

  3. Solid State Memory Study Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.

    1994-01-01

    Existing and future solid state nonvolatile memory technologies are described and evaluated in this report. Solid state memory technologies can offer size, speed, power, weight, and ruggedness advantages over conventional moving media storage technologoies such as disk or tape. This technology list is a broad sampling of past, present, emerging, and future solid state memory technologies.

  4. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  5. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  6. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  7. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  8. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  9. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  10. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  11. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Solid state photochemistry of polycarbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Rembaum, A.; Moacanin, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quantum yield of photoFries rearrangement in a polycarbonate film has been analyzed as a function of temperature and humidity on the basis of previously reported (Koyler and Mann, 1977) experimental data. Results indicate that in the homogeneous amorphous phase, photoFries rearrangement is a concerted process proceeding either from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet, in which case it must be subject to considerable self quenching, or from a triplet, presumably the first triplet since the lifetime of higher triplets is expected to be very short in the solid phase. If the parent excited state is the first triplet, chain scission is possibly an independent process, probably occurring from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet. Evidence of chain scission on photodegradation in the solid state includes loss of C-O and C-C bond intensities revealed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra, gel permeation chromotography elution profiles of degraded film samples dissolved in CHCl3, and a decrease in tensile strength and T sub g as photodegradation proceeds. Chain scission is apparently inhibited as photoFries products accumulate.

  13. Solid state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie K.; Murray, James T.; Austin, William L.; Powell, Richard C.

    1998-07-01

    Lite Cycles has developed a new type of eye-safe, range-gated, lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid-state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level infrared images with gains greater than 106 with the addition of only quantum-limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30 - 100 cm for nanosecond pulses and less than 5 mm if picosecond pulses are used. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCDs. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCDs. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR, and can be used for real-time optical signal processing. Applications for military use include eye-safe imaging lidars that can be used for autonomous vehicle identification and targeting.

  14. Solid-state array cameras.

    PubMed

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  15. Experimental investigation and population balance equation modeling of solid lipid nanoparticle aggregation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yihui; Corona, Alessandro; Henson, Michael A

    2012-05-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have applications in drug delivery and the encapsulation of bioactive, lipophilic compounds. However, SLNs tend to aggregate when stored due to the lipid crystals undergoing a polymorphic transformation from the unstable α form to the stable β form. We developed a population balance equation (PBE) model for prediction of average polymorph content and aggregate size distribution to better understand this undesirable behavior. Experiments with SLNs stored at room temperature showed that polymorphic transformation was the rate determining step for our system, SLNs with smaller initial size distributions aggregated more rapidly, and aggregates contained particles with both α and β crystals. Using parameter values estimated from our data, the PBE model was able to capture the bimodal nature of aggregate size distributions, the α-to-β polymorph ratio, and the faster aggregation dynamics of SLNs with smaller initial size distributions. However, the model was unable to adequately capture the fast disappearance rate of primary particles, the broad size distributions of formed aggregates, and the significant α content of aggregating particles. These discrepancies suggest that a PBE model which accounts for polymorph content as an internal variable along with aggregate size may be required to better reproduce experimental observations. PMID:22405582

  16. Charge state of arginine as an additive on heat-induced protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takumi; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    Arginine (Arg) is one of the most versatile solvent additives, such as suppressing protein aggregation, increasing solubility of small aromatic compounds and peptides, and preventing protein binding on solid surfaces. In this study, we investigated the role of the charged state of α-amino group of Arg for the prevention of protein aggregation. As expected, Arg effectively suppressed thermal aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme at neutral pH, whereas the suppression effect diminished at and above pH 9.0, which corresponds to the pK of Arg's α-amino group. The pH dependence of Arg as an aggregation suppressor was confirmed by additional experiments with neutral proteins, bovine hemoglobin and bovine γ-globulin. Interestingly, N-acetylated arginine, which lacks the α-amino group, showed a weaker suppressive effect on protein aggregation than Arg, even at neutral pH. These results indicate that both positively charged α-amino group and guanidinium group play important roles in suppressing heat-induced protein aggregation by Arg. The elucidated limitation of Arg at alkaline pH provides new insight in the application as well as the mechanism of Arg as a solvent additive. PMID:26987431

  17. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  18. Inexpensive solid state radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity is of interest both within the geosciences community and to groups such as the emergency services who need to quickly assess the safety of an environment. Here we present a light weight and inexpensive detector based on solid state technology, that can be easily worn or carried, or used disposably. It responds to gamma radiation and other radioactive particles such as those from space weather and cosmic rays. Unlike traditional technology such as the Geiger counter, the detector can operate at low voltage without the need for step-up circuitry, and it can also distinguish different particle energies. It is suitable for monitoring background radioactivity from cosmic rays and radon as well as responding to higher radioactivity levels. We anticipate that the device will have a broad range of end users, from terrestrial to space applications.

  19. A compact solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Bhabana; Park, Eric D.; Stebbins, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    A compact laser producing green wavelength with a volume of < 8 cm3 and a weight of < 80 g finds its application in many fields from military to space based. We built a small solid-state laser that produces 1 mJ of energy per-pulse at a 1 - 20 Hz repetition rate. The laser is passively Q-switched using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber to generate pulses <10 ns. A nonlinear crystal doubles the frequency to generate light at 523 nm. The laser is side-pumped by a single bar diode laser using a unique pump cavity to homogenize the pump intensity in the laser rod. The laser components can easily be modified to change the output wavelength from UV to mid IR.

  20. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  1. Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials for supramolecular encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Bruns, Carson J.; McGonigal, Paul R.; Pettman, Roger B.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-04-01

    Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials are ideal for applications in security printing technologies. A document possesses a high level of security if its encrypted information can be authenticated without being decoded, while also being resistant to counterfeiting. Herein, we describe a heterorotaxane with tunable solid-state fluorescent emissions enabled through reversible manipulation of its aggregation by supramolecular encapsulation. The dynamic nature of this fluorescent material is based on a complex set of equilibria, whose fluorescence output depends non-linearly on the chemical inputs and the composition of the paper. By applying this system in fluorescent security inks, the information encoded in polychromic images can be protected in such a way that it is close to impossible to reverse engineer, as well as being easy to verify. This system constitutes a unique application of responsive complex equilibria in the form of a cryptographic algorithm that protects valuable information printed using tunable solid-state fluorescent materials.

  2. Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials for supramolecular encryption

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Bruns, Carson J.; McGonigal, Paul R.; Pettman, Roger B.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Tunable solid-state fluorescent materials are ideal for applications in security printing technologies. A document possesses a high level of security if its encrypted information can be authenticated without being decoded, while also being resistant to counterfeiting. Herein, we describe a heterorotaxane with tunable solid-state fluorescent emissions enabled through reversible manipulation of its aggregation by supramolecular encapsulation. The dynamic nature of this fluorescent material is based on a complex set of equilibria, whose fluorescence output depends non-linearly on the chemical inputs and the composition of the paper. By applying this system in fluorescent security inks, the information encoded in polychromic images can be protected in such a way that it is close to impossible to reverse engineer, as well as being easy to verify. This system constitutes a unique application of responsive complex equilibria in the form of a cryptographic algorithm that protects valuable information printed using tunable solid-state fluorescent materials. PMID:25901677

  3. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  4. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  5. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  6. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces..., solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions..., liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace that has conducted a...

  7. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  8. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  9. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  10. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  11. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  12. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  13. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  14. High temperature solid state storage cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  15. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  16. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  17. Aggregation of cationic p-phenylene ethynylenes on Laponite clay in aqueous dispersions and solid films.

    PubMed

    Hill, Eric H; Zhang, Yue; Whitten, David G

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies of cationic p-phenylene ethynylenes oligomers (OPEs) have revealed strong antimicrobial activity and strong photophysical changes upon their aggregation that can be utilized for sensing various chemicals and biomolecules. In this article, the adsorption of two types of OPEs with different placement of charged groups onto the synthetic clay Laponite is studied, and the changes to photophysical properties, photochemical degradation efficiency, and biocidal effectiveness are determined. In addition to solution-phase studies, the material and biocidal properties of solid films formed from the OPE-Laponite complex were assessed. The results of this study suggest that OPEs aggregate on Laponite and induce aggregation between Laponite discs, leading to drastic changes to their photophysical and material properties. Solid OPE-Laponite films were shown to have fair resistance to dissolution in aqueous solution compared with Laponite alone, and adhesion and minor killing of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria on the surface was observed. The results of this study give insight into controlling the colloidal phases of Laponite via molecular aggregation, may be useful for development of sensors and biocides involving Laponite as a scaffold, and lead to further control over slow-release and surface interactions of biocidal materials. PMID:25554086

  18. Solid-state NMR and Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The native environment for a membrane protein is a phospholipid bilayer. Because the protein is immobilized on NMR timescales by the interactions within a bilayer membrane, solid-state NMR methods are essential to obtain high-resolution spectra. Approaches have been developed for both unoriented and oriented samples, however, they all rest on the foundation of the most fundamental aspects solid-state NMR, and the chemical shift and homo- and hetero-nuclear dipole-dipole interactions. Solid-state NMR has advanced sufficiently to enable the structures of membrane proteins to be determined under near-native conditions in phospholipid bilayers. PMID:25681966

  19. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  20. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support

  1. Solid-state light sources getting smart.

    PubMed

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2005-05-27

    More than a century after the introduction of incandescent lighting and half a century after the introduction of fluorescent lighting, solid-state light sources are revolutionizing an increasing number of applications. Whereas the efficiency of conventional incandescent and fluorescent lights is limited by fundamental factors that cannot be overcome, the efficiency of solid-state sources is limited only by human creativity and imagination. The high efficiency of solid-state sources already provides energy savings and environmental benefits in a number of applications. However, solid-state sources also offer controllability of their spectral power distribution, spatial distribution, color temperature, temporal modulation, and polarization properties. Such "smart" light sources can adjust to specific environments and requirements, a property that could result in tremendous benefits in lighting, automobiles, transportation, communication, imaging, agriculture, and medicine. PMID:15919985

  2. Concepts for future solid state lighting solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Malm, N.; Wirth, R.; Illek, S.; Steegmüller, U.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution the relevant technological aspects of LED-based lamps for solid state lighting are discussed. In addition to general energy efficiency considerations improvements in LED chip technology and white light generation are presented.

  3. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  4. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  5. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J

    2016-03-16

    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer. PMID:26780122

  6. Protein adsorption, desorption, and aggregation mediated by solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Perevozchikova, Tatiana; Nanda, Hirsh; Nesta, Douglas P; Roberts, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    Adsorption of proteins to solid-fluid interfaces is often empirically found to promote formation of soluble aggregates and larger, subvisible, and visible particles, but key stages in this process are often difficult to probe directly. Aggregation mediated by adsorption to water-silicon oxide (SiOx) interfaces, akin to hydrated glass surfaces, was characterized as a function of pH and ionic strength for alpha-chymotrypsinogen (aCgn) and for a monoclonal antibody (IgG1). A flow cell permitted neutron reflectivity for protein layers adsorbed to clean SiOx surfaces, as well as after successive "rinse" steps. Aggregates recovered in solution after gently "rinsing" the surface were characterized by neutron scattering, microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. IgG1 molecules oriented primarily "flat" against the SiOx surface, with the primary protein layer desorbed to a minimal extent, whereas a diffuse overlayer was easily rinsed off. aCgn molecules were resistant to desorption when they appeared to be unfolded at the interface, but were otherwise easily removed. For cases where strong binding occurred, protein that did desorb was a mixture of monomer and small amounts of HMW aggregates (for aCgn) or subvisible particles (for IgG1). Changes in adsorption and/or unfolding with pH indicated that electrostatic interactions were important in all cases. PMID:25846460

  7. Self-protecting solid state isolated switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Gooder, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state switch has following capabilities: (1) Hybrid or IC from compatible with direct mounting on solar array substrate; (2) Continuous signal is not required to hold it in either on or off state; (3) Separate signal lines for on and off control; (4) Electrically isolated from input signals; and (5) Current surges will not cause switch failure.

  8. Protect motors with solid-state overloads

    SciTech Connect

    Forsell, K.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Magnetic motor starters that rely on bimetal or melting alloy overload protection do not provide the flexibility of solid-state overload technology. The point is best illustrated by the number of different overload relay trip curves that describe tripping time as a function of motor current. Solid-state overloads have a trip curve for a cold start with three-phase current, and a family of trip curves for three-phase conditions where the overload and motor are already warm. An overload relay can also be described by its single-phase trip-time curves for cold and warm initial states. All thermal overloads have single phase trip curves that are similar in shape to their three-phase curves. Slower response to phase loss for motor loads less than locked rotor is inherent in thermal overload relay design. The paper describes the power source problem; single-phase problems; thermal overloads versus solid state; and thermal NEMA overload.

  9. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  10. Can one ``Hear'' the aggregation state of a granular system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruelle, Christof A.; Sánchez, Almudena García

    2013-06-01

    If an ensemble of macroscopic particles is mechanically agitated the constant energy input is dissipated into the system by multiple inelastic collisions. As a result, the granular material can exhibit, depending on the magnitude of agitation, several physical states - like a gaseous phase for high energy input or a condensed state for low agitation. Here we introduce a new method for quantifying the acoustical response of the granular system. Our experimental system consists of a monodisperse packing of glass beads with a free upper surface, which is confined inside a cylindrical container. An electro-mechanical shaker exerts a sinusoidal vertical vibration at normalized accelerations well above the fluidization threshold for a monolayer of particles. By increasing the number of beads the granular gas suddenly collapses if a critical threshold is exceeded. The transition can be detected easily with a microphone connected to the soundcard of a PC. From the recorded audio track a FFT is calculated in real-time. Depending on either the number of particles at a fixed acceleration or the amount of energy input for a given number of particles, the resulting rattling noise exhibits a power spectrum with either the dominating (shaker) frequency plus higher harmonics for a granular crystal or a high-frequency broad-band noise for a granular gas, respectively. Our new method demonstrates that it is possible to quantify analytically the subjective audio impressions of a careful listener and thus to distinguish easily between different aggregation states of an excited granular system.

  11. Modular nonvolatile solid state recorder (MONSSTR) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.; Small, Martin B.; Beams, Tom

    2001-12-01

    Solid state recorders have begun replacing traditional tape recorders in fulfilling the requirement to record images on airborne platforms. With the advances in electro-optical, IR, SAR, Multi and Hyper-spectral sensors and video recording requirements, solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice. Solid state recorders provide the additional storage, higher sustained bandwidth, less power, less weight and smaller footprint to meet the current and future recording requirements. CALCULEX, Inc., manufactures a non-volatile flash memory solid state recorder called the MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used to record images from many different digital sensors on high performance aircraft such as the RF- 4, F-16 and the Royal Air Force Tornado. MONSSTR, with its internal multiplexer, is also used to record instrumentation data. This includes multiple streams of PCM and multiple channels of 1553 data. Instrumentation data is being recorded by MONSSTR systems in a range of platforms including F-22, F-15, F-16, Comanche Helicopter and US Navy torpedos. MONSSTR can also be used as a cockpit video recorder. This paper will provide an update of the MONSSTR.

  12. Solid state lithium-iodine primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sekido, S.; Ninomiya, Y.; Sotomura, T.

    1984-01-10

    A solid-state primary cell comprising a lithium anode, an iodine cathode containing a charge transfer complex and a solid lithium iodide electrolyte doped with a 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide. The anode surface can be coated with LiOH or Li/sub 3/N. The iodine cathode comprises a complex of iodine and 1-normal-alkyl-pyridinium iodide and preferably contains titanium dioxide powder, alumina gel powder or silica gel powder admixed with the complex.

  13. Isothermal Equation Of State For Compressed Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Same equation with three adjustable parameters applies to different materials. Improved equation of state describes pressure on solid as function of relative volume at constant temperature. Even though types of interatomic interactions differ from one substance to another, form of equation determined primarily by overlap of electron wave functions during compression. Consequently, equation universal in sense it applies to variety of substances, including ionic, metallic, covalent, and rare-gas solids. Only three parameters needed to describe equation for given material.

  14. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  15. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  16. Solid state physics of transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Terminello, L J; Allen, P G; Shuh, D K; Terry, J

    2000-08-22

    The experimental validation of first principals calculations of plutonium and its alloys is an important part of LLNL's science-based stockpile stewardship mission. This project has addressed this issue in the following ways. We have measured the electronic structure of U, Pu, and their alloys using valence band photoemission (PES), Soft X-Ray fluorescence (SXF), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). In the long term, this will allow a direct comparison between calculated and measured density of electronic states, identifying the degree of f-electron localization in the alloys, and thus, permit selection of the best modeling code.

  17. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  18. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  19. Is solid state the future of lighting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid pace of solid state technological development over the past four decades has resulted in almost universal acceptance of the phrase "Moore's Law," whether it is used accurately to refer to the exponential increase in computer processor power or to refer to some more amorphous scope of rapid change. More recent breakthroughs in LED science and engineering have precipitated a vigorous discussion of the depth and pace with which solid state light sources will penetrate the $50-billion world-wide lighting market. This discussion has not two perspectives but many, and each perspective can provide valuable insight into key issues that will determine the role that solid state technology will play in the lighting market of 2020 and beyond.

  20. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  1. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  2. Density functional theory in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Hasnip, Philip J.; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I. J.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Clark, Stewart J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure–property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program. PMID:24516184

  3. Solid State Lasers from an Efficiency Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2007-01-01

    Solid state lasers have remained a vibrant area of research because several major innovations expanded their capability. Major innovations are presented with emphasis focused on the laser efficiency. A product of efficiencies approach is developed and applied to describe laser performance. Efficiency factors are presented in closed form where practical and energy transfer effects are included where needed. In turn, efficiency factors are used to estimate threshold and slope efficiency, allowing a facile estimate of performance. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical data are provided for common solid state laser materials.

  4. Comparative performance of various smart aggregates during strength gain and damage states of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothi Saravanan, T.; Balamonica, K.; Bharathi Priya, C.; Likhith Reddy, A.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-01

    Information regarding the early strength gain of fresh concrete determines the time for the removal of form work and the transfer of pre-stressing forces for pre-stressed concrete. An ultrasonic based non-destructive evaluation of early strength gain may not work for concrete in fluid and semi-solid phases. A possible alternative is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate embedded in concrete, which can evaluate the micro-structural and rheological properties right from the fluid phase. A set of five smart aggregates embedded in a concrete cube were investigated for their suitability to evaluate electromechanical impedance (EMI) signatures. Cubes were loaded to failure and the EMI during progressive strength loss under compressive loads was studied. To show the generalized applicability of this, experimental results for the performance of typical smart aggregates on a larger specimen, namely a concrete beam, are also discussed. Different statistical metrics were examined computationally on a three peak admittance curve with a parametric variation of stiffness, damping and simple scaling. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), mean absolute percentage deviation (MAPD), cross correlation (CC) and modified cross correlation (MCC) were investigated, in addition to the rate of change of the RMSD. Variations between the reference and modified states were studied. Both stiffness and mass gains occur for the smart aggregates, resulting in an increase or decrease of frequency and amplitude peaks due to progressive C-S-H gel formation. The trend of increasing stiffness and the consequent rightward shift of the resonant peaks and decrease of damping, with the consequent upward shift of amplitudes that happens during curing and strength gain, was observed to be reversed during the application of damaging loads.

  5. Immobilized humic substances and immobilized aggregates of humic substances as sorbent for solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Erny, Guillaume L; Gonçalves, Bruna M; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2013-09-01

    In this work, humic substances (HS) immobilized, as a thin layer or as aggregates, on silica gel were tested as material for solid phase extraction. Some triazines (simazine, atrazine, therbutylazine, atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy, ametryn and terbutryn), have been selected as test analytes due to their environmental importance and to span a large range of solubility and octanol/water partition coefficient (logP). The sorbent was obtained immobilizing a thin layer of HS via physisorption on a pre-coated silica gel with a cationic polymer (polybrene). While the sorbent could be used as it is, it was demonstrated that additional HS could be immobilized, via weak interactions, to form stable humic aggregates. However, while a higher quantity of HS could be immobilized, no significant differences were observed in the sorption parameters. This sorbent have been tested for solid phase extraction to concentrate triazines from aqueous matrixes. The sorbent demonstrated performances equivalent to commercial alternatives as a concentration factor between 50 and 200, depending on the type of triazines, was obtained. Moreover the low cost and the high flow rate of sample through the column allowed using high quantity of sorbent. The analytical procedure was tested with different matrixes including tap water, river water and estuarine water. PMID:23916952

  6. Entanglement and Squeezing in Solid State Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Yihuo; Gui Lulong

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the dynamics of a system consisting of a Cooper-pair box and two superconducting transmission line resonators. There exist both linear and nonlinear interactions in such a system. We show that single-photon entanglement state can be generated in a simple way in the linear interaction regime. In nonlinear interaction regime, we derive the Hamiltonian of degenerate three-wave mixing and propose a scheme for generating squeezed state of microwave using the three-wave mixing in solid state circuits. In the following, we design a system for generating squeezed states of nanamechanical resonator.

  7. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Dieckman, Stephen L.; Ellingson, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  8. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal–semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto–Peltier and Nernst–Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  9. Technique for improving solid state mosaic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saboe, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    Method identifies and corrects mosaic image faults in solid state visual displays and opto-electronic presentation systems. Composite video signals containing faults due to defective sensing elements are corrected by a memory unit that contains the stored fault pattern and supplies the appropriate fault word to the blanking circuit.

  10. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  11. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  12. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized. PMID:27519021

  13. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An accessory for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  14. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2005-01-01

    Packing efficiency and crystal density can be calculated from basic geometric principles employing the Pythagorean theorem, if the unit-cell structure is known. The procedures illustrated have applicability in courses such as general chemistry, intermediate and advanced inorganic, materials science, and solid-state physics.

  15. Solid state lasers - The next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-10-01

    Major advances in solid state laser technology historically have been preceded by advances in pumping technology. The helical lamp used to pump the early ruby lasers was superseded by the linear flashlamp now used to pump Nd:YAG lasers. The next advance in pumping technology is the diode laser array. The improvements in power and efficiency of the diode laser coupled with the fortuitous spectral overlap of the diode laser emission wavelength with the Nd ion absorption bands near 805 nm have led to a revolution in solid state laser capability. Progress has been rapid with new ions and wavelengths reported in the near infrared from 946 nm to 2010 nm. Frequency extension via nonlinear interactions has led to green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Linewidths of less than 10 kHz have been demonstrated. Overall electrical efficiencies of greater than 10% have been achieved. As diode laser sources decrease in cost, high average power diode laser pumped solid state laser sources will become available. Power levels exceeding 1 kW appear possible. Potential applications of these compact all solid state laser sources to spectroscopy, quantum noise limited sensors, astronomy, and materials processing will be discussed.

  16. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  17. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  18. Light activated solid-state opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Petr, R.A.; Kachen, G.I.; Reilly, J.P.; Schaefer, R.B. ); Heyse, M.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Light-activated solid-state opening switches are shown to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings needed to develop compact inductive power systems.

  19. Light activated solid-state opening switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, R. A.; Kachen, G. I.; Reilly, J. P.; Schaefer, R. B.; Heyse, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The paper shows light-activated solid-state opening switches to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings required to develop compact inductive power systems.

  20. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOEpatents

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  1. Solid-state dimer method for calculating solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Penghao; Henkelman, Graeme; Sheppard, Daniel; Rogal, Jutta

    2014-05-07

    The dimer method is a minimum mode following algorithm for finding saddle points on a potential energy surface of atomic systems. Here, the dimer method is extended to include the cell degrees of freedom for periodic solid-state systems. Using this method, reaction pathways of solid-solid phase transitions can be determined without having to specify the final state structure or reaction mechanism. Example calculations include concerted phase transitions between CdSe polymorphs and a nucleation and growth mechanism for the A15 to BCC transition in Mo.

  2. Solid State Processing of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Jurgen

    1998-03-01

    Glasses are generally produced from the undercooled liquid state by rapid quenching methods or quasi-statically at slow cooling by the effective control of heterogeneous nucleation. For metallic systems, the latter method has recently led to the development of multicomponent metallic glasses with large glass forming ability and a wide supercooled liquid region before crystallization. Large-scale bulk samples can now be produced by conventional casting techniques. These materials exhibit advanced engineering properties such as excellent wear behavior, almost theoretical strength and good corrosion resistance, and are highly processable at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. As an alternative to quenching or casting techniques, glass formation can also be achieved by solid state processing without passing through the liquid state. Therefore, mechanical alloying as a special form of solid state reaction technique and subsequent consolidation of the resulting powders above the glass transition temperature can be used to prepare bulk metallic glasses through the powder metallurgy route. This paper surveys results of studies regarding the factors governing glass formation by solid state processing. The thermal stability of mechanically alloyed powders is compared with data for melt quenched samples, showing that basically the same glassy state can be reached approaching it from the liquid or the solid state. Special emphasis is given to the glass forming ranges achievable by the different techniques, and to preparation of nanostructured composite materials based on glassy alloys. The results are discussed with respect to the influence of processing conditions, impurity effects and heterogeneous nucleation of crystalline phases. Examples for consolidated bulk samples from mechanically alloyed powders are presented and compared with data for cast bulk specimens.

  3. Highly repeatable all-solid-state polarization-state generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X. Steve; Yan, Lianshan; Shi, Yongqiang

    2005-06-01

    We report an all solid-state polarization-state generator that uses magneto-optic polarization rotators. The device can generate either five or six distinctive polarization states uniformly across a Poincaré sphere with repeatability better than 0.1°. It is ideal for polarization analysis, swept-wavelength measurement, and monitoring of polarization-related parameters and signal-to-noise ratios of optical networks.

  4. Evolution of a solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R. M.; Parker, J. M.; Allen, K. L.; Allmon, R. W.; Alviso, K. F.; Barty, C. P. J.; Bhachu, B. S.; Boley, C. D.; Burnham, A. K.; Combs, R. L.; Cutter, K. P.; Fochs, S. N.; Gonzales, S. A.; Hurd, R. L.; LaFortune, K. N.; Manning, W. J.; McClelland, M. A.; Merrill, R. D.; Molina, L.; Parks, C. W.; Pax, P. H.; Posey, A. S.; Rotter, M. D.; Roy, B. M.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Soules, T. F.; Webb, D. E.

    2007-04-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been developing compact solid state lasers since the 1990's. One of the first lasers to be developed utilized flashlamp pumped architecture and neodymium glass as the laser gain media. In the early 2000's, a diode pumped version of the original flashlamp pumped laser was designed and built, responding to the requirements that a laser system for the military be compact in both size and weight while creating significant power (~100 kW) for the missions envisioned. This paper will discuss the evolution of solid state lasers at LLNL and provide a glimpse into the types of capabilities that could be achieved in the near future.

  5. Solid state mechanochemical processes for better electroceramics.

    PubMed

    Mamoru, Senna

    2014-01-01

    The present short overview focuses on the renovation of solid state processes toward phase pure and well-crystallized complex oxides centered on the electroceramic materials. Elevation of the reactivity and preservation of stoichiometry of the starting mixture or precursor are of universal importance. Mechanical activation, being considered as versatile, may also need reconsideration in view of contamination and process rationalization. After briefly reviewing mechanochemical processes for direct synthesis of complex oxides, solid state processes toward well crystallized fine particles of complex oxides are discussed by starting from mechanochemically derived precursors with subsequent optimized calcination. Case studies were cited from literatures for complex oxides, including author's own experimental studies mainly with BaBi(2)Ta(2)O(9) (BBT), Ba(Mg(1/3)Ta(2/3))O(3) (BMT) and KNbO(3) (KN). The substances discussed are mostly associated with ferroelectric materials, with a few exceptions of iron-containing magnetic materials. PMID:25286196

  6. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage. PMID:24238798

  7. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations continue of diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes using them as sources. Diode laser array pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass lasers have been demonstrated. Theoretical studies of non-planar oscillators have been advanced, producing new designs which should be more resistant to feedback and offer better frequency stability. A monolithic, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in MgO:LiNbO3 has been operated.

  8. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  9. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  10. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  11. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  12. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A concept for a solar power satellite antenna power combiner which utilizes solid state dc-rf converters is described. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it is proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure. A significant feature of the antenna configuration selected is that the radiated energy is summed to yield a single radiated output phase which represents the average insertion phase of the four power amplifiers. This energy may be sampled and, by comparison with the input signal, one can phase error correct to maintain the insertion phase of all solid state power combining modules at exactly the same value. This insures that the insertion phase of each SPS power combining antenna module is identical. An experiment verification program is described.

  13. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  15. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  16. Chemical degradation of proteins in the solid state with a focus on photochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals comprise an increasing fraction of marketed products but the limited solution stability of proteins requires considerable research effort to prepare stable formulations. An alternative is solid formulation, as proteins in the solid state are thermodynamically less susceptible to degradation. Nevertheless, within the time of storage a large panel of kinetically controlled degradation reactions can occur such as, e.g., hydrolysis reactions, the formation of diketopiperazine, condensation and aggregation reactions. These mechanisms of degradation in protein solids are relatively well covered by the literature. Considerably less is known about oxidative and photochemical reactions of solid proteins. This review will provide an overview over photolytic and non-photolytic degradation reactions, and specially emphasize mechanistic details on how solid structure may affect the interaction of protein solids with light. PMID:25481682

  17. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  18. Solid state dye laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldag, Henry R.

    1994-06-01

    The development of solid state dye lasers could lead to a major breakthrough in the cost and compactness of a medical device. Advantages include: elimination of the flow system for the gain medium; ease with which to implement wavelength agility or the replacement of a degraded rod or sheet; and toxicity and flammability become a non-issue. Dye lasers have played a role in cardiology, dermatology, and urology. Of these cardiology is of interest to Palomar. The Palomar Model 3010 flashlamp-pumped dye laser medical device was used during phase 1 FDA clinical trials to break-up blood clots that cause heart attacks, a process known as coronary laser thrombolysis. It is the objective of this research and development effort to produce solid matrix lasers that will replace liquid dye lasers in these medical specialties.

  19. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Resnati, Giuseppe; Boldyreva, Elena; Bombicz, Petra; Kawano, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1) an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2) exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3) the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4) strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials. PMID:26594375

  20. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers and hydrochloric acid production furnaces to minimize emissions from startup, shutdown, and malfunction events. 270.235 Section 270.235 Protection of Environment...

  1. Limitations in Determining Multifractal Spectra from Pore-Solid Soil Aggregate Images

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A N; Martin, M A; Smucker, A J.M.; Rivers, M L

    2011-11-16

    Multifractal methods have the potential to be useful tools for characterizing spatial distributions of soil pores from microtomographic images of undisturbed soil cores and soil aggregates. The objective of this study was to examine the limitations of multifractal analyses in binary (void and solid) soil images and to explore conditions under which multifractal spectra can be obtained. Multifractal characteristics of binary soil images are bounded within certain limiting values corresponding to nonfractal scaling. In this study, we first addressed the theoretical limitations of multifractal analysis of binary images and examined the nonfractal scaling boundaries in multifractal calculations by the method of moments. Then we developed boundary conditions for multifractal calculations by the direct method. Results revealed that fractal scaling is potentially possible only across a relatively narrow range of cell sizes restricted by the nonfractal scaling boundaries. Moreover, the range of cell sizes where fractal scaling is potentially possible varies with pore size. That is, in multifractal calculations it changes continuously with changes in the q value. For the soil aggregates examined in this study, this range varied from two to eight pixels for low q values to 128 pixels for high q values. The varying range makes calculations of true multifractal spectra for binary soil image data impossible. These results are consistent with a general theoretical notion that binary soil images are not multifractal in a strict mathematical sense. We suggest, however, that application of multifractal formalism can generate 'pseudo-multifractal spectra' that might still be useful for summarizing pore distribution information and for comparing pore data among different agricultural management regimes and soil type.

  2. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  3. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  4. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  5. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  6. Energy compensated solid state gamma dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, F.; Clapp, A.; Entine, G.; Kronenberg, S.

    1988-02-01

    Solid state semiconductor detectors using pulse mode detection are attractive candidates for real time dosimetry systems. Their high atomic number relative to that of tissue gives a nonlinear response as a function of the photon energy over the range from 30 keV to 10 MeV. An analytical model of a silicon PIN diode has been developed, including the photoelectric and Compton interactions as well as the ejection of the secondary electrons from the sensitive volume. The authors tested a nonlinear pulse height compensation algorithm using calibrated gamma and x-ray fluxes, and find that this approach improves the dose accuracy.

  7. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-07-22

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300$sup 0$C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO$sub 4$:Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot- pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150$sup 0$C prior to first use dosimeters. (auth)

  8. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  9. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  10. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclymonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

  11. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, E. Fred; Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian; Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  12. Experimental aspects of solid-state voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wooster, T.T.; Longmire, M.L.; Zhang, H.

    1992-05-15

    This paper describes the properties of poly(ether) polymer electrolytes as solvent media for solid-state voltammetry. Experimental requirements for microelectrode voltammetry and results for the dependency of diffusive transport of electroactive solutes on polymer solvent molecular weight, structure, and temperature (and related phase state) are described for eight poly(ether)s: linear poly(ethylene oxides) MW = 400, 1000, 2000, and 600 000 (Me{sub 2}PEG-400, Me{sub 2}PEG-1000, Me{sub 2}PEG-2000, PEO-600 000), linear poly(propylene oxide) MW = 4000 (PPO-4000), the comb polymer poly(bis[(methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]phosphazine) (MEEP), the block copolymer poly(ether)-poly(urethane urea)(PEUU), and the cross-linked poly(ether) network PEO. 28 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  14. Solid-state power conversion handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Tarter, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This new handbook is the first to be devoted to the field of solid-state power conversion. The material in this book is to be used in engineering practice and is oriented toward application rather than theory. The purpose of the book is to assemble in a single volume all the pertinent and comprehensive information necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. These demands include increased efficiency, improved reliability, higher packaging density, improved performance, and meeting safety and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements. The material presented includes a thorough analysis of fundamental electrical and magnetic aspects of power conversion plus thermal, protection, and reliability considerations. Attention is focused on semi-conductor and magnetic components and on analysis of various topologies. The handbook is organized into four sections. (1) Chapters 1-3 present the relations of various waveforms, transient components with emphasis on power semiconductors and magnetic components. (2) Chapters 4-12 deal with single-level conversion of rectifier circuits, filters, inverters and converters, feedback and stability analysis, and modulators and pulse-forming networks. (3) Chapters 13-16 discuss ancillary topics related to safety, EMC, thermal management, and reliability. (4) Chapters 17-19 cover design and operation of power supplies and systems from a detailed building block standpoint.

  15. Solid state voltammetry and sensors in solids and gases

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    This project explores the electrochemical reactivity of electron transfer donor/acceptors dissolved in and diffusing through solid and semi-solid, ionically conductive media. The emphasis is on developing voltammetric experiments that are quantitatively interpretable in terms of the mass transport and electron transfer rates and thermodynamic equilibria of the redox solutes, and to exploit such experiments to probe their chemical and electrochemical behavior in the solid media. Techniques for quantitative voltammetry in solids were essentially unknown prior to initiation of this DOE project. We mainly employ poly(ethers)s containing dissolved metal salts electrolytes ( polymer electrolytes''), as prototype solid and semi-solid solvents. During this award year we have (a) concluded a study of plasticization chemistry in poly (ether) polymer electrolytes, (b) made progress in devising techniques for measuring the rates of electron transfer reactions in solid and semi-solid poly (ether)s, (c) continued efforts to design and understand the behavior of microband electrodes of various widths (0.1 to 10 {mu}m) in voltammetry of redox solutes, and (d) initiated synthetic efforts to attach ethylene oxide chains of various lengths to redox solutes.

  16. Adsorption/aggregation of surfactants and their mixtures at solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Somasundaran, P; Huang, L

    2000-12-11

    Adsorption of surfactants and polymers at solid-liquid interfaces is used widely to modify interfacial properties in a variety of industrial processes such as flotation, ceramic processing, flocculation/dispersion, personal care product formulation and enhanced oil recovery. The behavior of surfactants and polymers at interfaces is determined by a number of forces, including electrostatic attraction, covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic bonding, and solvation and desolvation of various species. The extent and type of the forces involved varies depending on the adsorbate and the adsorbent, and also the composition and other characteristics of the solvent and dissolved components in it. The influence of such forces on the adsorption behavior is reviewed here from a thermodynamics point of view. The experimental results from microcalorimetric and spectroscopic studies of adsorbed layers of different surfactant and polymer systems at solid-liquid interfaces are also presented. Calorimetric data from the adsorption of an anionic surfactant, sodium octylbenzenesulfonate, and a non-ionic surfactant, dodecyloxyheptaethoxyethylalcohol, and their mixtures on alumina, yielded important thermodynamic information. It was found that the adsorption of anionic surfactants alone on alumina was initially highly exothermic due to the electrostatic interaction with the substrate. Further adsorption leading to a solloid (hemimicelle) formation is proposed to be mainly an entropy-driven process. The entropy effect was found to be more pronounced for the adsorption of anionic-non-ionic surfactant mixtures than for the anionic surfactant alone. Fluorescence studies using a pyrene probe on an adsorbed surfactant and polymer layers, along with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, reveal the role of surface aggregation and the conformation of the adsorbed molecules in controlling the dispersion and wettability of the system. PMID:11185696

  17. Photophoretic force on aggregate grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Kimery, Jesse B.; Wurm, Gerhard; de Beule, Caroline; Kuepper, Markus; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The photophoretic force may impact planetary formation by selectively moving solid particles based on their composition and structure. This generates collision velocities between grains of different sizes and sorts the dust in protoplanetary discs by composition. This numerical simulation studied the photophoretic force acting on fractal dust aggregates of μm-scale radii. Results show that aggregates tend to have greater photophoretic drift velocities than spheres of similar mass or radii, though with a greater spread in the velocity. While the drift velocities of compact aggregates continue to increase as the aggregates grow larger in size, fluffy aggregates have drift velocities which are relatively constant with size. Aggregates formed from an initially polydisperse size distribution of dust grains behave differently from aggregates formed from a monodisperse population, having smaller drift velocities with directions which deviate substantially from the direction of illumination. Results agree with microgravity experiments which show the difference of photophoretic forces with aggregation state.

  18. Production of amylases from rice by solid-state fermentation in a gas-solid spouted-Bed bioreactor

    PubMed

    Silva; Yang

    1998-07-01

    A gas-solid spouted-bed bioreactor was developed to produce amylases from rice in solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae. The spouted-bed bioreactor was developed to overcome many of the problems inherent to large-scale solid-state fermentation, including mass- and heat-transfer limitations in the conventional tray reactors and solids-handling difficulties seen in packed-bed bioreactors. The solid-state fermentation results from the tray-type reactor with surface aeration were poor because of mass- and heat-transfer problems. A packed-bed bioreactor with continuous aeration through the rice bed produced high protein and enzymes, but the fermented rice was difficult to remove and process due to the formation of large chunks of rice aggregates knitted together with fungal mycelia. Also, the fermentation was not uniform in the packed bed. The spouted-bed bioreactor with intermittent spouting with air achieved high production levels in both total protein and enzymes (alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and glucoamylase) that were comparable to those found in the packed-bed bioreactor, but without the nonuniformity and solids-handling problems. However, continual spouting was found to be detrimental to this solid-state fermentation, possibly because of shear or impact damage to fungal mycelia during spouting. Increasing spouting frequency from 4-h intervals to 1-h intervals decreased protein and enzyme production. Other operating conditions critical to the fermentation include proper humidification to prevent drying of the substrate and control of reactor wall temperature to prevent excessive condensation, which would interfere with proper spouting. PMID:9694679

  19. Sociocultural dimensions of supply and demand for natural aggregate; examples from the Mid-Atlantic region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Brown, William M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States uses large quantities of natural aggregate to build and maintain a continuously expanding infrastructure. In recent years, per capita demand for aggregate in the United States has grown to about 9.7 metric tons (10.7 tons) per person per year. Over the next 25 years, the aggregate industry expects to mine quantities equivalent to all aggregate mined in the United States over the past 100 years. The issues surrounding supply and demand for aggregate in the mid-Atlantic states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia illustrate competing requirements for industrial minerals and many simultaneous social and environmental objectives.

  20. Characterization of insulin-degrading enzyme-mediated cleavage of Aβ in distinct aggregation states.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Ellen; Cioffi, Federica; Rozenski, Jef; van Nuland, Nico A J; Broersen, Kerensa

    2016-06-01

    To enhance our understanding of the potential therapeutic utility of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied in vitro IDE-mediated degradation of different amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation states. Our findings show that IDE activity is driven by the dynamic equilibrium between Aβ monomers and higher ordered aggregates. We identify Met35-Val36 as a novel IDE cleavage site in the Aβ sequence and show that Aβ fragments resulting from IDE cleavage form non-toxic amorphous aggregates. These findings need to be taken into account in therapeutic strategies designed to increase Aβ clearance in AD patients by modulating IDE activity. PMID:26968463

  1. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  2. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  3. Solid state synthesis of calcium borohydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, H.; Gündoğmaz, G.; Kurtuluş, F.; Çelik, G.; Gacanoğlu, Ş. S.

    2011-11-01

    Calcium borohydroxyapatite was synthesized by the solid-state reaction of colemanite (Ca 2B 6O 11·5H 2O) and diamonium hydrogenphosphate ((NH 4) 2HPO 4) at 1200 °C for 12 h. X-ray diffraction pattern showed only the formation of calcium borohydroxyapatite. The experimental analysis assigned the chemical formula as Ca 10[(PO 4) 5.80(BO 3) 0.20](OH) 2. It was indexed in the hexagonal system with the refined unit cell parameters of a = 9.557(3) Å, c = 6.926(8) Å and space group P6 3/ m. The experimental results verified that if colemanite was used as a primary reactant for both calcium and boron source, the calcium borohydroxyapatite could be obtained.

  4. Radioactive isotopes in solid state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel-Wirth, D.

    1996-04-01

    A wide range of solid state physics techniques is using radioactive ion beams, both from on-line and off-line separators. The different techniques can be roughly subdivided into two classes: one, including the hyperfine techniques like Mößbauer spectroscopy (MS), Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy, β-NMR and the ion-beam technique of Emission Channeling (EC). They all crucially depend on the availability of radioactive isotopes with very specific decay properties. The second group comprises radio-tracer techniques which combine radioactive probe atoms with conventional semiconductor physics methods like Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Capacitance Voltage measurements (CV), Hall-effect measurements or Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL). They are perfectly feasible without any radioactive probe atom, however, using such isotopes enables the unambiguous chemical identification of impurities. The present paper gives an overview on the potential of nuclear techniques by describing some typical experiments.

  5. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  6. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a {sup 6}Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m{sup 2}, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  7. Solid-state spectral transmissometer and radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L.; Steward, R. G.; Payne, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in situ instrument designed to measure the spectral attenuation coefficient of seawater and the ocean remote-sensing reflectance from 400 to 750 nm is in the test and development stage. It employs a 256 channel, charge-coupled type of linear array measuring the spectral intensities diffracted by a grating. Examples of the types of data delivered by this instrument have been simulated using a breadboard laboratory instrument and an above-water, solid-state radiometer. Algorithms developed using data from these instruments provide measures of chlorophyll a plus phaeophytin a concentrations from less than 0.1 to 77.0 mg/cu m, gelbstoff spectral absorption coefficients, and detrital spectral backscattering coefficients for waters of the west Florida shelf.

  8. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  9. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  10. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  11. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a 6Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m2, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  12. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector.

    PubMed

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a (6)Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m(2), is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security. PMID:26133869

  13. Principles of solid-state power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, R. E.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this book is to assemble, in one place, the comprehensive tools necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. Aspects of transient analysis, circuit analysis, and waveforms are discussed, taking into account waveform relations, magnetic fields, dielectric fields, the RL circuit, the RC circuit, the RLC circuit, the RLCR circuit with a DC input, AC circuit analysis, and components scaling. Semiconductors and resistors are considered along with capacitors, transformers, inductors, conductors, rectifiers and filters, phase-control circuits, transistor inverters, thyristor inverters, switching regulators, DC-DC converters, protection and safety, electromagnetic compatibility and grounding, semiconductor and equipment cooling, reliability and quality, regulated power supplies, and uninterruptible power systems. Attention is given to magnetic materials, toroid tape core transformers, permalloy powder cores, a six-phase dual bridge, thermal conduction and resistance, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers.

  14. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. ); Swinehart, P. )

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  15. Solid-State Spectral Light Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maffione, Robert; Dana, David

    2011-01-01

    A solid-state light source combines an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with advanced electronic control and stabilization over both the spectrum and overall level of the light output. The use of LEDs provides efficient operation over a wide range of wavelengths and power levels, while electronic control permits extremely stable output and dynamic control over the output. In this innovation, LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs. Optical feedback and digital control are used to monitor and regulate the output of each LED. Because individual LEDs generate light within narrower ranges of wavelengths than incandescent bulbs, multiple LEDs are combined to provide a broad, continuous spectrum, or to produce light within discrete wavebands that are suitable for specific radiometric sensors.

  16. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  17. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  18. Flexible solid-state photoelectrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pichot, F.; Ferrere, S.; Pitts, R.J.; Gregg, B.A.

    1999-11-01

    Photoelectrochromic smart window technology is extended to include the use of flexible substrates and solid-state electrolytes. This should facilitate their application as retrofit modifications of office windows, where, by blocking incoming solar irradiation, they could substantially lower air-conditioning costs. These devices are based on a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrode coupled with a 500 nm thick WO{sub 3} electrochromic counter electrode, separated by a cross-linked polymer electrolyte containing LiI. A novel method for preparing conducting nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films is described that allows for the construction of these devices on flexible organic substrates. Colloidal solutions of TiO{sub 2} free of surfactants were spin-coated onto indium-tin oxide coated polyester substrates, resulting in highly transparent films ranging from 100 nm to 1 {micro}m in thickness. Upon annealing at 100 C, these films were strongly adherent and displayed excellent photoconductivity as shown by their current-voltage characteristics. The devices typically transmit 75% of visible light in the bleached state. After a few minutes of exposure to white light (75 mW/cm{sup 2}), the windows turn dark blue, transmitting only 30% of visible light. They spontaneously bleach back to their initial noncolored state upon removal of the light source.

  19. Solid State Technology Meets Collider Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Probing the frontiers of particle physics and delving into the mysteries of the universe and its beginnings require machines that can accelerate beams of fundamental particles to very high energies and then collide those beams together, producing a multitude of exotic subatomic particles. The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC), being developed by Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories, and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), is such a machine. The NLC is expected to produce a variety of subatomic particles by smashing together electrons and their antimatter counterparts (positrons) at nearly the speed of light with energies in the teraelectronvolt (TeV) range. Plans are that the NLC will initially operate at 0.5 TeV and ultimately be scaled up to 1.5 TeV. (See S&TR, April 2000, pp. 12-16.) Work at the facility will complement the research to be conducted at another high-energy particle accelerator, the 14-TeV Large Hadron Collider at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (commonly known by the acronym CERN from its former name) in Geneva, which is scheduled for completion in 2007. Achieving beam energy levels in the TeV range requires modulator systems that can convert ac line power--the same type of power one gets from the wall plug--into dc pulses. Ultimately, these pulses are transformed into radiofrequency (rf) pulses that ''kick'' the particles up to the required energy levels. Livermore scientists and engineers have designed a solid-state modulator to replace oldstyle modulators based on vacuum-tube technology. These new modulators promise to be far more efficient, reliable, and serviceable than the previous components. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program supported the basic research and development on the solid-state modulator technology, and SLAC supported the systems integration.

  20. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. PMID:26974032

  1. Modified Reference SPS with Solid State Transmitting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Sperber, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of solid state microwave power amplifiers for a solar power satellite transmitting antenna is discussed. State-of-the-art power-added efficiency, gain, and single device power of various microwave solid state devices are compared. The GaAs field effect transistors and the Si-bipolar transistors appear potentially feasible for solar power satellite use. The integration of solid state devices into antenna array elements is examined and issues concerning antenna integration and consequent satellite configurations are examined.

  2. Aggregation phenomena in a system of molecules with two internal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspari, R.; Gliozzi, A.; Ferrando, R.

    2007-10-01

    A model for the aggregation of molecules with two internal states is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Molecules are represented by simple beads, discarding all stereochemical specificity. Monomers are placed in a three-dimensional lattice and diffusion processes are simulated, as well as internal state conversions of the molecules. The two internal states feature a stable (S) not assembly competent configuration, and an unstable assembly competent (A) configuration. Monomers in A state are given a higher energy if isolated, but they can reach the lowest energy level through short-range interactions between each other, so that their aggregation is promoted. Kinetics of cluster formation are examined, as well as the basic mechanisms ruling growth in our system. The simulations show that the aggregation process is preceded by a lag phase, which is followed by a fast growth phase. The duration of the lag phase is determined by the strength of the A-A interaction, whereas the time slope of the growth phase is mainly influenced by the conversion rate between internal states. The whole work has been inspired by the biological problem of amyloid aggregation, whose aggregation curves often present a sigmoidal behavior which is reproduced by the present model.

  3. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    SciTech Connect

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t{prime}-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t{prime}-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies.

  4. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being done at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) developing new kinds of batteries that do not depend on a solution. Currently, batteries use liquid electrolytes containing lithium. Problems with the liquid electrolyte are (1) solvents used can leak out of the battery, so larger, more restrictive, packages have to be made, inhibiting the diversity of application and decreasing the power density; (2) the liquid is incompatible with the lithium metal anode, so alternative, less efficient, anodes are required. The Materials Department at GRC has been working to synthesize polymer electrolytes that can replace the liquid electrolytes. The advantages are that polymer electrolytes do not have the potential to leak so they can be used for a variety of tasks, small or large, including in the space rover or in space suits. The polymers generated by Dr. Mary Ann Meador's group are in the form of rod -coil structures. The rod aspect gives the polymer structural integrity, while the coil makes it flexible. Lithium ions are used in these polymers because of their high mobility. The coils have repeating units of oxygen which stabilize the positive lithium by donating electron density. This aids in the movement of the lithium within the polymer, which contributes to higher conductivity. In addition to conductivity testing, these polymers are characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, and solid state NMR. Solid state NMR is used in classifying materials that are not soluble in solvents, such as polymers. The NMR spins the sample at a magic angle (54.7') allowing the significant peaks to emerge. Although solid state NMR is a helpful technique in determining bonding, the process of preparing the sample and tuning it properly are intricate jobs that require patience; especially since each run takes about six hours. The NMR allows for the advancement of polymer synthesis by showing if the expected results were achieved. Using the NMR, in addition to looking at polymers, allows for

  5. Solid-state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie Kirkland

    Amplification of low-light-level optical images is important for extending the range of lidar systems that image and detect objects in the atmosphere and underwater. The use of range-gating to produce images of particular range bins is also important in minimizing the image degradation due to light that is scattered backward from aerosols, smoke, or water along the imaging path. For practical lidar systems that must be operated within sight of unprotected observers, eye safety is of the utmost importance. This dissertation describes a new type of eye-safe, range-gated lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid- state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level images in the eye-safe infrared at 1.556 μm with gains up to 106 with the addition of only quantum- limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30-100 cm, using pump pulses of 2-6.7 nsec FWHM. A rate equation theoretical model is derived to help in the design of short pulsed Raman lasers. A theoretical model for the quantum noise properties of SSRIA is presented. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCD's. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCD's. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR. Lastly, SSRIA can be combined with optical pre-filtering to perform optical image processing functions such as high-pass filtering and automatic target detection/recognition. The application of this technology to underwater imaging, called Marine Raman Image Amplification (MARIA) is also discussed. MARIA

  6. Optical Properties and Electronic States Specific to Solid Fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Nobutsugu; Kazaoui, Said; Wen, Ching-Ju; Byrne, Hugh J.

    1996-03-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of the fullerene research is to ask what specific phenomena will occur when the soccer-ball shaped molecules aggregate and make a solid. Seeking this question is crucial for the realization of any photonic and electronic application of this new type of carbon allotrope. We have been working on this theme by the study of optical and electrical properties of C60 thin film. An important result is the demonstration of a distinct intermolecular charge transfer excited state (CT exciton) originating from intermolecular electronic interaction specific to the spherical pai conjugation system. This has been shown by the coincidence in the threshold energy of 2.3eV for absorption, luminescence efficiency, field induced luminescence quenching, and photoconductivity. We also found an evidence of the interconnection between optical properties and the structural phase transition at 260K. Moreover, a composite film containing C60 is demonstrated to show intense luminescence under 10mW laser irradiation.

  7. Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

  8. Introduction to cryogenic solid state cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heremans, Joseph P.

    2016-05-01

    Thermoelectric (Peltier) coolers have historically not been used for cooling to temperatures much below 200 K, because of limitations with existing thermoelectric materials. There are many advantages to solid-state coolers: they have no moving parts, are compact, vibration-free, inherently durable, and scalable to low power levels. A significant drawback is their low coefficient of performance. The figure of merit, zT, is the materials characteristic that sets this efficiency in Peltier coolers. The zT decreases rapidly with temperature, roughly following a T7/2 law. However, new material developments have taken place in the last decade that have made it possible to reach zT>0.5 down to 50 K. Many new ideas have also been put forward that enable better ZT's and lower temperatures. This article reviews the difficulties associated with Peltier cooling at cryogenic temperatures, as an introduction to the following presentations and proceeding entries that will present solutions that have been developed since 2010.

  9. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  10. Solid state replacement of rotating mirror cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Bartolick, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed 'In-situ Storage Image Sensor' or 'ISIS', by Prof. Goji Etoh has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  11. Inorganic membranes and solid state sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cot, Louis; Ayral, André; Durand, Jean; Guizard, Christian; Hovnanian, Nadine; Julbe, Anne; Larbot, André

    2000-05-01

    The latest developments in inorganic membranes are closely related to recent advances in solid state science. Sol-gel processing, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal synthesis are methods that can be used for inorganic membrane preparation. Innovative concepts from material science (templating effect, nanophase materials, growing of continuous zeolite layers, hybrid organic-inorganic materials) have been applied by our group to the preparation of inorganic membrane materials. Sol-gel-derived nanophase ceramic membranes are presented with current applications in nanofiltration and catalytic membrane reactors. Silica membranes with an ordered porosity, due to liquid crystal phase templating effect, are described with potential application in pervaporation. Defect-free and thermally stable zeolite membranes can be obtained through an original synthesis method, in which zeolite crystals are grown inside the pores of a support. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials with permselective properties for gas separation and facilitated transport of solutes in liquid media, have been successfully adapted to membrane applications. Potential membrane developments offered by CVD deposition techniques are also illustrated through several examples related to the preparation of purely inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic membrane materials.

  12. Solid state photomultiplier for astronomy, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers with varying donor concentration profiles were grown on silicon substrate wafers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, and solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) devices were fabricated from the wafers. Representative detectors were tested in a low background photon flux, low temperature environment to determine the device characteristics for comparison to NASA goals for astronomical applications. The SSPM temperatures varied between 6 and 11 K with background fluxes in the range from less than 5 x 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 13th power photons/square cm per second at wavelengths of 3.2 and 20 cm. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, dark count rate and bias current. Temperature for optimal performance is 10 K, the highest ever obtained for SSPMs. The devices exhibit a combination of the lowest dark current and highest quantum efficiency yet achieved. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed and used to generate recommendations for future studies. The background and present status of the microscopic theory of SSPM operation were reviewed and summarized. Present emphasis is on modeling of the avalanche process which is the basis for SSPM operation. Approaches to the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation are described and the treatment of electron scattering mechanisms is presented. The microscopic single-electron transport theory is ready to be implemented for large-scale computations.

  13. A novel solid state general illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.

    A novel solid state illumination source has been developed. A two terminal dual LED has been created with the ability to control the relative intensities of the two emission peaks by varying drive current. Doping profiles have been used to extend the dynamic range of the dual LED over other reported devices. Operation of the dual LEDs is explained as a function of drive current. In addition, novel use of phosphor mixtures allows the creation of a broadband spectral power distribution that can be varied using a dual LED as an excitation source. Combinations of phosphors that have varied excitation spectra provide the ability to selectively excite different phosphors with the different LED emission peaks. First and second generations of the two terminal dual LED and the phosphor combination are discussed. The final source has the ability to mimic the light of a blackbody radiator over a range of 3200 K - 5300 K. The development of a three terminal dual LED as a pump source was prohibited by the need for a III-nitride tunnel junction, that proved unattainable in the scope of this work. However, several novel doping schemes were investigated toward this end. Finally, a circadian light source has also been developed that can affect physiological changes in humans, and a light box for entrainment of circadian rhythms in rats has been built.

  14. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  15. SOLID-STATE CERAMIC LIGHTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Brown

    2003-06-01

    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  16. New AIE-active pyrimidine-based boronfluoride complexes with high solid-state emission and reversible mechanochromism luminescence behavior.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fen; Lin, Jianjian; Wang, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng; Yan, Hui; Gong, Shuwen; Ma, Chunlin; Liu, Zhipeng; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-25

    A new family of pyrimidine-based BF2 complexes () with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and mechanochromic luminescence properties were developed. These compounds exhibit intense fluorescence in their aggregation/solid-state resulting from their large Stokes shift and AIE. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the weak intermolecular interactions by fixing the molecular conformations of are responsible for the intense fluorescence in solid-state. In addition to their pronounced AIE behaviour, also exhibits a reversible chromic response to grinding, and a distinct red-shift of emission is observed. The high solid-state luminescence and grinding-stimuli response properties of these compounds make them potential candidates for smart materials. PMID:26938704

  17. Sample preparation for actinide solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirlet, J. C.

    1982-09-01

    The actinide elements (5f elements) and their compounds constitute a very interesting group for solid state research. The electronic properties of the 5f elements show intermediate behavior between the well-understood, completely localized 4f system (lanthanides) and the 3d system (transition elements). The possibility of understanding some unexplained properties of the 3d elements through a systematic investigation of the electronic structures of the actinides considerably increased interest in samples with well-defined composition and structure and with well-known purity. In some cases, single crystals of low defect densities and high purity levels are needed to allow sophisticated investigations of physical properties. Actinide compounds are easily obtained at a high purity level by direct synthesis from pure elements using noncontaminating techniques. Examples of these techniques are the reaction of the actinide metal powder with the vapor of an oxidant in a sealed quartz ampoule, leviation melting on a water-cooled pedestal or melting in a Huking crucible. Actinide metals are produced by metallothermic reduction of commercially available oxides or carbides or by the van Arkel purification process. The metals are refined to the desired purity level by evaporation in vacuum for the more volatile elements (Ac, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk) and by the van Arkel process for the metals with low vapor pressure. Single crystals of actinide compounds have been grown by chemical vapor transport methods (oxides, chalcogenides), high temperature solution growth techniques (oxides), and pulling from the melt by the Czochralski method (oxides, intermetallics). Thin solid films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation or by focused ion-beam sputtering. The materials are analyzed for trace-level impurity content by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, by spark source mass spectroscopy and by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the compounds is determined by

  18. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  19. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature.

  20. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime.

    PubMed

    Melgaard, Seth D; Albrecht, Alexander R; Hehlen, Markus P; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature. PMID:26847703

  1. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-02-05

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  2. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature. PMID:26847703

  3. Advanced mid-IR Solid-State Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art 2-micron solid-state laser developments. A world record one-Joule-per-pulse energy laser system and an advanced thermal management with fully conductive cooled laser technique are discussed

  4. Solid State Molecular Reactors in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, M.

    2011-03-01

    Lunar minerals and impact glasses, convert the polyatomic beam of solar wind (SW) ions into a flux of small molecules (e.g., H2, N2, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, HCN, metal carbides and deuterides, etc.). They thus behave as "Solid State Molecular Reactors". Moreover, ~100-200 μm size micrometeoroids (μMs) have also been exposed to the SW in the zodiacal cloud, before being captured by the Earth and recovered as Antarctic micrometeorites. They are mostly composed of a PAH-rich hydrous-carbonaceous material, which amplifies their power as molecular reactors. In particular, during the first ~200 Myr of the post-lunar period, about 75% of the μMs have been melted and/or volatilized upon atmospheric entry. The release of their volatile species triggered a cosmic volcanism around the mesopause that ruled the formation of the early Earth's atmosphere and climate. Furthermore, a fraction of the μMs that survive unmelted upon atmospheric entry did settle on the proto-oceans floors. Upon further burial in sediments their constituent PAH-rich kerogen was cracked into abiotic oil, which generated giant oil slicks that fed prebiotic chemistry. Many stars, of all ages and types, are embedded into a secondary debris-disk loaded with ion implanted μMs. Some of them are expelled to the interstellar medium (ISM) where they behave first as "dormant-invisible" molecular reactors, until they became reactivated by various processes to synthesize interstellar molecules. This short paper only focus on some highlights of this research dealing with the synthesis of important interstellar molecules, including the most abundant ones (H2 and CO) and H2O, HCN and PAHs, all involved in prebiotic chemistry.

  5. General purpose solid state camera for SERTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Leslie J.; Haas, J. Patrick

    1996-11-01

    The Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics at Goddard Space Flight Center uses a variety of CCD's and other solid state imaging sensors for its instrumentation programs. Traditionally, custom camera systems are built around the imaging device to optimize the circuitry for the particular sensor. This usually produces a camera that is small, uses little power and is elegant. Although these are desirable characteristics, this approach is also expensive and time consuming. An alternative approach is to design a `universal' camera that is easily customized to meet specific mission requirements. This is the approach our team used for SERTS. The camera design used to support the SERTS mission is a general purpose camera design that is derived from an existing camera on the SOHO spacecraft. This camera is designed to be rugged, modest in power requirements and flexible. The base design of the camera supports quadrant CCD devices with up to 4 phases. Imaging devices with simpler architectures are in general supportable. The basic camera is comprised of a main electronics box which performs all timing generation, voltage level control, data processing and compression. A second unit, placed close to the detector head, is responsible for driving the image device control electrodes and amplifying the multichannel detector video. Programmable high voltage units are used for the single stage MCP type intensifier. The detector head is customized for each sensor type supported. Auxiliary equipment includes a frame buffer that works either as a multi-frame storage unit or as a photon counting accumulation unit. This unit also performs interface buffering so that the camera may appear as a piece of GPIB instrumentation.

  6. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  7. Solid state device technology for Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using solid state elements in the solar power satellite transmitter system is addressed. Recommendations are given concerning device types, the antenna modules, and the overall antenna system. The development of a solid state amplifier based on GaAs field effect transistor devices is also described.

  8. Metal speciation of phosphorus derived from solid state spectroscopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant improvements have been made in the last decade towards understanding metal species associated with manure P using XANES and solid-state 31P NMR techniques. Both solid-state techniques are particularly sensitive to inorganic forms of P associated with metals in manure samples. In unamen...

  9. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  10. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  11. Aggregating Student Achievement Trends across States with Different Tests: Using Standardized Slopes as Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Schmidt, R. James; Besag, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The study of federal education initiatives that takes place over multiple years in multiple settings often calls for aggregating and comparing data-in particular, student achievement data-across a broad set of schools, districts, and states. The need to track the trends over time is complicated by the fact that the data from the different schools,…

  12. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-07-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report.

  13. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W., III; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  14. Weak and Transient Protein Interactions Determined by Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Dannatt, Hugh R W; Felletti, Michele; Jehle, Stefan; Wang, Yao; Emsley, Lyndon; Dixon, Nicholas E; Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Despite their roles in controlling many cellular processes, weak and transient interactions between large structured macromolecules and disordered protein segments cannot currently be characterized at atomic resolution by X-ray crystallography or solution NMR. Solid-state NMR does not suffer from the molecular size limitations affecting solution NMR, and it can be applied to molecules in different aggregation states, including non-crystalline precipitates and sediments. A solid-state NMR approach based on high magnetic fields, fast magic-angle sample spinning, and deuteration provides chemical-shift and relaxation mapping that enabled the characterization of the structure and dynamics of the transient association between two regions in an 80 kDa protein assembly. This led to direct verification of a mechanism of regulation of E. coli DNA metabolism. PMID:27101578

  15. Solid-State NMR Studies of Amyloid Fibril Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Current interest in amyloid fibrils stems from their involvement in neurodegenerative and other diseases and from their role as an alternative structural state for many peptides and proteins. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have the unique capability of providing detailed structural constraints for amyloid fibrils, sufficient for the development of full molecular models. In this article, recent progress in the application of solid-state NMR to fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease, prion fibrils, and related systems is reviewed, along with relevant developments in solid-state NMR techniques and technology.

  16. Solid State NMR Studies of Amyloid Fibril Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Current interest in amyloid fibrils stems from their involvement in neurodegenerative and other diseases and from their role as an alternative structural state for many peptides and proteins. Solid state NMR methods have the unique capability of providing detailed structural constraints for amyloid fibrils, sufficient for the development of full molecular models. In this article, recent progress in the application of solid state NMR to fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease, prion fibrils, and related systems is reviewed, along with relevant developments in solid state NMR techniques and technology. PMID:21219138

  17. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated selective changes in the aggregation states, zeta potentials, and intrinsic stability of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K; Haldar, Manas K; Totzauer, Jessica R; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S; Friesner, Daniel L; Srivastava, D K; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-11-20

    Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effects of different GAG species and minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates that are formed are yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in the liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous oversulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of the interactions between heparin and its oversulfated glycosaminoglycan contaminants with liposomes. Herein, we demonstrate that Mg(2+) acts to shield the incoming glycosaminoglycans from the negatively charged phosphate groups of the phospholipids and that changes in the aggregate diameter and zeta potential are a function of the glycosaminoglycan species and concentration as well as the liposome bilayer composition. These observations are supported by TEM studies. We have shown that the organizational states of the liposome bilayers are influenced by the presence of GAG and excess Mg(2+), resulting in a stabilizing effect that increases the T(m) value of DSPC liposomes; the magnitude of this effect is also dependent on the GAG species and concentration present. There is an inverse relationship between the percent change in aggregate diameter and the percent change in aggregate zeta potential as a function of GAG concentration in solution. Finally, we demonstrate that the diameter and zeta potential changes in POPC liposome aggregates in the presence of different oversulfated heparin contaminants at low concentrations allow for an accurate detection of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate at concentrations of as low as 1 mol %. PMID:23102026

  18. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  19. Solid-state impact-ionization multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Wei

    This dissertation presents an innovative solid-state current amplifier based on impact-ionization. Unlike avalanche photodetectors which use the same amplification principle, this device can be integrated with any external current source. A discrete amplifier was built on a silicon surface using standard CMOS fabrication processes including lithography, oxidation, ion implantation, diffusion, chemical wet etching, metal deposition, annealing, and rapid thermal processing. Testing was performed by connecting the device to a silicon photodiode, indium-gallium-arsenide photodiodes, and a function generator to demonstrate its compatibility with arbitrary current sources. Current gains above 100 along with pre-amplified leakage currents of less than 10 nA were measured. This amplifier can also be cascaded to achieve very high gains similar to the photomultiplier tube but with much smaller size and no vacuum environment required. Testing was done by amplifying the output signal from an external silicon photodiode. Current gains over 600 were measured when two amplifying devices were cascaded. Additionally, the gain saturation phenomenon of the amplifier due to the space-charge effect is investigated. The measured gain saturation is observed to match very well with the theoretical based predictions. We also present a design rule for obtaining high current gain from the cascaded structure without experiencing gain saturation. Initial bandwidth of the SIM when connected to a silicon photodiode was measured to be about 300 kHz. As we replace the photodiode by a function generator, the bandwidth improved to 450 kHz which is the frequency limit of the system. These results were made on the first generation of SIM devices. We discovered that the space-charge resistance Rsc plays a significant role in determining frequency response. In future generations of the device, we can begin with optimizing the device geometry to reduce this resistance. Also, we can reduce the size of the

  20. Modeling solid-state transformations occurring in dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Timo; Aaltonen, Jaakko

    2013-04-15

    Changes in the solid-state form can occur during dissolution testing of drugs. This can often complicate interpretation of results. Additionally, there can be several mechanisms through which such a change proceeds, e.g. solvent-mediated transformation or crystal growth within the drug material itself. Here, a mathematical model was constructed to study the dissolution testing of a material, which undergoes such changes. The model consisted of two processes: the recrystallization of the drug from a supersaturated liquid state caused by the dissolution of the more soluble solid form and the crystal growth of the stable solid form at the surface of the drug formulation. Comparison to experimental data on theophylline dissolution showed that the results obtained with the model matched real solid-state changes and that it was able to distinguish between cases where the transformation was controlled either by solvent-mediated crystallization or solid-state crystal growth. PMID:23506958

  1. Physicochemical characterization of 2-hydroxybenzophenone with β-cyclodextrin in solution and solid state.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Matias I; Russo, Marcos G; Moreno, M Sergio; Gasull, Estela; Blanco, Sonia E; Narda, Griselda E

    2015-05-01

    The characterization of the inclusion complex between 2-hydroxybenzophenone (2OHBP) and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) in the solid state was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The apparent formation constant of the complex was determined by phase solubility diagrams and liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different temperatures. The formation of the inclusion complex induced slight shifts in the FTIR spectrum while by PXRD a new crystalline phase was observed. TEM studies revealed that the complex forms aggregates of nanometric size. The inclusion complex showed a higher solubility in the tested dissolution media than free 2OHBP. Moreover, the freeze-dried solid complex exhibits a higher thermal stability than the solid free drug. The thermodynamic analysis allowed us to conclude that the encapsulation process is endothermic in water and exothermic in methanol-water. PMID:25893377

  2. Transformation of photophysical properties from solution to solid state in alkoxy-cyano-diphenylacetylene molecules.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Venugopal; Prabhu, Deepak D; Das, Suresh; Varughese, Sunil

    2015-07-28

    Detailed photophysical properties of cyano and mono (MA)/bis alkoxy (DA) substituted diphenylacetylene moieties with different alkyl chain lengths (methyl (1), octyl (8) and dodecyl (12)) were investigated in solution and the solid state in an effort to determine the effect of self-aggregation on these properties. The solvated molecules showed a minimal bathochromic shift with an increase of solvent polarity in their absorption spectra, whereas a significant shift was observed in the emission spectra. This could be attributed to the relatively low change in dipole moment between ground and Franck-Condon excited states and luminescence arising from the intramolecular charge transfer state with a dipole moment significantly higher than that of the ground state. In solid state the emission quantum yields of these materials were significantly higher than in solution. For DA1, polymorphic materials with distinct photophysical properties were obtained. The DA1 materials obtained by fast precipitation (DA1) showed broad fluorescence with peaks at 398, 467 and 535 nm upon excitation at different wavelengths. Detailed analysis of absorption, emission and excitation spectra and lifetime experiments indicated that these peaks could be attributed to the monomer, J- and H-type aggregates respectively. Whereas the crystals obtained by slow crystallization (DA1C) showed only one emission peak at around 396 nm attributed to the monomer. This is supported by the single crystal X-ray structure which consists of a monomer molecule having minimal interaction with nearest neighbour molecules. PMID:26118371

  3. Cavity approach to the random solid state.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming; Goldbart, Paul M; Mézard, Marc; Weigt, Martin

    2005-09-30

    The cavity approach is used to address the physical properties of random solids in equilibrium. Particular attention is paid to the fraction of localized particles and the distribution of localization lengths characterizing their thermal motion. This approach is of relevance to a wide class of random solids, including rubbery media (formed via the vulcanization of polymer fluids) and chemical gels (formed by the random covalent bonding of fluids of atoms or small molecules). The cavity approach confirms results that have been obtained previously via replica mean-field theory, doing so in a way that sheds new light on their physical origin. PMID:16241698

  4. Architectures for controlling solid state properties of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Rakesh R.

    hydrophobic (dodecyloxy)/fluorophilic (fluoroalkyl) side chains along the poly(1,4-phenylene ethynylene) backbone. We found that the regioregular substitution of the polymer backbone provides a structure in which the side chains segregate to afford a Janus-type structure. The regioregular polymer chains pack more densely in a monolayer at the air-water interface, and pack into a bilayer in the solid state to form a highly crystalline material. Pentacenes are very important organic molecules for use as semiconductor in oFETs due to their low band gap and high field effect mobility. One approach to reduce the bandgap of a polymeric system and improve performance is to include low bandgap small molecules into the conjugated backbone. A new copolymer system consisting of pentacene and terthiophene was developed and its optical and electronic properties along with its stability were evaluated. We report the use of ultrasonication of P3HT as a novel operationally-simple process to significantly improve the field effect mobility of P3HT-based FETs, thereby potentially eliminating the need for dielectric surface modifications or further processing of the device. Investigation of the sonicated polymer samples by number of characterization techniques indicates that ultrasonication leads to aggregation and ordering of the P3HT chains resulting in increase in the mobility.

  5. Dual Strong Couplings Between TPPS J-Aggregates and Aluminum Plasmonic States.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Ueno, Kosei; Uehara, Hiyori; Guo, Jingchun; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-07-21

    We report on the spectral properties of strong coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of aluminum (Al) nanostructures and tetraphenylporphyrin tetrasulfonic acid hydrate (TPPS) J-aggregates. Because of their wide spectral range of LSPR bands from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths by controlling structural size, Al nanodisks can realize strong coupling with different excitons of TPPS J-aggregates. The Rabi splitting energies of the excitons based on Soret and Q bands are 300 and 180 meV, respectively. In addition to extinction spectrum, we have also measured an excitation spectrum to determine the essential absorption of the hybrid states and successfully confirmed a shoulder peak corresponding to a lower branch of hybrid states. In Al nanorod systems, strong coupling with two excitons can also be selectively induced by merely rotating the polarization of the incident light, which constituted a simple platform for the dynamic control of exciton/plasmon coupling states. PMID:27383561

  6. Fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, J.; Sansinena, J. M.; Gao, J.; Wang, H. L.

    2004-01-01

    We report here the fabrication and characterization of solid-state, conducting polymer actuators. The electrochemical activity of polyaniline (PANI) thin film coated with solid-state polyelectrolyte is very similar to the polyaniline thin film in an aqueous solution. The solid-state actuator is adhere to a lever arm of an force transducer and the force generation is measured in real time. The force generated by the actuator is found to be length dependent. However, the overall torques generated by the actuators with different lengths remains essentially the same. The effect of stimulation signals such as voltage, current, on the bending angle and displacement is also studied using square wave potential.

  7. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  8. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  9. Solid-State Metalloproteins-An Alternative to Immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Rapson, Trevor D

    2016-01-01

    This commentary outlines a protein engineering approach as an alternative to immobilisation developed in our laboratory. We use a recombinant silk protein into which metal active sites can be incorporated to produce solid-state metalloprotein materials. The silk protein directly coordinates to the metal centres providing control over their reactivity akin to that seen in naturally occurring metalloproteins. These solid-state materials are remarkably stable at a range of temperatures and different solvent conditions. I discuss the genesis of this approach and highlight areas where such solid-state materials could find application. PMID:27428936

  10. Solid-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.; Haddon, R.C.; Dabbagh, G.; Glarum, S.H.; Douglass, D.C.; Mujsce, A.M. )

    1991-01-24

    The authors report solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements on powder samples of C{sub 60} and of a mixture of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. The NMR results show that, at 296 K, C{sub 60} molecules rotate rapidly and isotropically in the solid state, while C{sub 70} molecules rotate somewhat more anisotropically. These results are consistent with the proposed spherical geometry of C{sub 60} and prolate spheroidal geometry of C{sub 70}. The rotational correlation time of C{sub 60} molecules in the solid state becomes greater than 50 {mu}s at about 100 K.

  11. Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Tso Yee; Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, interest in diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers has increased due to their advantages over flashlamp-pumped solid-state lasers. A historical overview is presented of semiconductor diode-pumped solid-state lasers beginning with work in the early 1960s and continuing through recent work on wavelength extension of these devices by laser operation on new transitions. Modeling of these devices by rate equations to obtain expressions for threshold, slope efficiency, and figures of merit is also given.

  12. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  13. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Chris; Menkara, Hisham; Wagner, Brent

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  14. Chemical reactivity in solid-state pharmaceuticals: formulation implications.

    PubMed

    Byrn, S R; Xu, W; Newman, A W

    2001-05-16

    Solid-state reactions that occur in drug substances and formulations include solid-state phase transformations, dehydration/desolvation, and chemical reactions. Chemical reactivity is the focus of this chapter. Of particular interest are cases where the drug-substance may be unstable or react with excipients in the formulation. Water absorption can enhance molecular mobility of solids and lead to solid-state reactivity. Mobility can be measured using various methods including glass transition (T(g)) measurements, solid-state NMR, and X-ray crystallography. Solid-state reactions of drug substances can include oxidation, cyclization, hydrolysis, and deamidation. Oxidation studies of vitamin A, peptides (DL-Ala-DL-Met, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe methyl ester, and Met-enkaphalin acetate salt), and steroids (hydrocortisone and prednisolone derivatives) are discussed. Cyclization reactions of crystalline and amorphous angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (spirapril hydrochloride, quinapril hydrochloride, and moexipril) are presented which investigate mobility and chemical reactivity. Examples of drug-excipient interactions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, and acid base reactions are discussed for a variety of compounds including aspirin, fluoxitine, and ibuprofen. Once solid-state reactions are understood in a pharmaceutical system, the necessary steps can be taken to prevent reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products. PMID:11325479

  15. Formation of nanostructured solid-state carbon particles by laser ablation of graphite in isopropyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-Iti; Abe, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shunya

    2005-02-01

    Nanostructured solid-state carbon particles with sizes of 1 10 μm are successfully formed from graphite target by applying laser ablation technique in isopropyl alcohol. In the laser ablation in liquid, the diffusion of the evaporated atomic carbon particles is prevented. It follows that the shock front is condensed in the high-density condition, and evaporated carbon particles are clustered and aggregated. Nanostructured solid-state carbon particles are formed by repeatedly gathering. In this study, the influence of laser ablation process on isopropyl alcohol solvent and graphite target is analyzed, and it is revealed that the possible influences on chemical reactions with isopropyl alcohol and the direct exfoliation from the target can be excluded in this condensation process.

  16. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  17. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.; Goldsby, David L.; Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-04-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ≤ 0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ˜6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates.

  19. Solid state technology: A compilation. [on semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A compilation, covering selected solid state devices developed and integrated into systems by NASA to improve performance, is presented. Data are also given on device shielding in hostile radiation environments.

  20. Solid-State Synthesis of a Thermochromic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyun, Chen; Zhihua, Zhou; Yiming, Zhou; Jiangyan, Du

    2000-09-01

    Bis(diethylammonium) tetrachloronickelate(II) was prepared by solid-state reaction at mild temperature. Classroom demonstration of the synthesis and discussions of thermochromic mechanism of the compound prepared were described.

  1. Electronic aperture control devised for solid state imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, R. A.; Callahan, D. E.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1968-01-01

    Electronic means of performing the equivalent of automatic aperture control has been devised for the new class of television cameras that incorporates a solid state imaging device in the form of phototransistor mosaic sensors.

  2. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  3. Solid State Photochemical Isomerization: A Convenient Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of benzophenone in the role of a solid state sensitizer in a photochemical isomerization and as an indicator in preparative layer chromatography for purification of the isomeride. (Author/SA)

  4. Plasmon-Assisted Nd(3+)-Based Solid-State Nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Molina, Pablo; Yraola, Eduardo; Ramírez, Mariola O; Tserkezis, Christos; Plaza, José L; Aizpurua, Javier; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Bausá, Luisa E

    2016-02-10

    Solid-state lasers constitute essential tools in a variety of scientific and technological areas, being available in many different designs. However, although nanolasing has been successfully achieved for dyes and semiconductor gain media associated with plasmonic structures, the operation of solid-state lasers beyond the diffraction limit has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate room temperature laser action with subwavelength confinement in a Nd(3+)-based solid-state laser by means of the localized surface plasmon resonances supported by chains of metallic nanoparticles. We show a 50% reduction of the pump power at threshold and a remarkable 15-fold improvement of the slope efficiency with respect to the bulk laser operation. The results can be extended to the large diversity of solid-state lasers with the subsequent impact on their applications. PMID:26751848

  5. Solid-state X-band Combiner Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitzalis, O., Jr.; Russell, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of developing solid-state amplifiers at 4 and 10 GHz for application in spacecraft altimeters was studied. Bipolar-transistor, field-effect-transistor, and Impatt-diode amplifier designs based on 1980 solid-state technology are investigated. Several output power levels of the pulsed, low-duty-factor amplifiers are considered at each frequency. Proposed transistor and diode amplifier designs are illustrated in block diagrams. Projections of size, weight, and primary power requirements are given for each design.

  6. Progress in solid state dye laser development

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    A triaxial flashlamp (15 cm) was used to optically pump laser rods prepared from an acrylate based copolymer (0.95 cm O.D. {times} 10.0 cm L.). The performance of 13 laser dyes incorporated into this polymeric solid host is reported. The best lasing performance was obtained with sulforhodamine-B, with a calculated slope efficiency of 0.52% and a maximum single pulse output energy of 580 mJ. A commercially available fluorescent polymeric material was also evaluated. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state. PMID:26822564

  8. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  9. (Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices.

  10. Microstructural analysis of solid-state resistance welds

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R.Jr.

    1993-07-01

    No melting is present in solid-state welds and the microstructure is therefore very different from the solidification structures found in fusion welds. Improved properties of the weld result from the solid-state metallurgical structure. Solid-state resistance welding therefore has advantages compared to fusion welding processes. Different types of solid-state resistance welds have been developed for several unique applications ranging from small tube closure welds to vessel fabrication welds. Solid-state resistance upset welds have a hot worked microstructure, usually with recrystallization near the mating surfaces. Quality of the weld can be related to the metallographic appearance of the bond line at the mating surfaces. Impurities such as oxidation effect both the appearance of the bond line and weld quality. Microstructural examination of flow lines can provide a remarkably clear picture of the deformation pattern, or upsetting, that occurs during welding. Unusual effects such as multiple interfaces can be clearly seen from microstructural examination. Hardness traverses across metallographic sections are used to relate weld area strength to microstructural characteristics. Solid-state weld and heat-affected zone strengths have been compared to base metal and to fusion weld strengths using hardness data.

  11. Microstructural analysis of solid-state resistance welds

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R.Jr.

    1993-01-01

    No melting is present in solid-state welds and the microstructure is therefore very different from the solidification structures found in fusion welds. Improved properties of the weld result from the solid-state metallurgical structure. Solid-state resistance welding therefore has advantages compared to fusion welding processes. Different types of solid-state resistance welds have been developed for several unique applications ranging from small tube closure welds to vessel fabrication welds. Solid-state resistance upset welds have a hot worked microstructure, usually with recrystallization near the mating surfaces. Quality of the weld can be related to the metallographic appearance of the bond line at the mating surfaces. Impurities such as oxidation effect both the appearance of the bond line and weld quality. Microstructural examination of flow lines can provide a remarkably clear picture of the deformation pattern, or upsetting, that occurs during welding. Unusual effects such as multiple interfaces can be clearly seen from microstructural examination. Hardness traverses across metallographic sections are used to relate weld area strength to microstructural characteristics. Solid-state weld and heat-affected zone strengths have been compared to base metal and to fusion weld strengths using hardness data.

  12. Phase State and Dynamics of Fluids in Mesoporous Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiullin, Rustem

    2011-03-01

    Fundamental understanding of the correlations between the phase state and dynamics of fluids confined to mesoporous solids is an important prerequisite for their optimal use in practical applications. The present contribution describes some recent progress in the exploration of such interrelations using nuclear magnetic resonance. In particular, transport properties of fluids during gas-liquid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid transitions occurring in pore spaces of mesoporous solids are discussed and are shown to bear strong correlations. From the results presented it will, in particular, become evident that molecular diffusivity is a sensitive microscopic parameter not only to the thermodynamic state of the system, but also the history of its preparation.

  13. Isomer Shifts in Solid State Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. E.; Stievano, L.

    The isomer shift of the Mössbauer resonance is a rather unique quantity that cannot be obtained by any of the other techniques used for measuring hyperfine interactions in solids, such as NMR or perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC). It shifts the resonance pattern as a whole without affecting the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine splittings. Methods that measure only these hyperfine splittings are insensitive to the isomer shift. The magnitude of the observed shift is proportional to the product of a nuclear parameter, the change Δ⟨r 2⟩ of the nuclear radius that goes along with the Mössbauer transition, and to an electronic property of the material, the electron density ρ(0) at the Mössbauer nucleus or, more precisely, to the difference Δρ(0) of the electron densities at the Mössbauer nuclei in the materials of which the source and the absorber are made. The electron density at the nucleus is due to s-electrons and, to a lesser extent and mainly in heavy nuclei, to relativistic p1 / 2-electrons. All the other electrons have a vanishing density inside the nucleus and do not contribute. Thus, to a very good accuracy, the Mössbauer isomer shift enables one to obtain information on the s-electron density at the Mössbauer nuclei in solids.

  14. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  15. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  16. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range h..nu.. = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission.

  17. Universal features of the equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Rose, James H.; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the energetics of solids leads to the conclusion that the equation of state for all classes of solids in compression can be expressed in terms of a universal function. The form of this universal function is determined by scaling experimental compression data for measured isotherms of a wide variety of solids. The equation of state is thus known (in the absence of phase transitions), if zero-pressure volume and isothermal compression and its pressure derivative are known. The discovery described in this paper has two immediate consequences: first, despite the well known differences in the microscopic energetics of the various classes of solids, there is a single equation of state for all classes in compression; and second, a new method is provided for analyzing measured isotherms and extrapolating high-pressure data from low-pressure (e.g. acoustic) data.

  18. Equation of state of solid nickel aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Paisley, Dennis L.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2007-10-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of the intermetallic compound NiAl was calculated theoretically, and compared with experimental measurements. Electron ground states were calculated for NiAl in the CsCl structure, using ab initio pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), and were used to predict the cold compression curve and the density of phonon states. It was desirable to interpolate and smooth the cold compression states; the Rose form of compression curve was found to reproduce the ab initio calculations well in compression but exhibited significant deviations in expansion. A thermodynamically complete equation of state was constructed for NiAl, which overpredicted the mass density at standard temperature and pressure (STP) by 4%, fairly typical for predictions based on DFT. A minimally adjusted equation of state was constructed by tilting the cold compression energy-volume relation by ˜7GPa to reproduce the observed STP mass density. Shock waves were induced in crystals of NiAl by the impact of laser-launched Cu flyers and by launching NiAl flyers into transparent windows of known properties. The TRIDENT laser was used to accelerate the flyers, 5mm in diameter and 100-400μm thick, to speeds between 100 and 600m/s . Point and line-imaging laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the acceleration of the flyer and the surface velocity history of the target. The velocity histories were used to deduce the stress state, and hence states on the principal Hugoniot and the flow stress. Flyers and targets were recovered from most experiments. The effect of elasticity and plastic flow in the sample and window was assessed. The ambient isotherm reproduced static compression data very well, and the predicted Hugoniot was consistent with shock compression data.

  19. Phospholipid monolayers between fluid and solid states.

    PubMed Central

    Helm, C A; Möhwald, H; Kjaer, K; Als-Nielsen, J

    1987-01-01

    Monolayers of the phospholipid dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid on the surface of water have been studied by a combination of the new techniques of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and fluorescence microscopy with classical surface pressure data. The pressure vs. area isotherm changes slope at the surface pressures pi c and pi s. The optical technique demonstrates that between pi c and pi s the fluid phase coexists with a denser "gel" phase. Electron diffraction data have shown that the gel phase has bond orientational order over tens of micrometers. However, the x-ray data demonstrate that positional correlations extend only over tens of angstroms. Thus, the gel phase is not crystalline. Above pi s a solid phase is formed with a positional correlation range that is eight times longer for the chemically purest films. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:3651557

  20. Excited-state dynamics of Si-rhodamine and its aggregates: versatile fluorophores for NIR absorption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyeon; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Miyata, Mikiji; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-01-21

    Since it was first reported in 2008, great attention has been paid to Si-rhodamine (SiR) because of its far-red to near-infrared (NIR) absorption/fluorescence and suitability for high-resolution in vivo imaging. However, properties of SiR in the excited state have not been reported, even though they are directly related to its fluorescence. In the present study, the properties of SiR monomers in the excited states are thoroughly characterized for the first time. Moreover, by replacing a phenyl moiety of SiR with a 4-(9-anthryl)phenylene group (SiR-An), we prepared H- and J-aggregates of SiR in the aqueous solution, and succeeded in monitoring exciton formation and annihilation in the aggregates. Interestingly, the relative exciton population in the SiR J-aggregate increases as the excitation power becomes stronger, which is unusual considering that the substantial exciton-exciton annihilation process occurs as more excitons are generated. The results obtained in the present study suggest high versatility of SiR not only as a red fluorophore in the cutting-edge microscopic techniques but also as a NIR absorber in the light harvesting system. PMID:26692043

  1. Structural Changes Associated with Transthyretin Misfolding and Amyloid Formation Revealed by Solution and Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwang Hun; Dasari, Anvesh K R; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wemmer, David E

    2016-04-01

    Elucidation of structural changes involved in protein misfolding and amyloid formation is crucial for unraveling the molecular basis of amyloid formation. Here we report structural analyses of the amyloidogenic intermediate and amyloid aggregates of transthyretin using solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our solution NMR results show that one of the two main β-sheet structures (CBEF β-sheet) is maintained in the aggregation-competent intermediate, while the other DAGH β-sheet is more flexible on millisecond time scales. Magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR revealed that AB loop regions interacting with strand A in the DAGH β-sheet undergo conformational changes, leading to the destabilized DAGH β-sheet. PMID:26998642

  2. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  3. Frequency shifting with a solid-state switching capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Viola, T. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Frequency shifting, commonly used in electronic signal processing, is applied in tuning, automatic frequency control, antenna element switching, phase shifting, etc. Frequency shifting can be accomplished economically and reliably with simple circuit comprising conventional resistor and solid-state switching device which can be equivalent to two capacitors, depending on switching state.

  4. Solid State NMR and Protein-Protein Interactions in Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid state NMR spectroscopy has evolved rapidly in recent years into an excellent tool for the characterization of membrane proteins and their complexes. In the past few years it has also become clear that the structure of membrane proteins, especially helical membrane proteins is determined, in part, by the membrane environment. Therefore, the modeling of this environment by a liquid crystalline lipid bilayer for solid state NMR has generated a unique tool for the characterization of native conformational states, local and global dynamics, and high resolution structure for these proteins. Protein-protein interactions can also benefit from this solid state NMR capability to characterize membrane proteins in a native-like environment. These complexes take the form of oligomeric structures and hetero-protein interactions both with water soluble proteins and other membrane proteins. PMID:24034903

  5. Solid state NMR and protein-protein interactions in membranes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A

    2013-12-01

    Solid state NMR spectroscopy has evolved rapidly in recent years into an excellent tool for the characterization of membrane proteins and their complexes. In the past few years it has also become clear that the structure of membrane proteins, especially helical membrane proteins is determined, in part, by the membrane environment. Therefore, the modeling of this environment by a liquid crystalline lipid bilayer for solid state NMR has generated a unique tool for the characterization of native conformational states, local and global dynamics, and high-resolution structure for these proteins. Protein-protein interactions can also benefit from this solid state NMR capability to characterize membrane proteins in a native-like environment. These complexes take the form of oligomeric structures and hetero-protein interactions both with water-soluble proteins and other membrane proteins. PMID:24034903

  6. Electrochemical properties of all solid state Li/S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Wang, Qing; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kang, Yongku; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2012-10-15

    All-solid-state lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is prepared using siloxane cross-linked network solid electrolyte at room temperature. The solid electrolytes show high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability with lithium and sulfur. In the first discharge curve, all-solid-state Li/S battery shows three plateau potential regions of 2.4 V, 2.12 V and 2.00 V, respectively. The battery shows the first discharge capacity of 1044 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur at room temperature. This first discharge capacity rapidly decreases in 4th cycle and remains at 512 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur after 10 cycles.

  7. Path toward a high-energy solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Gary L.; Merkle, Larry D.; Dubinskii, Mark; Zandi, Bahram

    2004-04-01

    Lasers have come a long way since the first demonstration by Maiman of a ruby crystal laser in 1960. Lasers are used as scientific tools as well as for a wide variety of applications for both commercial industry and the military. Today lasers come in all types, shapes and sizes depending on their application. The solid-state laser has some distinct advantages in that it can be rugged, compact, and self contained, making it reliable over long periods of time. With the advent of diode laser pumping a ten times increase in overall laser efficiency has been realized. This significant event, and others, is changing the way solid-state lasers are applied and allows new possibilities. One of those new areas of exploration is the high energy laser. Solid-state lasers for welding are already developed and yield energies in the 0.5 to 6 kilojoule range. These lasers are at the forefront of what is possible in terms of high energy solid-state lasers. It is possible to achieve energies of greater than 100 kJ. These sorts of energies would allow applications, in addition to welding, such as directed energy weapons, extremely remote sensing, power transfer, propulsion, biological and chemical agent neutralization and unexploded and mine neutralization. This article will review these new advances in solid-state lasers and the different paths toward achieving a high energy laser. The advantages and challenges of each approach will be highlighted.

  8. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  9. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  10. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm-3 at 0.8 A cm-3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm-3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors.

  11. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm(-3) at 0.8 A cm(-3) with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm(-3), representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  12. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  13. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  14. Solid state stability studies of model dipeptides: aspartame and aspartylphenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Leung, S S; Grant, D J

    1997-01-01

    Some solid-state pharmaceutical properties and the solid-state thermal stability of the model dipeptides aspartame (APM) and aspartylphenylalanine (AP), have been investigated. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), high-performance liquid chromatography, powder X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy have shown that the dipeptides undergo solid state intramolecular aminolysis of the type, solid --> solid + gas. This reaction was observed for APM at 167-180 degrees C with the liberation of methanol and for AP at 186-202 degrees C with the liberation of water. The exclusive solid product of the degradation reaction of both dipeptides is the cyclic compound 3-(carboxymethyl)-6-benzyl-2,5-dioxopiperazine. The rates of the degradation reactions were monitored by isothermal TGA and by temperature-ramp DSC and were found to follow kinetics based on nucleation control with activation energies of about 266 kJ mol(-1) for APM and 234 kJ mol(-1) for AP. PMID:9002461

  15. All-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes: Review of fundamental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiayin, Yao; Bingxin, Huang; Jingyun, Yin; Gang, Peng; Zhen, Huang; Chao, Gao; Deng, Liu; Xiaoxiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The scientific basis of all-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes is reviewed briefly, touching upon solid electrolytes, electrode materials, electrolyte/electrode interface phenomena, fabrication, and evaluation. The challenges and prospects are outlined as well. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050906), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51172250 and 51202265), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010201), and Zhejiang Province Key Science and Technology Innovation Team, China (Grant No. 2013PT16).

  16. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  17. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heat transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.

  18. Solid-state amplifiers for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, D.; Harper, R.

    At frequencies greater than 20 GHz, satellite communications transmitters require only moderate power outputs due to higher-gain antennas. Broadband helix TWT capabilities can be increased to 80 W at 44 GHz by using diamond helix supports; such a tube is being developed. IMPATT diodes are becoming the leading contenders for medium power amplification. Silicon, GaAs and InP devices are competing for use at EHF. A comparison between their respective properties is made and state-of-the-art performance is given. Single-diode and multidiode amplifier stages are described and some examples given. Since reliability is of primary importance for this application, some preliminary data supporting the MTTF predictions are presented.

  19. Advances in actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C; Ikeda, Y.; Czerwinski, K.

    2011-01-31

    Actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry has advanced through unexpected results that have further revealed the complex nature of the 5f elements. Nanoscale control of actinide materials is emerging, as shown by the creation of a considerable range of cluster and tubular topologies. Departures from established structural trends for actinyl ions are provided by cation-cation interactions in which an O atom of one actinyl ion is an equatorial ligand of a bipyramid of another actinyl ion. The solid-state structural complexity of actinide materials has been further demonstrated by open framework materials with interesting properties. The U(VI) tetraoxide core has been added to this cation's repertoire of coordination possibilities. The emergence of pentavalent uranium solid-state and coordination chemistry has resulted from the prudent selection of ligands. Finally, analogues of the uranyl ion have challenged our understanding of this normally unreactive functional group.

  20. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  1. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  2. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  3. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, Clifford B.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  4. Silver nanoparticle aggregates on metal fibers for solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Limei; Cui, Jingcheng; Shi, Yu-e; Wang, Le; Zhan, Jinhua

    2015-07-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME), a solvent free technique for sample preparation, has been successfully coupled with GC, GC-MS, and HPLC for environmental analysis. In this work, a method combining solid phase microextraction with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is developed for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silver nanoparticle aggregates were deposited on the Ag-Cu fibers via layer-by-layer deposition, which were modified with propanethiol (PTH). The SERS-active SPME fiber was immersed in water directly to extract PAHs and then detected using a portable Raman spectrometer. The pronounced valence vibration of the C-C bond at 1030 cm(-1) was chosen as an internal standard peak for the constant concentration of PTH. The RSD values of the stability and the uniformity of the SERS-active SPME fiber are 2.97% and 5.66%, respectively. A log-log plot of the normalized SERS intensity versus fluoranthene concentration showed a linear relationship (R(2) = 0.95). The detection limit was 7.56 × 10(-10) M and the recovery rate of water samples was in the range of 95% to 115%. The method can also be applied to detection of PAH mixtures, and each component of the mixtures can be distinguished by Raman characteristic peaks. The SERS-active SPME fiber could be further confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:25988666

  5. High solid-state luminescence in propeller-shaped AIE-active pyridine-ketoiminate-boron complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanping; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yan, Hui; Gong, Shuwen; Liu, Zhipeng; He, Weijiang

    2015-05-28

    Two pyridine-ketoiminate-based organoboron complexes (2 and 3) were developed. 2 and 3 showed very weak emission in low-viscosity organic solvents because of the intramolecular rotation induced non-radiative process. Their emission can be dramatically enhanced by the increase in solvent viscosity or by molecular aggregation in the solid state. Moreover, 2 and 3 exhibited intense emission with high quantum yield of 0.53 and 0.46, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the weak intermolecular interactions such as C-H···F and C-H···π by fixing the molecular conformations of 2 and 3 were responsible for intense luminescence in the solid state. The large Stokes shifts and high efficient solid-state emission of 2 and 3 make them valuable AIE luminophores for further potential applications in the fields of fluorescence imaging and materials science. PMID:25906250

  6. Solid-state lighting—a benevolent technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo, Hong; Xi, J.-Q.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting.

  7. Self-assembly of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine derivatives: structural insights from solution and solid state studies

    PubMed Central

    Diaferia, Carlo; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Giannini, Cinzia; Sibillano, Teresa; Morelli, Giancarlo; Leone, Marilisa; Accardo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble fibers of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine (F4), chemically modified at the N-terminus with the DOTA chelating agent, have been proposed as innovative contrast agent (CA) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) upon complexation of the gadolinium ion. An in-depth structural characterization of PEGylated F4-fibers, in presence (DOTA-L6-F4) and in absence of DOTA (L6-F4), is reported in solution and at the solid state, by a multiplicity of techniques including CD, FTIR, NMR, DLS, WAXS and SAXS. This study aims to better understand how the aggregation process influences the performance of nanostructures as MRI CAs. Critical aggregation concentrations for L6-F4 (43 μM) and DOTA-L6-F4 (75 μM) indicate that self-aggregation process occurs in the same concentration range, independently of the presence of the CA. The driving force for the aggregation is the π-stacking between the side chains of the aromatic framework. CD, FTIR and WAXS measurements indicate an antiparallel β-sheet organization of the monomers in the resulting fibers. Moreover, WAXS and FTIR experiments point out that in solution the nanomaterials retain the same morphology and monomer organizations of the solid state, although the addition of the DOTA chelating agent affects the size and the degree of order of the fibers. PMID:27220817

  8. Self-assembly of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine derivatives: structural insights from solution and solid state studies.

    PubMed

    Diaferia, Carlo; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Giannini, Cinzia; Sibillano, Teresa; Morelli, Giancarlo; Leone, Marilisa; Accardo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble fibers of PEGylated tetra-phenylalanine (F4), chemically modified at the N-terminus with the DOTA chelating agent, have been proposed as innovative contrast agent (CA) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) upon complexation of the gadolinium ion. An in-depth structural characterization of PEGylated F4-fibers, in presence (DOTA-L6-F4) and in absence of DOTA (L6-F4), is reported in solution and at the solid state, by a multiplicity of techniques including CD, FTIR, NMR, DLS, WAXS and SAXS. This study aims to better understand how the aggregation process influences the performance of nanostructures as MRI CAs. Critical aggregation concentrations for L6-F4 (43 μM) and DOTA-L6-F4 (75 μM) indicate that self-aggregation process occurs in the same concentration range, independently of the presence of the CA. The driving force for the aggregation is the π-stacking between the side chains of the aromatic framework. CD, FTIR and WAXS measurements indicate an antiparallel β-sheet organization of the monomers in the resulting fibers. Moreover, WAXS and FTIR experiments point out that in solution the nanomaterials retain the same morphology and monomer organizations of the solid state, although the addition of the DOTA chelating agent affects the size and the degree of order of the fibers. PMID:27220817

  9. A Solid-State Modulator for High Speed Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Cook, E G; Chen, Y J; Anaya, R M; Lee, B S; Sullivan, J S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-11

    An all solid-state modulator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high-speed beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. It provides a nominal 18kV pulse with {+-} 10% amplitude modulation on the order of several MHz, rise times on the order of 10nS, and can be configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include measured performance data.

  10. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; Brooksby, C.A.; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  11. Modelling and simulation of large solid state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.; Warren, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of numerical methods to simulate the several physical processes (e.g., diffraction, self-focusing, gain saturation) that are involved in coherent beam propagation through large laser systems is discussed. A comprehensive simulation code for modeling the pertinent physical phenomena observed in laser operations (growth of small-scale modulation, spatial filter, imaging, gain saturation and beam-induced damage) is described in some detail. Comparisons between code results and solid state laser output performance data are presented. Design and performance estimation of the large Nova laser system at LLNL are given. Finally, a global design rule for large, solid state laser systems is discussed.

  12. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  13. Solid-State Source of Subcycle Pulses in the Midinfrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. A.; Lanin, A. A.; Voronin, A. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a robust, all-solid-state approach for the generation of microjoule subcycle pulses in the midinfrared through a cascade of carefully optimized parametric-amplification, difference-frequency-generation, spectral-broadening, and chirp-compensation stages. This method of subcycle waveform generation becomes possible due to an unusual, ionization-assisted solid-state pulse self-compression dynamics, where highly efficient spectral broadening is enabled by ultrabroadband four-wave parametric amplification phase matched near the zero-group-velocity wavelength of the material.

  14. Solid-state greenhouses and their implications for icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Brown, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The 'solid-state greenhouse effect' model constituted by the subsurface solar heating of translucent, high-albedo materials is presently applied to the study of planetary surfaces, with attention to frost and ice surfaces of the solar system's outer satellites. Temperature is computed as a function of depth for an illustrative range of thermal variables, and it is discovered that the surfaces and interiors of such bodies can be warmer than otherwise suspected. Mechanisms are identified through which the modest alteration of surface properties can substantially change the solid-state greenhouse and force an interior temperature adjustment.

  15. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  16. Design of diode laser systems for solid state laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Luethy, Willy A.; Weber, Heinz P.

    2003-11-01

    In contrast to flashlamps the emission of single stripe laser diodes is highly directional and can be focused rather easily to small spots, which gives access to very high pump intensities. Numerical arrangements are possible for transferring the pump radiation to the solid state laser media. In this paper the most important concepts of diode laser systems for pumping solid state lasers are summarized and described. Thereby the aim is to find the most efficient and powerful method for endpumping a Yb3+-double clad fiber.

  17. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW {center_dot} hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness.

  18. Gas-phase synthesis of solid state DNA nanoparticles stabilized by l-leucine.

    PubMed

    Raula, Janne; Hanzlíková, Martina; Rahikkala, Antti; Hautala, Juho; Kauppinen, Esko I; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2013-02-28

    Aerosol flow reactor is used to generate solid-state nanoparticles in a one-step process that is based on drying of aerosol droplets in continuous flow. We investigated the applicability of aerosol flow reactor method to prepare solid state DNA nanoparticles. Precursor solutions of plasmid DNA with or without complexing agent (polyethylenimine), coating material (l-leucine) and mannitol (bulking material) were dispersed to nanosized droplets and instantly dried in laminar heat flow. Particle morphology, integrity and stability were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The stability of DNA was studied by gel electrophoresis. Plasmid DNA as such degraded in the aerosol flow process. Complexing agent protected DNA from degradation and coating material enabled production of dispersed, non-aggregated, nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were spherical and their mean diameter ranged from 65 to 125nm. The nanoparticles were structurally stable at room temperature and their DNA content was about 10%. We present herein the proof of principle for the production of dispersed solid state nanoparticles with relevant size and intact plasmid DNA. PMID:23352859

  19. Equilibrium excited state and emission spectra of molecular aggregates from the hierarchical equations of motion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liping; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) method was applied to calculate the emission spectra of molecular aggregates using the Frenkel exciton model. HEOM equations for the one-exciton excited state were first propagated until equilibration. The reduced density operator and auxiliary density operators (ADOs) were used to characterize the coupled system-bath equilibrium. The dipole-dipole correlation functions were then calculated to obtain the emission spectra of model dimers, and the B850 band of light-harvesting complex II (LH2) in purple bacteria. The effect of static disorder on equilibrium excited state and the emission spectra of LH2 was also explicitly considered. Several approximation schemes, including the high temperature approximation (HTA) of the HEOM, a modified version of the HTA, the stochastic Liouville equation approach, the perturbative time-local and time-nonlocal generalized quantum master equations, were assessed in the calculation of the equilibrium excited state and emission spectra.

  20. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    -energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

  1. [Effect of microbial aggregation state on nitrous oxide emission in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification nitrogen removal process].

    PubMed

    Yin, Qian-Ting; Li, Ping; Wu, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xiang-De

    2011-07-01

    In order to realize efficient nitrogen removal and N2O emission reduction, air lift circulation bioreactors were applied to study the relationship between activated sludge aggregation state and N2O emission characters on the basis of high nitrogen removal performance. The nitrification/denitrification activity of different microbial aggregates was evaluated by key enzyme action ratio method. Combined with correlative theoretical analysis, the optimal aggregation state with efficient nitrogen removal and N2O emission reduction was selected. According to the results, different activated sludge aggregation state in SND would lead to significant difference of N2O emission amount (> or = 40%). The smaller aggregates (< or = 0.9 mm) with moderate compactness could keep high SND efficiency (> or = 70%) and achieved N2O emission reduction. In experimental defined system, the optimal diameter of aggregates was in the range of 0.45-0.9 mm, which could obtain higher nitrification activity [ammonia-oxidizing bacteria activity was 0.17 mg x (g x min) (-1), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria activity was 0.74 mg x (g x min) (-1)] and denitrification activity [NO3(-) -N consumption rate was 0.47 mg x (g x min) (-1), NO2(-) -N consumption rate was 0.22 mg x (g x min) (-1)]. Compared to the control group, N2O accumulated emission amount in the reactor with aggregates of 0.45-0.9 mm could be realized reduction more than 32.55%. PMID:21922830

  2. Tillage practices in the conterminous United States, 1989-2004-Datasets Aggregated by Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the methods used to aggregate county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit (HU) watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). The CTIC collects tillage data by conducting surveys about tillage systems for all counties in the United States. Tillage systems include three types of conservation tillage (no-till, ridge-till, and mulch-till), reduced tillage, and intensive tillage. Total planted acreage for each tillage practice for each crop grown is reported to the CTIC. The dataset includes total planted acreage by tillage type for selected crops (corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybeans, fallow, forage, newly established permanent pasture, spring and fall seeded small grains, and 'other' crops) for 1989-2004. Two tabular datasets, based on the 1992 enhanced and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD), are provided as part of this report and include the land-cover area-weighted interpolation and aggregation of acreage for each tillage practice in each 8-digit HU watershed in the conterminous United States for each crop. Watershed aggregations were done by overlying the 8-digit HU polygons with a raster of county boundaries and a raster of either the enhanced 1992 or the 2001 NLCD for cultivated land to derive a county/land-cover area weighting factor. The weighting factor then was applied to the county-level tillage data for the counties within each 8-digit HU and summed to yield the total acreage of each tillage type within each 8-digit HU watershed.

  3. Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Minoru

    2012-11-01

    The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of

  4. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  5. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianqi

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  6. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test results obtained have confirmed the practicality of the solid state electro-optic filters as an optical control element in a television system. Neutral-density control range in excess of 1000:1 has been obtained on sample filters. Test results, measurements in a complete camera system, discussions of problem areas, analytical comparisons, and recommendations for future investigations are included.

  7. Diode pumped solid-state laser oscillators for spectroscopic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Basu, S.; Fan, T. Y.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Nabors, C. D.; Nilsson, A.; Huber, G.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid improvement in diode laser pump sources has led to the recent progress in diode laser pumped solid state lasers. To date, electrical efficiencies of greater than 10 percent were demonstrated. As diode laser costs decrease with increased production volume, diode laser and diode laser array pumped solid state lasers will replace the traditional flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser sources. The use of laser diode array pumping of slab geometry lasers will allow efficient, high peak and average power solid state laser sources to be developed. Perhaps the greatest impact of diode laser pumped solid state lasers will be in spectroscopic applications of miniature, monolithic devices. Single-stripe diode-pumped operation of a continuous-wave 946 nm Nd:YAG laser with less than 10 m/w threshold was demonstrated. A slope efficiency of 16 percent near threshold was shown with a projected slope efficiency well above a threshold of 34 percent based on results under Rhodamine 6G dye-laser pumping. Nonlinear crystals for second-harmonic generation of this source were evaluated. The KNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 appear to be the most promising.

  8. Screening Plastic-Encapsulated Solid-State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldhaupt, L.

    1984-01-01

    Suitability of plastic-encapsulated solid-state electronic devices for use in spacecraft discussed. Conclusion of preliminary study was plasticencapsulated parts sufficiently reliable to be considered for use in lowcost equipment used at moderate temperature and low humidity. Useful to engineers as guides to testing or use of plastic encapsulated semiconductors in severe terrestrial environments.

  9. View from... CLEO 2011: Ultraviolet goes solid-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pile, David

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor light-emitting diodes may soon replace mercury lamps as the ultraviolet source of choice in a wide range of applications. Researchers around the world are now racing to increase the efficiency and output power of such ultraviolet solid-state devices.

  10. Nanoparticle size and shape characterization with Solid State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandivada, Santoshi; Benamara, Mourad; Li, Jiali

    2015-03-01

    Solid State Nanopores are widely used in a variety of single molecule studies including DNA and biomolecule detection based on the principle of Resistive Pulse technique. This technique is based on electrophoretically driving charged particles through 35-60 nm solid state nanopores. The translocation of these particles produces current blockage events that provide an insight to the properties of the translocation particles and the nanopore. In this work we study the current blockage events produced by ~ 30nm negatively charged PS nanoparticles through Silicon Nitride solid state nanopores. We show how the current blockage amplitudes and durations are related to the ratio of the volume of the particle to the volume of the pore, the shape of the particle, charge of the particle and the nanopore surface, salt concentration, solution pH, and applied voltage. The solid-state nanopores are fabricated by a combination of Focus Ion Beam and low energy Ion beams in silicon nitride membranes. High resolution TEM is used to measure the 3D geometry of the nanopores and a finite element analysis program (COMSOL) is used to simulate the experimental results.

  11. Solid state phase detector replaces bulky transformer circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moberly, C. L.

    1967-01-01

    Miniature solid state phase detector using MOSFETs is used in a phase lock loop with a sun-bit detector in an integrated data-link circuit. This replaces bulky transformer circuits. It uses an inverter amplifier, a modulator switch, and a buffer amplifier.

  12. The development of solid-state NMR of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Most biological functions are carried out in supramolecular assemblies. As a result of their slow reorientation in solution, these assemblies have been resistant to the widely employed solution NMR approaches. The development of solid-state NMR to first of all overcome the correlation time problem and then obtain informative high-resolution spectra of proteins in supramolecular assemblies, such as virus particles and membranes, is described here. High resolution solid-state NMR is deeply intertwined with the history of NMR, and the seminal paper was published in 1948. Although the general principles were understood by the end of the 1950s, it has taken more than fifty years for instrumentation and experimental methods to become equal to the technical problems presented by the biological assemblies of greatest interest. It is now possible to obtain atomic resolution structures of viral coat proteins in virus particles and membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers by oriented sample solid-state NMR methods. The development of this aspect of the field of solid-state NMR is summarized in this review article. PMID:26069880

  13. Solid State Technology Branch of NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of papers written by the members of the Solid State Technology Branch of NASA LeRC from Jun. 1991 - Jun. 1992 is presented. A range of topics relating to superconductivity, Monolithic Microwave Circuits (MMIC's), coplanar waveguides, and material characterization is covered.

  14. Improved Fabrication Of Cathodes For Solid-State Li Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1995-01-01

    Utilization of cathode material increased. Improved composite-cathode/polymer-electrolyte units for solid-state lithium secondary electrochemical cells fabricated in modified version of original method of fabrication. Further development of units may lead to increases in energy and power densities and in cycle lives of rechargeable lithium cells.

  15. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  16. Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

  17. Introduction of Materials Science Through Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, William M.

    Presented is a report of a program of the American Society for Metals, designed to introduce materials science principles via solid state chemistry into high school chemistry courses. At the time of the inception of this program in the mid-sixties, it was felt that high school students were not being adequately exposed to career opportunities in…

  18. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  19. Light-activated solid-state opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyse, Mark W.; Petr, Rodney A.; Kachen, George I.; Reilly, James P.; Schaefer, Raymond B.

    1993-01-01

    Light-activated solid-state opening switches are shown to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings needed to develop compact inductive power systems.

  20. Solid-state gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride optical switch

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, R.; Rubin, M.; Richardson, T.; OBrien, N.; Chen, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The optical switching properties of gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride have been demonstrated in a solid-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35{percent} with virtually zero transmission, while with negative polarization, the visible transmission exceeds 25{percent} at 650 nm. The switching is reversible, with intermediate optical properties between the transparent and reflecting states. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Equation Of State With Temperature Effects For Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior at high temperature predicted from only four parameters. Equations derived to express thermodynamical properties of compressed solids at high temperatures. New equations based on fundamental considerations of thermodynamics, isothermal equation of state, and assumption thermal pressure independent of volume and varies linearly with temperature near and about Debye temperature. Using only four parameters (three are those of isothermal equation of state), new equations describe thermodynamic behavior of material over range of temperatures from approximately Debye temperature to melting point.

  2. Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    All-solid-state electrochemical power cells have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments for use in environments as hot as 500 C. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus, and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal and oil wells, processing furnaces, and combustion engines. In the state-of-the-art predecessors of the present solid-state power cells, fully packaged molten eutectic salts are used as electrolytes. The molten-salt-based cells can be susceptible to significant amounts of self-discharge and corrosion when used for extended times at elevated temperatures. In contrast, all-solid-state cells such as the present ones are expected to be capable of operating for many days at temperatures up to 500 C, without significant self-discharge. The solid-state cell described here includes a cathode made of FeS2, an electrolyte consisting of a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and Li4SiO4, and an anode made of an alloy of Li and Si (see figure). The starting material for making the solid electrolyte is a stoichiometric mixture of Li3PO4, SiO2, and Li3CO2. This mixture is ball-milled, then calcined for two hours at a temperature of 1,100 C, then placed in a die atop the cathode material. Next, the layers in the die are squeezed together at a pressure between 60 and 120 MPa for one hour at a temperature of 600 C to form a unitary structure comprising the solid electrolyte and cathode bonded together. Finally, the lithium-alloy anode is pressure-bonded to the solid electrolyte layer, using an intermediate layer of pure lithium. In one test of a cell of this type, a discharge rate of about 1 mA per gram of cathode material was sustained for 72 hours at a temperature of about 460 C. This is about three times the discharge rate required to support some of the longer duration Venus-exploration mission scenarios.

  3. Analysis of measurements for solid state laser remote lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1995-01-01

    The merits of using lidar systems for remote measurements of various atmospheric processes such as wind, turbulence, moisture, and aerosol concentration are widely recognized. Although the lidar technology has progressed considerably over the past two decades, significant research particularly in the area of solid state lidars remains to be conducted in order to fully exploit this technology. The work performed by the UAH (University of Alabama in Huntsville) personnel under this Delivery Order concentrated on analyses of measurements required in support of solid state laser remote sensing lidar systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. UAH personnel has studied and recommended to NASA/MSFC the requirements of the optical systems needed to characterize the detection devices suitable for solid state wavelengths and to evaluate various heterodyne detection schemes. The 2-micron solid state laser technology was investigated and several preliminary laser designs were developed and their performance for remote sensing of atmospheric winds and clouds from a spaceborne platform were specified. In addition to the laser source and the detector, the other critical technologies necessary for global wind measurements by a spaceborne solid state coherent lidar systems were identified to be developed and demonstrated. As part of this work, an analysis was performed to determine the atmospheric wind velocity estimation accuracy using the line-of-sight measurements of a scanning coherent lidar. Under this delivery order, a computer database of materials related to the theory, development, testing, and operation of lidar systems was developed to serve as a source of information for lidar research and development.

  4. Frequency stabilization of diode-laser-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Sunlite program is to fly two diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers on the space shuttle and while doing so to perform a measurement of their frequency stability and temporal coherence. These measurements will be made by combining the outputs of the two lasers on an optical radiation detector and spectrally analyzing the beat note. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers have several characteristics that will make them useful in space borne experiments. First, this laser has high electrical efficiency. Second, it is of a technology that enables scaling to higher powers in the future. Third, the laser can be made extremely reliable, which is crucial for many space based applications. Fourth, they are frequency and amplitude stable and have high temporal coherence. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers are inherently efficient. Recent results have shown 59 percent slope efficiency for a diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser. As for reliability, the laser proposed should be capable of continuous operation. This is possible because the diode lasers can be remote from the solid state gain medium by coupling through optical fibers. Diode lasers are constructed with optical detectors for monitoring their output power built into their mounting case. A computer can actively monitor the output of each diode laser. If it sees any variation in the output power that might indicate a problem, the computer can turn off that diode laser and turn on a backup diode laser. As for stability requirements, it is now generally believed that any laser can be stabilized if the laser has a frequency actuator capable of tuning the laser frequency as far as it is likely to drift in a measurement time.

  5. State-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaross, R. A.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Koehl, E. R.

    1984-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers (SSMCs) is assessed in terms of use, probability of Class 1E qualification, failure rate experience, and reliability prediction. Surveys of commercial availability, nuclear and nonnuclear electric utility experience, and architect-engineering use were made relative to the suitability of SSMCs for nuclear service. Reasons for the limited use of SSMCs in nuclear plants are given. Available failure rate data are meager, and are augmented by data on other solid-state power electronic devices that are shown to have subcomponents similar to those found in SSMCs. In addition to large nonnuclear solid-state adjustable-speed motor drives, the reliability of nuclear plant inverter systems and high-voltage solid-state DC transmission line converters is assessed. Class 1E environmental qualification experience with nuclear plant converter/inverters and battery chargers is shown to be directly applicable to SSMCs.

  6. How to control solid state dewetting: A short review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Borowik, Ł.; Cheynis, F.; Almadori, Y.; Curiotto, S.; Trautmann, M.; Barbé, J. C.; Müller, P.

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade there have been many theoretical and experimental efforts to study the mechanisms of solid state dewetting, that means the spontaneous agglomeration of a thin solid film on a substrate into an assembly of 3D islands. The dewetting studies of solid films on solid substrates have not yet reached the degree of maturity achieved for liquids but there is now enough experimental data to consider the possibility of a future "dewetting engineering". By dewetting engineering we mean all the ways to tune and/or control the kinetics of dewetting as well as the morphology of the final dewetted state. The ultimate goal is to avoid dewetting when it complicates the fabrication of thin film-based devices or to use it for the spontaneous production of an assembly of nanoscaled islands on solid substrates. For this purpose we review the different parameters that influence the dewetting then illustrate how the dewetted state may be tuned by varying the thickness of the film, the annealing temperature, or the state of strain in the film. Moreover, adsorbed or absorbed species (by deposition or ionic impingement/ion bombardment) may modify the surface properties of the film or the mobility properties of the contact line film/substrate and thus the dewetting properties. Anisotropic properties of the film may also be used to initiate the dewetting from perfectly oriented edge fronts, leading to highly ordered 3D islands. New approaches using substrate pre-patterning or film patterning are very promising to achieve the dewetting engineering. Ideal systems for studying solid state dewetting are single crystalline films deposited or bonded on amorphous substrates, so that, among the numerous dewetting systems reported in the literature, ultra-thin crystalline silicon-on-insulator (SOI) film (a Si film bonded on an amorphous SiO2 substrate) is considered as a model system for studying how to control solid state dewetting. Other systems, as Ni epitaxially grown on MgO, are

  7. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, N. A. de

    2011-03-01

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  8. On the solid-state NMR spectra of naproxen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Two previous measurements of the 13C and 1H NMR isotropic chemical shifts in crystalline naproxen, which is an important pharmaceutical compound, are confronted with the results obtained from several theoretical approaches capable of the proper treatment of solid-phase effects. In the underlying geometrical optimizations, two crystal structures are considered. The agreement between the data sets is quantified, including an evaluation of the similarity between the experimental solid-state NMR spectra. The 13C-1H heteronuclear correlations are analyzed, and their various assignments are discussed employing the statistical treatment of the differences between the measured and theoretical isotropic chemical shifts.

  9. Solid-state induced control of kinetically unstable stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Keane, Joseph M; Ding, Fei; Sabat, Michal; Harman, W Dean

    2004-01-28

    Arene complexes of the form TpM(pi-acid)(L)(eta2-arene) (Tp = hydridotris(pyrazolyl)borate, M = Re, Mo, or W, pi-acid = CO or NO, L = 1-alkylimidazole, pyridine, PMe3, arene is prochiral) exist as a dynamic equilibrium of coordination diastereomers in solution. In both crystalline and amorphous solid states, however, only one diastereomer is present. Reactions on the bound arenes in these complexes have been performed stereoselectively, by exploiting the homomorphic nature of the solid phase. PMID:14733552

  10. An accurate equation of state for fluids and solids.

    PubMed

    Parsafar, G A; Spohr, H V; Patey, G N

    2009-09-01

    A simple functional form for a general equation of state based on an effective near-neighbor pair interaction of an extended Lennard-Jones (12,6,3) type is given and tested against experimental data for a wide variety of fluids and solids. Computer simulation results for ionic liquids are used for further evaluation. For fluids, there appears to be no upper density limitation on the equation of state. The lower density limit for isotherms near the critical temperature is the critical density. The equation of state gives a good description of all types of fluids, nonpolar (including long-chain hydrocarbons), polar, hydrogen-bonded, and metallic, at temperatures ranging from the triple point to the highest temperature for which there is experimental data. For solids, the equation of state is very accurate for all types considered, including covalent, molecular, metallic, and ionic systems. The experimental pvT data available for solids does not reveal any pressure or temperature limitations. An analysis of the importance and possible underlying physical significance of the terms in the equation of state is given. PMID:19678647

  11. Solid State Physics in the People's Republic of China. A Trip Report of the American Solid State Physics Delegation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Anne; Slichter, Charles P.

    This is the fifth chapter of a six chapter report which discusses Chinese research and education in solid state physics, and their relations to technology and the other sciences. This specific chapter concerns the communication of information in the scientific community and the transfer of information to students and practical users…

  12. Leachability of heavy metals from lightweight aggregates made with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na

    2015-05-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China's regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  13. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  14. A general ansatz for constructing quasi-diabatic states in electronically excited aggregated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenlan; Lunkenheimer, Bernd; Settels, Volker; Engels, Bernd; Fink, Reinhold F.; Köhn, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    We present a general method for analyzing the character of singly excited states in terms of charge transfer (CT) and locally excited (LE) configurations. The analysis is formulated for configuration interaction singles (CIS) singly excited wave functions of aggregate systems. It also approximately works for the second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles and the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction methods [CC2 and ADC(2)]. The analysis method not only generates a weight of each character for an excited state, but also allows to define the related quasi-diabatic states and corresponding coupling matrix elements. In the character analysis approach, we divide the target system into domains and use a modified Pipek-Mezey algorithm to localize the canonical MOs on each domain, respectively. The CIS wavefunction is then transformed into the localized basis, which allows us to partition the wavefunction into LE configurations within domains and CT configuration between pairs of different domains. Quasi-diabatic states are then obtained by mixing excited states subject to the condition of maximizing the weight of one single LE or CT configuration (localization in configuration space). Different aims of such a procedure are discussed, either the construction of pure LE and CT states for analysis purposes (by including a large number of excited states) or the construction of effective models for dynamics calculations (by including a restricted number of excited states). Applications are given to LE/CT mixing in π-stacked systems, charge-recombination matrix elements in a hetero-dimer, and excitonic couplings in multi-chromophoric systems.

  15. A general ansatz for constructing quasi-diabatic states in electronically excited aggregated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenlan; Köhn, Andreas; Lunkenheimer, Bernd; Settels, Volker; Engels, Bernd; Fink, Reinhold F.

    2015-08-28

    We present a general method for analyzing the character of singly excited states in terms of charge transfer (CT) and locally excited (LE) configurations. The analysis is formulated for configuration interaction singles (CIS) singly excited wave functions of aggregate systems. It also approximately works for the second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles and the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction methods [CC2 and ADC(2)]. The analysis method not only generates a weight of each character for an excited state, but also allows to define the related quasi-diabatic states and corresponding coupling matrix elements. In the character analysis approach, we divide the target system into domains and use a modified Pipek-Mezey algorithm to localize the canonical MOs on each domain, respectively. The CIS wavefunction is then transformed into the localized basis, which allows us to partition the wavefunction into LE configurations within domains and CT configuration between pairs of different domains. Quasi-diabatic states are then obtained by mixing excited states subject to the condition of maximizing the weight of one single LE or CT configuration (localization in configuration space). Different aims of such a procedure are discussed, either the construction of pure LE and CT states for analysis purposes (by including a large number of excited states) or the construction of effective models for dynamics calculations (by including a restricted number of excited states). Applications are given to LE/CT mixing in π-stacked systems, charge-recombination matrix elements in a hetero-dimer, and excitonic couplings in multi-chromophoric systems.

  16. Contribution of Aggregate States and Energetic Disorder to a Squaraine System Targeted for Organic Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chenyu; Penmetcha, Anirudh Raju; Cona, Brandon; Spencer, Susan D; Zhu, Bi; Heaphy, Patrick; Cody, Jeremy A; Collison, Christopher J

    2015-07-21

    Squaraine dyes have significant potential for use in organic photovoltaic devices because their chemical and packing structure tunability leads to a broad solid state panchromaticity. Nevertheless, broadening of the spectrum does not always give rise to increasing power conversion efficiencies. Furthermore, the same processing strategy used to make devices from different squaraines does not lead to the same optimized performance. In this work, by varying the environmental conditions of a set of anilinic squaraines, we demonstrate that spin-cast thin films are made up of a complex set of states, with each state contributing differently to the overall device efficiency. We demonstrate crystallochromy in that small changes in the packing structure give rise to dramatically different absorption spectra. Through a remarkable comparison between squaraines in poly(methyl methacrylate) solid solution and squaraine:PC60BM blends, we also show long-range and orientational disorder broadening, which distorts the ability to correlate qualitative spectroscopic assessment with an understanding of the device mechanism. We conclude that a full quantitative assessment of the populations of each excited state must be carried out in order to make progress toward an improved understanding of each state's contribution to charge transfer at the bulk heterojunction interface. PMID:26132332

  17. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  18. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  19. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  20. Electrical control of a solid-state flying qubit.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michihisa; Takada, Shintaro; Bäuerle, Christopher; Watanabe, Kenta; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2012-04-01

    Solid-state approaches to quantum information technology are attractive because they are scalable. The coherent transport of quantum information over large distances is a requirement for any practical quantum computer and has been demonstrated by coupling super-conducting qubits to photons. Single electrons have also been transferred between distant quantum dots in times shorter than their spin coherence time. However, until now, there have been no demonstrations of scalable 'flying qubit' architectures-systems in which it is possible to perform quantum operations on qubits while they are being coherently transferred-in solid-state systems. These architectures allow for control over qubit separation and for non-local entanglement, which makes them more amenable to integration and scaling than static qubit approaches. Here, we report the transport and manipulation of qubits over distances of 6 µm within 40 ps, in an Aharonov-Bohm ring connected to two-channel wires that have a tunable tunnel coupling between channels. The flying qubit state is defined by the presence of a travelling electron in either channel of the wire, and can be controlled without a magnetic field. Our device has shorter quantum gates (<1 µm), longer coherence lengths (∼86 µm at 70 mK) and higher operating frequencies (∼100 GHz) than other solid-state implementations of flying qubits. PMID:22426515

  1. Dipyrrolylquinoxaline difluoroborates with intense red solid-state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changjiang; Hao, Erhong; Li, Tingting; Wang, Jun; Sheng, Wanle; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Jiao, Lijuan

    2015-08-21

    A set of organic fluorescent dyes of dipyrrolylquinoxalines (PQs ) and their BF2 complexes (BPQs ) were synthesized from commercial reagents, and were characterized by their X-ray structural analysis, and optical and electrochemical properties. BPQs showed intense broad absorption in the visible region in the solution-state. In comparison with that of PQs , there is an over 110 nm red-shift of the absorption maximum in the BPQs (up to 583 nm). Interestingly, dyes all exhibit red solid-state fluorescence with moderate to high fluorescence quantum yields except for PQ which showed bright yellow solid-state fluorescence. X-ray structures of BPQs showed the planar structure of quinoxaline with one pyrrole unit via the BF2 chelation and the almost perpendicular orientation of the uncoordinated pyrrole to the NBN core plane (the dihedral angle of 70-73°). The extended π-conjugation was in good agreement with the observed red-shift of the spectra. These dyes formed well-ordered intermolecular packing structures via the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the N atoms of quinoxaline moieties and the NH units of adjacent pyrroles. The lack of π-π stacking in their crystal packing structures may explain the interestingly intense solid-state fluorescence of these dyes. PMID:26152609

  2. GFT projection NMR spectroscopy for proteins in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Franks, W. Trent; Atreya, Hanudatta S.; Szyperski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Recording of four-dimensional (4D) spectra for proteins in the solid state has opened new avenues to obtain virtually complete resonance assignments and three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins. As in solution state NMR, the sampling of three indirect dimensions leads per se to long minimal measurement time. Furthermore, artifact suppression in solid state NMR relies primarily on radio-frequency pulse phase cycling. For an n-step phase cycle, the minimal measurement times of both 3D and 4D spectra are increased n times. To tackle the associated ‘sampling problem’ and to avoid sampling limited data acquisition, solid state G-Matrix Fourier Transform (SS GFT) projection NMR is introduced to rapidly acquire 3D and 4D spectral information. Specifically, (4,3)D (HA)CANCOCX and (3,2)D (HACA)NCOCX were implemented and recorded for the 6 kDa protein GB1 within about 10% of the time required for acquiring the conventional congeners with the same maximal evolution times and spectral widths in the indirect dimensions. Spectral analysis was complemented by comparative analysis of expected spectral congestion in conventional and GFT NMR experiments, demonstrating that high spectral resolution of the GFT NMR experiments enables one to efficiently obtain nearly complete resonance assignments even for large proteins. PMID:21052779

  3. The solid state lighting initiative: An industry/DOE collaborativeeffort

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Steve

    2000-10-01

    A new era of technology is emerging in lighting. It is being propelled by the dramatic improvements in performance of solid state light sources. These sources offer an entirely new array of design aspects not achievable with current light sources. At the same time, their performance characteristics continue to improve and are expected to eclipse those of the most common light sources within the near future. High efficiency is one of these performance attributes motivating the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with the manufacturers of this new technology to create a program plan sufficiently comprehensive to support an industry-driven Solid State Lighting Initiative before Congress. The purpose of the initiative is to educate Congress about the potential of this technology to reduce the electric lighting load within the United States and, consequently, to realize the associated environmental benefits. The initiative will solicit congressional support to accelerate the development of solid state technology through investment in the research and development necessary to overcome the technical barriers that currently limit the products to niche markets. While there are multiple technologies being developed as solid state light sources, the two technologies which hold the most promise for application to general illumination are Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). The form of these sources can be quite different from current sources, allowing exciting new design uses for the products. Being diffuse sources, OLEDs are much lower in intensity per unit area than LEDs. The manufacturing process for OLEDs lends itself to shapes that can be formed to different geometries, making possible luminous panels or flexible luminous materials. Conversely, LEDs are very intense point sources which can be integrated into a small space to create an intense source or used separately for less focused applications. Both OLED and LED sources are expected

  4. Temperature induced structural transitions from native to unfolded aggregated states of tobacco etch virus protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guo-Fei; Ren, Si-Yan; Xi, Lei; Du, Lin-Fang; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is widely used to remove fusion tags from recombinant proteins because of its high and unique specificity. This work describes the conformational and the thermodynamic properties in the unfolding/refolding process of TEVp3M (three-point mutant: L56V/S135G/S219V) induced by temperature. With temperature increasing from 20 to 100 °C, the CD spectra showed a transition trend from α-helix to β-sheet, and the fluorescence emission, synchronous fluorescence, ANS and RLS spectroscopy consistently revealed that the temperature-induced unfolding process behaved in a three-state manner, for there was a relatively stable intermediate state observed around 50 °C. The reversibility of thermal unfolding of TEVp3M further showed that the transition from the native to the intermediate state was reversible (below 50 °C), however the transition from the intermediate to the unfolded state was irreversible (above 60 °C). Moreover, aggregates were observed above 60 °C as revealed by SDS-PAGE, Thioflavin-T fluorescence and Congo red absorbance.

  5. Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion for temperature-dependent linear spectra of light harvesting aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschel, Gerhard; Möbius, Sebastian; Eisfeld, Alexander; Suess, Daniel; Strunz, Walter T.

    2015-01-21

    Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion (NMQSD) has turned out to be an efficient method to calculate excitonic properties of aggregates composed of organic chromophores, taking into account the coupling of electronic transitions to vibrational modes of the chromophores. NMQSD is an open quantum system approach that incorporates environmental degrees of freedom (the vibrations in our case) in a stochastic way. We show in this paper that for linear optical spectra (absorption, circular dichroism), no stochastics is needed, even for finite temperatures. Thus, the spectra can be obtained by propagating a single trajectory. To this end, we map a finite temperature environment to the zero temperature case using the so-called thermofield method. The resulting equations can then be solved efficiently by standard integrators.

  6. Solid state amorphization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling.

    PubMed

    Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Lefort, Ronan; Derollez, Patrick; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2011-11-29

    It has been previously reported that α-lactose could be totally amorphized by ball milling. In this paper we report a detailed investigation of the structural and microstructural changes by which this solid state amorphization takes place. The investigations have been performed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP-MAS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results reveal the structural complexity of the material in the course of its amorphization so that it cannot be considered as a simple mixture made of a decreasing crystalline fraction and an increasing amorphous fraction. Heating this complexity can give rise to a fully nano-crystalline material. The results also show that chemical degradations upon heating are strongly connected to the melting process. PMID:21983262

  7. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim; Kini, Arvind; Kelley, Dick

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  8. Solid-State Kicker Pulser for DARHT-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, S A; Allen, F V; Hickman, B C; Sullivan, J S; Brooksby, C A

    2001-06-07

    To replace a hard tube design, a solid-state kicker pulser for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-2) has been designed and tested. This kicker modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration where the energy is switched into each section of the adder by a parallel array of MOSFETs. The modulator features very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility and a high pulse-repetition rate in burst mode. The modulator can drive a 50{Omega} load with voltages up to 20 kV and can be easily configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include test and operational data.

  9. Optical Bistability And Hysteresis In A Solid State Ring Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, L. S.; Kravtsov, N. S.; Shelaev, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of optical bistability, hysteresis and memory under the interaction of oppositely directed (OD) light waves in a CW YAG:Nd3+ solid state ring laser (SRL) have been experimentally discovered. The possibilities of spontaneous or forced (with modulated SRL parameters) commutation of the radiation direction without transients at the relaxation frequency (typical for solid state lasers) have been established both in the single-mode and in the mode-locking regimes with various feedback circuits. The mode-locking band was found to be substantially broadened by more than an order of magnitude when OD light waves primarily diffracted on a standing ultrasonic wave were returned into the acousto-optical modulator. With such acousto-optical feedback the mode-locking regime has been obtained using a modulator on a running ultrasonic wave.

  10. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  11. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  12. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  13. Fabrication of solid-state nanopores and its perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kudr, Jiri; Skalickova, Sylvie; Nejdl, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-10-01

    Nanofluidics is becoming an extensively developing technique in the field of bioanalytical chemistry. Nanoscale hole embed in an insulating membrane is employed in a vast variety of sensing platforms and applications. Although, biological nanopores have several attractive characteristics, in this paper, we focused on the solid-state nanopores due to their advantages as high stability, possibility of diameter control, and ease of surface functionalizing. A detection method, based on the translocation of analyzed molecules through nanochannels under applied voltage bias and resistive pulse sensing, is well established. Nevertheless, it seems that the new detection methods like measuring of transverse electron tunneling using nanogap electrodes or optical detection can offer significant additional advantages. The aim of this review is not to cite all related articles, but highlight the steps, which in our opinion, meant important progresses in solid-state nanopore analysis. PMID:26046318

  14. Logic-controlled solid state switchgear for 270 volts dc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Waddington, D.; Buchanan, E. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study to design and demonstrate solid state switchgear in the form of circuit breakers and a power transfer switch is described. The switchgear operates on a nominal 270 V dc circuit and controls power to a load of up to 15 amperes. One circuit breaker may be interconnected to a second breaker to form a power transfer switch. On-off and transfer functions of the breakers or the transfer switch are remotely controlled. A number of reclosures with variable time delay between tripout and reclosure are programmed and controlled by integrated analog and COSMOS logic circuits. A unique commutation circuit, that generates only minimal transient disturbance to either source or load, was developed to interrupt current flow through the main SCR switching element. Laboratory tests demonstrated performance of the solid state circuit breakers over specified voltage and temperature ranges.

  15. Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the consequences for solid-state lasers of novel diode laser-pumping technology. Diode laser-pumped neodymium lasers have operated at an electrical-to-optical efficiency of 10 percent in a single spatial mode, with linewidths of less than 10 kHz, and with a spectral power brightness sufficiently great to allow frequency extension by harmonic generation in nonlinear crystals; this has yielded green and blue sources of coherent radiation. Q-switched operation with kW peak powers and mode-locked operation with 10-picosec pulse widths have also been demonstrated. All-solid-state lasers at prices comparable to those of current flash-lamp-pumped laser systems are foreseen, as are power levels exceeding 1 kW, for coherent radar, global satellite sensing, and micromachining.

  16. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-02-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters.

  17. High power continuous wave injection-locked solid state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nabors, C.D.; Byer, R.L.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes an injection locked laser system. It comprises a master laser, the master laser including a solid state gain medium and having a continuous wave, single frequency output; a slave laser including a solid state gain medium located in a resonant cavity and having a continuous wave output at a power at least ten times greater than the master laser, with the output of the master laser being injected into the slave laser in order to cause the slave laser to oscillate at the same frequency as the output of the master laser; and means for actively stabilizing the slave laser so that its output frequency remains locked with the output frequency of the master laser.

  18. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  19. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  20. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ; Tighe, TB; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cell with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.

  1. Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

  2. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  3. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling. PMID:25073143

  4. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  5. Solid state dosimeters used in medical physics "A review"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorín-Nieto, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Many solid-state detectors have been successfully used to perform the quality control and in vivo dosimetry in medical physics, both in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, as they have high sensitivity in a small volume; most of them do not require electrical connection and have dosimetric characteristics of interest such as: good accuracy and reproducibility, as well as a response independent of the energy of radiation, some of them. For this reason, the selection of an appropriate detector for use in medical physics must take into account the energy mass absorption coefficient relative to water for photon sources and the mass stopping power relative to water for beta emitters and electron beams in the energy range of interest in medical physics, as well as the effective atomic number of materials that constitute them. This paper presents a review of the dosimetric characteristics of the solid state dosimeters most suitable for use in medical physics.

  6. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  7. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  8. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  9. Topological states in one dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mathur, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    We show that the band structure of a one-dimensional solid with particle-hole symmetry may be characterized by a topological index that owes its existence to the non-trivial homotopy of the space of non-degenerate real symmetric matrices. Moreover we explicitly demonstrate a theorem linking the topological index to the existence of bound states on the surface of a semi-infinite one dimensional solid. Our analysis is a one-dimensional analogue of the analysis of topological insulators in two and three dimensions by Balents and Moore; our results may be relevant to long molecules that are the one dimensional analogue of topological insulators. We propose the realization of this physics in a one-dimensional photonic crystal. In this case the topology of the bandstructure reveals itself not as a bound surface state but as a Lorentzian feature in the time delay of light that is otherwise perfectly reflected by the photonic crystal.

  10. Magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments for structural characterization of proteins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lichi; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) has become a prominent method in biology and is suitable for the characterization of insoluble proteins and protein aggregates such as amyloid fibrils, membrane-lipid complexes, and precipitated proteins. Often, the initial and the most critical step is to obtain spectroscopic assignments, that is, to determine chemical shifts of individual atoms. The procedures for SSNMR spectroscopic assignments are now well established for small microcrystalline proteins, where high signal-to-noise can be obtained. The sensitivity of the experiments and spectral resolution decrease with the increasing molecular weight, which makes setting SSNMR experiments in large proteins a much more challenging and demanding procedure. Here, we describe the protocol for the most common set of 3D magic angle spinning (MAS) SSNMR experiments. While the procedures described in the text are well known to SSNMR practitioners, we hope they will be of interest to scientists interested in extending their repertoire of biophysical techniques. PMID:22760319

  11. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-12-21

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  12. Solid state remote power controllers for 120 Vdc power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Baker, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Solid state Remote Power Controllers (RPCs) developed for use in any dc power system with voltage up to 120 Vdc and distributed power up to 3.6 kW per bus are described. The RPCs were demonstrated to be reliable, 99 percent efficient, comparatively simple, and potentially low in cost. Advantages of the RPCs include: contactless switching; controlled rates of current rise and fall; current limiting; and fast, well-defined, repeatable response to overloads and faults.

  13. High-throughput screening of solid-state catalyst libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkan, Selim M.

    1998-07-01

    Combinatorial synthesis methods allow the rapid preparation and processing of large libraries of solid-state materials. The use of these methods, together with the appropriate screening techniques, has recently led to the discovery of materials with promising superconducting, magnetoresistive, luminescent and dielectric properties. Solid-state catalysts, which play an increasingly important role in the chemical and oil industries, represent another class of material amenable to combinatorial synthesis. Yet typically, catalyst discovery still involves inefficient trial-and-error processes, because catalytic activity is inherently difficult to screen. In contrast to superconductivity, magnetoresistivity and dielectric properties, which can be tested by contact probes, or luminescence, which can be observed directly, the assessment of catalytic activity requires the unambiguous detection of a specific product molecule above a small catalyst site on a large library. Screening by in situ infrared thermography and microprobe sampling mass spectrometry, have been suggested, but the first method, while probing activity, provides no information on reaction products, whereas the second is difficult to implement because it requires the transport of minute gas samples from each library site to the detection system. Here I describe the use of laser-induced resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization for sensitive, selective and high-throughput screening of a library of solid-state catalysts that activate the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene. I show that benzene, the product molecule, can be selectively photoionized in the vicinity of the catalytic sites, and that the detection of the resultant photoions by an array of microelectrodes provides information on the activity of individual sites. Adaptation of this technique for the screening of other catalytic reactions and larger libraries with smaller site size seems feasible, thus opening up the possibility of exploiting

  14. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Ruth, Marta R.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  15. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  16. Airport surveillance using a solid state coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Hannon, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The utility of solid state coherent LIDAR was assessed in the following application areas: (1) wake vortices; (2) dry and wet microburst windshear; (3) gusts; (4) vertical and general wind profiling; and (5) cloud ceiling. The system performance model described was based on a concept definition, system sizing, measurement planning, and algorithm and graphics display development. Data were collected at the Kennedy Space Center and the National Weather Service site adjacent to Denver's Stapleton Airport.

  17. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  18. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  19. Rigorous Definition of Oxidation States of Ions in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2012-04-01

    We present justification and a rigorous procedure for electron partitioning among atoms in extended systems. The method is based on wave-function topology and the modern theory of polarization, rather than charge density partitioning or wave-function projection, and, as such, reformulates the concept of oxidation state without assuming real-space charge transfer between atoms. This formulation provides rigorous electrostatics of finite-extent solids, including films and nanowires.

  20. A solid-state Marx generator driven Einzel lens chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, T.; Arai, T.; Leo, K. W.; Takayama, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2011-08-01

    A new type of pulse chopper called an Einzel lens chopper is described. An Einzel lens placed immediately after an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is driven by high-voltage pulses generated by a newly developed solid-state Marx generator. A rectangular negative barrier pulse-voltage is controlled in time, and the barrier pulse is turned on only when a beam pulse is required. The results of successful experiments are reported herein.

  1. A solid-state Marx generator driven Einzel lens chopper.

    PubMed

    Adachi, T; Arai, T; Leo, K W; Takayama, K; Tokuchi, A

    2011-08-01

    A new type of pulse chopper called an Einzel lens chopper is described. An Einzel lens placed immediately after an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is driven by high-voltage pulses generated by a newly developed solid-state Marx generator. A rectangular negative barrier pulse-voltage is controlled in time, and the barrier pulse is turned on only when a beam pulse is required. The results of successful experiments are reported herein. PMID:21895241

  2. A solid-state Marx generator driven Einzel lens chopper

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, T.; Arai, T.; Leo, K. W.; Takayama, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2011-08-15

    A new type of pulse chopper called an Einzel lens chopper is described. An Einzel lens placed immediately after an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is driven by high-voltage pulses generated by a newly developed solid-state Marx generator. A rectangular negative barrier pulse-voltage is controlled in time, and the barrier pulse is turned on only when a beam pulse is required. The results of successful experiments are reported herein.

  3. Kilovolt dc solid state remote power controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in developing and applying solid state power controller (SSPC) technology at high voltage dc (HVDC) potentials and power levels of up to 25 kilowatts is summarized. The HVDC switching devices, power switching concepts, drive circuits, and very fast acting overcurrent protection circuits were analyzed. A 25A bipolar breadboard with Darlington connected switching transistor was built. Fault testing at 900 volts was included. A bipolar transistor packaged breadboard design was developed. Power MOSFET remote power controller (RPC) was designed.

  4. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Prelas, M.A.

    1991-01-16

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  5. Position sensitive solid-state photomultipliers, systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Kanai S; Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Dokhale, Purushottam; McClish, Mickel

    2014-11-11

    An integrated silicon solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) device includes a pixel unit including an array of more than 2.times.2 p-n photodiodes on a common substrate, a signal division network electrically connected to each photodiode, where the signal division network includes four output connections, a signal output measurement unit, a processing unit configured to identify the photodiode generating a signal or a center of mass of photodiodes generating a signal, and a global receiving unit.

  6. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  7. Flashlamp pumped solid-state dye laser incorporating pyrromethene 597

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, A. J.; Peters, N.; Kolinsky, P. V.; Venner, M. R. W.

    1999-07-01

    Solid-state rods containing the laser dye pyrromethene 597 (Pyr 597) in a modified polymethyl methacrylate polymer host have been fabricated and shown to give significant lasing action under flashlamp excitation. The rods all displayed a favorable positive-lensing characteristic and also exhibited low bulk transmission losses. The rod with the lowest transmission loss, measured to be 0.31% cm-1 at 633 nm, gave a laser output of 880 mJ with a 0.35% energy efficiency.

  8. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  9. Solid-state Terahertz Sources for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Pearson, John C.; Ward, John S.; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Ferber, R.; Tsang, Raymond; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; Finamore, B.; Chun, William W.; Baker, John J.; Dengler, Robert J.; Javadi, Hamid H.; Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of solid-state frequency multiplier chains utilized far teraherz receiver applications such as the Herschel Space Observatory . Emphasis will he placed on the specific requirements to be met and challenges that were encountered. The availability of high power amplifiers at 100 GHz makes it possible to cascade frequency doublers and triplers with sufficient RF power to pump heterodyne receivers at THz frequencies. The environmental and mechanical constraints will be addressed as well as reliability issues.

  10. Solid-State and Solution Characterization of Myricetin.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stephen J; Myrdal, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Myricetin (MYR) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventative agent. MYR has been shown to suppresses ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and reduce the incidence of UVB-induced skin tumors in mice. Despite MYR's promise as a therapeutic agent, minimal information is available to guide the progression of formulations designed for future drug development. Here, data is presented describing the solid-state and solution characterization of MYR. Investigation into the solid-state properties of MYR identified four different crystal forms, two hydrates (MYR I and MYR II) and two metastable forms (MYR IA and MYR IIA). From solubility studies, it was evident that all forms are very insoluble (<5 μg/ml) in pure water. MYR I was found to be the most stable form at 23, 35, and 56°C. Stability determination indicated that MYR undergoes rapid apparent first-order degradation under basic pH conditions, and that degradation was influenced by buffer species. Apparent first-order degradation was also seen when MYR was introduced to an oxidizing solution. Improved stability was achieved after introducing 0.1% antioxidants to the solution. MYR was found to have good stability following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which is a consideration for topical applications. Finally, a partitioning study indicated that MYR possess a log P of 2.94 which, along with its solid-state properties, contributes to its poor aqueous solubility. Both the solid-state properties and solution stability of MYR are important to consider when developing future formulations. PMID:25986594

  11. Excited electronic states of complex heteroatomic molecules in series and in different aggregation states of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Alexandr E.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the spectroscopic and photophysical properties of new series complex molecules, which is capable of fluorescence and some generating light in solvents of various kinds within the wavelength region 308 - 420 nm with a high fluorescence quantum yield (gamma) equals 0.01 - 0.97 and a low threshold pump density Elp(Plp). We worked from the measured lifetimes and to calculate the rate constants for radiative decay (Kfl) and intercombinational conversion, (KST), the cross section for a stimulated emission ((sigma) 31osc), and the characteristic time tlp in solvents of various types and in the vapor. The latter is the limiting rise time of the pump pulse (tlp) at which the generation of electromagnetic radiation is still possible. The cross sections for the induced singlet-singlet ((sigma) 3S*) and triplet-triplet ((sigma) 2T*) absorption in the generation band, required for calculating tlp, were taken from a variety of sources: experimental and for all other complex molecules, we used results calculated by some semiempirical methods SCF MO LKAO the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP/CI) and in complete neglect of differential overlap (INDO/S-CI). The results show that the decrease or increase of in the switch from solution to vapor, or as the properties of the solvent change, stems from dynamic separation or overlap of the lasing and induced absorption bands of the S1* yields Sn* and T1 yields Tn transitions. Lasing does not occur in concentrated acids because of the nearly complete overlap of the limiting gain and induced absorption T1 yields Tn transitions (compare it with the behavior of dyes in their chemo absorbed state). Using the density matrix method, we show that the solvent affects the distribution of electron density among the individual atoms and fragments of the complex geteratomic molecule in the ground state, leading to systematic changes in geometry. As a result, there are changes in the distribution of bond lengths in the rings of the azo

  12. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  13. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; McDonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-02-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  14. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    DOEpatents

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  15. Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Howansky, Adrian; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Levéille, Sébastien; Tanioka, K.; Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 +/- 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 +/- 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.

  16. 15N chemical shift referencing in solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Philippe; Raya, Jésus; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has much advanced during the last decade and provides a multitude of data that can be used for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules, polymers, inorganic compounds or macromolecules. In some cases the chemical shift referencing has become a limiting factor to the precision of the structure calculations and we have therefore evaluated a number of methods used in proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy adamantane is generally accepted as an external standard, but to calibrate the (15)N chemical shift scale several standards are in use. As a consequence the published chemical shift values exhibit considerable differences (up to 22 ppm). In this paper we report the (15)N chemical shift of several commonly used references compounds in order to allow for comparison and recalibration of published data and future work. We show that (15)NH4Cl in its powdered form (at 39.3 ppm with respect to liquid NH3) is a suitable external reference as it produces narrow lines when compared to other reference compounds and at the same time allows for the set-up of cross-polarization NMR experiments. The compound is suitable to calibrate magic angle spinning and static NMR experiments. Finally the temperature variation of (15)NH4Cl chemical shift is reported. PMID:24746715

  17. Interface Limited Lithium Transport in Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Qian, Danna; McGilvray, Thomas; Wang, Ziying; Wang, Feng; Camino, Fernando; Graetz, Jason; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-01-16

    Understanding the role of interfaces is important for improving the performance of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. To study these interfaces, we present a novel approach for fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries using focused ion beams and their characterization by analytical electron microscopy. Morphological changes by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and correlated elemental concentration changes by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping are presented. We provide first evidence of lithium accumulation at the anode/current collector (Si/Cu) and cathode/electrolyte (LixCoO2/LiPON) interfaces, which can be accounted for the irreversible capacity losses. Interdiffusion of elements at the Si/LiPON interface was also witnessed with a distinct contrast layer. These results highlight that the interfaces may limit the lithium transport significantly in solid-state batteries. Fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries also enables in situ electron microscopy observation of electrochemical phenomena in a variety of solid-state battery chemistries. PMID:26270703

  18. Comparison with industrial oxysulfide phosphors for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pote, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Y2O2S:Eu3+ was prepared by the flux method which is different from conventional solid state reaction and has many advantages over the conventional method in terms of ease of preparation and yield also. In this paper we have reported the crystal structure, XRD and method of preparation of Y2O2S:Eu3+ along with Eu3+ mechanism of emission and excitation with reference to solid state lighting. In the emission spectra, the strongest red-emission lines at 626 and 616 nm are due to transition from 5D0 → 7F2 level. The stronger emission at λem=626 nm confirms the formation of the oxysulfide host. We also made a comparison of our prepared sample with commercial sample from NICHIA Corporation Japan in terms of PL intensity which results that our sample is equally intense as that of NICHIA's sample. It is suggested that these characteristics can be useful for obtaining a low cost, red phosphor for the solid state lighting using near UV LED.

  19. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  20. Chemical shift referencing in MAS solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcombe, Corey R.; Zilm, Kurt W.

    2003-06-01

    Solid state 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra are typically referenced externally using a probe which does not incorporate a field frequency lock. Solution NMR shifts on the other hand are more often determined with respect to an internal reference and using a deuterium based field frequency lock. Further differences arise in solution NMR of proteins and nucleic acids where both 13C and 1H shifts are referenced by recording the frequency of the 1H resonance of DSS (sodium salt of 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulphonic acid) instead of TMS (tetramethylsilane). In this note we investigate the difficulties in relating shifts measured relative to TMS and DSS by these various approaches in solution and solids NMR, and calibrate adamantane as an external 13C standard for solids NMR. We find that external chemical shift referencing of magic angle spinning spectra is typically quite reproducible and accurate, with better than ±0.03 ppm accuracy being straight forward to achieve. Solid state and liquid phase NMR shifts obtained by magic angle spinning with external referencing agree with those measured using typical solution NMR hardware with the sample tube aligned with the applied field as long as magnetic susceptibility corrections and solvent shifts are taken into account. The DSS and TMS reference scales for 13C and 1H are related accurately using MAS NMR. Large solvent shifts for the 13C resonance in TMS in either deuterochloroform or methanol are observed, being +0.71 ppm and -0.74 ppm from external TMS, respectively. The ratio of the 13C resonance frequencies for the two carbons in solid adamantane to the 1H resonance of TMS is reported.

  1. Chemical shift referencing in MAS solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Morcombe, Corey R; Zilm, Kurt W

    2003-06-01

    Solid state 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra are typically referenced externally using a probe which does not incorporate a field frequency lock. Solution NMR shifts on the other hand are more often determined with respect to an internal reference and using a deuterium based field frequency lock. Further differences arise in solution NMR of proteins and nucleic acids where both 13C and 1H shifts are referenced by recording the frequency of the 1H resonance of DSS (sodium salt of 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulphonic acid) instead of TMS (tetramethylsilane). In this note we investigate the difficulties in relating shifts measured relative to TMS and DSS by these various approaches in solution and solids NMR, and calibrate adamantane as an external 13C standard for solids NMR. We find that external chemical shift referencing of magic angle spinning spectra is typically quite reproducible and accurate, with better than +/-0.03 ppm accuracy being straight forward to achieve. Solid state and liquid phase NMR shifts obtained by magic angle spinning with external referencing agree with those measured using typical solution NMR hardware with the sample tube aligned with the applied field as long as magnetic susceptibility corrections and solvent shifts are taken into account. The DSS and TMS reference scales for 13C and 1H are related accurately using MAS NMR. Large solvent shifts for the 13C resonance in TMS in either deuterochloroform or methanol are observed, being +0.71 ppm and -0.74 ppm from external TMS, respectively. The ratio of the 13C resonance frequencies for the two carbons in solid adamantane to the 1H resonance of TMS is reported. PMID:12810033

  2. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.; Havener, C.; Liu, Y.; Lassen, J.; Rothe, S.

    2010-02-15

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  3. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR.

    PubMed

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance. PMID:27095695

  4. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  5. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Havener, Charles C; Lassen, J.; Liu, Yuan; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Wendt, K.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  6. Characterization of Al30 in commercial poly-aluminum chlorohydrate by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brian L; Vaughn, John S; Smart, Scott; Pan, Long

    2016-08-15

    Investigation of commercially produced hydrolysis salts of aluminum by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) reveals well-defined and distinct Al environments that can be related to physicochemical properties. (27)Al MAS and MQ-MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the local structure of the solids is dominated by moieties that closely resemble the Al30 polyoxocation (Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26(18+)), accounting for 72-85% of the total Al. These Al30-like clusters elute as several size fractions by SEC. Comparison of the SEC and NMR results indicates that the Al30-like clusters includes intact isolated clusters, moieties of larger polymers or aggregates, and possibly fragments resembling δ-Al13 Keggin clusters. The coagulation efficacy of the solids appears to correlate best with the abundance of intact Al30-like clusters and of smaller species available to promote condensation reactions. PMID:27232539

  7. SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION ON SMALL WIND TURBINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different solid-state sensor packages were evaluated for use on small wind turbines (<200 kW) for control and data acquisition. The two solid-state sensor packages were compared to three mechanical sensor packages that have been used to measure small turbine performance parameters. The solid-s...

  8. Unified phonon-based approach to the thermodynamics of solid, liquid and gas states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Musaev, Edvard T.; Cai, Yong Q.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a unified approach to states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) and describe the thermodynamics of the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of phonon excitations. We derive the effective Hamiltonian with low-energy cutoff in two transverse phonon polarizations (phononic band gaps) by breaking the symmetry in phonon interactions. Further, we construct the statistical mechanics of states of aggregation employing the Debye approximation. The introduced formalism covers the Debye theory of solids, the phonon theory of liquids, and thermodynamic limits such as the Dulong-Petit thermodynamic limit (cV = 3kB), the ideal gas limit (cV =3/2 kB) and the new thermodynamic limit (cV = 2kB), dubbed here the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit. We discuss the phonon propagation and localization effects in liquids above and below the Frenkel line, and explain the "fast sound" phenomenon. As a test for our theory we calculate velocity-velocity autocorrelation and pair distribution functions within the Green-Kubo formalism. We show the consistency between dynamics of phonons and pair correlations in the framework of the unified approach. New directions towards advancements in phononic band gaps engineering, hypersound manipulation technologies and exploration of exotic behaviour of fluids relevant to geo- and planetary sciences are discussed. The presented results are equally important both for practical implications and for fundamental research.

  9. All-solid-state sodium batteries using amorphous TiS3 electrode with high capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanibata, Naoto; Matsuyama, Takuya; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    All-solid-state sodium cells (Na15Sn4/Na3PS4 glass-ceramic/a-TiS3) showed a high capacity of over 300 mAh per gram of TiS3 at the 1st discharge-charge cycle. The capacity was gradually decreased to 100 mAh g-1 at the 10th cycle. Nyquist plots of the cell showed that the resistance of the a-TiS3 composite electrode became larger with the discharge-charge cycles. The XRD patterns of the a-TiS3 composite electrode before and after the 1st cycle indicated that the a-TiS3 was still amorphous during discharge-charge process. The Raman bands attributable to a-TiS3 were also observed after the 1st cycle. The SEM images and EDX mapping indicated that the a-TiS3 particles aggregated in the electrode after the 10th cycle. The all-solid-state sodium cell using a-TiS3 composite electrode with acetylene black as a conductive additive showed the high capacity of over 300 mAh g-1 for 5 cycles.

  10. Denatured state aggregation parameters derived from concentration dependence of protein stability.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Clarkson, Benjamin R; Siles, Rogelio; Ross, Patrick; Brown, Richard K; Freire, Ernesto

    2015-11-01

    Protein aggregation is a major issue affecting the long-term stability of protein preparations. Proteins exist in equilibrium between the native and denatured or partially denatured conformations. Often denatured or partially denatured conformations are prone to aggregate because they expose to solvent the hydrophobic core of the protein. The aggregation of denatured protein gradually shifts the protein equilibrium toward increasing amounts of denatured and ultimately aggregated protein. Recognizing and quantitating the presence of denatured protein and its aggregation at the earliest possible time will bring enormous benefits to the identification and selection of optimal solvent conditions or the engineering of proteins with the best stability/aggregation profile. In this article, a new approach that allows simultaneous determination of structural stability and the amount of denatured and aggregated protein is presented. This approach is based on the analysis of the concentration dependence of the Gibbs energy (ΔG) of protein stability. It is shown that three important quantities can be evaluated simultaneously: (i) the population of denatured protein, (ii) the population of aggregated protein, and (iii) the fraction of denatured protein that is aggregated. PMID:26239214

  11. Phenomena of solid state grain boundaries phase transition in technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, Y. A.

    2015-03-01

    The results of study the phenomenon, discovered by author (1971), of the phase transition of grain boundary by the formation of two-dimensional liquid or quasi-liquid films have been done. The described phenomena of the first order phase transition (two-dimensional melting) at temperatures 0.6 - 0.9 TS0 (of the solid state melting point) is a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials, which has allowed to revise radically scientific representations about a solid state of substance. Using the mathematical tools of the film thermodynamics it has been obtained the generalized equation of Clausius - Clapeyron type for two-dimensional phase transition. The generalized equation has been used for calculating grain boundary phase transition temperature TSf of any metal, which value lies in the range of (0.55…0.86) TS0. Based on these works conclusions the develop strategies for effective forming of coatings (by thermo-chemical processing) on surface layers of functional alloys and hard metals have been made. The short overview of the results of some graded alloys characterization has been done.

  12. Phenomena of solid state grain boundaries phase transition in technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minaev, Y. A.

    2015-03-30

    The results of study the phenomenon, discovered by author (1971), of the phase transition of grain boundary by the formation of two-dimensional liquid or quasi-liquid films have been done. The described phenomena of the first order phase transition (two-dimensional melting) at temperatures 0.6 – 0.9 T{sub S0} (of the solid state melting point) is a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials, which has allowed to revise radically scientific representations about a solid state of substance. Using the mathematical tools of the film thermodynamics it has been obtained the generalized equation of Clausius - Clapeyron type for two-dimensional phase transition. The generalized equation has been used for calculating grain boundary phase transition temperature T{sub Sf} of any metal, which value lies in the range of (0.55…0.86) T{sub S0}. Based on these works conclusions the develop strategies for effective forming of coatings (by thermo-chemical processing) on surface layers of functional alloys and hard metals have been made. The short overview of the results of some graded alloys characterization has been done.

  13. Different states of integrin LFA-1 aggregation are controlled through its association with tetraspanin CD9.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Raquel; Monjas, Alicia; Yánez-Mó, María; Cardeñes, Beatriz; Morlino, Giulia; Gilsanz, Alvaro; Machado-Pineda, Yesenia; Lafuente, Esther; Monk, Peter; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Cabañas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The tetraspanin CD9 has been shown to interact with different members of the β1 and β3 subfamilies of integrins, regulating through these interactions cell adhesion, migration and signaling. Based on confocal microscopy co-localization and on co-immunoprecipitation results, we report here that CD9 associates with the β2 integrin LFA-1 in different types of leukocytes including T, B and monocytic cells. This association is resistant to stringent solubilization conditions which, together with data from chemical crosslinking, in situ Proximity Ligation Assays and pull-down experiments, suggest a primary/direct type of interaction mediated by the Large Extracellular Loop of the tetraspanin. CD9 exerts inhibitory effects on the adhesive function of LFA-1 and on LFA-1-dependent leukocyte cytotoxic activity. The mechanism responsible for this negative regulation exerted by CD9 on LFA-1 adhesion does not involve changes in the affinity state of this integrin but seems to be related to alterations in its state of aggregation. PMID:26003300

  14. Evaluation of solid state superlattices for use in laboratory programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvis, W. J.; Yee, J. H.

    1986-08-01

    We have performed an evaluation of solid superlattices for use in laboratory programs. This evaluation consisted simply of a literature search on solid state superlattices, looking for basic theory and for novel devices and designs that could be useful in the laboratory. While the bulk of these papers are directed towards fiber-optic communications (lasers and detectors) there was an amazing variety of proposed devices that could do everything from measuring the oxygen content in a hydrogen atmosphere to infrared detectors and microwave lenses. There are a large number of devices that show promise for use in laboratory programs, including: adjustable frequency infrared detectors, high-gain, low-noise electron multipliers, UV or X-ray light sources using non-relativistic electrons, low noise photon detectors or switches, microwave detectors/optical modulators, high frequency microwave oscillators, etc.

  15. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion.

  16. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  17. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations. PMID:24335761

  18. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A

    2014-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation. PMID:26278442

  19. Solid-state microscale lithium batteries prepared with microfabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Shuang-Shuang; Cai, Min-Zhen; Zhang, Liang-Tang; Dong, Quan-Feng; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Wu, Sun-Tao; Wu, Qi-Hui

    2009-04-01

    The miniaturization of power sources is important for meeting the requirements of low power, mass and volume for nano- or microelectronics and MEMS devices. In this paper a dexterous microfabrication process was developed for preparing microscale solid-state lithium batteries. The active size of a single microbattery is 500 µm × 500 µm and its thickness is 1.5 µm. LiCoO2 films prepared by RF sputtering, then annealed at moderate temperature (500 °C), were employed as a cathode electrode, and LiPON and Al films were used as a solid electrolyte and an anode electrode, respectively. An individual microbattery delivers a capacity of about 17 nAh at a current of 5 nA at the initial cycles, and can be operated at as high as 40 nA discharge current.

  20. Excited-State Properties of Molecular Solids from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-27

    Molecular solids have attracted attention recently in the context of organic (opto)electronics. These materials exhibit unique charge carrier generation and transport phenomena that are distinct from those of conventional semiconductors. Understanding these phenomena is fundamental to optoelectronics and requires a detailed description of the excited-state properties of molecular solids. Recent advances in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and density functional theory (DFT) have made such description possible and have revealed many surprising electronic and optical properties of molecular crystals. Here, we review this progress. We summarize the salient aspects of MBPT and DFT as well as various properties that can be described by these methods. These properties include the fundamental gap and its renormalization, hybridization and band dispersion, singlet and triplet excitations, optical spectra, and excitonic properties. For each, we present concrete examples, a comparison to experiments, and a critical discussion. PMID:27090844

  1. Morphology and thermochromic phase transition of merocyanine J-aggregate monolayers at the air-water and solid-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noritaka; Saito, Kentaro; Serata, Toshinori; Aida, Hiroaki; Uesu, Yoshiaki

    2001-07-01

    Thermal changes of the merocyanine dye (MD) monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated under various subphase conditions in order to elucidate the formation mechanism and to control morphological and chromatic properties of two-dimensional MD J-aggregate crystallites (JC) formed in the monolayer. The dissociation temperature (Td) of the JC to the monomer MD was measured for different counterions of MD molecules in the subphase. The JC size was found to be dependent on the subphase temperature; it becomes larger when the JC is formed at a temperature closer to Td. This phenomenon is qualitatively reproduced by the numerical simulation of the Cahn-Hilliard equation. In the case of the MD monolayer on the subphase which contains two kinds of counterions, it exhibits a reversible thermochromic transition between two different JC states. The chromatic change is discrete, and is attributed to the structural phase transition of the JC induced by the mutual recombination of two kinds of counterions to MD molecules. The structural difference between the high and low temperature JC states is examined by the point dipole model. The transition temperature and thermal hysteresis width can be varied by the fraction of 2 counterions. In situ observations using a multipurpose nonlinear optical microscope revealed that the transition is of first order and the nucleation and growth process of the low temperature phase in the high temperature matrix was observed. The JC size of the low temperature phase became much larger through the recrystallization process. For future application of this phenomenon, an airtight cell consisting of two monolayers at the solid-water interface and the subphase was developed. In the cell, the same reversible transition occurs, but with a slow relaxation.

  2. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  3. High-Pressure, Solid-State Experiments for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B; Belak, J; Colvin, J; Edwards, J; Kalantar, D; Lasinski, B; Pollaine, S; Shay, H; Weber, S; Wolfer, B

    2001-02-15

    In this report, we summarize our plan for using NIF for measuring solid-state deformation physics at very high pressures, P >> 1 Mbar. There are several key uncertainties, the strength and phase being two of them. The deformation mechanisms at high pressure and high strain rate are also uncertain. The state, as well as strength, of a material that has first been melted, then dynamically refrozen by high-pressure compression is very uncertain. There is no single facility that can address all of these issues at all parameter regimes of interest. Rather, a coordinated plan involving multiple laboratories and universities and multiple facilities will ultimately be needed. We present here our first thoughts for the NIF component of this effort. In Sec. I, we motivate the physics of this regime, and point out the uncertainties, then describe in Sec. II the development work that we have done over the last 5 years in this area. In Sec. III, we describe several NIF designs we have developed to probe solid-state deformation physics at very high pressures.

  4. 1D quantum simulation using a solid state platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkendall, Megan; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom

    Understanding the properties of large quantum systems can be challenging both theoretically and numerically. One experimental approach-quantum simulation-involves mapping a quantum system of interest onto a physical system that is programmable and experimentally accessible. A tremendous amount of work has been performed with quantum simulators formed from optical lattices; by contrast, solid-state platforms have had only limited success. Our experimental approach to quantum simulation takes advantage of nanoscale control of a metal-insulator transition at the interface between two insulating complex oxide materials. This system naturally exhibits a wide variety of ground states (e.g., ferromagnetic, superconducting) and can be configured into a variety of complex geometries. We will describe initial experiments that explore the magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional superlattices with spatial periods as small as 4 nm, comparable to the Fermi wavelength. The results demonstrate the potential of this solid-state quantum simulation approach, and also provide empirical constraints for physical models that describe the underlying oxide material properties. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL), FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  5. Analysis of Technology for Solid State Coherent Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable advances have been made in the areas of the diode-pumped, eye-safe, solid state lasers, wide bandwidth, semiconductor detectors operating in the near-infrared region. These advances have created new possibilities for the development of low-cost, reliable, and compact coherent lidar systems for measurements of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscattering from a space-based platform. The work performed by the UAH personnel concentrated on design and analyses of solid state pulsed coherent lidar systems capable of measuring atmospheric winds from space, and design and perform laboratory experiments and measurements in support of solid state laser radar remote sensing systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used by NASA to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. A lidar testbed system was designed and analyzed by considering the major space operational and environmental requirements, and its associated physical constraints. The lidar optical system includes a wedge scanner and the compact telescope designed by the UAH personnel. The other major optical components included in the design and analyses were: polarizing beam splitter, routing mirrors, wave plates, signal beam derotator, and lag angle compensator. The testbed lidar optical train was designed and analyzed, and different design options for mounting and packaging the lidar subsystems and components and support structure were investigated. All the optical components are to be mounted in a stress-free and stable manner to allow easy integration and alignment, and long term stability. This lidar system is also intended to be used for evaluating the performance of various lidar subsystems and components that are to be integrated into a flight unit and for demonstrating the integrity of the signal processing algorithms by performing actual atmospheric measurements from a ground station.

  6. Molecular Sensing with Protein and Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiecki, David J.

    In the past 15 years nanopore sensing has proven to be a successful method for probing a variety of molecules of biological interest, such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Of particular appeal is this technique's ability to probe these molecules without the need for chemical modification or labeling, to do so at physiological conditions, and to probe single molecules at a time, allowing the possibility for results masked in bulk measurements to come to light. In this thesis these advantageous properties will be used in work on both a synthetic (solid-state) nanopore system and an engineered biological nanopore. I will describe the techniques for producing solid-state nanopores in thin membranes of silicon nitride and how these nanopores can be integrated into a fully functioning nanopore sensor system. I will then explore two applications of this system. First, a study of adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein found in blood serum, to the inorganic surface of nitride at the single molecule level. A simple physical model describing the behavior of this protein in the nanopore will be shown. Second, a study of the binding of the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1 (NCp7) to three aptamers of different affinity, specifically three sequence 20mer mimics of the stem-loop 3 (SL3) RNA---the packaging domain of genomic RNA. Additionally, N-ethylmaleimide, which is known to inhibit the binding of NCp7 to a high-affinity SL3 RNA aptamer, will be used to demonstrate that the inhibition of the binding can be monitored in real time. Following these applications of the solid-state nanopore system, I will explore the geometry of a newly engineered biological nanopore, FhuA DeltaC/Delta4L, by using inert polymers to probe the nanopore interior.

  7. Solid-state monolithic electrochromic switchable visors and spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth, III

    2010-04-01

    There is a need for variable transmission technology for Goggles, Spectacles, and visors for Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMDs). At present, most HMD's do not allow the pilot to control the transmission level of a flight visor while transitioning from high to low light levels throughout flight. Sunglasses are often used for non-HMD conditions but become impractical for HMD use. For individuals moving from high to low brightness levels, momentary blindness is an issue in both recreational sports and military applications. A user-controlled or automatically controllable variabletransmittance lens is a possible solution. The Eclipse Visible Electrochromic Device (EclipseECDTM) is well suited for these light modulation applications. The EclipseECDTM modulates light intensity by changing the absorption level under an applied electric field. The optical density may be continuously changed by varying voltage allowing for analog instead of digital (on/off) light levels. EclipseECDTM is comprised of vacuum deposited layers of a transparent bottom electrode, an active element, and a transparent top electrode, incorporating an all, solid-state electrolyte. The solid-state electrolyte eliminates possible complications associated with gel-based or liquid crystal based technologies including lamination, and precludes the need for additional visor modifications. This all solid-state ECD system can be deposited on flexible substrates, eg. PET, PC, etc. The low-temperature deposition process enables direct application to polymer lenses and HMD flight visors. Additionally, the coating is easily manufactured; can be trimmed, has near spectral neutrality and fails in the clear (bleached) condition.

  8. Solid-state monolithic electrochromic switchable visors and spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth, III

    2009-05-01

    There is a need for variable transmission technology for Goggles, Spectacles, and visors for Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMDs). At present, most HMDs do not allow the pilot to control the transmission level of a flight visor while transitioning from high to low light levels throughout flight. Sunglasses are often used for non-HMD conditions but become impractical for HMD use. For individuals moving from high to low brightness levels, momentary blindness is an issue in both recreational sports and military applications. A user-controlled or automatically controllable variabletransmittance lens is a possible solution. The Eclipse Visible Electrochromic Device (EclipseECDTM) is well suited for these light modulation applications. The EclipseECDTM modulates light intensity by changing the absorption level under an applied electric field. The optical density may be continuously changed by varying voltage allowing for analog instead of digital (on/off) light levels. EclipseECDTM is comprised of vacuum deposited layers of a transparent bottom electrode, an active element, and a transparent top electrode, incorporating an all, solid-state electrolyte. The solid-state electrolyte eliminates possible complications associated with gel-based or liquid crystal based technologies including lamination, and precludes the need for additional visor modifications. This all solid-state ECD system can be deposited on flexible substrates, eg. PET, PC, etc. The low-temperature deposition process enables direct application to polymer lenses and HMD flight visors. Additionally, the coating is easily manufactured; can be trimmed, has near spectral neutrality and fails in the clear (bleached) condition.

  9. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  10. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate. PMID:20944744

  11. Solid-state stability and compatibility studies of clavulanate potassium.

    PubMed

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemysław; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Barszcz, Bolesław

    2015-03-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of degradation of clavulanate potassium in the solid state were studied by using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The degradation of clavulanate potassium was a first-order reaction depending on the substrate concentration at an increased relative air humidity (RH) and in dry air. The dependence ln k = f(1/T) became the ln k = (0.026 ± 166.35)-(2702.82 ± 1779.43)(1/T) in dry air and ln k = (1.65 ± 100.40) × 10(3)-(5748.81 ± 3659.67)(1/T) at 76.4% RH. The thermodynamic parameters Ea, ΔH(≠a), ΔS(≠a) of the degradation of clavulanate potassium in the solid state were calculated. The dependence ln k = f (RH%) assumed the form ln k = (8.78 ± 5.75) 10 (-2) (RH%) + (2.64 × 10(-8 )± 40.41). The compatibility of clavulanate potassium with commonly used excipients was studied at an increased temperature and in dry air. The geometric structure of molecule, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) orbitals were also determined in order to predict the structural changes and reactive sites in clavulanate potassium during degradation and compatibility studies in the solid state. The ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectra of degraded samples of the compound were analyzed. PMID:24219797

  12. Space-charge-limited solid-state triode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumka, A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A solid-state triode is provided from a wafer of nearinstrinsic semiconductor material sliced into filaments of rectangular cross section. Before slicing, emitter and collector regions are formed on the narrow sides of the filaments, and after slicing gate regions are formed in arrow strips extending longitudinally along the midsections of the wide sides of the filaments. Contacts are then formed on the emitter, collector and gate regions of each filament individually for a single filament device, or in parallel for an array of filament devices to increase load current.

  13. A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

    SciTech Connect

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.

  14. Far-UV solid state lasers for semiconductor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, James; Armstrong, Darrell; Smith, Arlee

    2010-02-01

    The wavelength region between 190 and 200 nm is especially relevant to semiconductor manufacturing. In contrast to ArF excimer lasers, frequency up-converted solid-state lasers offer tuning, coherence and beam quality characteristics that are essential to high performance semiconductor processing. This paper reviews various methodologies for implementing pulsed non-linear optical interactions in this wavelength region given a wide range of laser operating formats and describes the utilization of these sources for the specific semiconductor applications of interference lithography and photoresist materials studies.

  15. Detecting DNA Depurination with Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michael M.; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Taylor, Ethan W.; Hall, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the different types of DNA damage that occur endogenously in the cell, depurination is especially prevalent. These lesions can initiate mutagenesis and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for the detection of depurination at the single-molecule scale using solid-state nanopores. We induce depurination in short duplex DNA using acidic conditions and observe that the presence of apurinic sites results in significantly slower dynamics during electrokinetic translocation. This procedure may be valuable as a diagnostic for in situ quantification of DNA depurination. PMID:24988437

  16. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  17. A Solid State Modulator for Driving SLAC 5045 Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, Jeffrey E

    2002-09-19

    A test is ongoing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) where a solid state induction modulator is driving a SLAC 5045 klystron. The modulator generates 22 kV, 6 kA pulses that are stepped up by a 15.1 transformer that is a part of the klystron's pulse tank. The modulator's pulse duration is adjustable up to the volt-second limit of its cores, and it is capable of a pulse repetition frequency up to 120 Hz. The modulator's design, construction, and experimental results are the focus of this paper.

  18. High power solid state rf amplifier for proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2008-01-15

    A 1.5 kW solid state rf amplifier at 352 MHz has been developed and tested at RRCAT. This rf source for cw operation will be used as a part of rf system of 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. A rf power of 1.5 kW has been achieved by combining output power from eight 220 W rf amplifier modules. Amplifier modules, eight-way power combiner and divider, and directional coupler were designed indigenously for this development. High efficiency, ease of fabrication, and low cost are the main features of this design.

  19. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  20. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.; Egert, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  1. Mid-infrared solid-state lasers and laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Byvik, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of NASA-Langley's objectives for the development of advanced lasers and laser materials systems applicable to remote sensing in the mid-IR range. Prominent among current concerns are fiber-optic spectroscopy, eye-safe solid-state lasers for both Doppler sensing and mid-IR wavelength-generation laser pumping, and nonlinear optics generating tunable mid-IR radiation. Ho:YAG lasers are noted to exhibit intrinsic advantages for the desired applications, and are pumpable by GaAlAs laser diodes with a quantum efficiency approaching 2.

  2. Ground state energy of solid molecular hydrogen at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, C.; Sung, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of the theoretical equation of state of solid molecular hydrogen is reviewed. Different quantum mechanical calculations by several groups lead to results which generally agree with each other but which disagree systematically with the measured pressure-volume curve at pressures larger than about 3000 atm. A new calculation of this curve is presented including the effect of the anisotropic interaction between H2 molecules within a completely quantum-mechanical formalism. The results show that inclusion of this interaction removes the discrepancy between theory and experiment at high pressures and that a quantum-mechanical treatment is necessary to realize its full effect.

  3. Method for joining metal by solid-state bonding

    DOEpatents

    Burkhart, L. Elkin; Fultz, Chester R.; Maulden, Kerry A.

    1979-01-01

    The present development is directed to a method for joining metal at relatively low temperatures by solid-state bonding. Planar surfaces of the metal workpieces are placed in a parallel abutting relationship with one another. A load is applied to at least one of the workpieces for forcing the workpieces together while one of the workpieces is relatively slowly oscillated in a rotary motion over a distance of about 1.degree.. After a preselected number of oscillations, the rotary motion is terminated and the bond between the abutting surfaces is effected. An additional load may be applied to facilitate the bond after terminating the rotary motion.

  4. Solid-state lasers for coherent communication and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Work in the stabilization of monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and the application of these lasers to nonlinear optical frequency conversion is discussed. The intrinsic stability of semiconductor diode laser pumped solid state lasers has facilitated a number of demonstration in external resonant cavity harmonic generation and stable optical parametric oscillation. Relative laser frequency stabilization of 0.3 Hz was achieved, and absolute stability of a few hundred hertz is anticipated. The challenge is now to reproduce this frequency stability in the output of tunable nonlinear optical devices. Theoretical and experimental work toward this goal are continuing.

  5. An evaluation of solid state video frame recorders

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked Sandia with conducting a market survey to identify and evaluate pertinent solid state recorders. This report identifies the chosen recorders and explains why they were selected. It details test procedures and provides the results of the evaluation. Our main focus in this evaluation was to determine whether the frame grabber altered signal quality. To determine the effect on the signal, we evaluated specific parameters: sensitivity, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and intrascene dynamic range. These factors were evaluated at the input and output of the frame grabber.

  6. Bloodstain age analysis: toward solid state fluorescent lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kevin; Zhegalova, Natalia; Achilefu, Samuel; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-03-01

    One of the most pressing unsolved challenges in forensic science is the determination of time since deposition (TSD) of bloodstains at crime scenes. Despite a number of high profile cases over the past couple hundred years involving controversy over TSD methods, no reliable quantitative method has been established. We present here an approach that has yet to be explored by forensic scientist: measuring the fluorescence lifetime of solid-state blood. Such a method would allow for on-site measurements of bloodstains utilizing the appropriate device, and would allow for rapid results returned in real-time to investigators.

  7. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  8. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    PubMed

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong. PMID:19734925

  9. Silver solid-state bonding: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.

    1986-07-07

    Silver solid-state bonding is a joining process which has been largely developed at Rocky Flats and used successfully in a number of programs. The implementation of this technology has generally been successful, but significant problems have been encountered in 316 stainless steel-to-1100 aluminum transition joints. In this paper, the known information about the effect of variables in the various steps in the bonding process on final bond strength is reviewed. On the basis of this information, processing steps or variables with the greatest potential for causing large reductions in the final bond strength are identified. 54 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Raman spectra of selected transuranium trihalides in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Begun, G.M.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1988-10-15

    Raman spectral data have been obtained from a number of transuranium trihalides in the solid state. The Raman spectra of these actinide compounds are reported and compared to the published Raman spectra of isostructural compounds. Tentative symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active lattice vibrations based on nuclear site symmetry analysis of their respective crystal structures and comparisons to the symmetry assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. The Raman spectral data obtained in this study represent a partial data base for the use of Raman spectroscopy for identifying the crystal structures exhibited by these and isostructural compounds.

  11. Optical pumping in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.; Reimer, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    An important current trend in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the growing exploitation of optical pumping of nuclear spin polarizations as a means of enhancing and localizing NMR signals. Recent work has been concentrated in two areas, namely optically pumped NMR in semiconductors and optical pumping of noble gases. Progress in these two areas, including technical developments and new applications in physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and biomedical sciences, is reviewed. Likely directions for future developments are suggested. 58 refs., 13 figs.

  12. On the role of twinning in solid-state reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akchurin, M. Sh. Zakalyukin, R. M.

    2013-05-15

    A new concept of the role of twinning in processes of plastic deformation is proposed which suggests mechanical twinning to be the main mechanism of solid-state reactions under the deformation mixing of components, in particular, the grinding of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders, as a result of which yttrium-aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) particles are formed.

  13. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P=0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2)it P=0 pressure derivative; (3) the P=0 volume; and (4) the P=0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  14. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P = 0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2) its P = 0 pressure derivative; (3) the P = 0 volume; and (4) the P = 0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  15. Principles of the equilibrium theory of small multicomponent systems in three aggregate states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2015-11-01

    Principles of the molecular statistical theory of small multicomponent drops/microcrystals in a three-dimensional bulk and in two-dimensional adsorption systems are developed. Equations of the theory are derived using the cluster approach. The theory describes discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a size scale comparable to the molecular size) and continuous molecular distributions (at short distances inside cells) upon their translational and vibrational motions. The theory provides a unified description of the equilibrium molecular distributions in three aggregate states and at their interfaces. Pair intermolecular interaction potentials (such as the Mie potential) in several coordination spheres that determine lattice structure compressibility are taken into account. For simplicity, it is considered that the sizes of mixture components are virtually the same. Structural cell distribution functions for the transition region of curved interfaces are derived. Expressions for the pressure tensor components inside small bodies are obtained, allowing us to calculate the thermodynamic characteristics of a vapor-liquid interface, including surface tension. Questions regarding the consistency between the theory of phase transitions in small systems and the traditional theory of associate (cluster) formation and the transition to systems limited in the total volume value are discussed.

  16. Native myosin from adult rabbit skeletal muscle: isoenzymes and states of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morel, J E; D'hahan, N; Taouil, K; Francin, M; Aguilar, A; Dalbiez, J P; Merah, Z; Grussaute, H; Hilbert, B; Ollagnon, F; Selva, G; Piot, F

    1998-04-21

    The globular heads of skeletal muscle myosin have been shown to exist as isoenzymes S1 (A1) and S1 (A2), and there are also isoforms of the heavy chains. Using capillary electrophoresis, we found two dominant isoenzymes of the whole native myosin molecule, in agreement with what has previously been found by various techniques for native and nondenatured myosin from adult rabbits. Findings about possible states of aggregation of myosin and its heads are contradictory. By analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirmed the existence of a tail-tail dimer. By laser light scattering, we found a head-head dimer in the presence of MgATP. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with analytical ultracentrifugation and laser light scattering led us to refine these results. We found tail-tail dimers in a conventional buffer. We found tail-tail and head-head dimers in the presence of 0.5 mM MgATP and pure head-head dimers in the presence of 6 mM MgATP. All the dimers were homodimers. Naming the dominant isoenzymes of myosin a and b, we observed tail-tail dimers with isoenzyme a (TaTa) and with isoenzyme b (TbTb) and also head-head dimers with isoenzyme a (HaHa) and with isoenzyme b (HbHb). PMID:9548927

  17. “CLASSIC NMR”: An In-Situ NMR Strategy for Mapping the Time-Evolution of Crystallization Processes by Combined Liquid-State and Solid-State Measurements**

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Colan E; Williams, P Andrew; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2014-01-01

    A new in-situ NMR strategy (termed CLASSIC NMR) for mapping the evolution of crystallization processes is reported, involving simultaneous measurement of both liquid-state and solid-state NMR spectra as a function of time. This combined strategy allows complementary information to be obtained on the evolution of both the solid and liquid phases during the crystallization process. In particular, as crystallization proceeds (monitored by solid-state NMR), the solution state becomes more dilute, leading to changes in solution-state speciation and the modes of molecular aggregation in solution, which are monitored by liquid-state NMR. The CLASSIC NMR experiment is applied here to yield new insights into the crystallization of m-aminobenzoic acid. PMID:25044662

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  19. Superparamagnetic versus blocked states in aggregates of Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles studied by MFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, Carlos; Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar; Asenjo, Agustina

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic domain configurations in two samples containing small aggregates of Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles of about 11 and 49 nm in size, respectively, were characterized by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Two distinct magnetic behaviors were observed depending on the particle size. The aggregates constituted of nanoparticles of about 11 nm in size showed a uniform dark contrast on MFM images, reflecting the predominant superparamagnetic character of these particles and arising from the coherent rotation of the spins within the aggregate as the latter align along the tip stray-field. By applying a variable in-plane field, it is possible to induce magnetic polarization yielding an increasing dark/bright contrast as the strength of the applied field overcomes the stray-field of the tip, although this polarization completely disappears as the remanent state is recovered when the magnetic field is switched off. On the contrary, for aggregates of NPs of about 49 nm in size, dark/bright contrast associated with the existence of magnetic domains and magnetic polarization prevails in MFM images all along the magnetic cycle due to the blocking state of the magnetization of these larger particles, even in the absence of an applied field. All in all, we unambiguously demonstrate the capabilities of magnetic force microscopy to distinguish between blocked and superparamagnetic states in the aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles. Micromagnetic simulations strongly support the conclusions stated from the MFM experiments.Magnetic domain configurations in two samples containing small aggregates of Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles of about 11 and 49 nm in size, respectively, were characterized by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Two distinct magnetic behaviors were observed depending on the particle size. The aggregates constituted of nanoparticles of about 11 nm in size showed a uniform dark contrast on MFM images, reflecting the predominant superparamagnetic character of these particles and arising

  20. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  1. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  2. Solid state crash survivable flight data recorders for mishap investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, H. R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of the art in solid state memories, microprocessors and crash survival is reviewed. Flight recorders for small and large civil transport aircraft are described. Heat flow problems with crash survivable designs are solved, using an intumescent outer layer for the enclosure. This provides heat absorbtion during a phase change, followed by creation of a passive insulation layer formed by the charred residue. An aluminum alloy housing under the intumescent layer is the primary rigid structure for penetration, shock and static crush resistance. The small aircraft system has a 131 kbit memory, providing 30 min of prior flight data with 100% reserve, using data compression. It protects airborne and on ground signal goodness data and is nondeployable. The large aircraft system stores the 21 min of raw input data and the last 15 hr of data in memory with data compression possible. It protects in memory two flight cycles of any duration, with total elapsed time 25 hr possible.

  3. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  4. RNA structure determination by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marchanka, Alexander; Simon, Bernd; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the RNA three-dimensional structure, either in isolation or as part of RNP complexes, is fundamental to understand the mechanism of numerous cellular processes. Because of its flexibility, RNA represents a challenge for crystallization, while the large size of cellular complexes brings solution-state NMR to its limits. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach on the basis of solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We develop a suite of experiments and RNA labeling schemes and demonstrate for the first time that ssNMR can yield a RNA structure at high-resolution. This methodology allows structural analysis of segmentally labelled RNA stretches in high-molecular weight cellular machines—independent of their ability to crystallize— and opens the way to mechanistic studies of currently difficult-to-access RNA-protein assemblies. PMID:25960310

  5. The 20 GHz spacecraft FET solid state transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band using GaAs field effect transistors (FETs) was detailed. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development, single-ended amplifier stage, balanced amplifier stage, cascaded stage and radial combiner designs, and amplifier integration and test. A multistage GaAs FET amplifier capable of 8.2 W CW output over the 17.9 to 19.1 GHz frequency band was developed. The GaAs FET devices developed represent state of the art FET power device technology. Further device improvements are necessary to increase the bandwidth to 2.5 GHz, improve dc-to-RF efficiency, and increase power capability at the device level. Higher power devices will simplify the amplifier combining scheme, reducing the size and weight of the overall amplifier.

  6. Equation of state for shock compression of distended solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis; Fenton, Gregg; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-05-01

    Shock Hugoniot data for full-density and porous compounds of boron carbide, silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, uranium dioxide and playa alluvium are investigated for the purpose of equation-of-state representation of intense shock compression. Complications of multivalued Hugoniot behavior characteristic of highly distended solids are addressed through the application of enthalpy-based equations of state of the form originally proposed by Rice and Walsh in the late 1950's. Additive measures of cold and thermal pressure intrinsic to the Mie-Gruneisen EOS framework is replaced by isobaric additive functions of the cold and thermal specific volume components in the enthalpy-based formulation. Additionally, experimental evidence reveals enhancement of shock-induced phase transformation on the Hugoniot with increasing levels of initial distension for silicon dioxide, uranium dioxide and possibly boron carbide. Methods for addressing this experimentally observed feature of the shock compression are incorporated into the EOS model.

  7. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison H.; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-01-01

    In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based “fingerprints” of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust. PMID:26562833

  8. Spray-coated all-solid-state potentiometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Ewa; Schmidt, Morten; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2014-11-21

    A novel fully spray coating-based method of the preparation of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes of simplified construction is proposed. This method is an alternative for screen-printed electrodes used sometimes in potentiometric applications. The benefits of the herein-proposed approach include fully automatic sensor preparation and minimized use of chemicals allowing for the production of low-cost sensors that can be applied as disposables. A layer of spray-coated carbon nanotubes on an inert support was used both as an electrical lead and as a transducer, to simplify sensor layout and to avoid the possible problems of changing in-time composition of this layer, as previously observed in the case of screen-printed supporting electrodes in potentiometric applications. The ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane and the insulator layer were also spray-coated. The obtained sensors, as the model system potassium-selective sensors were prepared and characterized with analytical parameters well comparable with that of conventional, all-solid-state, ion-selective electrodes. In addition, the applicability of the herein-proposed approach to prepare other ion-selective electrodes was tested on examples of H(+) and Cl(-) sensors. PMID:25270688

  9. Solid state dye lasers: rhodamines in silica-zirconia materials.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Silke; Yariv, Eli; Reisfeld, Renata; Breuer, Hans Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Silica-zirconia materials as well as silica-zirconia ormosils prepared by the sol-gel technique were doped with the laser dyes Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 6G and used as solid state dye lasers. The photostability and efficiency of the solid state laser samples were measured in a transverse pumping configuration by either a nitrogen laser or the second harmonic of a Nd-YAG laser. Under the excitation of a nitrogen laser the photostability of Rhodamine B in silica-zirconia materials was low and decreased with a growing amount of zirconia. The photophysical properties of the incorporated dyes were studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence lifetimes of both dyes increased when the matrix was modified by organic compounds Furthermore, the threshold energy of Rhodamine 6G in two ormosils containing 3 and 50% methylsilica was measured. The results revealed that the threshold energy was lower for the matrix with a higher amount of ormosil while the slope efficiency was higher in the matrix containing 30% ormosil. PMID:12653469

  10. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm-in-diameter silicon-nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades ΔG and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and ΔG are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process. PMID:25994084

  11. Diode pumped thin slab solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Wang, Zhiming; Chen, Fan; Xu, Jianqiu

    2008-12-01

    Thermal effect is a serious problem in solid-state lasers. Because of superior thermal property which owed to high aspect ratio of laser crystal, solid-state lasers with thin slab configuration can be scaling to high output power with different laser crystal material and pump structure. In this paper, we present side-pumped passive Q-switched and acousto-optic Q-switched Nd: YAG lasers and end-pumped Tm: YAP lasers. We got a maximum 70W output power of passive Q-switched Nd: YAG laser with 220W pump power, which the pulse duration is around 10ns and the pulse repetition rate is higher than 10kHz. And 73W output power is got while pump power is 200W in acousto-optic Q-switched Nd: YAG lasers. Especially, we also applied the thin slab configuration to end pumped Tm: YAP laser and got a maximum 9.6W output power which the doping concentrations is 4% and cut by c-axis.

  12. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  13. All-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-08-01

    The current rapid industrial development causes the serious energy and environmental crises. Photocatalyts provide a potential strategy to solve these problems because these materials not only can directly convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources but also can decompose organic pollutants under solar-light irradiation. However, the aforementioned applications require photocatalysts with a wide absorption range, long-term stability, high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for a single-component photocatalyst to simultaneously fulfill all these requirements. The artificial heterogeneous Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, mimicking the natural photosynthesis process, overcome the drawbacks of single-component photocatalysts and satisfy those aforementioned requirements. Such multi-task systems have been extensively investigated in the past decade. Especially, the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems without redox pair have been widely used in the water splitting, solar cells, degradation of pollutants and CO2 conversion, which have a huge potential to solve the current energy and environmental crises facing the modern industrial development. Thus, this review gives a concise overview of the all-solid-state Z-scheme photocatalytic systems, including their composition, construction, optimization and applications. PMID:24888530

  14. Femtosecond all-solid-state laser for refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickler, Leander; Han, Meng; Giese, G.'nter; Loesel, Frieder H.; Bille, Josef F.

    2003-06-01

    Refractive surgery in the pursuit of perfect vision (e.g. 20/10) requires firstly an exact measurement of abberations induced by the eye and then a sophisticated surgical approach. A recent extension of wavefront measurement techniques and adaptive optics to ophthalmology has quantitatively characterized the quality of the human eye. The next milestone towards perfect vision is developing a more efficient and precise laser scalpel and evaluating minimal-invasive laser surgery strategies. Femtosecond all-solid-state MOPA lasers based on passive modelocking and chirped pulse amplification are excellent candidates for eye surgery due to their stability, ultra-high intensity and compact tabletop size. Furthermore, taking into account the peak emission in the near IR and diffraction limited focusing abilities, surgical laser systems performing precise intrastromal incisions for corneal flap resection and intrastromal corneal reshaping promise significant improvement over today's Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) and Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) techniques which utilize UV excimer lasers. Through dispersion control and optimized regenerative amplification, a compact femtosecond all-solid-state laser with pulsed energy well above LIOB threshold and kHz repetition rate is constructed. After applying a pulse sequence to the eye, the modified corneal morphology is investigated by high resolution microscopy (Multi Photon/SHG Confocal Microscope).

  15. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison H; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-01-01

    In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust. PMID:26562833

  16. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks.

  17. Quadrichromatic white solid state lamp with digital feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukauskas, Arturas; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Ivanauskas, Felikas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Krupic, Jevgenij; Rupsys, Andrius; Novickovas, Algirdas; Vitta, Pranciskus; Navickas, Alvydas; Raskauskas, Vytautas; Shur, Michael S.; Gaska, Remis

    2004-01-01

    White light with high color rendering indices can be produced by additive color mixing of emissions from several light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having different primary colors. White Versatile Solid-State Lamps (VSSLs) with variable color temperature, constant-chromaticity dimming, and efficiency/color-rendering trade-off can be developed using pulse-width modulation (PWM) driving technique. However, such lamps exhibit chromaticity shifts caused by different temperature and aging coefficients of the optical output for primary LEDs of different colors. To overcome this drawback, we developed a polychromatic white solid-state lamp with an internal digital feedback. The lamp features a quadrichromatic (red-amber-green-blue) design based on commercially available high-power LEDs. The design is optimized to achieve high values of the general color rendering index (69 to 79 points) in the color-temperature range of 2856 to 6504 K. A computer-controlled driving circuit contains a pulse-width modulator and a photodiode-based meter. The software performs periodical measurement of the radiant flux from primary LEDs of each color and adjusts the widths of the driving pulses. These VSSLs with feedback found application in phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

  18. Color perception under illumination by quadrichromatic solid-state lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanikunas, Rytis; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas; Svegzda, Algimantas; Viliunas, Vilius; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Novickovas, Algirdas; Kurilcik, Genadij; Zukauskas, Arturas; Gaska, Remis; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    Lighting based on sources of light composed of colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offers versatile control of color and a possibility of trade-off between efficiency and color rendering. However, psychophysical issues related to such polychromatic solid-state sources have to be addressed. In this work, studies of the perception of standard colors under illumination with a quadrichromatic red-amber-green-blue (RAGB) solid-state source were carried out. An RAGB lamp containing primary LEDs with the emission peaks at 638 nm, 594 nm, 523 nm, and 441 nm and optimized for the highest value of the general color rendering index (86 points) was investigated and compared to a tungsten lamp. 40 standard Munsell samples of value 6, chroma /6, and hue incremented by 2.5 were used in the investigation. Changes in the saturation and hue of the Munsell samples illuminated by the RAGB lamp versus tungsten lamp (both with the correlated temperature of 2600 K) were obtained by colorimetric calculation comparisons and by psychophysical experiments on subjective matching of the samples. Subjective differences in hue and subjective color discrimination differences under the tungsten and RAGB lamps were found in the wavelength range of 440-500 nm and 560-580 nm. We attribute these differences to non-optimal peak wavelengths of the primary LEDs and to the narrow-band components of the RAGB spectrum.

  19. Solid state light source for wavelength multiplex 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junejei

    2012-10-01

    A solid state light source provided for wavelength multiplex 3D Display is proposed. The system of solid state light source includes blue laser arrays of two wavelengths, a 2-ring phosphor wheel, a multi-band filter and a TIR prism. Green and red phosphors excited by blue lasers provide the original green and red lights of wide bandwidth. By passing through or reflected by a multi-band filter, two groups of green and red lights of narrow bandwidth for left or right eyes are selected. Blue lasers of two wavelengths also provide two blue lights for left and right eyes. Instead of using a second rotated narrow band filters that synchronized with the first phosphor wheel, a wheel having two rings coated with mirrors and phosphors is used to replace the synchronization existing in the conventional two wheels method. After passing the 2-ring wheel, the light source switches between two light paths that lead to be reflected or transmitting through the multiband filter. The multi-band filter can be disposed in a telecentric optical path to secure a high efficiency for the filter. A compact spectral multiplex light source is realized and can be directly attached to any existing optical engine.

  20. Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

    SciTech Connect

    Pelekhov, D. V.; Martin, I.; Suter, A.; Reagor, D. W.; Hammel, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.