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Sample records for aggression physical assault

  1. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  2. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury.

  3. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury. PMID:27170345

  4. The normalization of sibling violence: does gender and personal experience of violence influence perceptions of physical assault against siblings?

    PubMed

    Khan, Roxanne; Rogers, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Despite its pervasive and detrimental nature, sibling violence (SV) remains marginalized as a harmless and inconsequential form of familial aggression. The present study investigates the extent to which perceptions of SV differ from those of other types of interpersonal violence. A total of 605 respondents (197 males, 408 females) read one of four hypothetical physical assault scenarios that varied according to perpetrator-victim relationship type (i.e., sibling vs. dating partner vs. peer vs. stranger) before completing a series of 24 attribution items. Respondents also reported on their own experiences of interpersonal violence during childhood. Exploratory factor analysis reduced 23 attribution items to three internally reliable factors reflecting perceived assault severity, victim culpability, and victim resistance ratings. A 4 × 2 MANCOVA-controlling for respondent age-revealed several significant effects. Overall, males deemed the assault less severe and the victim more culpable than did females. In addition, the sibling assault was deemed less severe compared to assault on either a dating partner or a stranger, with the victim of SV rated just as culpable as the victim of dating, peer, or stranger-perpetrated violence. Finally, respondents with more (frequent) experiences of childhood SV victimization perceived the hypothetical SV assault as being less severe, and victim more culpable, than respondents with no SV victimization. Results are discussed in the context of SV normalization. Methodological limitations and applications for current findings are also outlined.

  5. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  6. Is the curve relating temperature to aggression linear or curvilinear? Assaults and temperature in minneapolis reexamined.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Wang, Morgan C; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-07-01

    Using archival data from Minneapolis recorded in 3-hr time intervals, E. G. Cohn and J. Rotton concluded that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between temperature and assault, with the maximum assault rate occurring at 74.9 degrees F. They depicted this relationship by plotting temperature against assault. This plot, however, fails to take into account time of day. Time of day was strongly related to both temperature and assault, but in opposite directions. Between 9:00 p.m. and 2:59 a.m. of the next day, when most assaults occurred, there was a positive linear relationship between temperature and assault. The Minneapolis data actually provide stronger support of a positive linear (or monotonic) relationship between temperature and assault than of an inverted U-shaped relationship. PMID:16060743

  7. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  8. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  9. The associations of physical and sexual assault with suicide risk in nonclinical military and undergraduate samples.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-04-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault victimization, emotional distress, belongingness, recent suicide ideation, and previous suicide attempts. Among military personnel, rape, robbery, or violent assault was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for suicide attempts, whereas physical abuse or battering as an adult was significantly associated with recent suicide ideation. Among undergraduates, unwanted sexual experiences as an adult and physical or sexual abuse as a child were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempt, but only unwanted experiences as an adult was significantly associated with increased risk for suicide ideation. Experiencing multiple forms of assault increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation in both groups. Results suggest that different types of assault contribute differentially to suicide risk in military versus undergraduate populations, but experiencing multiple types of assault is associated with increased risk in both groups.

  10. Predictors of physical assault victimization: Findings from the National Survey of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Elwood, Lisa S.; Begle, Angela Moreland; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to interpersonal victimization during childhood and adolescence is prevalent and has been found to be associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The present study examined the relations between childhood violence exposure and mental health on subsequent exposure to new physical assault in young adults using longitudinal nationally representative, prospective data from the initial (Wave I) and follow-up interviews (Wave II) of the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA). Among the 1,753 participants who completed both assessment time points, 15.8% reported a new physical assault experience at Wave II. Results indicated that racial/ethnic status, gender, history of child physical abuse, witnessed violence drug use, and family drug problems reported at Wave I were all significant predictors of new physical assault. Implications are discussed. PMID:21514060

  11. The Associations of Physical and Sexual Assault with Suicide Risk in Nonclinical Military and Undergraduate Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…

  12. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  13. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Professionals Assaulted by Patients and/or Relatives: Importance of Severity and Experience of the Aggression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, M Mar; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to violence from patients or relatives causes problems in emergency departments. To assess the development of posttraumatic symptoms in pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives, it may be crucial to establish preventive measures at different levels. This study examined 358 pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives. The aims of the present study were (a) to assess the presence of posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and (b) identify compliance diagnoses for PTSD depending on the experience of aggression (presence of fear, helplessness, or horror during the aggression), the perceived severity of aggression, and socio-demographic variables (gender, age, profession, employment status, and work experience). The results show that the experience of aggression with fear, helplessness, or horror is associated with the presence of posttraumatic symptoms related to re-experiencing but is not related to avoidance and emotional numbing and arousal. Furthermore, the perception of aggression as severe was associated with the presence of symptoms related to re-experiencing. These results are presented and discussed. PMID:25381283

  15. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Sexual Orientation–Related Physical Assault Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Thomas M.; Chan, Keith; Anema, Aranka; Miller, Mary Lou; Schilder, Arn J.; Schechter, Martin T.; Hogg, Robert Stephen; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine incidence of, prevalence of, and risk factors for sexual orientation–related physical assault in young men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We completed a prospective open cohort study of young MSM in Vancouver, British Columbia, surveyed annually between 1995 and 2004. Correlates of sexual orientation–related physical assault before enrollment were identified with logistic regression. Risk factors for incident assaults were determined with Cox regression. Results. At enrollment, 84 (16%) of 521 MSM reported ever experiencing assault related to actual or perceived sexual orientation. Incidence was 2.3 per 100 person-years; cumulative incidence at 6-year follow-up was 10.8 per 100 person-years. Increased risk of incident sexual orientation–related physical assault was observed among MSM 23 years or younger (relative hazard=3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 5.8), Canadian Aboriginal people (relative hazard = 3.0; 95% CI=1.4, 6.2), and those who previously experienced such assault (relative hazard=2.5; 95% CI=1.3, 4.8). Conclusions. These data underscore the need for increased public awareness, surveillance, and support to reduce assault against young MSM. Such efforts should be coordinated at the community level to ensure that social norms dictate that such acts are unacceptable. PMID:18445793

  16. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence.

  17. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  18. Further Findings on Non-Linear Patterns of the Blaming of Professionals for Incidents of Aggression and Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Lanza, Marilyn

    This study compared responses to three vignettes describing incidents between a male patient and a female nurse that involved the nurse being mildly assaulted, severely assaulted, or verbally abused (the control condition) by the patient. After reading each vignette, 32 of 42 female senior-year nursing students and 28 of 48 practicing nurses…

  19. Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

  20. Females' Reasons for Their Physical Aggression in Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettrich, Emma L.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 32% of dating college females reported that they engaged in physical aggression against their partners and that they engaged in acts of physical aggression more often than their male partners engaged in aggression against them. However, the females also reported that their male partners attempted to force them to engage in oral sex…

  1. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  2. Adult autopsy case with marked myositis ossificans: association with repetitive physical assault and battery.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shirushi; Kanetake, Jun; Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Funayama, Masato

    2008-09-01

    A man in his thirties was found dead in his room. The autopsy findings were as follows: multiple bruises and subdermal edema, small sized stab wounds, a number of skin scars, new and old rib fractures, mild liver contusion, and marked myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) at both thighs. In particular, the MOT was closely associated with repetitive physical assault and battery. The deceased did not have any lethal injuries of internal organs or great vessels, and the cause of death was diagnosed as traumatic hypovolemic shock. The deceased seemed to have accepted as fate his "specific situation" in which he would be subjected to continued physical violence from his cohabiter, a woman in her thirties. PMID:18442942

  3. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  4. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  5. Televised relational and physical aggression and children's hostile intent attributions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with 150 children (mean age=10.1years) in third to fifth grades to test whether exposure to different forms of aggression in the media affected hostile attributional biases in response to different forms of provocation scenarios. Children were randomly assigned to watch a clip containing physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. After exposure, children were asked to respond to a series of written provocation scenarios where a character caused some form of harm (instrumental or relational) to a target person, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. Results revealed that exposure to relationally aggressive portrayals resulted in a hostile attributional bias in response to relational scenarios, whereas exposure to portrayals of physical aggression was associated with a hostile attributional bias in response to instrumental scenarios. Moreover, these biases were shown to be specific to the exposure condition (physical or relational) and not simply associated with exposure to aggression in general. The findings are discussed in terms of the general aggression model and children's social information processing. PMID:23831139

  6. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  7. Need for Specialized Support Services for Nurse Victims of Physical Assault by Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Lois Biggin; McManus, Marybeth; Cullinan, Meritta; Persico, Lori

    2016-07-01

    Assault of nurses in the psychiatric setting is an ongoing global concern. In a prior study by these authors, many nurses reported concern about the lack of supportive interventions offered to nurses after the assault event. These nurses reported ongoing psychosocial and emotional disturbance consistent with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. A follow-up study was done to investigate the perceived need of assaulted nurses for specialized support groups to assist them in dealing with the experience. A quantitative, cross sectional survey descriptive research design was done to assess assaulted nurses' perceived need for specialized support groups. The survey also gathered data relating to the reporting of the assault. A qualitative narrative section was added to gather data that might have been missed in the quantitative segment. The sample consisted of 57 previously assaulted nurses currently working at multiple acute care sites. Study findings showed that if specialized support groups were available, 57% of the nurses might be interested in attending these, and 41% would be interested in attending these. These nurses also reported multiple signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering the serious negative impact of assault on nurses and their desire for follow-up support, there is a need for the availability of supportive services. PMID:27269817

  8. Physical Education Teacher's Verbal Aggression and Student's Fair Play Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Hassandra; Alexandra, Bekiari; Kimon, Sakellariou

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how physical education teacher's verbal aggressiveness, as perceived by the students, is related to students' fair play self-reported behaviors. Four hundred twenty-nine physical education students completed two questionnaires during physical education classes. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a…

  9. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  10. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  11. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study.

  12. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Megan R.; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A.; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment. PMID:25924113

  13. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  14. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  15. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  16. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  17. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  18. Stranger and Acquaintance Sexual Assault of Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and…

  19. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.

  20. The Sexual Assault Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hargot, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274059

  1. The sexual assault examination.

    PubMed

    Hargot, L A

    1985-04-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court.

  2. Testing an intervention to reduce assaults on nursing assistants in nursing homes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fitzwater, Evelyn L; Gates, Donna M

    2002-01-01

    Nursing home staffs frequently encounter physical and emotional violence directed toward them by residents. This article addresses the problem from an occupational health perspective and describes a pilot study focused an educational intervention to reduce resident assaults on certified nursing assistants (CNAs) in nursing homes. After a 4-hour education intervention, the study CNAs reported fewer physical assaults by residents and increased levels of knowledge and confidence in their ability to manage residents' aggressive behavior compared with a similar CNA group. Limitations include a small convenience sample who works only the day shift. Results support education and training as effective in reducing resident physical assaults and enhancing nursing home safety. Further research should investigate assaultive resident behavior and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent, reduce, and manage violence in nursing homes. PMID:11865253

  3. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  4. Processes Underlying Children's Adjustment in Families Characterized by Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyskiw, Judee; Hayduk, Leslie A.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical aggression in the family affects children's adjustment through both observational learning/modeling and through its impact on parenting was tested, via LISREL, using data from a sample of Canadian children (N=11,221). Results showed observational learning and disrupted parenting provide reasonable explanations of…

  5. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855

  6. Bring the subjective back in: resource and husband-to-wife physical assault among Chinese couples in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Yuk-Ping; Cheung, Adam Ka-Lok; Cheung, Yuet-Wah; David, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Resource theory constitutes important explanations of spousal violence in culturally diverse societies. This article extends the theory by adding several subjective indicators: husband's financial strain and the couple's appraisal of each other's financial and nonfinancial contributions to family. We examined the role of these subjective dimensions of resource in spousal violence against the backdrop of other predictors, including the husband's absolute socioeconomic resources, the wife's economic dependence, and relative resource differences between the husband and wife. The findings not only partly support absolute and relative resource theories but also suggest the salient role of subjective indicators of resources on husband-to-wife physical assault. PMID:25425622

  7. The development of aggression during adolescence: Sex differences in trajectories of physical and social aggression among youth in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the development of social aggression over time or described trajectories of aggressive behaviors for youth living in rural areas. We compared the timing and patterns of physical and social aggression and examined sex differences in development using five waves of in-school surveys administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N=5151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% white and 38.2% African-American. At baseline the average age was 13.1 years. Multilevel growth curve models showed that physical and social aggression followed curvilinear trajectories from ages 11 to 18, with increases in each type of aggression followed by subsequent declines. Physical aggression peaked around age 15; social aggression peaked around age 14. Boys consistently perpetrated more physical aggression than girls, but the trajectories were parallel. Girls and boys perpetrated the same amount of social aggression at all ages. We discuss implications for prevention programming to address the marked increases in both types of aggression observed during early adolescence. PMID:18521738

  8. Assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Dubin, W R; Wilson, S J; Mercer, C

    1988-09-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 3800 psychiatrists in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware to investigate assaults against psychiatrists in outpatient settings. Ninety-one questionnaires were returned: 32 psychiatrists reported serious assaults (gun or knife), and 59 reported less serious assaults (object or physical attack). Significantly more personal injury and property damage resulted from the less serious assaults. Coping strategy was significantly related to the type of assault; positive verbal intervention was the most effective. Thirty-one (36%) of 87 respondents stated that they had moderate to strong feelings before the attack that the patient was potentially violent. Experienced psychiatrists were as likely to be victims of assault as were inexperienced psychiatrists. Forty-eight (59%) of 81 psychiatrists continued to treat the patients who had assaulted them. Only 20 (23%) of 87 psychiatrists had security arrangements at the time of the assault. The authors present four case vignettes which typify the different types of assaults, interventions, and outcomes.

  9. Risk of sexual, physical and verbal assaults on men who have sex with men and female sex workers in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Methods Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to estimate the risk of rape, physical assault and verbal abuse, and to assess associations between first occurrence of assault with individual and recent behavioural factors. Results Incidence of first reported rape was similar for MSM [3.9, confidence interval (CI) 3.1–5.0 per 100 person-years (pyrs)] and FSW (4.8 CI 3.5–6.4 per 100 pyrs), P =0.22. Incidence of first reported physical and verbal assault was higher for FSW than MSM (21.1 versus 12.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.14 and 51.3 versus 30.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.03 respectively). Recent alcohol use was associated with reporting of all forms of assault by MSM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, CI 0.9–3.5] and FSW (AOR 4.4, CI 1.41–14.0), as was recent sale of sex for MSM (AOR 2.0, CI 1.1–3.8). Exclusive sex with men, active sex work, and group sex were also specifically associated with reporting rape for MSM. Perpetrators of sexual and verbal assault were usually unknown, whilst perpetrators of physical violence toward FSW were usually regular sexual partners. Conclusion MSM and FSW experienced a similarly high incidence of sexual assault in coastal Kenya, in addition to physical and verbal assault. Current national policies focus heavily on gender-based violence against women and young girls, but need to be inclusive of MSM and FSW. PMID:26562812

  10. The Early Childhood Aggression Curve: Development of Physical Aggression in 10- to 50-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van I Jzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence, stability, and development of physical aggression, as reported by mothers and fathers, in a sample of children initially recruited at 12, 24, and 36 months (N=2,253) and in a subsample followed up 1 year later (n=271) in a cross-sequential design. Physical aggression occurred in 12-month-olds, but significantly…

  11. Marital Psychological and Physical Aggression and Children's Mental and Physical Health: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Relations between marital aggression (psychological and physical) and children's health were examined. Children's emotional insecurity was assessed as a mediator of these relations, with distinctions made between marital aggression against mothers and fathers and ethnicity (African American or European American), socioeconomic status, and child…

  12. Backbiting and bloodshed in books: short-term effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-03-01

    The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature.

  13. Violence in Known-Assailant Sexual Assaults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; Du Mont, Janice; Dunn, Shelia

    1998-01-01

    Examines characteristics of sexual assaults among women (N=1,162) assaulted by strangers, acquaintances known for less than 24 hours, acquaintances known for more than 24 hours, and current or previous husbands or boyfriends. Findings reveal that assaults by husbands or boyfriends were more violent and resulted in more physical trauma to victims.…

  14. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  15. Patterns of Physical and Relational Aggression in a School-Based Sample of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crapanzano, Ann Marie; Frick, Paul J.; Terranova, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the patterns of aggressive behavior displayed in a sample of 282 students in the 4th through 7th grades (M age = 11.28; SD = 1.82). Using cluster analyses, two distinct patterns of physical aggression emerged for both boys and girls with one aggressive cluster showing mild levels of reactive aggression and one group…

  16. Physical Aggression and Expressive Vocabulary in 19-Month-Old Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard; Boivin, Michel; Laplante, David; Perusse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Used a genetic design to investigate association between physical aggression and language development in 19-month-old twins. Found a modest but significant correlation between aggression and expressive vocabulary. Substantial heritability was found for physical aggression. Quantitative genetic modeling suggested that the correlation could not be…

  17. Winning is not enough: ventral striatum connectivity during physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Buades-Rotger, Macià; Brunnlieb, Claudia; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2016-03-01

    Social neuroscience studies have shown that the ventral striatum (VS), a highly reward-sensitive brain area, is activated when participants win competitive tasks. However, in these settings winning often entails both avoiding punishment and punishing the opponent. It is thus unclear whether the rewarding properties of winning are mainly associated to punishment avoidance, or if punishing the opponent can be additionally gratifying. In the present paper we explored the neurophysiological correlates of each outcome, aiming to better understand the development of aggression episodes. We previously introduced a competitive reaction time task that separates both effects: in half of the won trials, participants can physically punish their opponent (active trials), whereas in the other half they can only avoid a punishment (passive trials). We performed functional connectivity analysis seeded in the VS to test for differential network interactions in active compared to passive trials. The VS showed greater connectivity with areas involved in reward valuation (orbitofrontal cortex), arousal (dorsal thalamus and posterior insula), attention (inferior occipital gyrus), and motor control (supplementary motor area) in active compared to passive trials, whereas connectivity between the VS and the inferior frontal gyrus decreased. Interindividual variability in connectivity strength between VS and posterior insula was related to aggressive behavior, whereas connectivity between VS and supplementary motor area was related to faster reaction times in active trials. Our results suggest that punishing a provoking opponent when winning might adaptively favor a "competitive state" in the course of an aggressive interaction.

  18. Winning is not enough: ventral striatum connectivity during physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Buades-Rotger, Macià; Brunnlieb, Claudia; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2016-03-01

    Social neuroscience studies have shown that the ventral striatum (VS), a highly reward-sensitive brain area, is activated when participants win competitive tasks. However, in these settings winning often entails both avoiding punishment and punishing the opponent. It is thus unclear whether the rewarding properties of winning are mainly associated to punishment avoidance, or if punishing the opponent can be additionally gratifying. In the present paper we explored the neurophysiological correlates of each outcome, aiming to better understand the development of aggression episodes. We previously introduced a competitive reaction time task that separates both effects: in half of the won trials, participants can physically punish their opponent (active trials), whereas in the other half they can only avoid a punishment (passive trials). We performed functional connectivity analysis seeded in the VS to test for differential network interactions in active compared to passive trials. The VS showed greater connectivity with areas involved in reward valuation (orbitofrontal cortex), arousal (dorsal thalamus and posterior insula), attention (inferior occipital gyrus), and motor control (supplementary motor area) in active compared to passive trials, whereas connectivity between the VS and the inferior frontal gyrus decreased. Interindividual variability in connectivity strength between VS and posterior insula was related to aggressive behavior, whereas connectivity between VS and supplementary motor area was related to faster reaction times in active trials. Our results suggest that punishing a provoking opponent when winning might adaptively favor a "competitive state" in the course of an aggressive interaction. PMID:25759287

  19. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships.

  20. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263

  1. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Physical and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Child Maltreatment and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, pre-lunch, and afternoon pre-departure salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp. Counselors and peers rated participants' involvement in physically and relationally aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that physical aggression was associated with heightened cortisol following morning arrival and relatively steep declines in cortisol over the day whereas relational aggression was associated with low cortisol following morning arrival and blunted diurnal change in cortisol. Moreover, maltreatment was a significant moderator of this relationship such that aggression was related to greater cortisol dysregulation among nonmaltreated than maltreated children. The findings suggest that physiological correlates of aggression may differ for physical and relational forms of aggression and among maltreated versus nonmaltreated populations. PMID:18605842

  2. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. PMID:24954610

  3. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior.

  4. "Bad Romance": Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J

    2015-06-09

    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes.

  5. “Bad Romance”: Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples

    PubMed Central

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents’ romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners’ reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515

  6. "Bad Romance": Links between Psychological and Physical Aggression and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Couples.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J

    2015-01-01

    Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515

  7. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  8. Communication and frightening behavior among couples with past and recent histories of physical marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Gordis, Elana B; Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina

    2005-09-01

    The present study compares observed communication and couples' reports of husbands' frightening behaviors among couples with no history of husbands' physical marital aggression, a past history of such aggression, and recent history of such aggression. Ninety community couples reported on husbands' physical marital aggression during two visits to the lab, approximately 1.5 years apart. During the second visit, we videotaped couples' discussions of conflictual marital issues. Poor communication, as indexed by high hostility, low problem-description and low warmth, characterized couples with recent aggression, as compared to past aggression or no aggression. Husbands' frightening behavior characterized the couples with either recent or past aggression, compared to no aggression. In addition, for couples who had experienced severe aggression, the rates of husbands' frightening behavior were similar regardless of whether husbands persisted, reduced or desisted in the severe aggression. Discussion addresses possible reasons that reductions and desistance in husbands' aggression may be associated with more positive communication patterns but with continued reports of frightening behavior. PMID:16134053

  9. Communication and frightening behavior among couples with past and recent histories of physical marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Gordis, Elana B; Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina

    2005-09-01

    The present study compares observed communication and couples' reports of husbands' frightening behaviors among couples with no history of husbands' physical marital aggression, a past history of such aggression, and recent history of such aggression. Ninety community couples reported on husbands' physical marital aggression during two visits to the lab, approximately 1.5 years apart. During the second visit, we videotaped couples' discussions of conflictual marital issues. Poor communication, as indexed by high hostility, low problem-description and low warmth, characterized couples with recent aggression, as compared to past aggression or no aggression. Husbands' frightening behavior characterized the couples with either recent or past aggression, compared to no aggression. In addition, for couples who had experienced severe aggression, the rates of husbands' frightening behavior were similar regardless of whether husbands persisted, reduced or desisted in the severe aggression. Discussion addresses possible reasons that reductions and desistance in husbands' aggression may be associated with more positive communication patterns but with continued reports of frightening behavior.

  10. Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-01-01

    A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls.

  11. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  12. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  13. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  14. Two Sides of the Same Coin? The Relations between Prosocial and Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Meredith; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The direct and indirect relations between six types of prosocial behavior and physical aggression were examined. Data were gathered from 252 college students (M age = 21.67 years; 184 women) who completed measures of sympathy, prosocial behavior, and physical aggression. Structural equation modeling revealed that sympathy fully mediated the…

  15. Early Childcare and Physical Aggression: Differentiating Social Selection and Social Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borge, Anne I. H.; Rutter, Michael; Cote, Sylvana; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Some research findings have suggested that group day-care may be associated with an increased risk for physical aggression. Methods: Cross-sectional maternal questionnaire data from a representative sample of 3431 Canadian 2- to 3-year-olds were used to compare rates of physical aggression shown by children looked after by their own…

  16. Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

  17. Using a Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Framework to Predict Physical Aggression Trajectories in Newlywed Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…

  18. Assaults, murders and walkers: The impact of violent crime on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    We investigate an underexplored externality of crime: the impact of violent crime on individuals' participation in walking. For many adults walking is the only regular physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people in 323 small areas in England between 2005 and 2011 matched to quarterly crime data at the small area level. Within area variation identifies the causal effect of local violent crime on walking and a difference-in-difference analysis of two high-profile crimes corroborates our results. We find a significant deterrent effect of violent crime on walking that translates into a drop in overall physical activity.

  19. Does Gender Moderate the Relationship between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Physical Aggression?

    PubMed

    Nwafor, Chidozie E; Onyeizugbo, Euckay U; Anazonwu, Charles O

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the interaction effect of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and gender on physical aggression among Nigerian adolescents. Two hundred and ninety five (295) senior secondary school students who were between 14-16 years of age participated in the study. These participants included boys (152) and girls (143). They were selected from a public senior secondary school in Anambra a South Eastern State of Nigeria and all the participants were of Igbo ethnic group. The raw data for Callous-unemotional traits and Physical Aggression were collected using Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) by Frick (2004) and Aggression Scale by Orpinas and Frankowski (2001) respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, and conditional process analysis (model number 1; Hayes, 2013). The results showed that gender correlated significantly with uncaring and physical aggression but did not correlate significantly with CU and callousness. The results further showed that gender, CU traits, uncaring and callousness subscales significantly predicted physical aggression. Gender also moderated the effect of CU traits and uncaring on physical aggression, but did not moderate the effect of callousness on physical aggression. The discussion focused on the ways of helping individuals with high level of CU traits to reduce aggression, also the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies and the implications of the finding were highlighted.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  1. DNA Methylation Signature of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression in T Cells of Both Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Claire; Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males. Methodology/Principal Findings Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males. Conclusions This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females. PMID:24475181

  2. Aversive parenting in China: associations with child physical and relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and girls) latent sum and difference structural equation model showed that combined parenting effects were slightly more prevalent than differential effects in predicting aggression. Furthermore, physical coercion was predictive of aggression in boys whereas psychological control was primarily associated with aggression in girls. Findings extend our understanding of relational aggression and the meaning of aversive parenting, particularly within the Chinese cultural context. PMID:16686788

  3. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  4. A study of psychiatric nurses' beliefs and attitudes about work safety and assaults in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim

    2006-01-01

    In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms. PMID:16352517

  5. Behavioral treatment approaches to pathological unsocialized physical aggression in young children.

    PubMed

    Frankel, F; Simmons, J Q

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents some hypotheses regarding the motivation of pathological unsocialized physical aggression in children and also reviews behavioral treatment. Tentative leads were offered as to extrinsic and intrinsic determinants. Among the most promising of these were parent-child interactive and attributive factors, and deficits in information processing in social situations. It was hypothesized that some of these factors might not be specific to pathological unsocialized physical aggression but are characteristic of children with behavior problems. Under this hypothesis, few studies were found which employed appropriate control groups. It was also hypothesized that the study of extrinsic and intrinsic factors for pathological unsocialized physical aggression may improve the design of treatment programs.

  6. Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

  7. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  8. Adolescents' Decisions About Verbal and Physical Aggression: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberto, Anthony J.; Meyer, Gary; Boster, Franklin J.; Roberto, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the ability of the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict adolescents' verbal (i.e., insulting) and physical (i.e., fighting) aggression, as well as behaviors that encourage aggression such as watching a fight or telling others about a fight that is going to happen. Reveals that attitudes and subjective norms predicted…

  9. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  10. Linkages between Children's and Their Friends' Social and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…

  11. Predictors and sequelae of trajectories of physical aggression in school-age boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Susan B; Spieker, Susan; Vandergrift, Nathan; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-rated trajectories of physical aggression in boys and girls from first through sixth grade were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. In separate analyses, four trajectories were identified in boys and three in girls. Higher levels of aggression in both boys and girls were related to greater sociodemographic risk and higher maternal harshness in the preschool years; lower levels of observed maternal sensitivity during early childhood also predicted higher trajectories of aggression among girls. Trajectory groups also differed on a range of social and academic adjustment outcomes in sixth grade, with the most aggressive children and even moderately aggressive children evidencing some difficulties in adjustment. Patterns and levels of aggression in boys and girls are discussed as are their predictors and consequences.

  12. Treatment of an assaultive, sensory-impaired adolescent through a multicomponent behavioral program.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    1984-03-01

    This project examined the effects of a multicomponent behavioral treatment program on assaultive behavior in a deaf, visually-impaired adolescent boy. Two types of assaultiveness were monitored: aggression towards adults and destruction of the physical environment. Intervention consisted of a token economy system, a response cost procedure, a "relaxation" technique, and skill training sessions. Through use of a multiple baseline across behaviors design, it was demonstrated that differentially reinforcing the absence of target behaviors on a weekly basis was the crucial ingredient in the treatment package. During a maintenance programming phase, the boy was gradually weaned off the token system. At 1- and 2-year follow-ups, no aggressive or destructive acts had occurred and the boy was showing improved communication and interpersonal skills.

  13. Well-Being and Safety Among Inpatient Psychiatric Staff: The Impact of Conflict, Assault, and Stress Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W

    2016-09-01

    Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual's stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was completed by 323 clinical care staff, of whom 69.5 % had experienced physical assault in the previous 12 months. Staff well-being (depression, anger, and physical health) and staff safety concerns were adversely affected by conflicts with other staff members and by individual reactivity to social conflict and to assault. To improve staff well-being, in addition to safety protocols, interventions should target staff relationships, personal health maintenance practices, and individual coping skills for dealing with adverse workplace experiences. PMID:26377816

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study revealed that children's family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child's potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies. PMID:24454423

  15. Interparental Violence and Maternal Mood Disorders as Predictors of Adolescent Physical Aggression within the Family

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P.; Gold, Philip W.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents’ physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. PMID:27541378

  16. Associations of neighborhood and family factors with trajectories of physical and social aggression during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence.

  17. Associations of Neighborhood and Family Factors with Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence. PMID:23054352

  18. Race and ethnicity, substance use, and physical aggression among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C; Mbah, Alfred K

    2013-05-01

    Youth violence is a critical public health problem across races/ethnicities in the United States. Although the differential association between substance use and physical aggression has been empirically proven, no tests have assessed the moderating effects of sociocultural differences in such associations. The purpose of this study is to test the moderating impact of race/ethnicity-as an indicator of sociocultural differences--on the associations between substance use and adolescent aggression, by conducting a validity assessment of a physical aggression measure for high school students with emphasis on Hispanics and other minorities. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, with a representative sample of all U.S. high school students, was conducted. Contingency table and chi-square test evaluated the statistical relationship between substance use (alcohol, marijuana, either, or both) and self-reports of physical aggression, race/ethnicity, age, and sex of the respondent. Three logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of race/ethnicity on the likelihood of reporting physical aggression by overall substance use and type of substance use. Statistical significant associations were found between physical aggression and alcohol and/or marijuana use. The self-report of substance use (marijuana or alcohol) and alcohol use significantly increased the likelihood of physical aggression across races/ethnicities, highest among racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks > Hispanic > Others > Whites). The differential impact of substance use on physical aggression was confirmed, and such impact was moderated by the sociocultural context (race/ethnicity) of the adolescent. In-depth validity assessments are needed to confirm this study's predictive validity findings.

  19. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Physical and Indirect Aggression from Late Childhood to Adolescence: Sex Differences and Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael; Lipman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Two common subtypes of aggression (physical and indirect) have been shown to develop concurrently throughout childhood and to uniquely predict maladjustment. However, nothing is known about psychiatric outcomes of joint trajectories of physical aggression (PA) and indirect aggression (IA) in emerging adulthood. Method: Trajectories of…

  1. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  2. Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Rosen, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    For a sample followed from age 9–13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. PMID:19685551

  3. Individual and contextual antecedents of workplace aggression in aged care nurses and certified nursing assistants.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre

    2015-08-01

    Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers.

  4. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu; Smith, Kelly C.; Kingree, Jeffery B.; Thompson, Martie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility) has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS)) and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286), the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512), the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults. PMID:27171103

  5. Links between Friends' Physical Aggression and Adolescents' Physical Aggression: What Happens If Gene-Environment Correlations are Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…

  6. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  7. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Associates with Adult Cytokine Levels in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720

  8. Peer Physical Aggression and Its Association with Aggressive Beliefs, Empathy, Self-Control, and Cooperation Skills among Students in a Rural Town of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fu Man; Chen, Jing Qi; Xiao, Wan Qing; Ma, Ya Ting; Zhang, Man

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of peer physical aggression (PPA) and its association with aggressive beliefs, empathy, self-control, and cooperation skills among 1,719 7th-to-9th-grade students in a rural town in the central China province of Henan. The data were collected by the self-administered questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that…

  9. Association of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression with a DNA Methylation Signature in Adult Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Claire; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic physical aggression (CPA) is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity. Aims To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood. Methods We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays. Results In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome. Conclusions This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression. PMID:24691403

  10. [Improving the medical treatment of minors who are victims of sexual assault or physical abuse: a receiving center and partnership between a psychiatric hospital and university hospital].

    PubMed

    Fremy, D

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the partnership is the establishment and operation of a centre open 24 hours a day which receives and treats adults and underage victims of sexual assault and physical abuse coming from the greater metropolitan area of Besançon. The centre also provides the victims and their families with adapted forensic and psychotherapeutic assistance. The mechanisms to carry out the project will be set out in a contract between the two hospitals, including the resources of the two institutions. The centre will fit into the existing network of partners which is already operational in Besançon. The role of the University of Besançon and the Faculty of Medicine will be to promote research in the field of physical abuse, its causes and effects, and to train future physicians who will later be in charge of handling these types of cases in their careers. PMID:12784493

  11. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  12. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  13. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.

    2015-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  14. Physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and social prominence in early adolescence: reciprocal effects supporting gender similarities?

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-12-01

    There is a robust association between aggression and social prominence by early adolescence, yet findings regarding the direction of influence remain inconclusive in light of gender differences across various forms of aggressive behaviors. The current study examined whether physical aggression and spreading of rumors, as two gender-typed aggressive behaviors that differ in overt displays of power, promote and/or maintain socially prominent status for girls and boys during non-transitional grades in middle school. Peer nominations were used to assess physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and "cool" reputation (social prominence) during three time points between the spring of seventh grade and spring of eighth grade. Participants included 1,895 (54 % female) ethnically diverse youth: 47 % Latino, 22 % African-American, 11 % Asian, 10 % White and 10 % Other/Mixed ethnic background. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to test the directionality of the effects, and gender moderation was assessed by relying on multi-group analyses. The analyses revealed mainly reciprocal associations for each form of aggression, suggesting that boys, as well as girls, can both gain and maintain their status by spreading rumors about their peers, just as they do by physically fighting and pushing others in urban middle schools. The implications of the findings for interventions are discussed.

  15. Aversive Parenting in China: Associations with Child Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…

  16. Physical Punishment and the Development of Aggressive and Violent Behavior: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    The value of physical or corporal punishment is disputed among psychologists; most regard it as harmless, although a subgroup of researchers has controversially suggested that parental use of physical punishment may be causally related to the development of aggression. Thus, the psychological community appears to have separated into determined…

  17. Associations between Personality and Physical Aggression in Chinese and U.S. Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Temper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer M.; Hartl, Amy C.; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Youth aggression is a serious global issue, but research identifying personality traits associated with aggression has focused on adults. Little is known about whether similar associations exist during adolescence; even less is known about these associations across cultures. This study examined links between personality and physical aggression in…

  18. Behavioral treatment approaches to pathological unsocialized physical aggression in young children.

    PubMed

    Frankel, F; Simmons, J Q

    1985-07-01

    This paper presents some hypotheses regarding the motivation of pathological unsocialized physical aggression in children and also reviews behavioral treatment. Tentative leads were offered as to extrinsic and intrinsic determinants. Among the most promising of these were parent-child interactive and attributive factors, and deficits in information processing in social situations. It was hypothesized that some of these factors might not be specific to pathological unsocialized physical aggression but are characteristic of children with behavior problems. Under this hypothesis, few studies were found which employed appropriate control groups. It was also hypothesized that the study of extrinsic and intrinsic factors for pathological unsocialized physical aggression may improve the design of treatment programs. PMID:3894395

  19. Longitudinal Examination of Physical and Relational Aggression as Precursors to Later Problem Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Research has addressed the consequences of being a victim of physical and relational aggression, but less so the consequences of being an aggressor during adolescence. Consequently, relatively little is known about the extent to which aggression in early adolescence increases the risk of later aggression and other psychosocial problems. This study involves a representative sample of 7th- and 9th-grade students from Washington State (N = 1,942). Students were surveyed upon recruitment, and then again 1 and 2 years later, to learn about ongoing behavior problems, substance use, depression, and self-harm behaviors. Surveys also included measures of several hypothesized promotive factors: attachment to family, school commitment, and academic achievement. Findings suggest that being physically and/or relationally aggressive in Grades 7–9 increases the risk of aggression and possibly other problem behaviors after accounting for age, gender, race, and a prior measures of each outcome. Independent promotive effects were observed in most analyses, although family attachment appeared a less robust predictor overall. Implications for prevention include reducing aggression and enhancing promotive influences to lessen the risk of ongoing problems. PMID:19297882

  20. A Theoretical Model of Sexual Assault: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; Humphrey, John A.

    Koss and Dinero's (1987) comprehensive developmental model of sexual aggression asserts that sexual assault is in part a result of early sexual experiences and family violence; that sexually aggressive behaviors may be predicted by such "releaser" variables as current sexual behavior, alcohol use, and peer group support; and that use of aggression…

  1. Differential DNA Methylation Regions in Cytokine and Transcription Factor Genomic Loci Associate with Childhood Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Caramaschi, Doretta; Wang, Dongsha; Hallett, Michael; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF) NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group) from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression. Conclusions We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression. PMID:23977113

  2. When nightclub security agents assault clients more insight through a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Gut, Melody; De Puy, Jacqueline; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, aggressions by security agents of nightclubs on clients increased from 6% to 10% among community violence situations encountered at the Violence Medical Unit (VMU) at the Lausanne University Hospital in Switzerland. Most victims were young men who had been drinking alcohol before the assault. About one quarter (25.7%) presented with one or several fractures, all of them in the head area. (For more details, refer to the previous article "When nightclub security agents assault clients" published in 2012(1).) Following this first study, we performed a second qualitative study in order to bring more information about the context and highlight victims' behaviors and experiences. Four themes emerged: how the assault began; the assault itself; third-party involvement; and the psychological state of victims when they consulted the VMU. The findings of this second study complemented the statistical results of the first study by showing under what circumstances security agents of nightclubs respond with physical violence to situations they consider a threat to security. Furthermore, the study described consequences for the victims that could be quite serious. Our findings support the need for nightclubs to improve selection and training of security staff.

  3. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468

  4. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  5. Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…

  6. Physical Attractiveness in Preschoolers: Relationships with Power, Status, Aggression and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…

  7. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Physical and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Child Maltreatment and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, prelunch, and afternoon predeparture salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp.…

  8. Children's Social Cognitions: Physically and Relationally Aggressive Strategies and Children's Goals in Peer Conflict Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delveaux, Kendra D.; Daniels, Tina

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the relation between goals and strategies for conflict resolution of children in 4th through 6th grades. Found that prosocial strategies positively correlated with relationship and equality goals, whereas physically or relationally aggressive strategies related to self-interest, control, and revenge goals. Discovered gender differences in…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  10. Risk Factor Models for Adolescent Verbal and Physical Aggression toward Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel; Zoccolillo, Mark; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to the family violence and conflict literature, we examine prospective and concurrent risk factors associated with verbal and physical aggression toward mothers by 15/16 year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors,…

  11. Relational and Physical Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Peer Relations: Gender Moderation and Bidirectional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2005-01-01

    In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…

  12. Teachers' Assessment of Antisocial Behavior in Kindergarten: Physical Aggression and Measurement Bias across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Thijs, Jochem T.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analytic study was conducted to obtain evidence for physical aggression as a distinct construct of nonaggressive antisocial behavior in young children. Second, the authors investigated factorial invariance across gender. Teachers completed the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for two independent samples of…

  13. Using Narrated Literacy-Based Behavioural Interventions to Decrease Episodes of Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…

  14. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal…

  15. Effects of Alcohol on Trajectories of Physical Aggression among Urban Youth: An Application of Latent Trajectory Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of…

  16. 3 CFR 8359 - Proclamation 8359 of April 8, 2009. National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the physical and emotional consequences of the attack. Sexual assault can lead to long-term health... severe emotional harm that may be even more painful than the assault itself and resulting physical... to heal from the trauma of sexual assault, including crisis intervention, 24-hour sexual...

  17. Emotional effect of physical aggression among adults in the general population in a Canadian province.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    The emotional effect of personal involvement in physical aggression was examined in a random sample of 1,753 adults from Ontario, Canada, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (response rate of 67%). Respondents reported a range of emotional responses from feeling good or justified to feeling angry, upset, terrified, disgusted, hurt, and embarrassed. Open-ended responses regarding emotional response were rated by the authors for 149 incidents of aggression, which yielded five categories: (1) positive impact 4%, (2) no feeling or no effect 31%, (3) mildly negative 20%, (4) moderately negative 28%, and (5) severely negative 17% (Kappa statistic of interrater agreement=.77). The substantial proportion of incidents involving positive or no emotional response suggests that a greater understanding of aggression among individuals can be gained by the development and application of a quantitative measure of emotional response that reflects the full range of emotions (positive and negative), using dimensions identified in this study such as feeling upset, fear, and anger.

  18. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles.

  19. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. PMID:26598076

  20. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  1. Costs and benefits of children's physical and relational aggression trajectories on peer rejection, acceptance, and friendships: Variations by aggression subtypes, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; Mage = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; Mage = 13.9). Using a sample of 477 children (240 girls), the findings indicated there were multiple heterogeneous subgroups of children who followed distinct co-occurring aggression trajectories. For each of these subgroups, multiple indices of their relational development were assessed and findings revealed notable group differences. These results have implications about the potential costs and benefits of aggression, and how its associations with children's peer relationships may vary as a function of aggression subtype, developmental timing, and gender.

  2. Assault experiences: Lessons learned from mental health nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-I; Hsieh, Wen-Po; Lee, Li-Hung; Chen, Shu-Ling

    2016-06-01

    Mental health nurse are frequently subjected to patients' violent and aggressive behaviour. These assault experiences have given rise to mental health nurses' physical and psychological trauma, and negatively impact the quality of patient care. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to understand mental health nurses' experiences of being assaulted, the influences on their patient care, and their perspectives of the effectiveness of in-service, violence-prevention education. Ten mental health nurses from two different inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis of interview data found six themes: (i) violence is unpredictable; (ii) violence is normal; (iii) lasting psychological trauma; (iv) limited support from peers and the administrator; (v) violence prevention requires team cooperation; and (vi) doubting the effectiveness of in-service education on violence prevention. Psychiatric ward administrators should assess nurses' learning and skill needs to determine whether these needs are met by existing in-service training programmes. A culture of safety should also be promoted by building a warm and supportive ward climate for both staff and patients, which would include team cooperation and support for colleagues who suffer a violent incident. PMID:27170463

  3. Is the Authoritarian Trait in Mental Health Workers a Significant Predictor Variable of Patient Assault?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…

  4. Androgen levels and anger and impulsivity measures as predictors of physical, verbal and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Braza, Francisco; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, María R; Muñoz, José M

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that androgen levels and certain psychological characteristics such as anger and impulsivity are related to the development and maintenance of aggression. Further studies are required to analyze the potential predictor role of the interaction of said factors on aggressive behavior. 90 nine-year-old children (44 boys and 46 girls) were assessed in relation to their levels of physical, verbal and indirect aggression, using a peer-rating technique. Testosterone and androstenedione levels were analyzed using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. Anger (state and trait) and anger control were measured using the STAXI-NA, and impulsivity was measured through the MFF-20. A General Linear Model revealed that sex was the best predictor for aggression measures, with boys scoring higher than girls in physical, verbal and indirect aggression; after sex, testosterone was found to be the best predictor (in a positive sense) of all three types of aggressive behavior studied. In addition to observing a main effect of androstenedione on physical and verbal aggression, a 'state anger*androstenedione' interaction was found to predict these types of aggression, with androstenedione acting as a moderator (inhibitor) of the effects of anger on these behaviors; also, a 'state anger*testosterone' interaction was found to predict verbal aggression. The results support the idea that, after sex, androgens constitute a biological marker to be taken into consideration in relation to individual differences in aggressive behavior. It is possible that at the age of 9, testosterone tends to increase aggression, while androstenedione tends to moderate (inhibit) the effects of anger on aggression.

  5. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies. PMID:18423088

  6. Paternal and maternal psychological and physical aggression and children's anxiety in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP.

  7. Direct and mediated effects of nativity and other indicators of acculturation on Hispanic mothers' use of physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Altschul, Inna; Lee, Shawna J

    2011-11-01

    This study used data from 845 foreign-born (n = 328) and native-U.S. born (n = 517) Hispanic mothers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine four indicators of acculturation--nativity, years lived in the United States, religious attendance, and endorsement of traditional gender norms--as predictors of maternal physical aggression directed toward young children. The authors also examined whether psychosocial risk factors associated with child maltreatment and acculturation--maternal alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and intimate partner aggression and violence--mediate relationships between acculturation and maternal aggression. Foreign-born Hispanic mothers had significantly lower rates of physical aggression than native-born Hispanic mothers. In path modeling results, U.S. nativity, along with maternal alcohol use, parenting stress, and child aggressive behavior, emerged as the strongest risk factors for maternal physical aggression. Among the four acculturation indicators, only foreign birth was directly associated with lower maternal aggression. Study findings suggest immigrant status is a unique protective factor that contributes to lower levels of physical aggression among Hispanic mothers.

  8. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  9. Social and Physical Aggression Trajectories from Childhood through Late Adolescence: Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment at Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined whether following social and physical aggression trajectories across Grades 3-12 predicted psychological maladjustment. Teachers rated participants' (n = 287, 138 boys) aggressive behavior at the end of each school year. Following the 12th grade, psychosocial outcomes were measured: rule-breaking behaviors, internalizing…

  10. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  11. Neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of multilevel studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-09-01

    Child and adolescent physical aggression are influenced by multiple contexts, such as peers, family, school, and neighborhood. However, the effect of neighborhoods on youth physical aggression remains unclear. The objective of this study was to quantitatively synthesize studies that have examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on physical aggression in children and adolescents and to identify potential moderators. We searched seven databases for articles published before April 25, 2015. Studies were considered eligible if they were published in peer-reviewed journals, used multilevel data, controlled for neighborhood clustering, used physical aggression as the study outcome, and considered children or adolescents as the study population. Of the 152 eligible studies, we included 43 in the meta-analysis. The results from the random-effects model revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was positively and significantly associated with physical aggression (P < .001). Metaregression and moderator analyses further indicated a stronger association between neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression among studies with younger participants, a higher percentage of female participants, and a longer follow-up period (P < .05). Current findings, however, may not be generalized to other types of aggression. The observed neighborhood effects may also be limited because of the omission of studies that did not provide sufficient information for calculating the pooled effect. In summary, the results provide supporting evidence for the adverse effect of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods on physical aggression after adjusting for the individual-level characteristics of children and adolescents. Interventions targeting structural contexts in neighborhoods are required to assist in reducing physical aggression in young people. Aggr. Behav. 42:441-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 78 FR 20221 - National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    .... While rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens... experience sexual assault as the general population. Moreover, we know rape and sexual assault are consistently underreported, and that the physical and emotional trauma they leave behind can last for...

  13. Costs and Benefits of Children's Physical and Relational Aggression Trajectories on Peer Rejection, Acceptance, and Friendships: Variations by Aggression Subtypes, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; M[subscript age] = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; M[subscript age] = 13.9). Using a sample of 477…

  14. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes.

  15. A daily process examination of the temporal association between alcohol use and verbal and physical aggression in community couples.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  16. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Edward F; Taussig, Heather N; Culhane, Sara E; Raviv, Tali

    2011-10-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9-11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:21966081

  17. A research note on body mass, physical aggression, and the competitiveness of Asian-Pacific Islander adolescents in Guam.

    PubMed

    Pinhey, Thomas K

    2002-01-01

    This study uses the evolutionary model to guide an exploration of the effects of body mass on aggressive and competitive behaviors among Asian-Pacific adolescents in Guam. Using a probability sample of Guam's high-school students, the results of logistic regressions suggest that adolescent females with greater body mass are more likely to engage in physical fights (aggression) and to participate in team sports (competitiveness). Ethnic differences indicate the possibility that individuals with lower body mass may be less likely to participate in physically aggressive acts and team sports. Alternate theoretical explanations for the results are also considered. PMID:14652912

  18. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  19. An Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Angela P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those…

  20. Working with Potentially Assaultive Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdach, Allison D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines potentially assaultive or preassaultive client and suggests some ways to minimize the risk of assault by such clients. Data for the article are from author's 10-year experience in providing social work services on acute psychiatric ward in large public medical center. Reviews potentially assaultive client conditions of panic, rage,…

  1. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  2. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    PubMed

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  3. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  4. Gender differences in the reciprocal relationships between parental physical aggression and children's externalizing problem behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Zhang, Qing; He, Xiaorui; Zhang, Wenxin

    2011-10-01

    The study examines gender differences in the reciprocal relations between parental physical aggression and child externalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children reported on three forms of their parents' physical aggression toward them (i.e., mild corporal punishment, severe corporal punishment, and physical abuse) and their externalizing problem behavior at two time points, 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that the three types of parental physical aggression predicted child externalizing problem behavior for girls but not boys, whereas child externalizing problem behavior predicted severe corporal punishment and physical abuse for boys but not girls; child externalizing problem behavior did not predict mild corporal punishment for either gender. The findings suggest that the intervention for and prevention of child externalizing problem behavior may be somewhat different for boys and girls in China.

  5. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  6. Functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a child victim of physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    1996-03-01

    This case study describes the functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a 14-year-old male child with a history of physical abuse. Evaluation was performed in a classroom within a residential school setting. Functional assessment in forms of indirect and descriptive methods was used to generate hypotheses regarding sources of behavioral control. A treatment plan that combined multi-level differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and positive reinforcement for task completion was implemented based on the outcome of functional assessment. Treatment was associated with a gradual and steady reduction in challenging behaviors with near-zero rates achieved at follow-up. This case provides an example of clinical intervention for behavior disorders commonly observed in children who have been abused physically and a hypothesis-driven model of treatment formulation. PMID:8814520

  7. Functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a child victim of physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    1996-03-01

    This case study describes the functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a 14-year-old male child with a history of physical abuse. Evaluation was performed in a classroom within a residential school setting. Functional assessment in forms of indirect and descriptive methods was used to generate hypotheses regarding sources of behavioral control. A treatment plan that combined multi-level differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and positive reinforcement for task completion was implemented based on the outcome of functional assessment. Treatment was associated with a gradual and steady reduction in challenging behaviors with near-zero rates achieved at follow-up. This case provides an example of clinical intervention for behavior disorders commonly observed in children who have been abused physically and a hypothesis-driven model of treatment formulation.

  8. The interactive effect of MAOA-LPR genotype and childhood physical neglect on aggressive behaviors in Italian male prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Elena; Bevilacqua, Laura; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Roy, Alec; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive disorders are moderately heritable; therefore, identification of genetic influences is important. The X-linked MAOA gene, encoding the MAOA enzyme, has a functional 30bp repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that has been shown to influence aggression. Childhood trauma is a known risk factor for numerous psychopathologies in adulthood including aggressive behaviors. We investigated the interactive effect of MAOA-LPR genotype and a history of childhood trauma in predicting aggressive behaviors in a prisoner population. A total of 692 male prisoners were genotyped for MAOA-LPR with genotypes grouped into high and low transcriptional activity. Participant evaluations included measures of aggression (BGHA), hostility (Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), violence directed towards self and others, and childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)). MAOA-LPR interacted with CTQ physical neglect (PN), the most common (47%) form of childhood trauma in this sample, to predict BGHA aggression (P=0.002). Within the group not exposed to PN, carriers of the MAOA-LPR high activity variant were more aggressive: (t(R) =2.47, p<0.014). We observed a crossover effect in that the increase in aggression scores with PN was greater in low activity individuals (t(R) =5.55, p <0.0001) than in high activity individuals (t(R) =4.18, p <0.0001). These findings suggest that childhood trauma and the functional MAOA-LPR polymorphism may interact to specifically increase risk for over aggressive behavior but not impulsivity or hostility. The MAOA-LPR low activity variant may be protective against the development of aggressive behavior under low stress conditions, at least in this prisoner population. PMID:24805005

  9. Mother and father self-reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic-referred youth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, A; Donnelly, W O; Lewis, T; Maynard, C

    2000-06-01

    Examined the extent to which 359 mothers and 140 fathers of clinic-referred youth (ages 2 to 17) reported using corporal punishment and severe physical aggression when asked directly via intake screening questionnaires at a community mental health center; higher prevalence rates emerged compared to families in the general population. Clinic-referred parents reported greater use of corporal punishment for younger relative to older youth, sons relative to daughters, and by single relative to married mothers. In cases with reports from both parents, mothers used corporal punishment more frequently than fathers. Demographic factors were not linked to severe physical aggression, except for mothers' treatment of sons versus daughters. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal and paternal reports of child externalizing behavior accounted for significant variance in their own and their partner's use of corporal punishment, and in mothers' use of severe physical aggression.

  10. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression—younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime—were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed. PMID:24392266

  11. Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators.

  12. The effect of classroom structure on verbal and physical aggression among peers: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bergsmann, Evelyn M; Van De Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Teachers promote student learning and well-being in school by establishing a supportive classroom structure. The term classroom structure refers to how teachers design tasks, maintain authority, and evaluate student achievement. Although empirical studies have shown the relation of classroom structure to student motivation, achievement, and well-being, no prior investigations have examined the influence of classroom structure on aggression among peers. The present study examined whether a supportive classroom structure has an impact on verbal and physical aggression. At two points in time, data were collected from 1680 students in Grades 5 to 7 using self-report questionnaires. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that a supportive classroom structure at Time 1 was associated with less perpetrated verbal aggression at Time 2, 9months later. This finding has practical relevance for teacher training as well as for aggression prevention and intervention among children.

  13. Evaluation of a program for reduction of childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen; Johnson, Judith L; Bott, Christine A

    2008-10-01

    The Peaceful Alternatives to Tough Situations (PATTS) was evaluated for reduction of childhood aggression. A quasi-experimental pre- and posttest comparison group design was used to evaluate 71 PATTS participants who were selected by school personnel or juvenile caseworkers due to prior aggression. The participants responded to the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised and a modified version of the Mauger Forgiveness Scale on the first and last group meetings. Analyses (n=71 PATTS; n=35 comparison group) indicated significant positive decreases in physical assault, psychological aggression, and vengefulness, and increased forgiveness of others in the PATTS group participants. There was also a reduction of school suspensions, principal referrals, or new criminal offenses for PATTS group participants.

  14. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  15. 3 CFR 8952 - Proclamation 8952 of March 29, 2013. National Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rape and sexual assault affect all communities, those at the greatest risk are children, teens, and... experience sexual assault as the general population. Moreover, we know rape and sexual assault are consistently underreported, and that the physical and emotional trauma they leave behind can last for...

  16. Preschool Children's Beliefs about the Acceptability of Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swit, Cara S.; McMaugh, Anne; Warburton, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined differences in beliefs about the acceptability of aggression and behavioral responses to aggression of preschool-aged children. Two groups, identified from teacher ratings, participated in the research. One group of children exhibited relationally aggressive behaviors, and a comparison group was identified with…

  17. Developmental trajectories of physical aggression: prediction of overt and covert antisocial behaviors from self- and mothers' reports

    PubMed Central

    Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Castellani, Valeria; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Physical aggression declines for the majority of children from preschool to elementary school. Although this desistance generally continues during adolescence and early adulthood, a small group of children maintain a high level of physical aggression over time and develop other serious overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Typically, researchers have examined relations of developmental changes in physical aggression to later violence with teachers' or mothers' reports on surveys. Little is known about the degree to which children's self-reported physical aggression predicts later antisocial behavior. The longitudinal study in this article had a staggered, multiple cohort design. Measures of physical aggression were collected through self- and mother reports from age 11–14 years, which were used to construct trajectory groups (attrition was 6 and 14% from age 11–14, respectively, for self- and mother reports). Overt and covert antisocial behaviors were self-reported at age 18–19 years (attrition was 36% from age 11 to 18–19). Four trajectory groups (low stable, 11%; moderate-low declining, 34%; moderate declining, 39%; high stable, 16%) were identified from self-reports, whereas three trajectories (low declining, 33%; moderate declining, 49%; high stable, 18%) were identified from mothers' ratings. We examined the prediction of overt and covert antisocial behaviors in early adulthood from the high stable and the moderate declining trajectories. According to both informants, higher probability of belonging to the high stable group was associated with higher overt and covert antisocial behavior, whereas higher probability of belonging to the moderate declining group was associated with higher covert antisocial behavior. Our results support the value of children's as well as mothers' reports of children's aggression for predicting different types of serious antisocial behavior in adulthood. PMID:20878197

  18. The dark side of forgiveness: the tendency to forgive predicts continued psychological and physical aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K

    2011-06-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature that documents numerous positive implications of forgiveness, scholars know very little about the potential negative implications of forgiveness. In particular, the tendency to express forgiveness may lead offenders to feel free to offend again by removing unwanted consequences for their behavior (e.g., anger, criticism, rejection, loneliness) that would otherwise discourage reoffending. Consistent with this possibility, the current longitudinal study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between spouses' reports of their tendencies to express forgiveness to their partners and those partners' reports of psychological and physical aggression. Specifically, although spouses who reported being relatively more forgiving experienced psychological and physical aggression that remained stable over the first 4 years of marriage, spouses who reported being relatively less forgiving experienced declines in both forms of aggression over time. These findings join just a few others in demonstrating that forgiveness is not a panacea.

  19. Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior.

  20. “Too Young to be Worried!” Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People After Severe Physical Assault in an Inner City Hospital of South London

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S; Datta, SS; Sheridan, PB; Lax-Pericall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal violence amongst youth is on the rise world-wide and London is no exception. The resulting injuries can be very serious and even result in death. This is a difficult to engage subgroup of patients and there is likely to be significant unmet social and mental health needs. Aim: The current paper discusses the results of immediate psychiatric and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as assessed by a pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). CAMHS in Kings College Hospital, London in one calendar year and also the help seeking behavior of the young people following the assault. Subjects and Methods: The Department of Pediatric Liaison Psychiatry is based within the Kings College Hospital and has a multidisciplinary team comprising of nurses, consultant child and adolescent psychiatrists and social workers who reviewed all patients who were referred to them following an episode of assault. All young people who were referred to the department of pediatric liaison psychiatry based within Kings College Hospital over one calendar year were included in the analysis. Results: 83% (29/35) of the victims were male and 83% (29/35) were from minority ethnic backgrounds. Although 70% (25/35) of the young people included in this study had significant safe guarding concerns, only 17% (6/35) turned up for their follow-up appointments with child mental health teams. Conclusions: Innovative models of service delivery are required to cater to the unique needs of this group of extremely vulnerable young people. PMID:24669337

  1. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  2. Associations between Sadness and Anger Regulation Coping, Emotional Expression, and Physical and Relational Aggression among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between self-reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression between two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated…

  3. Teacher-Child Relationship, Parenting, and Growth in Likelihood and Severity of Physical Aggression in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…

  4. Associations of Maternal Prenatal Smoking with Early Childhood Physical Aggression, Hyperactivity-Impulsivity, and Their Co-Occurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Seguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated associations between maternal prenatal smoking and physical aggression (PA), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and co-occurring PA and HI between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1997/1998 (N=1745). Trajectory model estimation showed three distinct developmental patterns for…

  5. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  6. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  7. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  8. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  9. Sexual Assault Perpetrators’ Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  10. Associations between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use among Elementary School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% male) second- through fourth-grade students (mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes…

  11. The Role of Social Networks in Physical and Relational Aggression among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group…

  12. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  13. Violence in Music Videos: Examining the Prevalence and Context of Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stacy L.; Boyson, Aaron R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines violence in music video programming. Reveals that 15% of music videos feature violence, and most of that aggression is sanitized, not chastised, and presented in realistic contexts. Discusses the findings in terms of the risk that exposure to violence in each channel and genre may be posing to viewers' learning of aggression, fear, and…

  14. “Yes, I Do But Not With You”-Qualitative Analyses of Sexual/Romantic Overture-related Aggression in Bars and Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha; Bernards, Sharon; Dennison, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Assaultive and aggressive behaviors related to sexual overtures are common in commercial drinking establishments (bars, pubs and clubs). In this paper, we examined the thematic content of 251 incidents of verbal and physical aggression related to sexual/romantic overtures documented by researcher-observers in a study of Toronto bar and clubs. Aggression was examined as it emerged in the following stages of the social interaction process: (a) sexual/romantic overtures that began aggressively; (b) initiators of sexual/romantic overtures who became aggressive later in the social interaction process; (c) aggression by targets of overtures; and (d) aggression by third parties. From these thematic analyses, we identify the distinctions between predatory and genuine overtures and explore the potential role of the effects of alcohol. In these social overtures, aggression occurred as part of the initial overture, during the interaction following the overture (i.e., aggression by the person who made the initial overture, by the target or third parties) and in response to rejection by the target. Targets of overtures responded aggressively to perceived inappropriate overtures; third parties played important aggressive and nonaggressive roles; and alcohol intoxication was identified as contributing to aggression in a number of ways. The theoretical significance and practical implications for prevention of the findings are discussed. PMID:21625360

  15. Biased self-perceptions of social competence and engagement in physical and relational aggression: the moderating role of peer status and sex.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D; Achufusi, Adaora K; Shoulberg, Erin K; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to expand on prior research suggesting that children low in peer status who either over- or underestimate their social competence relative to others' reports are more likely to be aggressive (White and Kistner [2011]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 645-656). The curvilinear associations between social competence bias and two forms of aggression (physical and relational) were examined in a sample of 4th through 6th graders (n = 183); moderation by both sex and peer status (peer preference and popularity) also were tested. Social competence bias was operationally defined as the residual difference between child and teacher ratings of the child's social competence. Aggression and peer status were measured using peer nomination procedures. There was a significant curvilinear association between social competence bias and physical aggression moderated by both types of peer status. For low peer status children greater underestimation and overestimation of social competence was associated with higher physical aggression. The curvilinear association between social competence bias and relational aggression was moderated by both peer status and sex. Popular boys had higher rates of relational aggression when they had accurate, rather than biased, self-perceptions of social competence. However, for very highly preferred girls, a more extreme positive bias was associated with an exponential increase in relational aggression. Results are discussed in terms of implications for aggression theory and intervention.

  16. Trajectories of physical dating violence from middle to high school: association with relationship quality and acceptability of aggression.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2013-04-01

    Although research on dating violence is growing, little is known about the distinct developmental trajectories of dating violence during adolescence. The current study identifies trajectories of physical dating violence victimization and perpetration that boys and girls follow from sixth to twelfth grade, examines the overlap of these trajectories, and characterizes them by perceptions of a caring dating relationship and acceptability of dating aggression. The sample consisted of randomly selected sixth graders from nine schools in Northeast Georgia (n = 588; 52 % boys; 49 % White, 36 % African American, 12 % Latino) who completed yearly surveys from Grades 6-12. We used latent class mixture modeling to identify the trajectories and generalized estimating equations models to examine the acceptability of dating aggression by dating violence trajectories. Participants followed two trajectories of dating violence victimization (boys: low and high; girls: low and increasing) and two of perpetration (boys and girls: low and increasing). When examining the joint trajectories of victimization and perpetration, a similar proportion of boys (62 %) and girls (65 %) were in the low victimization and low perpetration group and reported the lowest acceptance of dating aggression. The same proportion of boys and girls (27 %) were in the high/increasing victimization and perpetration group, and reported the highest acceptance of dating aggression. However, acceptance of dating aggression decreased from Grade 6-12 for all groups, even for those whose trajectory of dating violence increased. Victimization and perpetration were associated with reporting a less caring dating relationship. Results highlight the importance of focusing prevention efforts early for adolescents who follow this increasing probability of physical dating violence.

  17. The Reporting of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault by Nonstrangers to the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…

  18. The Role of Alcohol and Victim Sexual Interest in Spanish Students' Perceptions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…

  19. Physical and Psychological Aggression towards a Child among Homeless, Doubled-up, and Other Low-income Families

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Min; Ostler, Teresa; Fertig, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent of adverse parenting behaviors among low-income families with children and determines whether housing instability, measured by homelessness and doubling up with relatives or friends due to economic hardship, increases the likelihood of physical and psychological aggression towards a child, after considering the contribution of other relevant characteristics. Using data from 3 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study followed 2,332 low-income children in 20 large U.S. cities. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Adverse parenting behaviors were common among all low-income families regardless of their having experienced housing instability. Nonetheless, mothers with a homeless or doubled-up episode reported higher rates of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviors towards a child compared to the housed group. Having a homeless episode was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a high level of physical aggression towards a child. Child’s behavioral issues, maternal depression, and parental stress also contributed to adverse parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that housing instability can be a marker of adverse parenting behaviors and service professionals need to respond to parenting needs as well as housing needs for families in unstable housing. Areas of future research were discussed. PMID:27134322

  20. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PMID:24684716

  1. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict.

  2. Profiles of Maternal Parenting Practices: Exploring the Link With Maternal Delinquency, Offending, Mental Health, and Children's Physical Aggression.

    PubMed

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-11-01

    Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention.

  3. Reported assaults and observed injuries in detainees held in police custody.

    PubMed

    Gahide, Sophie; Lepresle, Aude; Boraud, Cyril; Mahindhoratep, Tiao S; Chariot, Patrick

    2012-11-30

    The deprivation of liberty in police custody can be associated with violent situations and traumatic injuries. The rare available data did not mention whether alleged assaults occurred at the time of the arrest or during custody. Our objectives were to describe the frequency of recent traumatic injuries observed in detainees at the time of medical examination and to record detainees' self-reports of received physical violence, either before being arrested, at the time of the arrest, or during custody. In 2694 consecutive detainees examined in a suburban area near Paris, we compared persons' characteristics in four groups, according to the existence of alleged assaults or the presence of recent traumatic injuries, or both. Detainees reported to be victims of physical assaults in 25% of cases (686 of 2694): 374 assaults of 686 (55%) occurred at the time of arrest and 87 of 686 (13%) during custody. The opinion of assaulted detainees on custody was worse than non-assaulted detainees. Detainees alleging assaults by the police, whatever the time of the assault, accounted for 396 cases (15%). Three quarters of detainees (547 of 686, 79%) alleging assaults had recent traumatic injuries. When we considered all detainees, medical examination showed recent traumatic injuries in 724 of 2694 (27%). Injured detainees were declared unfit for detention more frequently than non-injured non-assaulted detainees (P<0.05). These results strengthen the need and usefulness that the attending physician systematically takes note of detainees' self reports of assaults and investigates recent traumatic injuries at the time of custody. PMID:22980144

  4. Sexual Aggression Experiences Among Male Victims of Physical Partner Violence: Prevalence, Severity, and Health Correlates for Male Victims and Their Children.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2016-07-01

    Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well.

  5. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process. PMID:26291847

  6. Psychological Outcomes After a Sexual Assault Video Intervention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process.

  7. The Phantom Epidemic of Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Neil

    1991-01-01

    Discusses definitions and reporting of sexual assault. Concludes that the epidemic of sexual assault suggested by the media reflects a radical feminist attitude which prevents objective analysis and trivializes cases of real abuse. (DM)

  8. Multiple Perpetrator Sexual Assault: How Does It Differ from Assault by a Single Perpetrator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…

  9. Sexual Assault Awareness Handbook. Knowledge is Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Emily

    The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…

  10. On the Association Between Self-Reported Own- and Other-Gender Similarity and the Use of Physical and Relational Aggression in Sixth Grade Children.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Naomi C Z; Martin, Carol Lynn; Gallagher, Annabella M

    2016-10-01

    The goal was to assess the association between felt similarity to each gender (an aspect of gender identity) and girls' and boys' differential use of relational versus physical aggression. We extend past research on gender differences in the use of aggression by expanding the gender dichotomy and allowing for more variations in an individual's gender identity. Students (N = 414, 47 % female, 6th grade) reported how similar they felt to both their own- and other-gender peers, from which cluster analyses derived four typologies of perceived gender similarity (those who feel similar to their own-gender group; those who feel similar to the other-gender group; those who feel similar to both gender groups; those who feel similar to neither gender group). Peers reported which classmates were relationally and physically aggressive. Analyses compared how girls and boys in each typology of gender similarity differed in their use of relational and physical aggression. Results indicated that most children were engaged in gender normative aggression more than gender non-normative aggression (with the notable exception of low-gender similar girls). Findings were discussed in terms of their importance both for examining a broad spectrum of gender similarity and for understanding the use of aggressive behavior among children.

  11. Circumstances surrounding male sexual assault and rape: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey.

    PubMed

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole.

  12. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L

    1997-10-01

    Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502

  13. Spouse Assault: A Community Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive community approach to the problem of spouse assault involves education of a grassroots community organization, legal incorporation, establishing organizational goals and plans, publicity, state coalition of all such community groups, and new legislation. Such an approach led to the establishment of Michigan's Domestic Violence…

  14. Care of the adolescent sexual assault victim.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D W; Feinstein, R A; Fisher, M M; Klein, J D; Olmedo, L F; Rome, E S; Samuel Yancy, W; Adams Hillard, P J; Sacks, D; Pearson, G; Frankowski, B L; Piazza Hurley, T

    2001-06-01

    Sexual assault is a broad-based term that encompasses a wide range of sexual victimizations, including rape. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its last policy statement on this topic in 1994, additional information and data have emerged about sexual assault and rape in adolescents, the adolescent's perception of sexual assault, and the treatment and management of the adolescent who has been a victim of sexual assault. This new information mandates an updated knowledge base for pediatricians who care for adolescent patients. This statement provides that update, focusing on sexual assault and rape in the adolescent population.

  15. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  16. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment. PMID:21495612

  17. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269

  18. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  19. The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel

    2014-09-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods.

  20. The Use of Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to Predict the Occurrence 6 Months Later of Paranoid Thinking and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Assessed by Self-Report and Interviewer Methods: A Study of Individuals Who Have Been Physically Assaulted

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PMID:24708073

  1. Comparison of sexual assaults by strangers and known assailants in an urban population of women.

    PubMed Central

    Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p < 0.05), force the victim to perform fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved

  2. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  3. Men victim of sexual assault of concern into the first Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults in France.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2013-10-01

    Although it accounts for only a small part of activity in the field of victimology, the provision of support for male victims of sexual assault is regularly discussed in the literature. Authors, English-speaking for the most part, all agree that this phenomenon has been largely underestimated, owing to the stigmatization victims suffer after the facts have been disclosed. The same authors agree that this type of assault is far from being inconsequential, from both a physical and a psychological perspective. The following retrospective and descriptive study, conducted at the Bordeaux CHU (Bordeaux University Hospital), aims to draw a comparison between the distinctive characteristics of male sexual assault victims treated at the CAUVA (Centre d'Accueil en Urgence des Victimes d'Agression - Emergency Medical Unit for Victims of Assaults) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, those identified in the existing scientific literature. The victims are predominantly young men, unconnected with their attackers, and more often than not the attacks take place on the public highway. Forensic treatment is provided within the seven days following the assault, which raises the question of the assessment of infection risks, including HIV transmission. Most of the time, the victims will not undergo a full psychological appraisal, though authors are unanimous that such assaults do indeed have heavy repercussions. Improving our services for such victims will require suitable training for staff, covering initial reception, general assessment and the drafting of the forensic medical report, as well as encouragement to lodge a complaint. This process should give priority to multidisciplinary centers, especially dedicated to shelter-providing, information, counseling and victim support. This will also entail information and awareness campaigns for the general population, and the homosexual community in particular. Finally, we should not be afraid to envisage an investigation into this

  4. [Aggressions towards nurses in emergency departments: an international literature review].

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Lorenzo; Bambi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a widespread phenomenon in every kind of settings. Among these ones there are emergency departments (ED), that have distinctive features as like the large daily number of patients' presentations, and high emotional content or stressing situations related to the management of diagnostic-therapeutic priorities. We reviewed the medical and nursing literature to quantify the international widespread of aggressions towards nurses working in EDs, distinguish the typologies and the perpetrators, and identify the consequences on victims and healthcare organizations. Original papers were searched using Medline, CINHAL, and Medscape databases.  35 research articles met the inclusion criteria, but 6 were not retrieved. The rate of verbal abuses reported by ED nurses varies from 50% to 100% of those who were surveyed, while physical violence ranges between 16.7% and 72%. Patients and relatives are the main perpetrators, followed by doctors, and, only in lower percentages, by nurses colleagues. Alcohol, drugs abuse, and overcrowding in EDs are acknowledged as motivating factors for violent events. Under-reporting of aggressions is frequent up to the 80% of victims, and some papers report that nurses consider assaults as a normal part of their work. There is a direct relation between aggressions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disturb syndrome. Moreover there is a sense of continuous fear in nurses, causing the likelihood of workplace leaving. Special educational courses seem to be effective in diminishing the number of aggressions and to adopt adequate adaptive behaviors. 

  5. An Adlerian Model for the Etiology of Aggression in Adjudicated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandy; Mullis, Fran; Kern, Roy M.; Brack, Greg

    1999-01-01

    Investigates perceived parental rejection, family cohesion and adaptability, and levels of trait anger and anxiety in adolescents and their relationship to the etiology of aggression in adolescents who have been adjudicated for assaultive crimes. Study supports Adler's aggression theory, which established that aggression might begin with feelings…

  6. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Adesolamusa, Zaidat; David, Agatha Nkiru; Wapmuk, Agatha Eileen; Gbajabiamila, Titilola Abike; Eugeniaidigbe, Ifeoma; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Ohihoin, Aigbe Greg; Ujah, Innocent Achanya Otobo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. Yet there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at a large clinic in south west Nigeria. Victims were identified from the programme data base and case files retrieved from medical records department. Relevant information was extracted and managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results Steady increase in the proportion of reported cases of sexual violence over the years (P < 0.0001) was observed. Sexual assaults were recorded among the males (6.1%), although female victims were in the majority (93.9%). Sexual assault was found to be higher in person’s <20 years and the unmarried. Most sexual assault occurred during the day time. Assailants were mostly persons known to the victim (52.0%) and the assault occurred mostly in the assailants’ house or office (48.5%). Sexual assault through vaginal route only (87.2%) was the most common route of sexual assault. Threat of violence (31.1%) and physical force (29.6%) was the common methods for overcoming the victims. Follow up was completed by 75.0% of the victims. Conclusion Sexual assault is common in our environment, with increasing prevalence and change in pattern. Young persons aged less than 20 years constitutes the majority of victims and assailants were mostly persons known to them. The current public education on the evils of sexual violence should be intensified. PMID:27800114

  7. Integrating attachment and depression in the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed.

  8. Participant Satisfaction in a Study of Stimulant, Parent Training, and Risperidone in Children with Severe Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Lisa D.; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A.; Molina, Brooke B.S.G.; Findling, Robert L.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Kolko, David J.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Michel, Chenel; Austin, Adrienne; Kipp, Heidi; Rice, Robert R.; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of families who participated in the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. Methods: TOSCA was a randomized clinical trial of psychostimulant plus parent training plus placebo (basic treatment) versus psychostimulant plus parent training plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for children with severe physical aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parents completed a standardized Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Results: Of the 168 families randomized, 150 (89.3%) provided consumer satisfaction data. When they were asked if they would join the study again if they had the option to repeat, 136 (91%) said “yes,” 11 (7%) said “maybe,” and one (<1%) said “no.” When asked if they would recommend the study to other parents with children having similar problems, 147 (98%) said “yes” and 3 (2%) said “maybe.” Between 71% (rating one aspect of the Parent Training) and 96% (regarding the diagnostic interview) endorsed study procedures using the most positive response option. Asked if there were certain aspects of the study that they especially liked, 64 (43%) spontaneously reported parent training. Treatment assignment (basic vs. augmented) and responder status were not associated with reported satisfaction. However, responder status was strongly associated with parent confidence in managing present (p<0.001) and future (p<0.005) problem behaviors. Conclusions: These findings indicate high levels of satisfaction with TOSCA study involvement and, taken together with previous pediatric psychopharmacology social validity studies, suggest high levels of support for the research experience. These findings may inform research bioethics and may have implications for deliberations of institutional review boards. Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), NCT00796302, clinicaltrials

  9. Physical punishment and childhood aggression: the role of gender and gene-environment interplay.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Franklin, Cortney A; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research has linked spanking with a range of adverse outcomes in children, including aggression, psychopathology, and criminal involvement. Despite evidence concerning the association of spanking with antisocial behavior, not all children who are spanked develop antisocial traits. Given the heterogeneous effects of spanking on behavior, it is possible that a third variable may condition the influence of corporal punishment on child development. We test this possibility using data drawn from a nationally representative dataset of twin siblings. Our findings suggest that genetic risk factors condition the effects of spanking on antisocial behavior. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the interaction between genetic risk factors and corporal punishment may be particularly salient for males.

  10. Sexual assault in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J

    1997-03-01

    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date. PMID:9071669

  11. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: Internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features

    PubMed Central

    UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; BERON, KURT J.; ROSEN, LISA H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence. PMID:21532919

  12. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2011-05-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence.

  13. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  14. The military environment: risk factors for women's non-fatal assaults.

    PubMed

    Sadler, A G; Booth, B M; Cook, B L; Torner, J C; Doebbeling, B N

    2001-04-01

    Little is known regarding environmental exposures for non-fatal violence toward women in the workplace. We sought to identify factors associated with non-fatal physical assault occurring to women during military service. A cross-sectional telephone survey of a national sample of 558 women veterans who served in Vietnam and subsequent eras of military service was conducted; 537 women were interviewed. Twenty-three percent experienced non-fatal physical assault during military service. Rates of assault were consistent across eras of service. Military environmental exposures, including sexual harassment allowed by officers (P < 0.0001) and unwanted sexual advances while on duty (P < .0001) and in sleeping quarters (P < 0.0001), were independent risk factors for assault. Environmental factors in the military workplace, including leadership behavior, appeared to promote violence toward military women. Such occupational factors can be identified and should be eliminated. PMID:11322093

  15. The military environment: risk factors for women's non-fatal assaults.

    PubMed

    Sadler, A G; Booth, B M; Cook, B L; Torner, J C; Doebbeling, B N

    2001-04-01

    Little is known regarding environmental exposures for non-fatal violence toward women in the workplace. We sought to identify factors associated with non-fatal physical assault occurring to women during military service. A cross-sectional telephone survey of a national sample of 558 women veterans who served in Vietnam and subsequent eras of military service was conducted; 537 women were interviewed. Twenty-three percent experienced non-fatal physical assault during military service. Rates of assault were consistent across eras of service. Military environmental exposures, including sexual harassment allowed by officers (P < 0.0001) and unwanted sexual advances while on duty (P < .0001) and in sleeping quarters (P < 0.0001), were independent risk factors for assault. Environmental factors in the military workplace, including leadership behavior, appeared to promote violence toward military women. Such occupational factors can be identified and should be eliminated.

  16. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p < .001), but not anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical

  17. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p < .001), but not anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical

  18. Disgust, Mental Contamination, and Posttraumatic Stress: Unique Relations following Sexual versus Non-Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Dutton, Courtney E.

    2012-01-01

    Disgust and mental contamination (or feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in the absence of a physical contaminant) are increasingly being linked to traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomatology. Evidence suggests disgust and mental contamination are particularly relevant to sexual assault experiences; however, there has been relatively little direct examination of these relations. The primary aim of the current study was to assess disgust and mental contamination-based reactivity to an individualized interpersonal assault-related script-driven imagery procedure. Participants included 22 women with a history of traumatic sexual assault and 19 women with a history of traumatic non-sexual assault. Sexual assault and PTS symptom severity predicted greater increases in disgust, feelings of dirtiness, and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script. Finally, assault type affected the association between PTS symptom severity and increases in feelings of dirtiness and urges to wash in response to the traumatic event script such that these associations were only significant among sexually assaulted individuals. These findings highlight the need for future research focused on elucidating the nature of the relation between disgust and mental contamination and PTS reactions following various traumatic events. PMID:23376603

  19. Needs of Sexual Assault Advocates in Campus-Based Sexual Assault Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Dianne; Ekhomu, Jessica; Payne, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Most campuses have sexual assault crisis centers that are designed to assist victims and educate the college community about this crime. While much is known about sexual assault victimization patterns on college campuses, there is still a lack of understanding about the needs of those working to prevent sexual assault. In the current study, campus…

  20. The Sexual Assault Severity Scale: A Comprehensive Measure of Assault Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinson, Karyn Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in the sexual assault literature have found a significant relationship between sexual assault severity and psychological distress, specifically PTSD and suicidality. However, in the current literature, there is an inconsistent and incomplete definition of the construct of assault severity. The present study aims to create a…

  1. The phenomenon of physical aggression against health service personnel: different perspectives.

    PubMed

    García-Calvo, Teresa; Guijarro, Rosario; Osuna, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    The doctor-patient relationship has undergone important changes in recent years. Increasing levels of distrust on the part of patients toward professionals and institutions have led to an increase in the number of conflicts that end in violent actions against health service personnel. The aim of this study is to analyse this phenomenon in the public welfare services of the Region of Murcia (Spain), based on an analysis of accusations presented by doctors in the courts between 2006 and April 2008. The conclusion reached in this study can presumably be extrapolated to the rest of Spain. The violent reactions in question resulted from patients demanding drug prescriptions, the prolongation of sick leave and the demand for diagnostic tests. The Public Health Services provide directives for the anticipation of and abstention from such situations, emphasize the training of professionals in communication skills, the promotion of skills of negotiation and emotional self-control. Other measures include the installation of alarms, intercoms and video cameras, contracting security companies, collaboration with the police and posters in health facilities warning that legal action will be taken. Nevertheless, given the obvious inadequacy of the above mentioned measures Plans of Prevention have been put in place. In addition legal defence has been granted to all such professionals. From a judicial point of view, these aggressions are judged as minor crimes of injury or insult. The most recent view taken on such conduct is to consider it as a crime of attempt or an offence against the authority, which has been confirmed in law by the recent judgment passed down by the Spanish High Court on 4th December, 2007.

  2. The phenomenon of physical aggression against health service personnel: different perspectives.

    PubMed

    García-Calvo, T; Guijarro, R; Osun, E

    2009-09-01

    The doctor-patient relationship has undergone important changes in recent years. Increasing levels of distrust, on the part of patients towards professionals and institutions, have led to an increase of conflicts resulting in violent actions against health service personnel. The aim of this study is to analyse this phenomenon in the public welfare services of the Region of Murcia (Spain), based on an analysis of accusations, as were presented by doctors in courts in the period between 2006 and April 2008. The conclusion reached can presumably be extrapolated to the rest of Spain. The violent reactions in question resulted from patients demanding drug prescriptions; the prolongation of sick leave and the demand for diagnostic tests. The Public Health Services provide directives to anticipate and avoid such situations, emphasize the training of professionals in communication skills, the promotion of skills of negotiation and emotional self-control. Other measures include the installation of alarms, intercoms and video cameras, contracting security companies, collaboration with the police and posters in health facilities warning that legal action will be taken. Nevertheless, given the obvious inadequacy of the above-mentioned measures, Plans of Prevention have been put in place. In addition legal defence has been granted to all such professionals. From the judicial point of view, these aggressions are judged as minor crimes of injury, insult and threat. The most recent view taken on such conduct is to consider it as a crime of attempt or offence against the authority, which has been confirmed in law by the recent judgment passed down by the Spanish High Court on 4th December, 2007.

  3. Friendship Conflict and the Development of Generalized Physical Aggression in the Early School Years: A Genetically Informed Study of Potential Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative…

  4. A Prospective Sequential Analysis of the Relation between Physical Aggression and Peer Rejection Acts in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chin-Chih; McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie; Symons, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: In early childhood education, the social ecology of the child is considered critical for healthy behavioral development. There is, however, relatively little information based on directly observing what children do that describes the moment-by-moment (i.e., sequential) relation between physical aggression and peer rejection acts…

  5. Multimethod prediction of physical parent-child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model. PMID:26631420

  6. Multimethod prediction of physical parent-child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model.

  7. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  8. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  9. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  10. Sexual Assault Reporting Procedures at Ohio Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krivoshey, Mira S.; Adkins, Rachel; Hayes, Rebecca; Nemeth, Julianna M.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess how Ohio colleges conform to recommendations that address barriers to reporting sexual assault. Participants: A study sample of Ohio 4-year colleges ("N" = 105). Methods: College Web sites were examined between March and November 2011 for their availability of sexual assault policies using 8 measures. Results: Of the colleges…

  11. PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Eze, U.O.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate. These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis on the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions. Therefore if one posits that sexual assault can be prevented, certain responsibilities are imperative; some challenges must be anticipated; and special needs/circumstances should be catered for. PMID:25161422

  12. Effects of Class, Race, Sex, and Educational Status on Patterns of Aggression of Lower-Class Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchterhand, Elmer; Weller, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    The influence of class, race, sex, and educational status on ways of handling aggression and temper control are studied. It was found that race was the only important discriminator: blacks were less aggressive and had more self control than whites, but once aggression occured blacks were more likely than whites to assault others. (Author/DEP)

  13. Prevalence of Past Year Assault among Inner-City ED Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Murray, Regan; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Wojnar, Marcin; Wozniak, Piotr; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the rates of past year non-partner violent assault (NPV), both victimization and aggression. 2) To assess variables associated with NPV, particularly with regards to substance use. Method A cross sectional computerized standardized survey study was conducted to assess NPV, physical and mental health, and substance use among patients presenting to an inner-city ED over two years. Patients (age 19–60) with normal vital signs in an urban ED from 9am–11pm were eligible; pregnant patients and those with a chief complaint of psychiatric evaluation were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict any NPV Results 10,744 patients were enrolled (80 % response rate); 14% of the sample reported any past year NPV (9% perpetration; 11% victimization). Findings from regression analyses found participants with any past year NPV (victimization or aggression) were more likely than their counterparts to be younger (OR 1.1), male (2.2), single (1.5), unemployed (1.1), present to the ED for injury (1.9), report poor physical health (1.32) poor mental health (1.9). They were less likely to be African-American (0.8). Alcohol use (1.7), marijuana use (2.4), cocaine use (3.1), prescription drug use (1.4) and past treatment (1.7) were associated with experiencing past year NPV. Conclusions Fourteen percent of patients seeking care in this inner-city ED experience violence with a non-partner. Substance use and cocaine specifically, was the strongest predictor of any NPV. PMID:19282061

  14. Relation between policies and work related assault: Minnesota Nurses' Study

    PubMed Central

    Nachreiner, N; Gerberich, S; McGovern, P; Church, T; Hansen, H; Geisser, M; Ryan, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess the relation between violence prevention policies and work related assault. Methods: From Phase 1 of the Minnesota Nurses' Study, a population based survey of 6300 Minnesota nurses (response 79%), 13.2% reported experiencing work related physical assault in the past year. In Phase 2, a case-control study, 1900 nurses (response 75%) were questioned about exposures relevant to violence, including eight work related violence prevention policy items. A comprehensive causal model served as a basis for survey design, analyses, and interpretation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for potential exposure misclassification and the presence of an unmeasured confounder. Results: Results of multiple regression analyses, controlling for appropriate factors, indicated that the odds of physical assault decreased for having a zero tolerance policy (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8) and having policies regarding types of prohibited violent behaviours (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). Analyses adjusted for non-response and non-selection resulted in wider confidence intervals, but no substantial change in effect estimates. Conclusions: It appears that some work related violence policies may be protective for the population of Minnesota nurses. PMID:16169912

  15. Are the perpetrators of violence one and the same? Exploring the co-occurrence of perpetration of physical aggression in the United States.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Simon, Thomas R; Chen, Jieru

    2012-07-01

    Important gaps exist in our understanding of aggressive behavior and the extent to which aggression involves one or more types of victims. This information is critical for determining the utility of integrated approaches for violence prevention versus continuation of independent efforts for reducing community violence, partner violence, and child maltreatment. To better understand the overlap in aggressive behaviors within the general population, the authors examine the co-occurrence of self-reports of physically striking strangers, acquaintances, intimate partners, and children among a nationally representative sample of 3,024 U.S. adults. The findings from this cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey show that more than a third of the population reports engaging in at least one form of aggression and that, of these, a third had perpetrated violence against more than one type of victim. The percent of respondents who reported perpetrating violence against more than one type of victim range from 13% (percent of those striking a friend or acquaintance who also struck a child) to 34% (percent of those striking a friend or acquaintance who also struck a stranger). Furthermore, engaging in one type of aggression substantially increases the odds of engaging in another from 1.5 to 4 times. The findings suggest potential value in pursuing both integrated and independent approaches in research and prevention. PMID:22328658

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and the Development of Relational and Physical Aggression: The Importance of a Gender-Informed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Cassidy, Adam R.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the associations between maltreatment and aggression using a gender-informed approach. Peer ratings, peer nominations, and counselor reports of aggression were collected on 211 maltreated and 199 nonmaltreated inner-city youth (M age = 9.9 years) during a summer day camp. Maltreatment was associated with aggressive…

  17. Facial Attractiveness as a Moderator of the Association between Social and Physical Aggression and Popularity in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, aggression, and popularity in adolescence to determine whether facial attractiveness would buffer against the negative effects of aggression on popularity. We collected ratings of facial attractiveness from standardized photographs, and teachers provided information on adolescents'…

  18. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  19. Psychopathy and the Prediction of Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression: The Roles of Impulsive Antisociality and Fearless Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Giancola, Peter R.; Lance, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Methods Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Results Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Conclusions Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. PMID:22959485

  20. The Physical, Psychological, and Spiritual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccellari, Alicia; And Others

    This document consists of the third section of a book written to educate and inform those in the helping professions on how to deal with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The four chapters in section 3 examine special issues for people with AIDS. "Caring for People With AIDS Dementia Complex" (Alicia Boccellari, Craig Kain, and Michael…

  1. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  2. Gender Differences in 16-Year Trends in Assault- and Police-Related Problems Due to Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and predictors of physical assault and having trouble with the police due to drinking over 16 years among women and men who, at baseline, were untreated for their alcohol use disorder. Predictors examined were the personal characteristics of impulsivity, self-efficacy, and problem-solving and emotional-discharge coping, as well as outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation. Women and men were similar on rates of perpetrating assault due to drinking, but men were more likely to have had trouble with the police due to drinking. Respondents who, at baseline, were more impulsive and relied more on emotional discharge coping, and less on problem-solving coping, assaulted others more frequently during the first year of follow-up. Similarly, less problem-solving coping at baseline was related to having had trouble with the police more often at one and 16 years due to drinking. The association between impulsivity and more frequent assault was stronger for women, whereas associations of self-efficacy and problem-solving coping with less frequent assault and police trouble were stronger for men. Participation in AA was also associated with a lower likelihood of having trouble with the police at one year, especially for men. Interventions aimed at decreasing impulsivity and emotional discharge coping, and bolstering self-efficacy and problem-solving coping, during substance abuse treatment, and encouragement to become involved in AA, may be helpful in reducing assaultive and other illegal behaviors. PMID:19446963

  3. Time of psychiatric patient assaults: twenty-year analysis of the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP).

    PubMed

    Flannery, Raymond B; Flannery, Georgina J; Walker, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Apparent random acts of violence viewed in the aggregate appear to occur in fairly exacting temporal patterns. This is true of rape, street assaults, and domestic violence, among other acts of violence. Patient assaults on staff as acts of violence should also follow a temporal pattern. This twenty-year retrospective study of assaultive psychiatric patients in one public sector examined the temporal pattern of such assaults. Inpatient assaults were more likely to occur in the summer in the middle ten days of the month, during the first shift at mealtimes. In community settings, assaults were more likely in winter during the first ten days of the month, and on the first shift at noon time. The possible reasons for these time patterns, their possible biological roots, and their implications for emergency services personnel and health care providers were discussed. PMID:21870385

  4. Male victims of sexual assault; 10 years' experience from a Danish Assault Center.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator. Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make male victims feel safe in coming forward. Male victims should have equal access to both medical and psychological help as female victims. PMID:27391940

  5. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  6. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  7. Managing Aggression Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: State of the Practice and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lochman, John E.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2005-01-01

    Education professionals consistently rank disruptive/aggressive student behavior as persistent and troubling, reporting various types of maladaptive behaviors ranging from talking out in class to assault. Researchers suggest that childhood aggression accounts for a high proportion of the referrals to special education for emotional and behavioral…

  8. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  9. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Attitudes Justifying Domestic Violence Predict Endorsement of Corporal Punishment and Physical and Psychological Aggression towards Children: A Study in 25 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children’s development. This study investigated how women’s attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment, and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Study design Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by UNICEF. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85,999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Results Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children, and, in turn, were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers’ attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Conclusions Pediatricians can address parents’ psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents’ attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. PMID:24412139

  11. The Correlates of School Violence: An Examination of Factors Linked to Assaultive Behavior in a Rural Middle School with a Large Migrant Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Robert S.; Vogel, Brenda L.; Vogel, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines various factors that contribute to assaultive behavior in school. We focused on the differences between youth whose behavior was not problematic and those who admitted to threatening, stealing from, or physically assaulting students, teachers, or staff. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of…

  12. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  13. Adult Sexual Assault Survivors' Experiences with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual assault survivors often feel traumatized by the care received in traditional hospital emergency departments. To address these problems, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were created to provide comprehensive medical care, crisis intervention, and forensic services. However, there is limited research on the actual experiences and…

  14. The pathways model of assault: a qualitative analysis of the assault offender and offense.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jemma C; Ward, Tony; Eccleston, Lynne; Brown, Mark

    2009-09-01

    Research on offending behavior rehabilitation suggests that offenders would gain the maximum benefit from programs that reflect the individual needs of different types of offender. Multivariate theories of offending behavior are thus required to inform individualized rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to construct a multivariate model for the prolific offense of assault. Qualitative methodology was used to construct a descriptive model of assault for 25 adult assault offenders. The model incorporated the development of violent behavior, types of anger, violence motivation, and the assault offense. The model consisted of 14 categories, 10 of which allowed for individual differences in behavior. A total of 35 participant transcripts were then coded through the model where the individual differences occurred. Five main offense types were found. The characteristics of the types of assault offense gave indications for how rehabilitation may be targeted for each group.

  15. Health promotion messages in entertainment media: crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.

  16. Searching for the developmental origins of sexual violence: examining the co-occurrence of physical aggression and sexual behaviors in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Patrick; Healey, Jay

    2010-01-01

    While developmental perspectives on sexual violence have gained much interest in recent years, few empirical studies have been conducted to better understand its origins. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining the onset of physical aggression and normative sexual behaviors in preschoolers. This study is based on a sample of at-risk children (n = 100) recruited as part of the KD-BEAR project, an on-going longitudinal study conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were completed with the primary caregiver and the child. The structural model examined showed a significant and important latent correlation between physical aggression and sexual behaviors across models tested, after controlling for child and familial characteristics. Furthermore, findings showed that male preschoolers coming from low income families having been referred for assessment and/or treatment for an externalizing spectrum disorder showed higher levels of both aggression and sexual behaviors. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of developmental models of sexual violence, and the secondary prevention of sexual violence at its earliest stages.

  17. Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

  18. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.

  19. Resistance to sexual assault: who resists and what happens?

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J M; Sorenson, S B; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Stein, J A

    1989-01-01

    To determine who resists sexual assault and what happens, data were examined from a probability sample of 3,132 adult community residents of Los Angeles, California. Seventy-five per cent of the respondents reporting an assault (n = 365) indicated that they had attempted to resist their most recent assault; talking was the most frequently used resistance strategy. The strongest predictor to emerge in the multivariate analyses of resistance was timing of assault: respondents assaulted only in childhood were less likely to resist than either respondents assaulted only in adulthood, or respondents assaulted in both phases. Univariate analyses indicated that resistance reduced the probability of sexual contact, however multivariate analyses suggested that assailant use of force was the most important determinant of assault outcome. PMID:2909177

  20. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    PubMed

    Eogan, Maeve; McHugh, Anne; Holohan, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence. PMID:22975433

  1. Firearm Possession Among Adolescents Presenting to an Urban Emergency Department for Assault

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Newton, Manya F.; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. METHODS: Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. RESULTS: Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention. PMID:23837181

  2. HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Children and Adolescents Presenting for Reported Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardet, Rebecca G.; Lemme, Scott; Biason, Tiffany A.; Bolton, Kelly; Lahoti, Sheela

    2009-01-01

    Background: The appropriate use of antiretroviral medications to protect against infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear in cases of sexual assault of children, for whom the perpetrator's risk of HIV is often unknown, and physical proof of sexual contact is usually absent. Objective: In an effort to clarify prescribing…

  3. Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

  4. Similarities and Differences in Women's Sexual Assault Experiences Based on Tactics Used by the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2004-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined the characteristics of sexual assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. In this study we compared the experiences of women who were forced to engage in vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse due to verbal coercion, physical force, or intoxication. Random-digit dialing was used to obtain a sample of 272…

  5. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  6. Alcohol Sales and Risk of Serious Assault

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G; Moineddin, Rahim; Bell, Chaim M; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Cusimano, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR) of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36%) involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48%) arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.26). The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.33), youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99–1.46), and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.35). Conclusions The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired

  7. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  8. 78 FR 20443 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... tissue to prevent undue suffering. Regardless of appearance, a sexual assault victim needs immediate... treated as emergency cases. A sexual assault victim needs immediate medical intervention to prevent loss... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program...

  9. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  10. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  11. Illegal Procedure? Title IX and Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education institutions are scrutinized by their campus community and the media for the way that they respond, or fail to respond, to allegations of sexual assault. Tack on the fact that nearly 100 colleges and universities are currently under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) for…

  12. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…

  13. Court Dispositions and Rearrest for Intimate Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldredge, John; Thistlethwaite, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Researchers examining court dispositions and domestic violence recidivism have argued that disposition effectiveness varies by offender characteristics. We extended this research with analyses of 3,662 persons arrested for misdemeanor assaults on intimates in Hamilton County, Ohio. The incidence, prevalence, and time to rearrest are examined for…

  14. "Fresh" Thoughts on Studying Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    When the author started graduate school in the late 1970s, she was drawn to studying sexual assault. She had been a declared feminist since high school as the Women's Movement even reached the coal region of eastern Pennsylvania! Attending college in New York City, with its myriad opportunities for more exposure to what feminists were up to, made…

  15. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  16. Relationship Type and Sexual Precedence: Their Associations With Characteristics of Sexual Assault Perpetrators and Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim–perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. PMID:25288595

  17. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kylie A.; Baker, Amanda L.; McElduff, Patrick; Kavanagh, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. PMID:27735838

  18. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  19. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  20. Sexual assault: review of a national model protocol for forensic and medical evaluation. New Hampshire Sexual Assault Medical Examination Protocol Project Committee.

    PubMed

    Young, W W; Bracken, A C; Goddard, M A; Matheson, S

    1992-11-01

    A national hospital/community model protocol was developed for the forensic and medical examination of victims of sexual assault. This review is designed to assist states in the development of sexual assault protocols. Controversial issues were addressed, including the collection of hair evidence, the importance of semen, mandatory reporting, pregnancy testing and prophylaxis, and sexually transmitted diseases including human immunodeficiency virus. The current role of DNA profiling is reviewed. These issues at the interface of medicine, forensic science, victim advocacy, and the law are analyzed. Representatives of the medical, legal, law enforcement, victim advocacy, and forensic science communities contributed to the development of the protocols at the national and state levels. The importance of a collaborative effort is emphasized. The broad protocol goals are to minimize the physical and psychological trauma to the victim while maximizing the probability of collecting and preserving physical evidence for potential use in the legal system.

  1. Sexual Robbery: The Missing Concept in the Search for an Appropriate Legal Metaphor for Sexual Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, K. Edward; Yurchesyn, Kathaleen A.

    Political efforts by feminists in the 1970s and early 1980s resulted in the redefinition of rape as physical assault in Canada's 1983 rape law in the Criminal Code. This paper argues that treating a woman's sexuality as "property," as did the rape law prior to 1983, was correct. Redefining rape as sexual assault, and measuring the severity of the…

  2. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  3. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  4. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  5. Characteristics associated with sexual assaults at mass gatherings

    PubMed Central

    Sampsel, Kari; Godbout, Justin; Leach, Tara; Taljaard, Monica; Calder, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is disturbingly common, yet little is known about those occurring at mass gatherings, defined as a group of people congregated for a common purpose. Our objectives were to examine patterns of variation in sexual assault associated with mass gatherings and to determine factors associated with assaults occurring at mass gatherings. Methods We performed a case series analysis from January to December, 2013. We included all patients >16 years presenting within 30 days of their sexual assault to the Ottawa Hospital Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP). Cases were stratified by whether or not they occurred at mass gatherings. We abstracted from the SAPACP records: patient and sexual assault characteristics, alcohol or drug consumption and medical and forensic care accepted. We performed descriptive analyses and multiple logistical regression to identify factors associated with mass gathering assaults. Results We found 204 cases of sexual assault, of which 53 (26%) occurred at mass gatherings. Relative frequencies of mass gathering sexual assaults peaked during New Year's Eve, Canada Day, university frosh week and Halloween. We found the following factors were statistically significantly associated with sexual assault at mass gatherings: younger age (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99); voluntary consumption of drugs and alcohol (3.88, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.23); assault occurring on a holiday (2.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.64) and the assailant unknown to the victim (2.43, 95% CI 1.15 to 5). Interpretation This study is the first to describe patterns of variation in sexual assault incidents associated with occurrence of mass gatherings as well as factors associated with such assaults. We will disseminate these results to key stakeholders in order to develop prevention-minded policies for future mass gatherings. PMID:26315648

  6. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  7. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  8. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-07-01

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  9. Firearm Violence Among High-Risk Emergency Department Youth After an Assault Injury

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Roehler, Douglas R.; Goldstick, Jason; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk for firearm violence among high-risk youth after treatment for an assault is unknown. METHODS: In this 2-year prospective cohort study, data were analyzed from a consecutive sample of 14- to 24-year-olds with drug use in the past 6 months seeking assault-injury care (AIG) at an urban level 1 emergency department (ED) compared with a proportionally sampled comparison group (CG) of drug-using nonassaulted youth. Validated measures were administered at baseline and follow-up (6, 12, 18, 24 months). RESULTS: A total of 349 AIG and 250 CG youth were followed for 24 months. During the follow-up period, 59% of the AIG reported firearm violence, a 40% higher risk than was observed among the CG (59.0% vs. 42.5%; relative risk [RR] = 1.39). Among those reporting firearm violence, 31.7% reported aggression, and 96.4% reported victimization, including 19 firearm injuries requiring medical care and 2 homicides. The majority with firearm violence (63.5%) reported at least 1 event within the first 6 months. Poisson regression identified baseline predictors of firearm violence, including male gender (RR = 1.51), African American race (RR = 1.26), assault-injury (RR = 1.35), firearm possession (RR = 1.23), attitudes favoring retaliation (RR = 1.03), posttraumatic stress disorder (RR = 1.39), and a drug use disorder (RR = 1.22). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk youth presenting to urban EDs for assault have elevated rates of subsequent firearm violence. Interventions at an index visit addressing substance use, mental health needs, retaliatory attitudes, and firearm possession may help decrease firearm violence among urban youth. PMID:25847808

  10. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron E

    2012-08-01

    Substance use at time of assault is reported by a significant subgroup of rape victims. This study examined: (1) prevalence of assault related marijuana or alcohol use among women seeking post-rape medical care; (2) sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power associated with reported use at time of assault in association with use in 6 weeks pre-assault, post-assault use, and post-assault abuse; and (3) trajectories of use and abuse over time as a function of use in 6 weeks pre-assault/assault time frame use, exposure to brief intervention, and interaction of pre-assault/assault time frame use with intervention. Participants were 268 women seeking post-sexual assault medical services completing one or more follow-up assessment at: (1) <3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; and (3) 6 months or longer post-assault. Use of alcohol or marijuana at time of assault was a fairly sensitive and specific indicator respectively, of reported use of specific substance in the 6 weeks preceding assault and use or abuse at follow-up. Growth modeling revealed that use of alcohol or marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior to assault predicted higher Time 1 follow-up alcohol and marijuana use and abuse. Although there was relatively little change in use or abuse over time, alcohol use at time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior also predicted a steeper decline in alcohol use over the course of follow-up. Interestingly, women who reported using marijuana at the time of the assault or in the 6 weeks prior who also received a video intervention actually had lower initial marijuana use, a pattern that remained stable over time. Implications for evaluating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services among sexual assault victims seeking post-assault medical care are discussed.

  11. Perceived Neighborhood Violence and Use of Verbal Aggression, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse by a National Sample of Parents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Heavy Alcohol Use and Assaults: With Adjustment for the Effects of Unmeasured Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Methods. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Results. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P < 0.05) among participants who consumed 5+ drinks/day for 5–8 days/month and 9–30 days/month, respectively. Conclusions. Even after adjustment for unknown/unmeasured confounders the association between heavy alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence. PMID:26380283

  13. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally

  14. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  15. The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men’s Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-01-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their post-incident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol’s influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work. PMID:20939645

  16. Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers: Enhancing Sexual Assault Education Using Simulation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Meredith; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Barash, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have been sexually assaulted disproportionately experience gaps in healthcare delivery. Ensuring that healthcare providers who care for this population are adequately prepared is one way of addressing this gap. At the Brigham and Women's Hospital, a 4-hour long interprofessional Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers (SASH) was developed and conducted at the hospital's Simulation, Training, Research, & Technology Utilization System Center. The SASH is offered using a variety of teaching methodologies including didactics, skill stations comprising how to collect forensic evidence, simulation experience with standardized patient, and debriefing. Using simulation as an educational method allows healthcare professionals to gain hands-on skills in a safe environment. Ultimately, the goal of the SASH is to enhance collaborative practice between healthcare professionals and to improve knowledge, with the purpose of improving care for patients who have been sexually assaulted.

  17. Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers: Enhancing Sexual Assault Education Using Simulation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Meredith; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Barash, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have been sexually assaulted disproportionately experience gaps in healthcare delivery. Ensuring that healthcare providers who care for this population are adequately prepared is one way of addressing this gap. At the Brigham and Women's Hospital, a 4-hour long interprofessional Sexual Assault Simulation Course for Healthcare Providers (SASH) was developed and conducted at the hospital's Simulation, Training, Research, & Technology Utilization System Center. The SASH is offered using a variety of teaching methodologies including didactics, skill stations comprising how to collect forensic evidence, simulation experience with standardized patient, and debriefing. Using simulation as an educational method allows healthcare professionals to gain hands-on skills in a safe environment. Ultimately, the goal of the SASH is to enhance collaborative practice between healthcare professionals and to improve knowledge, with the purpose of improving care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. PMID:26457900

  18. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  19. Psychiatric assessment of aggressive patients: a violent attack on a resident.

    PubMed

    Antonius, Daniel; Fuchs, Lara; Herbert, Farah; Kwon, Joe; Fried, Joanna L; Burton, Paul R S; Straka, Tara; Levin, Ze'ev; Caligor, Eve; Malaspina, Dolores

    2010-03-01

    Aggressive patients often target psychiatrists and psychiatric residents, yet most clinicians are insufficiently trained in violence risk assessment and management. Consequently, many clinicians are reluctant to diagnose and treat aggressive and assaultive features in psychiatric patients and instead focus attention on other axis I mental disorders with proven pharmacological treatment in the hope that this approach will reduce the aggressive behavior. Unclear or nonexistent reporting policies or feelings of self-blame may impede clinicians from reporting assaults, thus limiting our knowledge of the impact of, and best response to, aggression in psychiatric patients. The authors pre-sent the case of a young adult inpatient with a long history of antisocial and assaultive behavior who struck and injured a psychiatric resident. With this case in mind, the authors discuss the diagnostic complexities related to violent patients, the importance of assessing violence risk when initially evaluating a patient, and the relevance of risk assessment for treatment considerations and future management. This report illustrates common deficiencies in the prevention of violence on inpatient psychiatric units and in the reporting and response to an assault, and has implications for residency and clinician training.

  20. The use of alternate light sources in the clinical evaluation of child abuse and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising. PMID:24589813

  1. The use of alternate light sources in the clinical evaluation of child abuse and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Bonnie; Jenny, Carole

    2014-03-01

    Alternate light sources are devices that produce visible and invisible light at specific wavelengths to allow for enhanced visualization of fluorescent substances. These devices (which include Wood's lamp and blue light) are often used in forensics for evidence collection and can be quite useful to physicians in the medical evaluation of suspected physical or sexual assault. An understanding of the proper applications, as well as the limitations, of each alternate light source is imperative to correctly performing and interpreting medical evaluations in the emergency department. This review discusses the evidence from prospective trials in children and adults on the ability of specific alternate light sources to identify evidence of physical or sexual assault and also highlights some promising new technological adjuncts to alternate light sources that may allow for accurate dating of bruising.

  2. Trajectories of Physical Dating Violence from Middle to High School: Association with Relationship Quality and Acceptability of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpinas, Pamela; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Although research on dating violence is growing, little is known about the distinct developmental trajectories of dating violence during adolescence. The current study identifies trajectories of physical dating violence victimization and perpetration that boys and girls follow from sixth to twelfth grade, examines the overlap of these…

  3. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.

  4. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  5. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    PubMed Central

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  6. Resident aggression toward staff at a center for the developmentally disabled.

    PubMed

    West, Christine A; Galloway, Ellen; Niemeier, Maureen T

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined factors contributing to nonfatal assaults to staff working in residential care facilities. The authors evaluated resident assaults toward direct care/nursing staff at an intermediate Care Facility for Individuals with Mental Retardation (ICF/MR), which included observations of work areas, employee interviews, calculation of injury and assault rates for 2004 to 2007 from Occupational Safety and Health Administration Logs, and review of state ICP/MR guidelines. Most staff interviewed reported having been injured during physical restraint of a resident and the average rate of injury from assault at the center evaluated was higher than the average national rates for the health care and social assistance sector for the same time period. The center lacked policies and developing a post-incident response and evaluation program to assist staff in coping with the consequences of assault and/or occupational injury. PMID:24571051

  7. Patterns of Injury and Reported Violence Depending on Relationship to Assailant in Female Swedish Sexual Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Anna Sofia; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have explored the differences between known-assailant sexual assaults and stranger assaults and reported the stranger assaults as being more violent. Only a few studies have discriminated between sexual assaults by intimate partners from assaults by other known assailants when comparing with assaults by strangers. In this study, we…

  8. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  9. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  10. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  11. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  12. Identifying Subtypes of Spousal Assaulters Using the B-SAFER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijssen, Jill; de Ruiter, Corine

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a structured risk assessment instrument for intimate partner violence, the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service, dating from 2004 and 2005. The aim of the study was twofold: (a) to validate Holtzworth-Munroe and…

  13. Objective Ratings of Assault Safety as Predictors of PTSD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascardi, Michele; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether two trauma characteristics that are hypothesized to relate to perceptions of safety--assault location and assailant identity--predict rate and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female rape victims. Contrary to prediction, women assaulted by dangerous assailants reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms…

  14. Attributions, World Assumptions, and Recovery from Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined how sexual assault history and attributions of blame were related to measures of recovery from, and cognitive adaptation to, trauma in a convenience sample of sexual assault victims (N=155). Results indicate that attributions of blame were related to assumptions about self and world but were unrelated to self-rated recovery. (RJM)

  15. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  16. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

  17. The Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Self-Defense and Risk-Reduction Program for College Women: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Rich, Cindy L.; Orchowski, Lindsay; King, Carrie; Miller, Audrey K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program that included a physical self-defense component for college women ("N"=500). Program group women significantly increased their protective behaviors over the 6-month follow-up period compared to the waiting-list control group. However, there were no significant…

  18. Issues and dynamics of sexually assaulted adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Clements, Paul T; Speck, Patricia M; Crane, Patricia A; Faulkner, Martha J

    2004-12-01

    Interpersonal violence such as sexual assault creates a variety of traumatic responses. Adolescents encounter a significantly high rate of exposure to sexual assault. In the aftermath of sexual assault, issues and dynamics related to traumatic responses include ongoing fear and threats to personal safety, stability, and structure of the family and environment. Each issue is of concern for community and health care practitioners. Sexual assault has a detrimental effect on adolescent intrapsychic development and interpersonal relationships. Symptoms are disturbing and disruptive to daily routines, negatively affect adolescent normal growth and development, and can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. Issues and dynamics regarding sexual assault are explored, with suggestions on how to help adolescents avoid developing a negative world view and long-term negative health consequences.

  19. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue. PMID:18952339

  20. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  1. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  2. Impulsivity and sexual assault in college men.

    PubMed

    Mouilso, Emily R; Calhoun, Karen S; Rosenbloom, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Although impulsivity has been consistently linked to perpetration of sexual aggression, results lack clarity because they do not account for the substantial heterogeneity associated with the construct. The UPPS-P model (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2006), which was proposed to clarify the multidimensional nature of impulsivity, has yet to be applied to sexual aggression. We measured UPPS-P Impulsivity in a sample of male college students who also self-reported on perpetration of sexual aggression. As predicted, impulsivity distinguished perpetrators from nonperpetrators. Perpetrators scored higher than non-perpetrators on Negative Urgency, Positive Urgency, and lack of Premeditation. Results suggest that the impulsivity traits most relevant to sexual aggression are the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing intense emotions (Positive and Negative Urgency) and lack of forethought and planning (lack of Premeditation). PMID:23862308

  3. Are the Perpetrators of Violence One and the Same? Exploring the Co-Occurrence of Perpetration of Physical Aggression in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevens, Joanne; Simon, Thomas R.; Chen, Jieru

    2012-01-01

    Important gaps exist in our understanding of aggressive behavior and the extent to which aggression involves one or more types of victims. This information is critical for determining the utility of integrated approaches for violence prevention versus continuation of independent efforts for reducing community violence, partner violence, and child…

  4. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2007-12-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  5. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2008-06-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  6. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  7. Sexual assault and disordered eating in Asian women.

    PubMed

    La Flair, Lareina N; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B

    2008-01-01

    The link between sexual assault and disordered eating has yet to be clarified, especially for ethnic minority populations. Asian women, in particular, report low rates of both sexual assault and eating disorders compared to their Western counterparts, and studies suggest that these rates may be conservative. The literature indicates that there are cultural attitudes that contribute to non- and underreporting of sexual assault by Asian women and that these sociocultural factors may have an important role in the development of eating disorders as a response to sexual victimization. Research illustrates a relationship between sexual assault and eating disorders; eating disorders may serve as coping mechanisms for survivors of sexual assault by providing a mechanism for comfort, numbing, and distracting in an effort to rid the painful feelings in response to the assault. To stimulate future research, this article reviews the current literature on the development of eating disorders following a sexual assault and on the sociocultural factors linking both phenomena in Asian women, and offers avenues for investigation to increase our understanding of these relationships.

  8. Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…

  9. The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner's Interactions Within the Sexual Assault Response Team: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Phyllis; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Many emergency department nurses care for the sexually assaulted victim, when sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs are not available. Therefore, it is important for emergency department nurses to understand the roles of both the SANE and the sexual assault response team (SART). The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the current research on the integration of the SANE among the SART and evaluate the gaps in research of the SANE's role, attitude, behavior, and satisfaction within the collaborative SART. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 using key words were evaluated. A 3-stage search strategy revealed 582 articles. The articles were assessed and categorized according to Level of Evidence definitions. Twelve qualitative and mixed-methods studies were identified. Studies ranged from SART protocols or responses to situational factors to SANE relationships with other SART members. The review reflected the need for more research within the collaborative atmosphere of this multidisciplinary and interagency team that defines the SART, and the individual member's perceptions. Further studies are needed on the SANE's impact on patient outcome and the emergency department nurses role when a SANE or SART program is not available. PMID:27482993

  10. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  11. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  12. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  13. What motivates hate crimes based on sexual orientation? Mediating effects of anger on antigay aggression.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of anger in response to gay men within three theoretical models of antigay aggression. Participants were 135 exclusively heterosexual men who completed a structured interview designed to assess sexual prejudice, anger in response to a vignette depicting a nonerotic male-male intimate relationship (i.e. partners saying "I love you", holding hands, kissing), and past perpetration of antigay aggression. Among identified antigay assailants, motivations for one earlier assault (i.e. sexual prejudice, peer dynamics, thrill seeking) were also assessed. Results indicated that anger fully mediated the relationship between sexual prejudice and antigay aggression, partially mediated the effect of peer dynamics on antigay aggression, and did not account for the relationship between thrill seeking and antigay aggression. These findings indicate that anger in response to gay men facilitates antigay aggression among some, but not all, antigay perpetrators.

  14. Preventing sexual aggression among college men: an evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berkowitz, Alan D

    2011-06-01

    Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media. PMID:21571742

  15. Preventing sexual aggression among college men: an evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berkowitz, Alan D

    2011-06-01

    Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media.

  16. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  17. Frequency of traumatic lesions alleged by victims of assault during police custody.

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Houssaye, C; Bourokba, N; Durigon, M

    2007-08-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the frequency of traumatic lesions found in individuals alleging police brutality during official custody in the département of Hauts-de-Seine, located in the west suburbs of Paris. All medical certificates relating to the examination of 11,653 individuals detained during the year 2004 were analysed. From this population, there were 119 cases where victimized individuals alleged police assault and 245 revealed aggressive police manhandling, as indicated by traces of tight handcuffs. Among the individuals alleging police violence, most of them showed recent traumatic lesions (n=91). The majority of lesions were superficial contusions frequently located in the cervico-cephalic area. All traumatic lesions were compatible with the allegations of police assault. Neurological complications secondary to the application of handcuffs were encountered in less than 2% of the cases. Although no death was recorded in police custody during the period of the study, approximately 5% of the population that had encountered some form of police violence was found to require emergency hospitalization. PMID:17631458

  18. Frequency of traumatic lesions alleged by victims of assault during police custody.

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Houssaye, C; Bourokba, N; Durigon, M

    2007-08-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the frequency of traumatic lesions found in individuals alleging police brutality during official custody in the département of Hauts-de-Seine, located in the west suburbs of Paris. All medical certificates relating to the examination of 11,653 individuals detained during the year 2004 were analysed. From this population, there were 119 cases where victimized individuals alleged police assault and 245 revealed aggressive police manhandling, as indicated by traces of tight handcuffs. Among the individuals alleging police violence, most of them showed recent traumatic lesions (n=91). The majority of lesions were superficial contusions frequently located in the cervico-cephalic area. All traumatic lesions were compatible with the allegations of police assault. Neurological complications secondary to the application of handcuffs were encountered in less than 2% of the cases. Although no death was recorded in police custody during the period of the study, approximately 5% of the population that had encountered some form of police violence was found to require emergency hospitalization.

  19. Providing quality care to the sexual assault survivor: education and training for medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Health care providers who perform sexual assault examinations can assist patients who report experiencing a sexual assault by increasing their knowledge and skills in sexual assault care, and serving as Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) coordinators, or as SART team members, in their communities. With little additional material, this training could be provided as a component of basic midwifery and/or advanced practice nursing education programs. This article reviews the essential steps and required training for conducting sexual assault examinations.

  20. A study of the psychological factors in outcomes for officers who survive ballistic assault.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Jennifer C; McMullen, Mary J; Williams, Carolyn J; Moore, Jeffrey L; Gilbertson, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    Among law enforcement personnel, who are subject to assault with firearms, there has been a trend toward decreased mortality and physical morbidity associated with the use of personal protective armor (PPA). Although there has been an increase in the rate of survival, studies of the unique psychological factors associated with this type of assault are essentially nonexistent. The prevalence and nature of the negative psychological sequelae associated with this type of assault and psychological injury, along with effective prevention techniques, were studied through retrospective interviews of registrants in two "body armor survival clubs." Significant relationships were found between available interventions and behavioral health outcomes. In addition to reducing the likelihood of poor health outcomes, departmentally based interventions were related to officers' ability to develop positive interpretations of the event and engage in fewer high risk behaviors. These findings suggest that departmental interventions, such as debriefings, are meaningful and may help improve outcomes for officers fired upon, but not wounded, in the line of duty. PMID:18459531

  1. Investigating the medical forensic examination from the perspectives of sexually assaulted women.

    PubMed

    Du Mont, Janice; White, Deborah; McGregor, Margaret J

    2009-02-01

    Across many jurisdictions, a key institutional response to sexual assault is centred on the collection of medico-legal evidence through a medical forensic examination (MFE). Despite the increased routinization of this practice, such evidence often is not related to positive criminal justice outcomes. As there has been little systematic investigation of the perspectives of victims regarding the MFE, we conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 19 women aged 17-46 years who had been sexually assaulted and had undergone an MFE in the previous six months at one of four specialized hospital-based sexual assault centres in Ontario, Canada. Extracts from the transcribed interviews were coded into two broad themes, 'Expectations' and 'Experiences', from which a series of lower order constructs were derived. We found that most women went to a centre to have their physical and emotional needs addressed rather than medico-legal evidence collected and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their interactions with specially trained nurse examiners. However, some women were confused about the purpose of the MFE, believing that their access to treatment hinged upon undergoing this process. Moreover, though optional, several indicated that they had been instructed to have an MFE by the police and/or nurse examiner. Most women who chose to have evidence collected did so with the hope that it would hold the assailant accountable and generate social recognition of the harm done to them. While many stated that they were distressed during the MFE, some reported feeling simultaneously empowered by the fact that the experience fostered a "sense of doing something". These findings point to the value of collecting medico-legal evidence in settings staffed with supportive practitioners who also attend to women's health related concerns. Implications with respect to issues of informed consent, revictimization, and empowerment, as well as the relative weight given to the MFE in the

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  3. A comparative and comprehensive analysis of nonsexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, M Sunay

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comparative and comprehensive analysis of nonsexual assaults in 488 medico-legal cases presented to Forensic Medicine Outpatient Clinic of Celal Bayar University Hospital (Manisa, Turkey), between 2005 and 2009. There were blunt force injuries (BFI) in 262 cases (53.7%), sharp force injuries (SFI) in 163 cases (33.4%), and firearm-related wounds (FRW) in 63 cases (12.9%). The results showed significant differences in the monthly distribution of assaults, localization of injuries, and severity of injuries depending on the types of assaults. Most of the injuries were localized to the face, head, and neck in BFI and SFI and to the lower limbs in FRW. The results of this study will help researchers to investigate characteristics of victims, offenders, and injuries and types of assaults because of nonsexual violence.

  4. Attitudinal, Experiential, and Situational Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; MCAUSLAN, PAM; ZAWACKI, TINA; CLINTON, A. MONIQUE; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Past research demonstrates that sexual assault perpetration is caused by multiple factors including attitudes, early experiences, and situational factors. In this study, 343 college men described either a sexual assault they had committed or their worst date. Discriminant function analysis indicated that attitudes about gender roles and alcohol, number of consensual sex partners, how well the man knew the woman, how isolated the setting was, alcohol consumption during the event, the man’s misperception of the woman’s cues during the event, and prior consensual sexual activity between the man and the woman discriminated between sexual assaults and worst dates. Additionally, tactics used to obtain sex, self attributions, the perceived seriousness of the assault, and the extent to which it disrupted relationships with others significantly discriminated between men who committed forced sexual contact, sexual coercion, and rape. These results demonstrate the importance of considering both individual characteristics and situational factors in theories and prevention activities. PMID:26435575

  5. Epidemiology of assault and self-harm injuries treated in a large Romanian Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Melinda; Rus, Diana; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cherecheş, Răzvan M.; Şirlincan, Emanuela Oana; Boeriu, Cristian; Baba, Cătălin Ovidiu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intentional injury, including interpersonal violence and self-harm, is one of the world’s leading causes of preventable injury. In Europe alone, nearly 1.5 million individuals receive medical treatment each year for a violence-related injury. We examined violent injuries treated in the largest Emergency Department (ED) in Tîrgu Mures County, Romania, with a catchment area of approximately 580 000 residents to describe the epidemiology of assault and self-harm injuries. Methods Data were collected as part of the European Injury Database project, from a sample of patients who presented with a violence-related injury and received care from the ED of the Mures County Emergency Hospital, Romania. The data were collected for 9 months by two trained emergency physicians. Information about individual demographics; mechanism, nature, place, and activity of injury; injury types, and body regions affected; and discharge state were compared for assault and self-harm injuries. Results Of the 380 patients treated for violence-related injuries, 88.7% were for assault and 11.3% were for self-harm. For both types of injuries, the majority of patients were between the ages of 15 and 44. Assaults frequently occurred in the home, on streets and highways, or in public places; and men (80.4%) were far more likely than women (19.6%) to be treated for this type of injury; a slightly higher proportion of men (55.8%) than women (44.2%) were treated for self-harm, most of which occurred in homes. Discussion Of all injuries treated in the Tîrgu Mures ED, one out of five was violence related. One out of 10 patients that suffered an injury as a consequence of a violent event and treated in the ED required admission to a hospital for further medical care, leading to a significant health care burden. These data suggest that prevention strategies should focus on young adults, and particularly men. Interventions that focus on detection and treatment of psychological illness

  6. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  7. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  8. A Review of Sexual Assault Information on College Web Sites.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rachel; McMahon, Sarah; Broadnax, Jesica

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of information available on campus Web sites at all four-year colleges and universities in New Jersey. This study used a descriptive, content analysis methodology with a sample that consisted of 28 college and university Web pages. To evaluate the Web sites, ecological approaches were rated with a checklist created to document the presence and extent of information about sexual assault, including five key areas: (1) general information about sexual assault, (2) the availability of services for students, (3) information about how to report an incident of sexual assault, (4) whether there was a department exclusively dedicated to the school's response to sexual assault, and (5) information about the existence of a policy prohibiting sexual assault on campus. Almost all of the schools provided policies and information about services for students. However, the comprehensiveness of the information and the ease of finding it varied greatly by campus. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social workers and those responding to survivors of sexual assault on a college campus. PMID:26638503

  9. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  10. Functional correlates of military sexual assault in male veterans.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Hibberd, Rachel; Wagner, H Ryan; Turchik, Jessica A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Wong, Madrianne; Elbogen, Eric E; Strauss, Jennifer L; Brancu, Mira

    2015-11-01

    Despite research findings that similar numbers of male and female veterans are affected by military sexual trauma (MST), there has been considerably less research on the effects of MST specific to male veterans. The aim of the present study was to provide preliminary data describing functional correlates of military sexual assault (MSA) among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans to identify potential health care needs for this population. We evaluated the following functional correlates: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression symptoms, alcohol use, drug use, suicidality, social support, violent behavior in the past 30 days, incarceration, disability eligibility status, and use of outpatient mental health treatment. We compared 3 groups: (a) male veterans who endorsed a history of MSA (n = 39), (b) a general non-MSA sample (n = 2,003), and (c) a matched non-MSA sample (n = 39) identified by matching algorithms on the basis of factors (e.g., age, education, adult premilitary sexual trauma history, childhood sexual and physical trauma history, and race) that could increase veterans' vulnerability to the functional correlates examined. MSA in men was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity, greater depression symptom severity, higher suicidality, and higher outpatient mental health treatment, above and beyond the effects of vulnerability factors. These findings suggest that, for male veterans, MSA may result in a severe and enduring overall symptom profile requiring ongoing clinical management. PMID:26524280

  11. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  12. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  13. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  14. Concurrent administration of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programming: outcomes for women.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Probst, Danielle R; Edwards, Katie M; Murphy, Megan; Tansill, Erin

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes the 4- and 7-month postintervention outcomes of a sexual assault risk reduction program for women, which was part of an evaluation that included a prevention program for men. Relative to the control group, participants evidenced more relational sexual assertiveness and self-protective behavior, and were more likely to indicate that they utilized active verbal and physical self-defense strategies. Whether or not women experienced subsequent victimization did not differ between groups. Relative to control group women who were victimized, program participants who were victimized between the 4- and 7-month follow-up blamed the perpetrator more and evidenced less self-blame. PMID:25845615

  15. The Relation between Popularity and Aggressive, Destructive, and Norm-Breaking Behaviors: Moderating Effects of Athletic Abilities, Physical Attractiveness, and Prosociality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between popularity and different types of aggressive, destructive, and norm-breaking behaviors in a large cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=3,312, M age=13.60). We were interested in the extent to which the relations of these behaviors with popularity were moderated by positive features…

  16. Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures. PMID:19762675

  17. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  18. Driving aggression in forensic and non-forensic populations: relationships to self-reported levels of aggression, anger and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch; Ward, Nic

    2006-08-01

    A series of four questionnaires - the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and a Driving Violence Inventory (DVI) - were administered to a sample of 473 British drivers consisting of undergraduates (N=185), members of the public (N=106) and offenders (N=182) serving sentences in closed prisons in England (violent=82, non-violent=100). Offenders consistently rated acts of driving aggression as less severe compared with other drivers. Offender attributions of driving violence differed to other drivers in that they were equally likely to perceive obscene gesturing as high or low intensity responses; they also viewed assault as a high intensity response whereas members of the public rated it more severely. Trait levels of anger and aggression were the predictors of driving violence in all groups but previous aggressive behaviour was only a predictor for the offenders. Gender and age were found to be predictors of aggressive driving in non-offenders. Even with the effects of age controlled, offenders (and violent offenders in particular) scored higher on measures of driving anger and aggression. These data suggest that offenders differ in their perceptions of aggressive behaviours experienced in everyday driving and as a consequence are more likely to commit acts that other drivers perceive as violent. As offenders are known to display similar perceptual biases in other domains, identified as precursors to their aggressive behaviour, it seems likely that experience effects (as reflected in the trait measures) underpin differences in driving aggression between offenders and non-offenders.

  19. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and aggression in OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Angkaw, Abigail C; Ross, Bridgett S; Pittman, James O E; Kelada, Alexandra Mary Y; Valencerina, Maria Anna M; Baker, Dewleen G

    2013-10-01

    Aggression is a problem among some combat veterans. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with physical aggression in veterans, and co-occurring depression increases the risk of committing aggressive acts. Few studies have examined the impact of PTSD on various forms of aggression. While using a standardized multidimensional measure of aggression, this study examines the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between PTSD and various forms of aggression in Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. Depressive symptoms are hypothesized to mediate the relationship between PTSD and four types of aggression: (1) physical aggression toward others, (2) physical aggression toward objects, (3) physical aggression toward self, and (4) verbal aggression. Seventy-two OEF/OIF veterans completed assessment batteries and clinical interviews upon enrollment into a postdeployment mental health clinic. Study results partially supported the study hypotheses; depressive symptoms indirectly mediated the relationship between PTSD and two forms of aggression: verbal aggression and physical aggression toward self. In contrast to some prior studies of intimate partner violence in veterans with PTSD, no mediation relationship between depression and physical aggression toward others was found. Study results have implications for the development of interventions to treat aggressive behaviors in OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD and depression.

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Male College Students’ Perpetration of Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Self-administered surveys were completed by 197 men in college at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Men who committed sexual assault at multiple time points (repeat assaulters) had the most extreme scores on measures of hostility toward women, past sexual experiences, drinking in sexual situations, and adolescent delinquency. Nonassaulters had the least extreme scores and men who committed sexual assault at only 1 time point had scores that tended to fall in between. Repeat assaulters also expressed significantly less remorse when they described their sexual assault at Time 1 than did past assaulters who committed sexual assault only at the initial time point. These findings demonstrate the importance of initiating prevention and treatment programs in early adolescence, before longstanding attitudes and behaviors tolerant of sexual assault are established. PMID:15482033

  2. Assault frequency and preformation probability of the {alpha} emission process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Royer, G.; Li, J. Q.

    2011-08-15

    A study of the assault frequency and preformation factor of the {alpha}-decay description is performed from the experimental {alpha}-decay constant and the penetration probabilities calculated from the generalized liquid-drop model (GLDM) potential barriers. To determine the assault frequency a quantum-mechanical method using a harmonic oscillator is introduced and leads to values of around 10{sup 21} s{sup -1}, similar to the ones calculated within the classical method. The preformation probability is around 10{sup -1}-10{sup -2}. The results for even-even Po isotopes are discussed for illustration. While the assault frequency presents only a shallow minimum in the vicinity of the magic neutron number 126, the preformation factor and mainly the penetrability probability diminish strongly around N=126.

  3. Social disorganization and unfounded sexual assault case clearances.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Despite much research and policy development, it remains true that less than one half of all reported sexual assaults are cleared by arrest (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI], 2011). Compounding this issue, many sexual assaults are not cleared by an arrest, but rather by being classified as "unfounded" by law enforcement (Soulliere, 1994, 2005; Tellis & Spohn, 2008). Grounded in the social disorganization perspective, this article examines the relationships between case-related and extralegal community-level characteristics and use of the designation of unfounded by the police. Contrary to initial expectations, findings show that communities with higher levels of concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration, and residential instability are less likely to have sexual assaults deemed unfounded by law enforcement.

  4. Injuries to the cervix in sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Keller, Patricia; Lechner, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Little research has addressed the types and meaning of genital injury in sexual assault victims. An even smaller amount of research exists documenting injury to the cervix in sexual assault victims. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of cervical injuries in women following sexual assault, the types of injuries seen, the mechanisms that are related to the injuries, and the types of injuries related to each mechanism. A retrospective chart review was conducted. A total of 538 charts were examined, with a final sample size of 114. Within this sample, 87.8% (n= 100) presented with no injury to the cervix, and 12.3% (n= 14) had documented injury. All statistical analyses were nonsignificant; however, clinical implications are noted. Recommendations for future research are made.

  5. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954

  6. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    including physical or psychological annoyance, the other person's disobedience, perceived injustice, and a threat to one's social identity. Whether one's aggression is performed or not depends on a number of intra- and inter-personal determinants, particularly on social cognitive processes such as attribution, inference, prediction and other judgements.

  7. Characteristic illness behaviour in assault patients: DATES syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J P; Peak, J D; Haria, S; Sleeman, F

    1995-01-01

    Violent crime has become a public health issue, not least because the needs of victims have been neglected in the criminal justice system. Since this group suffer more psychological distress than victims of accidents, we compared illness experience in 433 adult assault victims with paired victims of accidents in a case control study. In the 10 year period prior to injury, there was a significant excess of hospital contacts in the assault group in relation to trauma, elective surgery and drug abuse but not to other psychiatric or medical conditions. This spectrum of disorders constitutes a previously unrecognized syndrome in young adults, probably representing the manifestations of antisocial personality. PMID:7769600

  8. Munchausen's syndrome presenting as an acute sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, K L

    1998-07-01

    This report describes a female patient with Munchausen's syndrome who made a false allegation of rape, buggery and indecent assault to the Metropolitan Police. The indecent assault took the form of inserting numerous wax crayons into the vagina, necessitating her admission to hospital for their removal under a general anaesthetic. Whilst in hospital she developed a status epilepticus-like condition, requiring admission to the Intensive Therapy Unit. As a specific method of self-harm in Munchausen's syndrome, this case appears to be unique. It has not previously been reported in the literature. PMID:9717368

  9. The aggression paradox: understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences.

    PubMed

    Joireman, Jeff; Anderson, Jonathan; Strathman, Alan

    2003-06-01

    Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C.A. Anderson & B.J. Bushman. 2002), positing that hostile cognition and negative affect mediate the relationships between the aforementioned individual differences and aggression. Sensation seeking also predicted a desire to engage in physical and verbal aggression. The final study demonstrated that relative to those scoring low, individuals scoring high on the consideration of future consequences are only less aggressive when aggression is likely to carry future costs. PMID:12793590

  10. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  11. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  12. Inmates' Cultural Beliefs about Sexual Violence and Their Relationship to Definitions of Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…

  13. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  14. Stigma-Threat Motivated Nondisclosure of Sexual Assault and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Canales, Erika J.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Backstrom, Tamika L.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess sexual assault survivors' nondisclosure motivations, including stigma threat, and their impact on revictimization risk. The authors describe data from a prospective study of 144 female, undergraduate sexual assault survivors, most of whom had been assaulted by acquaintances and only one of whom had officially…

  15. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  16. 32 CFR 105.16 - Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sexual assault annual and quarterly reporting... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SEXUAL ASSAULT PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PROGRAM PROCEDURES § 105.16 Sexual... USD(P&R) submits annual FY reports to Congress on the sexual assaults involving members of...

  17. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  18. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  19. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  20. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  1. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  2. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  3. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  4. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  5. 75 FR 73997 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment Involving DoD Contractors During Contingency...; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... are aware of the DoD definition of ``sexual assault'' as defined in DoD Directive 6495.01,...

  6. 76 FR 38051 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    .... Background DoD Inspector General audit D-2010-052, entitled ``Efforts to Prevent Sexual Assault/Harassment... Regulation Supplement; Definition of Sexual Assault (DFARS Case 2010-D023) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... accompanying U.S. Armed Forces are made aware of the DoD definition of sexual assault as defined in...

  7. Forcible, Drug-Facilitated, and Incapacitated Rape and Sexual Assault among Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Steven; Resnick, Heidi; Bakanic, Von; Burkett, Tracy; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of drug-related sexual assaults, identify the frequency of assaults that occur following voluntary versus involuntary drug or alcohol consumption, and identify contextual correlates of drug-related assaults. Participants: College-student females (n = 314). Methods: Volunteers reported experiences with forcible…

  8. The Decline in Sexual Assaults in Men's Prisons in New South Wales: A "Systems" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lorraine; Richters, Juliet; Butler, Tony; Schneider, Karen; Grant, Luke; Donovan, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Male prison rape and sexual assaults remains a serious and sensitive issue in many countries. Human rights groups claim that sexual assaults among male prisoners have reached pandemic proportions and need to be stopped. Researchers for many years have studied the causes of male sexual assault in prison and offered numerous recommendations on its…

  9. Language Impairment and Sexual Assault of Girls and Women: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Jabbar, Amina; Beitchman, Joseph; Vida, Ron; Atkinson, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Both children and adults with disabilities face increased prevalence of abuse and assault, including sexual assault. Women and girls are disproportionately the victims of sexual assault in both disabled and nondisabled populations. Communication difficulties have been identified as a factor that may increase the vulnerability of individuals with…

  10. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  11. Assaults by Wives on Husbands: Implications for Primary Prevention of Marital Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    Surveys of married and dating couples find that women assault their male partners at about the same rate as men assault female partners. When assaults serious enough to cause death were examined, it was found that in contrast to the extreme rarity of homicide by women outside the family, women kill their male partners at a rate that approaches the…

  12. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  13. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  14. 32 CFR 635.28 - Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The victim may allow Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC), health care providers (HCP), or... in sexual assault cases. 635.28 Section 635.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Offense Reporting § 635.28 Procedures for restricted/unrestricted reporting in sexual assault...

  15. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  16. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  17. Contribution of psychological trauma to outcomes after traumatic brain injury: assaults versus sporting injuries.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jane L; Harman-Smith, Yasmin; Bowden, Stephen C; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Bigler, Erin D

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research into outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently combines injuries that have been sustained through different causes (e.g., car accidents, assaults, and falls), the effect of which is not well understood. This study examined the contribution of injury-related psychological trauma—which is more commonly associated with specific types of injuries—to outcomes after nonpenetrating TBI in order to determine whether it may be having a differential effect in samples containing mixed injuries. Data from three groups that were prospectively recruited for two larger studies were compared: one that sustained a TBI as a result of physical assaults (i.e., psychologically traumatizing) and another as a result of sporting injuries (i.e., nonpsychologically traumatizing), as well as an orthopedic control group (OC). Psychosocial and emotional (postconcussion symptoms, injury-related stress, and depression), cognitive (memory, abstract reasoning, problem solving, and verbal fluency), and functional (general outcome; resumption of home, social, and work roles) outcomes were all assessed. The TBI(assault) group reported significantly poorer psychosocial and emotional outcomes and higher rates of litigation (criminal rather than civil) than both the TBI(sport) and OC groups approximately 6 months postinjury, but there were no differences in the cognitive or functional outcomes of the three groups. The findings suggest that the cause of a TBI may assist in explaining some of the differences in outcomes of people who have seemingly comparable injuries. Involvement in litigation and the cause of an injury may also be confounded, which may lead to the erroneous conclusion that litigants have poorer outcomes.

  18. Prior substance abuse and related treatment history reported by recent victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron

    2013-04-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population.

  19. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  20. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment.

  1. Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography videos: a content analysis update.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Ana J; Wosnitzer, Robert; Scharrer, Erica; Sun, Chyng; Liberman, Rachael

    2010-10-01

    This current study analyzes the content of popular pornographic videos, with the objectives of updating depictions of aggression, degradation, and sexual practices and comparing the study's results to previous content analysis studies. Findings indicate high levels of aggression in pornography in both verbal and physical forms. Of the 304 scenes analyzed, 88.2% contained physical aggression, principally spanking, gagging, and slapping, while 48.7% of scenes contained verbal aggression, primarily name-calling. Perpetrators of aggression were usually male, whereas targets of aggression were overwhelmingly female. Targets most often showed pleasure or responded neutrally to the aggression. PMID:20980228

  2. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  3. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  4. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  5. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  6. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  7. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  8. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  9. Survivors on Campus: A Dialogue about Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Rosendale, Laura; Dierking, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    At a conference last fall, Kirsten Dierking came across "College Girl: A Memoir," a book by Laura Gray-Rosendale that tells the story of a brutal sexual assault she experienced as a college student. While she purchased a copy of the book, it sat unopened on her desk for a while; also a victim of brutal rape in college, she was not sure…

  10. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  11. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land.

  12. Defending Letters: A Pragmatic Response to Assaults on the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…

  13. Care Staff Perceptions of Challenging Behaviour and Fear of Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Cleary, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Background: Past research has determined that fear of violence is often "irrational" in relation to the actual level of risk presented. This has been found to exacerbate the negative effects of exposure to work-related violence. Aims: This study investigates fear of assault in relation to exposure to challenging behaviour. The extent to which a…

  14. Sexual assault services coverage on Native American land.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Ashley; Wood, Lindsey; Giroux, Jennifer; Wood, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Native American women experience higher rates of sexual assault than other women in the United States, yet there is limited information on the accessibility of forensic services for Native American victims of sexual violence. This study used geographic information systems technology to map known sexual assault examiner (SAE) and sexual assault response team (SART) programs in the United States (n = 873) in proximity to 650 census-designated Native American lands. Analysis was repeated for 29 Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities that self-identified that they provide sexual assault examinations. Network analysis showed that 30.7% of Native American land is within a 60-minute driving distance of a facility offering SAE or SART services. Indian Health Service and tribal-operated facilities increased accessibility to SAE services on 35 Native American lands. This study shows gaps in coverage for more than two thirds of Native American lands, including 381 lands with no coverage, highlighting the need for expanded SAE and SART services near or on Native American land. PMID:24847872

  15. Medical care following multiple perpetrator sexual assault: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the healthcare needs of victims of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) and single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) presenting to the Haven sexual assault referral centre in south-east London, and aims to identify any characteristics that might be related to attendance at follow-up appointments. We reviewed standardised casenotes of 136 MPSA victims and 139 SPSA victims attending for forensic medical examination (FME) between 1 July 2005 and 31 July 2009. MPSA victims reported a higher rate of stranger assaults, higher rates of vaginal, anal and oral rapes, more rapes at multiple anatomical sites or multiple rapes and were more likely to sustain injuries, all of which put MPSA victims at higher risk of subsequent health problems. Rates of attendance at follow-up appointments were low for all (53.5%) as were rates of completion of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV (33.3%). Attendance at follow-up was associated with presence of anogenital injury at the time of FME. Those over the age of 30 years were less likely to attend.

  16. Expressed Sexual Assault Legal Context and Victim Culpability Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their clarity and…

  17. Infected sex partner wins dismissal of assault charges.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The California Court of Appeals ruled that a man who had unprotected intercourse with an underage female without disclosing his positive HIV status cannot be charged with aggravated assault. The court determined that prosecutors did not prove that the risk of HIV transmission from one act of unprotected heterosexual sex fell within California's definition of aggravated assault. The defendant, [name removed], will face trial on four counts of unlawful sexual intercourse, one count of failing to register as a sex offender, and two counts of assault with a deadly weapon. [Name removed] argued that because the sex was consensual he could not be convicted of aggravated assault; this argument was rejected. [Name removed] also argued that California's statutes violate his equal protection rights under the Constitution because they apply only to adult men who have sex with women and not the reverse. He also argued that the statutes discriminate against HIV carriers. The Supreme Court stated that the gender distinction protects women from becoming infected and passing the infection on to her infant in utero.

  18. Beyond Crisis Counseling: After-Effects of Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, RuthAnn

    Rape is a significant trauma that causes the victim immediate as well as long-term difficulties. A cross-section of rape survivors and matched controls completed questionnaires about current somatic, psychological, and social difficulties. The time since assault for the rape group varied from 6 months to 8 years. Factor analysis yielded eight…

  19. Journey "during" crime: predicting criminal mobility patterns in sexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension. PMID:23300197

  20. Infected sex partner wins dismissal of assault charges.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The California Court of Appeals ruled that a man who had unprotected intercourse with an underage female without disclosing his positive HIV status cannot be charged with aggravated assault. The court determined that prosecutors did not prove that the risk of HIV transmission from one act of unprotected heterosexual sex fell within California's definition of aggravated assault. The defendant, [name removed], will face trial on four counts of unlawful sexual intercourse, one count of failing to register as a sex offender, and two counts of assault with a deadly weapon. [Name removed] argued that because the sex was consensual he could not be convicted of aggravated assault; this argument was rejected. [Name removed] also argued that California's statutes violate his equal protection rights under the Constitution because they apply only to adult men who have sex with women and not the reverse. He also argued that the statutes discriminate against HIV carriers. The Supreme Court stated that the gender distinction protects women from becoming infected and passing the infection on to her infant in utero. PMID:11364962

  1. Service patterns of adult survivors of childhood versus adult sexual assault/abuse.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Susan F; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-11-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the demographic characteristics, referral sources, and service patterns of the two groups. Results indicate that paths into service differ for the two groups. Furthermore, adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse obtain significantly more hours of service and service contacts on average than adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:20183424

  2. Feminine ideology and sexual assault: are more traditional college women at greater risk?

    PubMed

    Wigderson, Sara; Katz, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has not conclusively determined whether traditional femininity increases women's risk for sexual assault. Certain femininity beliefs, such as valuing deference, may increase risk for sexual assault by discouraging sexual refusal assertiveness (SRA). Other femininity beliefs, such as valuing purity, may promote self-protective behaviors. College women (N = 254) provided self-report data on these beliefs, risk and protective behaviors, and sexual assault experiences. Traditional femininity was not directly associated with experiencing sexual assault. However, specific traditional beliefs were related to behaviors directly associated with risk. High SRA and sexual abstinence simultaneously reduced the odds for sexual assault. PMID:25757718

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  4. 78 FR 34995 - Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel); Notice of Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel (Response Systems Panel... Sexual Assault Crimes Panel. DATES: A meeting of the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes... crimes involving adult sexual assault and related offenses under section 920 of title 10, United...

  5. Examining sexual assault survival of adult women: responses, mediators, and current theories.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science of sexual assault research to direct future research in three key areas: responses, mediators, and current theory with a religious or spiritual focus addressing recovery. Three research questions guided the investigation of literature and the formation of this article: (a) What are common survivor responses to, and long-term effects of, sexual assault?; (b) What are mediators for recovery after sexual assault?; and (c) What theory with a religious or spiritual focus exists to address recovery from sexual assault? This research identifies significant gaps in the literature underscoring the importance of future research that examines responses to and long-term effects of sexual assault, need for mediators during recovery, and need to develop theory using religious and spiritual tenets aiding in recovery from sexual assault. Further research is necessary to develop this science, expand understanding, and support sexual assault survivors on their recovery journey.

  6. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  7. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  8. Psychological Consequences Associated With Positive and Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among College Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims’ subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims’ post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  9. Psychological consequences associated with positive and negative responses to disclosure of sexual assault among college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    A prospective design was utilized to explore the impact of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure among college women who experienced sexual victimization over a 4-month academic quarter. Women completed baseline, 4- and 7-month assessments of symptomatology, beliefs about why sexual assault occurs, victimization, and social reactions to sexual assault disclosure. Accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, positive social reactions were not associated with victims' subsequent symptomatology or beliefs. However, accounting for symptomatology or beliefs reported prior to the assault, higher negative social reactions were associated with victims' post-assault reports of hostility, fear, and beliefs about why sexual assault occurs. PMID:25926138

  10. Improving the Credibility of Child Sexual Assault Victims in Court: The Impact of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Lippert, Anne; Magyarics, Casey L

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a sexual assault nurse examiner's (SANE's) testimony on mock juror perceptions of a child or adolescent victim of child sexual assault. Community members (N = 252, 156 females) read a fictional criminal trial summary of a child sexual assault case in which the victim was 6 or 15 years old and the prosecution presented medical testimony from a SANE or a traditional registered nurse (RN), or did not present medical testimony. Mock jurors were more likely to render guilty verdicts when a SANE testified compared with the other two testimony conditions. In addition, pro-victim judgments (e.g., sympathy toward the victim) and negative defendant judgments (e.g., anger toward the defendant) mediated this relation. Finally, cognitive network representations of the case demonstrated that the RN and no-medical-testimony groups were similar and the SANE group was distinct from the other two conditions. We discuss these results in terms of the implications of SANE testimony in child sexual assault court cases.

  11. Counseling Sexual Assault Victims Who Become Pregnant after the Assault: Benefits and Limitations of First-Trimester Paternity Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lee P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a patient with a history of infertility who, after becoming pregnant following a sexual assault, used chorionic villus sampling and DNA studies for paternity identification. Discusses risks and potential problems that accompany prenatal paternity testing. Ethical, moral, emotional, and religious factors should be considered in the…

  12. Is there a role for paediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners in the management of child sexual assault in Australia?

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen

    2016-09-01

    In Australia, paediatricians and Child Protection Specialists provide the medical and forensic examinations of child victims of sexual assault. There are workforce challenges in the recruitment and retention of doctors to undertake child sexual assault (CSA) work particularly in remote and rural areas. Pediatric Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (PSANE) programs have existed in the USA and the UK for many years. Using Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) methodology, a systematic search of the literature was performed to ascertain what is known about SANE programs, to evaluate the evidence for their effectiveness across a number of domains (accessibility, health and legal outcomes and cost effectiveness) and to inform policy on models of care and elements of best practice which may be appropriate for local implementation in Australia. This review showed that despite the limited evidence available and significant gaps in the evidence, SANEs provide a high standard of medical care and are not detrimental to the legal process. By providing recommendations regarding the potential value, effectiveness and feasibility of establishing a PSANE program in Australia, this article may be of interest to other high income countries facing similar workforce challenges in meeting the needs of children with alleged sexual assault. PMID:27490516

  13. Burns due to acid assaults in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Linda

    2013-08-01

    Acid burns are not very frequent, occupying between 3% and maximum 14% of all etiologies. They mostly occur at home or at work, however there has been an increase in publications outlining chemical burns where aggression is the cause of this burn. There is a different epidemiological profile between developed countries and developing ones. It seems an ongoing upsurge is occurring in the number of registered attacks within developing countries in recent years. A cross sectional retrospective review of attacks by acid was done in Bogota, Colombia from 1995 to the first trimester 2012. A cumulative number of 35 burn patients were registered during the study period. It is found that the main target, almost the unique target, of this attack are young women belonging to low socioeconomic status with low education degree and high dependence on her partner. The patient's age mean was 22.7 years, ranging from 13 to 41 years. The physical and psychological scars were very severe.

  14. The Big, the Bad, and the Boozed-Up: Weight Moderates the Effect of Alcohol on Aggression

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, C. Nathan; Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Most people avoid the “big, drunk guy” in bars because they don’t want to get assaulted. Is this stereotype supported by empirical evidence? Unfortunately, no scientific work has investigated this topic. Based on the recalibrational theory of anger and embodied cognition theory, we predicted that heavier men would behave the most aggressively when intoxicated. In two independent experiments (Ns= 553 and 327, respectively), participants consumed either alcohol or placebo beverages and then completed an aggression task in which they could administer painful electric shocks to a fictitious opponent. Both experiments showed that weight interacted with alcohol and gender to predict the highest amount of aggression among intoxicated heavy men. The results suggest that an embodied cognition approach is useful in understanding intoxicated aggression. Apparently there is a kernel of truth in the stereotype of the “big, drunk, aggressive guy.” PMID:20526451

  15. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  16. Political skill: A proactive inhibitor of workplace aggression exposure and an active buffer of the aggression-strain relationship.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression.

  17. Political skill: A proactive inhibitor of workplace aggression exposure and an active buffer of the aggression-strain relationship.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression. PMID:25798720

  18. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293

  19. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  20. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  1. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

  2. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  3. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  4. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  5. Brain and Behavioral Evidence for Altered Social Learning Mechanisms among Women with Assault-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Bush, Keith; Steele, J. Scott; Lenow, Jennifer K.; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Current neurocircuitry models of PTSD focus on the neural mechanisms that mediate hypervigilance for threat and fear inhibition/extinction learning. Less focus has been directed towards explaining social deficits and heightened risk of revictimization observed among individuals with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault. The purpose of the present study was to foster more comprehensive theoretical models of PTSD by testing the hypothesis that assault-related PTSD is associated with behavioral impairments in a social trust and reciprocity task and corresponding alterations in the neural encoding of social learning mechanisms. Adult women with assault-related PTSD (n=25) and control women (n=15) completed a multi-trial trust game outside of the MRI scanner. A subset of these participants (15 with PTSD and 14 controls) also completed a social and non-social reinforcement learning task during 3T fMRI. Brain regions that encoded the computationally modeled parameters of value expectation, prediction error, and volatility (i.e., uncertainty) were defined and compared between groups. The PTSD group demonstrated slower learning rates during the trust game and social prediction errors had a lesser impact on subsequent investment decisions. PTSD was also associated with greater encoding of negative expected social outcomes in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral middle frontal gyri, and greater encoding of social prediction errors in the left temporoparietal junction. These data suggest mechanisms of PTSD-related deficits in social functioning and heightened risk for re-victimization in assault victims; however, comorbidity in the PTSD group and the lack of a trauma-exposed control group temper conclusions about PTSD specifically. PMID:25769397

  6. Brain and behavioral evidence for altered social learning mechanisms among women with assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Bush, Keith; Scott Steele, J; Lenow, Jennifer K; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-04-01

    Current neurocircuitry models of PTSD focus on the neural mechanisms that mediate hypervigilance for threat and fear inhibition/extinction learning. Less focus has been directed towards explaining social deficits and heightened risk of revictimization observed among individuals with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault. The purpose of the present study was to foster more comprehensive theoretical models of PTSD by testing the hypothesis that assault-related PTSD is associated with behavioral impairments in a social trust and reciprocity task and corresponding alterations in the neural encoding of social learning mechanisms. Adult women with assault-related PTSD (n = 25) and control women (n = 15) completed a multi-trial trust game outside of the MRI scanner. A subset of these participants (15 with PTSD and 14 controls) also completed a social and non-social reinforcement learning task during 3T fMRI. Brain regions that encoded the computationally modeled parameters of value expectation, prediction error, and volatility (i.e., uncertainty) were defined and compared between groups. The PTSD group demonstrated slower learning rates during the trust game and social prediction errors had a lesser impact on subsequent investment decisions. PTSD was also associated with greater encoding of negative expected social outcomes in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral middle frontal gyri, and greater encoding of social prediction errors in the left temporoparietal junction. These data suggest mechanisms of PTSD-related deficits in social functioning and heightened risk for re-victimization in assault victims; however, comorbidity in the PTSD group and the lack of a trauma-exposed control group temper conclusions about PTSD specifically.

  7. From hitting to tattling to gossip: an evolutionary rationale for the development of indirect aggression.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gordon P D

    2014-01-01

    Adult humans are characterized by low rates of intra-group physical aggression. Since children tend to be more physically aggressive, an evolutionary developmental account shows promise for explaining how physical aggression is suppressed in adults. I argue that this is achieved partly through extended dominance hierarchies, based on indirect reciprocity and linguistic transmission of reputational information, mediated by indirectly aggressive competition. Reviewing the literature on indirect and related forms of aggression provides three pieces of evidence for the claim that evolutionarily old impulses towards physical aggression are socialized into indirect aggression in humans: (i) physical aggression falls in early childhood over the same age range at which indirect aggression increases; (ii) the same individuals engage in both direct and indirect aggression; and (iii) socially dominant individuals practice indirect aggression more frequently. Consideration of the developmental course of indirect aggression is complemented by analysis of similar developments in verbal behaviors that are not always thought of as aggressive, namely tattling and gossip. An important puzzle concerns why indirect aggression becomes more covert, and tattling more derogated, in preadolescence and adolescence. This may be due to the development of new strategies aimed at renegotiating social identity and friendship alliances in the peer group. PMID:25299883

  8. An acute post-sexual assault intervention to prevent drug abuse: updated findings.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Heidi S; Acierno, Ron; Amstadter, Ananda B; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2007-10-01

    Sexual assault and rape routinely produce extreme distress and negative psychological reactions in victims. Further, past research suggests that victims are at increased risk of developing substance use or abuse post-rape. The post-rape forensic medical exam may itself exacerbate peritraumatic distress because it includes cues that may serve as reminders of the assault, thereby potentiating post-assault negative sequelae. To address these problems, a two-part video intervention was developed to take advantage of the existing sexual assault forensic exam infrastructure, and to specifically (a) minimize anxiety/discomfort during forensic examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased substance use and abuse following sexual assault. Updated findings with a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in the forensic medical exam and completing one or more follow-up assessments at: (1)<3 months post-assault; (2) 3 to 6 months post-assault; or (3) 6 months or longer post-assault indicated that the video was associated with significantly lower frequency of marijuana use at each time point, among women who reported use prior to the assault.

  9. Factors Associated with the Sexual Assault of Students: An Exploratory Study of Victims Treated at Hospital-Based Sexual Assault Treatment Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Janice; Chertkow, Laura; Macdonald, Sheila; Asllani, Eriola; Bainbridge, Deidre; Rotbard, Nomi; Cohen, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that students experience high levels of sexual assault, but studies addressing how they differ in their experiences from other sexual assault victims are virtually nonexistent. To address this gap, information was collected from consecutive individuals, aged 16 years or older, presenting to one of 7 hospital-based sexual assault…

  10. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a three month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. Additionally, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. PMID:26048213

  11. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  12. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis. 

  13. Interpretation of non-genital injuries in sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jack

    2013-02-01

    The accurate description and interpretation of non-genital injuries may be crucial in cases of alleged sexual assault, and may be important in corroborating a victim's statement of events. In many cases of sexual assault, non-genital injuries may be either absent or trivial; nevertheless, even minor injuries may be of significance and need to be recorded. Injuries may be result from attempts to restrain the victim, whereas others (e.g. bite marks) may have a sexual motive or be part of a sado-masochistic ritual. A standard nomenclature for injuries (i.e. using the terms 'bruises', 'abrasions', 'lacerations', 'incisions and 'stab wounds') should avoid ambiguity between medical examiners.

  14. Prototypes of intrafamily homicide and serious assault among insanity acquittees.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M E; Scott, D C; Baranoski, M V; Buchanan, J A; Griffith, E E

    1998-01-01

    Public concern with societal violence is intensified when persons who have been found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) of having committed a homicide or serious assault are returned to the community. Successful management of such acquittees in the community requires a sophisticated understanding of the person and the illness within the larger context of the violent incident, the family, the community, and the culture. In this article, we present an analysis of psychotic violence within a family context. A qualitative study of 64 subjects who were found NGRI of killing or seriously injuring a family member resulted in four prototypes of intrafamilial homicide/assault: Till Death Us Do Part; Overwhelming Burden, Elimination of the Limit Setter; and Family-Focused Delusional Killing. The prototypes are presented as a model for developing management strategies both for future risk assessment and for successful transition of the insanity acquittee into the community.

  15. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis.  PMID:27672528

  16. A Unique Case of Intracranial Mucormycosis Following an Assault.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fadilah S; Hussain, Namath S

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial mucormycosis is a very unusual presentation of an infection after a depressed skull fracture due to an assault. Only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature previously. A 30-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury following an assault, status-post debridement and elevation of a depressed skull fracture, was discharged home several weeks postoperatively. A CT scan of the head with contrast was obtained due to mental status changes and revealed an enhancing ring-shaped lesion in the right frontal lobe consistent with a brain abscess. The patient was taken to the operating room for image-guided excisional biopsy of the lesion, with pathology revealing mucormycosis. PMID:27672528

  17. Experiences with Dating Aggression and Sexual Coercion among Polish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2008-01-01

    Dating aggression and sexual coercion were studied in Polish college women (n = 100) and men ( n = 101) using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, 1996). Rates of psychological and physical aggression, sexual coercion, and injury were compared for men and women. Rates of physical aggression, sexual coercion,…

  18. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components.

  19. Ethanol and drug findings in women consulting a Sexual Assault Center--associations with clinical characteristics and suspicions of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually

  20. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed. PMID:23581559

  1. Coping with the aggressive patient: an alternative to punishment.

    PubMed

    Matheson, W; Mian, M; MacLeod, J

    1976-01-01

    Extremely aggressive patients in mental institutions constitute a threat to staff and other patients that usually necessitates the use of physical restraints. With chronically aggressive patients this cycle of behaviors is defeating for both the staff and the patient. In this case history the authors describe how positive and negative reinforcement and shaping were used to alter the previously unmanageable aggression of a 36-year-old male psychiatric patient. PMID:1277115

  2. Substance use, aggression perpetration, and victimization: temporal co-occurrence in college males and females.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L

    2013-09-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression.

  3. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138

  4. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  5. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression.

  6. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  7. Internet-Initiated Sexual Assault Among U.S. Adolescents Reported in Newspapers, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    Canders, Caleb P.; Merchant, Roland C.; Pleet, Katherine; Fuerch, Janene H.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an assessment over time of the incidence of newspaper-reported Internet-initiated sexual assaults among U.S. adolescents undergoing adjudication from 1996 to 2007. Of 812 newspaper reports of adjudicated Internet-initiated sexual assault, most (79.2%) victims were female, and the median age was 14 years. The incidence rate of these reports increased over the 12-year period for females but remained steady for males. The frequency of these assaults was much less than reported for other types of sexual assaults in this age group. These estimates hopefully will assist in a greater understanding of these assaults, aid in interventions to decrease their occurrence, and guide effective policymaking that will reduce all types of sexual assault among adolescents. PMID:24283547

  8. Assaultive behavior in state psychiatric hospitals: differences between forensic and nonforensic patients.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, Donald M; Scott, Lisa Parker

    2004-08-01

    Forensic patients are occupying an increasingly large number of beds in state psychiatric hospitals. The presence of these mentally ill offenders has raised concerns about the risk they present to nonforensic patients. This study compared the rate of assaults and factors associated with assaultive behavior among 308 nonforensic patients and two groups of forensic patients including 469 patients found not guilty by reason of insanity and 76 pretrial patients. Consistent with other studies, nonforensic patients had higher rates of assaults than either group of forensic patients. However, being a forensic patient did not affect the odds of assault when controlling for the effects of demographic and clinical variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with assaults in each of the three patient groups were identified using multivariate analyses. Implications are presented for treatment of assaultive behavior, mixing of forensic and nonforensic patients within state hospitals, forensic release policies, and future research.

  9. Some Effects of Attitudinal Similarity and Exposure on Attraction and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship of attraction and aggression has yielded somewhat equivocal results. The present study investigated the influence of two variables, attitudinal similarity and exposure, on interpersonal attraction and physical aggression. (Editor)

  10. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  11. Offering HIV prophylaxis to people who have been sexually assaulted: 16 months' experience in a sexual assault service.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, E R; Comay, S E; McGregor, M; Ducceschi, S

    2000-03-01

    The sexual assault service, operated by the Children's & Women's Health Centre of British Columbia in partnership with the Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Department, started offering HIV prophylaxis in November 1996 to patients presenting to the emergency department after a sexual assault. In the first 16 months of the program a total of 258 people were seen by the service, of whom 71 accepted the offer of HIV prophylaxis. Only 29 continued with the drug treatment after receiving the initial 5-day starter pack, and only 8 completed the full 4-week treatment regmen and returned for their final follow-up visit. Patients at highest risk for HIV infection (those who had penetration by an assailant known to be HIV positive or at high risk for HIV infection [men who have sex with men, injection drug users]) were more likely to accept prophylaxis and more likely to complete the treatment than those at lower risk. Compliance and follow-up were the main problems with implementing this service. Service providers found it difficult to give the information about HIV prophylaxis to traumatized patients. After this program evaluation, the service changed its policy to offer HIV prophylaxis only to people at high risk of HIV infection. This targeting of services is expected to make the service providers' jobs easier and to make the program more cost-effective while still protecting sexual assault victims against HIV infection.

  12. Resident Aggression Toward Staff at a Center for the Developmentally Disabled

    PubMed Central

    West, Christine A.; Galloway, Ellen; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined factors contributing to nonfatal assaults to staff working in residential care facilities. The authors evaluated resident assaults toward direct care/nursing staff at an Intermediate Care Facility for Individuals with Mental Retardation (ICF/MR), which included observations of work areas, employee interviews, calculation of injury and assault rates for 2004 to 2007 from Occupational Safety and Health Administration Logs, and review of state ICF/MR guidelines. Most staff interviewed reported having been injured during physical restraint of a resident and the average rate of injury from assault at the center evaluated was higher than the average national rates for the health care and social assistance sector for the same time period. The center lacked policies for a safe workplace. The authors recommended review and maintenance of workplace violence prevention policies and developing a post-incident response and evaluation program to assist staff in coping with the consequences of assault and/or occupational injury. PMID:24571051

  13. Sexual assault training in the military: evaluating efforts to end the "invisible war".

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-12-01

    Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion. PMID:25183207

  14. Preventing recurring injuries from violence: the risk of assault among Cleveland youth after hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Litacker, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although interpersonal violence has increased among urban youth, its epidemiology remains unclear. To prevent such violence, identifying the susceptible population is important. METHODS: Medical records for 998 patients aged 5 to 25 years at an urban hospital were reviewed to compare data for patients admitted for assault-related injuries, those admitted for unintentional injuries, and those for problems other than injuries. RESULTS: Those initially admitted for treatment of assault were found to be at greater risk of subsequent treatment for assault than those admitted for noninjuries. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for injuries caused by violence may increase risk for future assaults; hospitalization may offer an opportunity to interrupt these patterns. PMID:8916535

  15. THROUGH HER EYES: Factors Affecting Women's Perception of and Resestance to Acquaintance Sexual Aggression Threat

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeanette; Nurius, Paula S.; Dimeff, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    A major component of a woman's ability to resist assaults by strangers versus acquaintances lies in the social and cognitive context in which she is engaged with the perpetrator and within which she must recognize potential threat before engaging in a behavioral response. This paper presents questionnaire and focus group findings of heterosexual college sorority women's social contexts, perceived risks, responses, and psychological barriers to protecting themselves from sexual aggression threat by fraternity acquaintances. Several social and cognitive factors, including alcohol consumption and psychological barriers, were related to projected responses to sexual aggression. Participants in general held a high sense of invulnerability to victimization and an optimistic belief in their ability to resist sexual aggression. Several differences between previously victimized and nonvictimized women also emerged. PMID:25705073

  16. Expectations Regarding Acquaintance Sexual Aggression Among Sorority and Fraternity Members1

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette; Dimeff, Linda A.; Graham, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Among women, college is a high risk period for sexual assault by male acquaintances. Differences in expectations held by men and women may contribute to misinterpretation of social cues and subsequent sexual aggression and may impair women’s ability to respond effectively. This paper presents findings from a predominantly Caucasian sample (85.9%) of college sorority (n = 66) and fraternity (n = 34) members regarding the social context within which they interact and their expectations regarding perpetration of and response to sexual aggression. Results showed differences in men’s and women’s expectations and responses, and in particular highlighted how men’s expectations were related to women’s resistance of unwanted sex. Understanding the cognitive processes that men and women draw upon in social interactions can be useful for developing sexual aggression prevention and resistance interventions. PMID:25705071

  17. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  18. Identifying Girls Who Use Relational Aggression: A Proposed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2012-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to compare perceptions of relational aggression (RA) of adolescent girls (n = 282) and their teachers (n = 15) in New Zealand, and to explore strategies for teachers to effectively manage RA in the classroom. Results indicated that younger adolescent girls view physical aggression as more acceptable than older girls,…

  19. Decreasing Aggression Using Four-Point Restraints and Symbol Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Michael A.

    Physical aggression among institutionalized mentally retarded persons arouses great social concern. To examine the effectiveness of four-point mechanical restraints and a positive adaptive symbol program in the reduction of high frequency, high intensity aggression, three institutionalized severely mentally retarded adolescents (2 females, 1 male)…

  20. Selective Exposure to Televised Aggression. Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    This 2-wave panel survey of young people was conducted to explore the relationship between attitudes and viewing over time, examining aggressiveness and viewing of programs portraying physical and verbal aggression. Questionnaires were administered to 227 children in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades in 1976 and again one year later. The…