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  1. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  2. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  3. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  4. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  5. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  6. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…

  8. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  9. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  10. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  11. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  12. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  13. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression.

  14. Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood.

    PubMed

    Granvald, Viktor; Marciszko, Carin

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between three key executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and mental set-shifting) and multiple types of aggression in a general population sample of 9-year-old children. One hundred and forty-eight children completed a battery of executive function tasks and were rated on aggression by their primary teachers. All executive function (EF) composites were related to a composite measure of aggression. Working memory (WM) was most consistently related to the different types of aggression (overt, relational, reactive, and proactive), whereas inhibition and mental set-shifting only were related to relational and reactive aggression, respectively. Specificity in relations (studied as independent contributions) was generally low with the exception of the relation between WM and relational aggression. Taken together, our results highlight the roles of WM and relational aggression in EF-aggression relations in middle childhood.

  15. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  16. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  17. Preschoolers' Normative and Prescriptive Judgments about Relational and Overt Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.; Boxer, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' judgments about responses to hypothetical relational and overt aggressive provocation. The 99 participants reported that overtly aggressive responses would happen more often than they should. For both overt and relational provocation, participants felt that relational aggression was more acceptable than verbal or physical…

  18. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  19. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  20. Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

  1. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  2. Associations between parental control and children's overt and relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-09-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment was positively associated with overt aggression, whereas parental psychological control was positively associated with relational aggression in both girls and boys. In addition, this study demonstrated that if both parents employed similar parenting strategies, it appeared to have a cumulative effect on child aggressive behaviour. Associations involving overt aggression were more pronounced for boys than girls, whereas associations involving relational aggression were not moderated by gender. Overall, the present study contributes to an emerging research field by supporting the hypothesis of specialized associations between parental control and child aggression.

  3. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  4. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  5. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  6. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed.

  7. Relational Aggression: Understanding, Identifying, and Responding in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Boye, America E.; Nelson, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Relational aggression, harm through injury or manipulation of a relationship, has become fashionable, particularly in the popular press. Mental health professionals in schools can better serve students when they understand what is known about relational aggression, how it influences social behavior, and how it is related to children's well-being.…

  8. Parent-Child Interactions and Relational Aggression in Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provided by attachment theory. Attachment theory…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

  10. Relations between Childraising Styles and Aggressiveness in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…

  11. Schoolyard Corner Society: Relating Membership to Reactive and Proactive Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and…

  12. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model.

  13. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  14. Executive functioning, irritability, and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior.

  15. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  16. Longitudinal relations between marital aggression and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peggy S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Liao, Pei-Ju

    2009-03-01

    Relations between couples' (N = 158) marital aggression and alcohol problems were examined across a two-year period. Alcohol problems and aggression were assessed via self-report and partner-reports. Results support bidirectional relations between marital aggression and problem drinking. T1 wife problem drinking was associated with decreased T2 verbal aggression; T1 husband problem drinking was associated with increased T2 physical aggression. T1 physical aggression predicted increased T2 wife problem drinking; it predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when wife problem drinking was low. T1 verbal marital aggression predicted increased T2 husband problem drinking only when husbands engaged in greater problem drinking at T1. Results suggest that problem drinking may prevent couples from adequately handling marital disagreements, and that marital problems may lead to drinking as a form of coping with stress; couples in which the husband engages in greater problem drinking than the wife may be at increased risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Empathic deficits and alexithymia in trauma-related impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Teten, Andra L; Miller, Lisa A; Bailey, Sara D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Kent, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Our long term interest is to develop a developmental model of impulsive aggression based on a confluence of social, psychological and biological features. This approach incorporates neurobiological research, which has identified language processing deficits as a unique characteristic of impulsive aggressors and extends it to include emotional deficits. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we examined whether empathy and alexithymia were associated with impulsive aggression. Regressions were performed to explore the associations among impaired empathy, alexithymia, impulsive aggression, verbal and physical general aggression. Among impulsive aggressive veterans (n=38) recruited from a VA trauma clinic, alexithymia predicted impulsive aggression and empathic deficits predicted verbal aggression. Neither emotional awareness deficit predicted general physical aggression in this middle-aged sample. Results suggested that empathic deficits were associated with general verbal aggression, but alexithymia was uniquely associated with impulsive aggression. Consideration of alexithymia in impulsive aggression has implications for its etiology, prevention and treatment.

  18. Cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Beck, Anne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp; Heinz, Andreas

    2011-06-02

    Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact with genetic variations in serotonin-related genes that affect serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. This leads to increased amygdala activity and impaired prefrontal function that, together, predispose to both increased alcohol intake and impulsive aggression. In addition, acute and chronic alcohol intake can further impair executive control and thereby facilitate aggressive behaviour.

  19. Turning the other cheek. Agreeableness and the regulation of aggression-related primes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2006-02-01

    Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.

  20. Emotions in Social Information Processing and Their Relations with Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Referred Aggressive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orobio de Castro, Bram; Merk, Welmoet; Koops, Willem; Veerman, Jan W.; Bosch, Joop D.

    2005-01-01

    We studied emotional aspects of social information processing (SIP) and their specific relations with reactive and proactive aggression in 54 boys ages 7 to 13 who had been referred for aggressive behavior problems and a comparison group. Participants listened to vignettes concerning provocations by peers and answered questions concerning SIP, own…

  1. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  2. "Frenemies, Fraitors, and Mean-em-aitors": Priming Effects of Viewing Physical and Relational Aggression in the Media on Women.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  3. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  4. An Exploration of Relational Aggression in the Nursing Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Dellasega, Cheryl; Volpe, Rebecca L.; Edmonson, Cole; Hopkins, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study provides a 1st look at relational aggression (RA) and the consequences among nurses. Background Interpersonal hostility, bullying, and a toxic work environment can impact patient care delivery as well as nurses’ personal health and job satisfaction. Methods The Relational Aggression Assessment Survey (RAAS), measuring aggressors, victims and bystanders, was used to measure RA in a sample of 842 nurses. Additional variables measured included a demographic profile, job satisfaction and intent to leave. Results Nurses were most likely to identify with victim behaviors, but a minority of nurses reported relying on aggressor behaviors and bystander behaviors. There was a positive correlation among aggressor, victim and bystander items, suggesting overlap in roles. Conclusions A few relationally aggressive individuals can create a toxic work environment. Interventions to address RA among nurses must be tested, as well as strategies for improving job satisfaction and promoting healthy work environments through positive relationships. PMID:24662690

  5. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part I).

    PubMed

    Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  6. Experimentally induced anxiety attenuates alcohol-related aggression in men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua P; Giancola, Peter R

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that state anxiety operates as moderator of the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 80 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 33 years of age. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (a) alcohol + anxiety induction (n = 20), (b) placebo + anxiety induction (n = 20), (c) alcohol + no anxiety induction (n = 20), and (d) placebo + no anxiety induction (n = 20). Anxiety was induced by informing participants that they had to deliver a speech about what they liked and disliked about their body in front of a video camera. A modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967) was then used to measure aggressive behavior in a situation where electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction time task. Results indicated that the anxiety induction was successful in suppressing aggression for participants who received alcohol equal to levels seen in placebo controls. Findings are discussed within the context of a number of theories of alcohol's anxiolytic effects in relation to intoxicated aggression.

  7. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  8. Deformed wing virus is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Rortais, Agnès; Tentcheva, Diana; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Gauthier, Laurent; Arnold, Gérard; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

    2006-08-30

    Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed.

  9. Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…

  10. Backbiting and bloodshed in books: short-term effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-03-01

    The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature.

  11. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Susan J; Campbell, Susan B; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-05-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8-11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls' RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys' RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys.

  12. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part II).

    PubMed

    Cork, Alison; Ferns, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a global problem. In our first paper, we highlighted the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication, the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the importance of developing positive nurse/service user relationships. In this second paper, we discuss personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  13. Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race, and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race, and Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0568 Aggressiveness 5c. PROGRAM...examine whether altered vitamin D status (as measured by serum metabolites and by functional polymorphisms within genes related to vitamin D...potential to provide insights into a chronically underserved population carrying an unequal burden of disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin D, prostate

  14. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  15. Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11-14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression.

  16. Violent comic books and judgments of relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Kirsh, Steven J; Olczak, Paul V

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading extremely violent versus mildly violent comic books on the interpretation of relational provocation situations. One hundred and seventeen introductory psychology students read either an extremely violent comic book or a mildly violent comic book. After reading the comic books, participants read five hypothetical stories in which a child, caused a relationally aggressive event to occur to another child, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. After each story, participants were asked a series of questions about the provocateur's intent; potential retaliation toward the provocateur; and the provocateur's emotional state. Responses were coded in terms of amount of negative and violent content. Results indicated that participants reading the extremely violent comic books ascribed more hostile intent to the provocateur, suggested more retaliation toward the provocateur, and attributed a more negative emotional state to the provocateur than participants reading the mildly violent comic book. These data suggest that social information processing of relationally aggressive situations is influenced by violent comic books, even if the comic books do not contain themes of relational aggression.

  17. Relations of proactive and reactive dimensions of aggression to overt and covert narcissism in nonclinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression-a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism-is a heterogeneous construct. In this study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age=15.5 years, SD=2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression).

  18. Associations between Parental Control and Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…

  19. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  20. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Relations between Psychopathy Factors and Impulsive and Premeditated Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Long, Katherine; Felton, Julia W.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Given the high rates of aggressive behavior among highly psychopathic individuals, much research has sought to clarify the nature of the relation between psychopathy and aggression. The present study examined relations between Fearless Dominance (PPI FD), Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI SCI), and Coldheartedness (PPI CH) Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and aggression dimensions (premeditated and impulsive aggression) in a sample of substance users receiving inpatient treatment. At the univariate level, PPI FD traits were significantly and positively related to premeditated aggression, but were not significantly related to impulsive aggression. PPI SCI traits were positively related to both forms of aggression, whereas PPI CH was not significantly related to either aggression dimension. Emotion regulation difficulties, as measured by the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004), were negatively related to PPI FD traits, positively related to PPI SCI traits, and negatively related to PPI CH traits. Both PPI SCI and PPI FD traits exerted significant indirect effects on impulsive aggression through the DERS. In contrast, the DERS did not mediate the relations between psychopathic traits and premeditated aggression. Results provide a more nuanced understanding of the psychopathy-aggression relations and suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may be an important mediator of the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive aggression. PMID:25198433

  1. An initial evaluation of a culturally adapted social problem-solving and relational aggression prevention program for urban African-American relationally aggressive girls.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A; Power, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression among females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed toward physically aggressive boys. In the current article, the authors describe the acceptability and initial effectiveness of a culturally adapted social problem-solving/social skills intervention for inner-city 3rd- to 5th-grade urban, African American, relationally aggressive girls called the Friend to Friend Program. The authors partnered with youth, teachers, parents, and playground supervisors to design the program, and the current study presents preliminary data suggesting that the intervention is viewed as highly acceptable by participating girls and teachers. Further, the intervention appears to have promise for decreasing at-risk girls' levels of relationally and physically aggressive behaviors, hostile attributions, and loneliness.

  2. Relationally Aggressive Media Exposure and Children's Normative Beliefs: Does Parental Mediation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that relationally aggressive media exposure is positively associated with relational aggression in children. Theories of media effects suggest that these associations may be mediated by aggressive cognitions. Although parental mediation can attenuate the effects of violent media, it is unknown whether there are similar benefits…

  3. Parenting Predictors of Relational Aggression among Puerto Rican and European American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharice Angel; Arnold, David H.; Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between parenting and physical aggression is well established. However, less consideration has been given to parenting and relational aggression. The present study investigated four aspects of maternal parenting--overreactivity, laxness, positive affect and negative affect--and their relationships to relational aggression, in a…

  4. Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also examined. Additionally,…

  5. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  6. Preschool Children's Beliefs about the Acceptability of Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swit, Cara S.; McMaugh, Anne; Warburton, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined differences in beliefs about the acceptability of aggression and behavioral responses to aggression of preschool-aged children. Two groups, identified from teacher ratings, participated in the research. One group of children exhibited relationally aggressive behaviors, and a comparison group was identified with…

  7. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  8. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  9. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  10. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  11. Can Both Low and High Self-Esteem Be Related to Aggression in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Henricsson, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the opposing hypotheses that either low or exaggerated but disputed self-esteem is related to aggression in 652 12-year-old schoolchildren. Children provided peer nominations of social acceptance and of physical aggression, self-ratings of global self-worth and of social satisfaction. Teachers rated aggressive behavior and…

  12. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  13. Relational Benefits of Relational Aggression: Adaptive and Maladaptive Associations with Adolescent Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…

  14. Association of dopamine- and serotonin-related genes with canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Våge, J; Wade, C; Biagi, T; Fatjó, J; Amat, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Lingaas, F

    2010-06-01

    Human-directed canine aggression was studied using 50 aggressive and 81 non-aggressive dogs. We examined 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in or in the close vicinity of 16 neurotransmitter-related genes. Allelic associations with aggression were identified for DRD1, HTR1D, HTR2C and SLC6A1. Risk or protective haplotypes for aggressive behaviour based on 2-5 SNPs were identified. The frequency of aggressive dogs varied significantly between the haplotypes within loci and the odds ratios of aggression in dogs with risk haplotypes compared with protective haplotypes varied from 4.4 (HTR2C) to 9.0 (SLC6A1). A risk haplotype across the neurotransmitter receptor gene HTR1D harboured a non-synonymous SNP with a potential effect on protein function. We identified no haplotypes in complete association with the recorded phenotypes, supporting a complex inheritance of aggression.

  15. Relations of Proactive and Reactive Dimensions of Aggression to Overt and Covert Narcissism in Nonclinical Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression—a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism--is a heterogeneous construct. In the present study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age = 15.5 years, SD = 2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression). PMID:19918915

  16. Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-29

    vitamin D and genetic polymorphisms act synergistically to affect prostate cancer aggressiveness. We examined these associations among vitamin D...epidemiologic techniques for estimating odds of high aggressive prostate cancer according to vitamin D metabolites, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and genetic ...hypotheses a. Statistical analyses have been performed examining associations between 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer

  17. Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D

    2017-04-10

    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression.

  18. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2012-09-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.

  19. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

  20. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  1. The Relation of Perceived Neighborhood Danger to Childhood Aggression: A Test of Mediating Mechanisms1

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; Mott, Joshua; Levy, Susan; Flay, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, two mediational mechanisms, parenting practices and children’s beliefs about aggression, were hypothesized to account for the relationship between perceived neighborhood danger and childhood aggression. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed from an inner-city school-based sample of 732 predominantly African American 5th graders. Results suggested that perceived neighborhood danger was associated with strong positive beliefs about aggression, which in turn was associated with high levels of aggression. The hypothesized mediating role of parenting practices (restrictive discipline, parental monitoring, and parental involvement) on the relation between perceived neighborhood danger and child aggression was not supported. However, the current findings suggest that children’s positive beliefs about aggression mediated the relationship between restrictive discipline and aggression. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:10824275

  2. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships.

  3. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  4. Relational aggression and marital quality: A five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Carroll, Jason S; Smith, Nathan J; Yang, Chongming; Holmgren, Hailey G; Johnson, Chad

    2017-04-01

    Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaires on relational aggression and relationship quality once a year over a 5-year period. Results revealed that relational aggression was highly stable over time and that women used more relational aggression than men. Men's use of social sabotage and love withdrawal were bidirectionally related to both partners' perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Conversely, only women's use of love withdrawal was related to her own perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Collectively, these results suggest that relational aggression by men may be less common, though particularly toxic in a marital relationship. Couples are encouraged to find healthier ways of coping with problems in relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Increasing wealth inequality may increase interpersonal hostility: The relationship between personal relative deprivation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2017-01-31

    In most Western societies, wealth inequality is increasing, which in turn could increase people's belief that one's standing is relatively disadvantaged. Based on relative deprivation theory, we argue that such an experience of personal relative deprivation should causally lead to greater interpersonal hostility. Indeed, three experiments show that participants in a personal relative deprivation condition reported higher levels of aggressive affect and behaved more aggressively than participants in a personal relative gratification condition. Compared to a control condition, participants experiencing personal relative deprivation were more aggressive rather than participants experiencing personal relative gratification being less aggressive. However, personal relative deprivation increased aggressive behavior only toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage, but it did not increase aggression toward neutral targets.

  6. Relational and Overt Aggression in Childhood and Adolescence: Clarifying Mean-Level Gender Differences and Associations with Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhiannon L.; Rose, Amanda J.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Research on relational aggression has drawn attention to how girls may be likely to aggress, but the role of gender is not fully understood. There are opposing views regarding whether relational aggression is most common among girls. Current findings demonstrate that when gender differences in relational aggression are assessed with peer…

  7. Physical and relational aggression in early adolescence: associations with narcissism, temperament, and social goals.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley, Danielle; Fuller, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescent narcissism, temperament (frustration and affiliation), and social goals in association with peer-reported physical and relational aggression (N = 384; 12-14 years). Narcissism was positively associated with dominance goals and negatively with closeness goals for peer interaction. Moreover, narcissism was positively associated with physical aggression via dominance goals for boys, and with relational aggression via dominance goals for both genders. Temperamental frustration and affiliation were both positively associated with relational aggression, but also interacted in their associations with this variable; affiliation was positively associated with relational aggression only at high levels of frustration. Supporting and extending existing research, the present findings suggest that adolescent personality and social goals are meaningfully associated with physical and relational aggression in the peer context.

  8. Relational aggression in middle childhood predicting adolescent social-psychological adjustment: the role of friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.

  9. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  10. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday (PRAISE) Program. PRAISE is a 20-session classroom-based universal prevention program, designed to be appropriate and responsive to the needs of youth within the urban school context. Results suggest strong acceptability for the program and feasibility of implementation. Further, the program was especially beneficial for girls. For instance, girls in classrooms randomly assigned to the PRAISE Program demonstrated higher levels of knowledge for social information processing and anger management techniques and lower levels of relational aggression following treatment as compared to similar girls randomly assigned to a no-treatment control condition. Further, relationally aggressive girls exhibited similar benefits from the program (greater knowledge and lower levels of relational aggression) plus lower levels of overt aggression following treatment as compared to relationally aggressive girls within the control classrooms. In contrast, the program was not associated with improvements for boys across most measures. The significance and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21686034

  11. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P < .05). Moreover, low prosocial skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors.

  12. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  13. Femininity and Depression Mediated by Social and Relational Aggression in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Field, Julaine E.; Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have found a relation between the use of relational aggression and depressive symptomatology, there is less evidence for the relation of the role of gender identity in these processes. Consequently, this study investigated the roles of social and relational aggression and feminine gender role identity in depressive symptoms among…

  14. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  15. Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Three models regarding the relation between maternal (in)sensitivity, negative discipline, and child aggression were examined in a sample of 117 mother-child pairs with high scores on child externalizing behavior: (1) Sensitivity and discipline are uniquely related to child aggression (the additive model); (2) the relation between discipline and…

  16. The Intervening Role of Relational Aggression between Psychological Control and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Goossens, Luc; Duriez, Bart; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations among psychologically controlling parenting, relational aggression, friendship quality, and loneliness during adolescence. A model was proposed in which relational aggression plays an intervening role in the relations between both parental psychological control and friendship outcomes. In a sample comprised…

  17. Differential effects of past-year stimulant and sedative drug use on alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2005-09-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the effects of past-year stimulant and sedative drug use on alcohol-related aggression and to examine whether the relation between stimulant drug use and intoxicated aggression is better accounted for by behavioral disinhibition. Participants were 330 healthy social drinkers (164 men and 166 women) between 21 and 35 years of age. Past-year stimulant and sedative use and behavioral disinhibition were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm [Taylor, S. (1967). Aggressive behavior and physiological arousal as a function of provocation and the tendency to inhibit aggression. Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310] in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that alcohol significantly strengthened the relation between stimulant drug use and aggression, but only among men. Behavioral disinhibition did not account for this effect. Regardless of past-year drug use, alcohol did not facilitate aggression among women. The present findings suggest that stimulant drug use may be a risk factor for intoxicated aggression for men. However, the underlying mechanisms accounting for this effect remain unclear.

  18. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  19. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  20. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  1. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse.

  2. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers’ harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers’ harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. PMID:14640808

  3. College Professors' Perceptions of and Responses to Relational Aggression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Andrea Owens

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of selected factors on professors' responses to relational aggression in college students. Specifically, this study explored the relationships between professors' gender, class size, level of empathy, ratings of seriousness of a relationally aggressive scenario, the gender of the perpetrator…

  4. Intervening Variables in the TV Violence-Aggression Relation: Evidence from Two Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal, cross-cultural field study was made to determine boundary conditions under which the television violence/aggression relation obtains, to determine intervening variables, and to illuminate the process through which television violence relates to aggression. Children from first through fifth grades in the United States, Australia,…

  5. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  6. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  7. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  8. The Role of the School Environment in Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as…

  9. Profiles and Correlates of Relational Aggression in Young Adults' Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; McFaul, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults' romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that…

  10. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.

  11. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  12. Maternal Social Coaching Quality Interrupts the Development of Relational Aggression During Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Eaton, Ashley D; Lyle, Kelsey; Tseng, Heidi; Holst, Brooke

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that parents of socially competent young children provide them with elaborative, explicit, appropriate and emotion-laden advice about peer interactions. The current study analyzed mothers' conversations with preschoolers (N=175; 52% female; M age = 52 months, SD = 7 months) about peer conflicts involving relational aggression. Conversations were coded for maternal elaboration, emotion references, and discussion of norm violations. Information about relational and physical aggression was collected from teachers at two assessments approximately 12 months apart for a subsample of 136 children. Regression analyses, controlling for physical aggression, showed that average and high levels of effective coaching operated as a protective factor against stable high levels of relational aggression. Theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of the early development of relational aggression are discussed.

  13. Maternal Social Coaching Quality Interrupts the Development of Relational Aggression During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Nicole E.; Eaton, Ashley D.; Lyle, Kelsey; Tseng, Heidi; Holst, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that parents of socially competent young children provide them with elaborative, explicit, appropriate and emotion-laden advice about peer interactions. The current study analyzed mothers' conversations with preschoolers (N=175; 52% female; M age = 52 months, SD = 7 months) about peer conflicts involving relational aggression. Conversations were coded for maternal elaboration, emotion references, and discussion of norm violations. Information about relational and physical aggression was collected from teachers at two assessments approximately 12 months apart for a subsample of 136 children. Regression analyses, controlling for physical aggression, showed that average and high levels of effective coaching operated as a protective factor against stable high levels of relational aggression. Theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of the early development of relational aggression are discussed. PMID:25132727

  14. Investigating Relational Aggression and Bullying for Girls' of Color in Oklahoma: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Gayle L.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research study, applying aspects of van Manen's framework for hermeneutic phenomenological research, was conducted to investigate the narratives of relationally aggressive girls of color. The study focused on nine adolescent girls of color who were ages 14-17 years old and exhibited aggressive/bullying behaviors representing the…

  15. The Relation of Locus of Control, Anger, and Impulsivity to Boys' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Annie M.; Lochman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to discover how anger, locus of control, and impulsivity are related to aggression. Two pathways to aggression were examined: a cognitive/schema pathway and an emotion/impulsivity pathway. The sample included 242 fourth- and fifth-grade boys. Using data from several questionnaires, teachers reported on levels of reactive and…

  16. The Media's Influence on Female Relational Aggression and Its Implications for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The author of this paper explores the media's role in the normalization of relational aggression of females and the implications this can have in schools. It is important that those who teach, support, and develop curricula for students be aware of the media's role in the use, and the effects, of indirect aggression and have information on how to…

  17. The Role of Social Networks in Physical and Relational Aggression among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group…

  18. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  19. Two Sides of the Same Coin? The Relations between Prosocial and Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Meredith; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The direct and indirect relations between six types of prosocial behavior and physical aggression were examined. Data were gathered from 252 college students (M age = 21.67 years; 184 women) who completed measures of sympathy, prosocial behavior, and physical aggression. Structural equation modeling revealed that sympathy fully mediated the…

  20. Predictors of Aggression at School: The Effect of School-Related Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Frone, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines factors related to aggression at school, particularly involving alcohol use. Finds school aggression higher among students who are male, rebellious, have a weak sense of school identification, low academic achievement, and drink alcohol during the school day. Schools that encourage school involvement and alcohol resistance may help…

  1. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  2. Longitudinal relations between children's cognitive and affective theory of mind with reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Austin, Gina; Bondü, Rebecca; Elsner, Birgit

    2017-02-20

    Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs. proactive) into account. In addition, the direction of effect remains unclear because longitudinal studies examining the mutual influences of both constructs are rare. Because research on ToM has focused on the preschool years, little is known about its development in middle childhood. Therefore, the present study examined the bi-directional developmental links of cognitive and affective ToM with reactive and proactive aggression in a longitudinal study in N = 232, 6- to 9-year-olds. Two points of measurement with a delay of about 1 year were conducted, and data were analyzed via cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), controlling for age, gender, and information processing. In general, early ToM predicted later functions of aggression, but not vice versa. Cognitive and affective ToM were inversely related to later reactive aggression, but only affective but not cognitive ToM was inversely related to later proactive aggression. These findings emphasize the importance of ToM for the occurrence of aggression and of taking the bi-dimensionality of both constructs into account when investigating their developmental links across childhood.

  3. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  4. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  5. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children.

  6. Social information processing, moral reasoning, and emotion attributions: relations with adolescents' reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William F; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated. Reactive aggression was uniquely related to expected ease in enacting aggression, lower verbal abilities, and hostile attributional biases, and most of these connections were mediated by adolescents' attention problems. In contrast, proactive aggression was uniquely related to higher verbal abilities and expectations of more positive emotional and material outcomes resulting from aggression. Discussion focused on the utility of assessing both moral and SIP-related cognitions, and on the potential influence of low-SES, high-risk environments on these findings.

  7. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  8. [The role of collective victimhood in intergroup aggression: Japan-China relations].

    PubMed

    Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.

  9. Aversive parenting in China: associations with child physical and relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and girls) latent sum and difference structural equation model showed that combined parenting effects were slightly more prevalent than differential effects in predicting aggression. Furthermore, physical coercion was predictive of aggression in boys whereas psychological control was primarily associated with aggression in girls. Findings extend our understanding of relational aggression and the meaning of aversive parenting, particularly within the Chinese cultural context.

  10. Relations between different types of children's aggressive behavior and sociometric status among peers of the same and opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Kerestes, Gordana; Milanović, Anita

    2006-12-01

    Croatian elementary school children in grades 4 to 6 (N= 151) reported on direct and indirect aggressive behaviors of their classmates. Acceptance and rejection by classmates were also assessed, employing the sociometric nomination technique. Correlational analyses revealed that both forms of aggression were related to peer rejection, but unrelated to peer acceptance. Girls' aggression was more strongly related to peer rejection than boys' aggression, independent of the type of aggression. Aggressive children of both genders tended to be more rejected by their same-gender classmates than by classmates of the opposite gender. Results were discussed in terms of children's attitudes towards aggression, and gender stereotyped perception of appropriateness of aggressive behavior. A need to examine developmental changes and cultural differences in relationships between aggression and peer status was emphasized.

  11. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  12. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  13. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  14. Relations between Parental Psychological Control and Childhood Relational Aggression: Reciprocal in Nature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study examined the directionality of relations between parental psychological control and child relational aggression. Data were collected from a proportionally stratified sample of 600 Flemish 8- to 10-year-old children at 3 measurement points with 1-year intervals. Reciprocal effects were evident in…

  15. Translational clinical neuroscience perspectives on the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne; Heinz, Adrienne J; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related violence, a longstanding, serious, and pervasive social problem, has provided researchers from diverse disciplines with a model to study individual differences in aggressive and violent behavior. Of course, not all alcohol consumers will become aggressive after drinking and similarly, not all individuals with alcohol use disorders will exhibit such untoward behavior. Rather, the relationship is best conceptualized as complex and indirect and is influenced by a constellation of social, cognitive, and biological factors that differ greatly from one person to the next. Animal experiments and human studies have elucidated how these mechanisms and processes explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between acute and chronic alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior. Further, the rich body of literature on alcohol-related aggression has allowed for identification of several potential high-yield targets for clinical intervention, e.g., cognitive training for executive dysfunction; psychopharmacology targeting affect and threat perception, which may also generalize to other psychiatric conditions characterized by aggressive behavior. Here we aim to integrate pertinent findings, derived from different methodological approaches and theoretical models, which explain heterogeneity in aggressive responses to alcohol. A translational platform is provided, highlighting common factors linking alcohol and aggression that warrant further, interdisciplinary study in order to reduce the devastating social impact of this phenomenon.

  16. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy.

  17. The outcomes of most aggressive interactions among closely related bird species are asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Freshwater, Cameron; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests. We calculate these asymmetries using data summed across different sites for each species pair, and compare results to asymmetries calculated using data separated by location. We find that 80% of species pairs had aggressive outcomes where one species won 80% or more of aggressive contests. We also find that the majority of aggressive interactions among closely related species show statistically significant asymmetries, and above a sample size of 52 interactions, all outcomes are asymmetric following binomial tests. Species pairs with dominance data from multiple sites showed the same dominance relationship across locations in 93% of the species pairs. Overall, our results suggest that the outcome of aggressive interactions among closely related species are usually consistent and asymmetric, and should thus favor ecological and evolutionary strategies specific to the position of a species within a dominance hierarchy. PMID:28070465

  18. Social support as a moderator for alcohol-related partner aggression during the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol-related partner aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the moderating effects of general social support and partner-specific support on the association between prepregnancy alcohol use and recent partner physical aggression are investigated using a community sample of 98 pregnant couples. For men, high levels of general appraisal social support (i.e., someone to talk to about one's problems) increases the strength of the association between alcohol use and aggression perpetration, whereas partner-specific emotional support serves as a buffer. For women, general social support is not a significant moderator, but high levels of partner-specific instrumental support strengthens the association between alcohol use and aggression. These results can be applied to prevention and treatment programs for alcohol-related partner aggression.

  19. It's "Mean," but What Does It Mean to Adolescents? Relational Aggression Described by Victims, Aggressors, and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, Rhiarne E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Early adolescent girls and boys (N = 33) with known histories of relational aggression and/or victimization gave detailed accounts of the nature, frequency, intensity, course, and impact of relational aggression among their peers. They also described reasons for, and forms of, aggression after being prompted by a series of hypothetical vignettes.…

  20. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  1. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  2. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  3. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  4. Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggression about 15 years later for sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Found that childhood exposure to media violence predicted young adult aggression for males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence predicted…

  5. Do Science and Common Wisdom Collide or Coincide in their Understanding of Relational Aggression?

    PubMed

    Doyle, Heather S; McLoughlin, Caven S

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of covert or indirect aggression or bullying in which harm is caused through damage to relationships or social status within a group, rather than through physical violence. We compare findings from empirical research into relational aggression with the depictions, interpretations and interventions described in trade-books and popular media dealing with that same topic. Relational aggression is more common and more studied among girls than boys and is popularly described as synonymous with "mean-girl" behaviors. We investigate the degree that popular trade books and movies accurately portray findings from researched investigations including the incidence and indicators of the condition and its remedies. We determine that there is a great deal of similarity between these two sources in how relational aggression is understood and how it may be treated. The concurrence across both dissemination formats reflects terminology and definitions, the harmful effects of relational aggression, the gender-specific nature of the condition to women and girls, its age of occurrence, the impact of parenting styles, its relationship to girls' social competence, and nature of its expression through non-physical means.

  6. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors.

  7. Patterns of Physical and Relational Aggression in a School-Based Sample of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crapanzano, Ann Marie; Frick, Paul J.; Terranova, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the patterns of aggressive behavior displayed in a sample of 282 students in the 4th through 7th grades (M age = 11.28; SD = 1.82). Using cluster analyses, two distinct patterns of physical aggression emerged for both boys and girls with one aggressive cluster showing mild levels of reactive aggression and one group…

  8. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  9. Gender differences in trajectories of relational aggression perpetration and victimization from middle to high school.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, Pamela; McNicholas, Caroline; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression refers to harming others through damaging or manipulating peer relationships. In a cohort of students surveyed annually from middle to high school, this study identified groups of adolescents who followed distinct trajectories of perpetration and of victimization of relational aggression, compared the proportion of boys and girls in each trajectory, and examined the overlap between perpetration and victimization trajectories. The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Students completed yearly surveys from Grade 6-12. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify the trajectories. Adolescents followed three developmental trajectories of perpetration and three similar trajectories of victimization: Low (lowest aggression), Moderate, and High Declining (high in middle school, with a steep decline in high school). All trajectories declined from Grade 6-12. The largest groups were the Low perpetration (55%) and Low victimization (48%). Relational aggression trajectories differed by gender: more boys reported perpetration, and more girls reported victimization. For perpetration, slightly more boys than girls were classified in the two trajectories of higher aggression. For victimization, significantly fewer girls than boys were classified in the Low trajectory, and significantly more girls than boys were classified in the Moderate trajectory. There was substantial overlap of the perpetration and victimization trajectories. These findings highlight the importance of implementing programs to reduce relational aggression for boys and for girls.

  10. An Investigation of Relational Risk and Promotive Factors Associated with Adolescent Female Aggression.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-11-29

    Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.

  11. Children's social competence, academic competence, and aggressiveness as related to ability to make judgments of fairness.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, T

    2001-08-01

    The relationship of 102 fifth and sixth graders' judgments of fairness with their academic and social competence and aggressiveness was studied. Children were given self-report and peer-nomination inventories measuring academic competence, social competence, and aggressiveness at a single point in time at the public school they attended. These measures were related to children's prediction of fairness on a distributive justice measure. Children who saw themselves as academically and socially competent scored higher on the distributive justice measure. Children whose peers saw them as less academically competent and more aggressive scored lower on the distributive justice measure. Analyses showed an association between children's academic competence, social competence, and aggressiveness scores and their scores on judgments of fairness.

  12. Moral Disengagement as Mediator and Moderator of the Relation Between Empathy and Aggression Among Chinese Male Juvenile Delinquents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchao; Lei, Li; Yang, Jiping; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-04-01

    The link between empathy and aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the relation between empathy and aggression and examined both the mediating and moderating effects of moral disengagement on this relation among Chinese male juvenile delinquents. Three hundred and fifty-seven male juvenile delinquents from one Chinese juvenile correctional facility completed the interpersonal reactivity index, the moral disengagement scale and the aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that moral disengagement partially mediated the influence of empathy on aggression. Moreover, moral disengagement moderated the relation between empathy and aggression. Specifically, there was a significant negative relation between empathy and aggression at low levels of moral disengagement. However, at high levels of moral disengagement, the relation between empathy and aggression was non-significant. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  13. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  14. An event-level examination of sex differences and subjective intoxication in alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In this investigation, the authors used 4 years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. They found support for several such findings: (a) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; (b) this association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and (c) within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol's relation with aggression.

  15. Children's moral emotions, narratives, and aggression: relations with maternal discipline and support.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William; Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Children who attribute more positive emotions to hypothetical moral victimizers are typically more aggressive and have more behavior problems. Little is known, however, about when individual differences in these moral emotion attributions first emerge or about maternal correlates of these differences. In this study, 63 4-6-year-olds judged how they would feel after victimizing peers for gain and enacted event conclusions using narrative methods adapted from the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. In addition, children's mothers completed assessments of their disciplinary styles and social support, and children's aggressive tendencies were assessed based on ratings from mothers and a second familiar adult. Results revealed that most preschoolers expected to feel happy after their victimizing acts, but variations in happy victimization were unrelated to children's aggression. Several of children's narrative themes, including making amends (e.g., apologizing, reparations), aggressive acts, and mentions of death/killing, however, were related to children's aggression. Moreover, two maternal disciplinary dimensions, higher warmth and reasoning, as well as greater social support were also related to lower child aggression. Children's emotion attributions and moral narratives, however, were unrelated to maternal disciplinary practices or social support.

  16. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  17. Relational Aggression, Victimization and Self-Concept: Testing Pathways from Middle Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2016-02-01

    When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed.

  18. The relation of premorbid factors to aggressive physical behavior in dementia.

    PubMed

    Kolanowski, A M; Garr, M

    1999-10-01

    Aggressive physical behaviour (APB) is common in persons with dementia and often leads to negative consequences such as use of restraints and staff member burnout. For the past several years, a group of nurse researchers has collaborated to develop a model that views dementia behaviors as need-driven but dementia-compromised. The model posits that background variables of the demented person interact with proximal (or current situational) variables to produce APB. The purpose of this study was to test a part of that model by addressing the question: Which premorbid factors predict APB in a sample of 84 demented institutionalized elders? This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that obtained measures of the following characteristics of residents: (1) aggressive behavior as assessed by nursing home staff members using the Ryden Aggression Scale, (2) premorbid personality traits as assessed by a member of the resident's family using the NEO Five Factor Inventory and (3) history of psychosocial stress as assessed by a member of the residents' family using the modified Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Of the sample of 84 residents, 44% exhibited physical aggression. Background factors in the model were not predictive of aggressive behavior in late-stage dementia, although the relation between premorbid neuroticism and physical aggression was in the predicted direction.

  19. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  20. Relational victimization and proactive versus reactive relational aggression: The moderating effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the moderating effect of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the associations between relational victimization and reactive and proactive relational aggression. Both branches of the ANS, the parasympathetic nervous system (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity; RSA-Reactivity) and the sympathetic nervous system (indexed by skin conductance level reactivity; SCL-Reactivity), were examined. Emerging adults (N = 168) self-reported on relational victimization and proactive and reactive relational aggression; RSA-Reactivity and SCL-Reactivity were assessed in response to a laboratory stressor. Relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/high SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coactivation) and RSA withdrawal/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coinhibition). In addition, relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation). This study extends previous research on relational victimization and provides novel evidence that (a) exposure to relational victimization is associated with reactive relational aggression, but not proactive relational aggression, and (b) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity jointly moderate the link between relational victimization and reactive relational aggression.

  1. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  2. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  3. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  4. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  5. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  6. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  7. Alcohol-related image priming and aggression in adolescents aged 11-14.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Coyne, Sarah M; Barlow, Alexandra; Qualter, Pamela

    2010-08-01

    In adults, alcohol-related stimuli prime aggressive responding without ingestion or belief of ingestion. This represents either experiential or socially-and culturally-mediated learning. Using a laboratory-based competitive aggression paradigm, we replicated adult findings in 103 11-14 year old adolescents below the legal UK drinking age. Using a two-independent group design, priming with alcohol-related imagery led participants to deliver louder noise punishments in a competition task than priming with beverage-related images. This effect was stronger in participants scoring low on an internalization measure. Priming effects in relatively alcohol-naïve participants could constitute evidence of socio-cultural transmission of scripts linking alcohol use and aggression. The enhanced effect in lower internalization scorers suggests that alcohol priming might undermine behavioral inhibition processes in otherwise stable adolescents.

  8. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom

    2005-04-01

    The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing problems. This relation held for measures of self-esteem and externalizing problems based on self-report, teachers' ratings, and parents' ratings, and for participants from different nationalities (United States and New Zealand) and age groups (adolescents and college students). Moreover, this relation held both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and after controlling for potential confounding variables such as supportive parenting, parent-child and peer relationships, achievement-test scores, socioeconomic status, and IQ. In addition, the effect of self-esteem on aggression was independent of narcissism, an important finding given recent claims that individuals who are narcissistic, not low in self-esteem, are aggressive. Discussion focuses on clarifying the relations among self-esteem, narcissism, and externalizing problems.

  9. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.

  10. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  11. Developmental Relations Between Alcohol and Aggressive Behavior Among Adolescents: Neighborhood and Sociodemographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout adolescence, alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviors are associated with multiple problematic outcomes. Few studies have examined neighborhood-level predictors and individual and family-level sociodemographic variables to describe longitudinal trajectories of these problem behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated the unique contributions of neighborhood and sociodemographic factors in the shared development of aggressive behaviors and drinking in adolescents. We analyzed alcohol consumption frequency and frequency of aggressive behaviors using parallel process latent growth curve models with demographic indicators and neighborhood constructs as predictors. At all ages, alcohol use and aggression positively covaried. Male gender was associated with both aggressive episodes and alcohol use at age 12. African American ethnicity was associated with higher levels of early aggression. Higher neighborhood income was associated with lower levels of early aggression. Findings lend support to current efforts to curb early initiation of alcohol use and aggression. PMID:26413037

  12. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  13. Costs and Benefits of Children's Physical and Relational Aggression Trajectories on Peer Rejection, Acceptance, and Friendships: Variations by Aggression Subtypes, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; M[subscript age] = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; M[subscript age] = 13.9). Using a sample of 477…

  14. Ability emotional intelligence and its relation to aggression across time and age groups.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Esperanza; Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been associated with several indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including aggressive behavior, but the relevant research has been mostly cross-sectional, focused on adults, and limited to trait EI measures (García-Sancho, Salguero & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014; Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, ). The present work explored the relationship between Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and aggression in both adults and adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We conducted two studies. Study 1 aimed to provide preliminary evidence about the relationship between AEI and aggression in adults. As literature has shown personality traits act as a strong predictor of aggression, study 1 also examined the potential incremental validity of AEI beyond personality traits in 474 undergraduate students (M = 22.76, SD = 5.13). The results indicated AEI explains a significant amount of unique variance for physical aggression, but not for verbal aggression after controlling personality traits. Study 2 aimed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between EI and aggression in 151 adolescents (M = 14.74, SD = 0.84). AEI predicted physical aggression over time, but it did not predict verbal aggression. Results from both studies suggest a negative and significant relationship between AEI and physical aggression, however contrary our expectations, it did not for verbal aggression. These results highlight the important explanatory role of emotional abilities in physical aggressive conducts and the implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Cyber Aggression: The Relation between Online Offenders and Offline Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Corrie L.; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly using computer technologies to engage in acts of aggression against peers, often termed "cyber aggression". Media reports have sensationalized instances of cyber aggression, and social scientists have begun to examine its characteristics and consequences. Using a younger sample of children than most previous research (192…

  16. Relation between Exposure to and Consequences of Aggression: U.S. National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisak, Marie S.; Wichorek, Michele George; Tisak, John

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents, 12 to 18 years (N = 962), were asked how often they worried about, heard about, witnessed, were victimized by, and committed aggression at or near their schools. Social, moderate physical, and violent aggression were assessed. Females heard, worried, and witnessed more social aggression than males, but both were victims and/or…

  17. The Relation between Childhood Proactive and Reactive Aggression and Substance Use Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether proactive and reactive aggression were associated with the risk for initiation of substance use from fourth to ninth grade in a sample of 126 aggressive children (66% male). In addition, the study examined whether these functions of aggression increased risk for initiation via peer delinquency and peer rejection.…

  18. Using Dominance Analysis to Decompose Narcissism and Its Relation to Aggression and Externalizing Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vize, Colin E; Collison, Katherine L; Crowe, Michael L; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2017-01-01

    Research on narcissism has shown it to be multidimensional construct. As such, the relations the larger construct bear with certain outcomes may mask heterogeneity apparent at the more basic trait level. This article used the Five Factor Narcissism Inventory, a Five-Factor Model-based measure of narcissism that allows for multiple levels of analysis, to examine the relative importance of narcissistic traits in relation to aggression, externalizing behavior, and self-esteem outcomes in two independent samples. The relative importance of the narcissism factors was determined through the use of dominance analysis-a relatively underused method for determining relative importance among a set of related predictors. The results showed that antagonism, compared with agentic extraversion and neuroticism, was the dominant predictor across all forms of aggressive behavior. Additional analyses showed that subscales within the broader factor of antagonism also showed differential importance relative to one another for certain aggression outcomes. The results are discussed in the context of the relation between narcissism and aggression and highlight the utility of using extensions of regression-based analyses to explore the heterogeneity within personality constructs.

  19. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  20. Self-Efficacy Pathways between Relational Aggression and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Trevor J.; Peterson, Christina Hamme; Kearney, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The authors recruited college students (N = 648) and investigated relationships among academic and social self-efficacy, relational aggression from parents and peers, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Results indicated that both types of self-efficacy were related inversely to NSSI. Academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between…

  1. The Importance of Self-Beliefs on Relational Aggression of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Dana; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among mattering to friends, self-esteem, spirituality, and perpetration of relational aggression in friendships among 457 college students. While the three self-belief variables were positively related to each other, only spirituality and mattering to friends discriminated between men and women. Women…

  2. Do Hostile Attribution Biases in Children and Parents Predict Relationally Aggressive Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…

  3. Relational Aggression and Hostile Attribution Biases: Testing Multiple Statistical Methods and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  4. A Mediating Model of Relational Aggression, Narcissistic Orientations, Guilt Feelings, and Perceived Classroom Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onishi, Ayako; Kawabata, Yoshito; Kurokawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between narcissistic orientations (grandiose sense of self-importance, interpersonal exploitation, and narcissistic rage) and relational aggression (self-satisfactory and punishment type) and the mediating effects of guilt feelings toward and perceived classroom norms against relational…

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…

  6. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-11-13

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  7. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  8. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = −.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = −.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = −.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  9. The Association between Valuing Popularity and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Effects of Actual Popularity and Physiological Reactivity to Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulberg, Erin K.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    The association between having a reputation for valuing popularity and relational aggression was assessed in a sample of 126 female children and adolescents (mean age=12.43 years) at a 54-day residential summer camp for girls. Having a reputation for valuing popularity was positively related to relational aggression. This association was moderated…

  10. Instrumental and Reactive Functions and Overt and Relational Forms of Aggression: Developmental Trajectories and Prospective Associations during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Kiefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescent self-reported instrumental-overt, instrumental-relational, reactive-overt, and reactive-relational aggression during middle school ("N" = 384; 12-14 years; 53% boys). Growth modeling indicated average increases in instrumental-relational aggression, and decreases in reactive-overt and…

  11. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  12. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  13. Psychological Warfare: The Media and Relational Aggression among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, the researcher examined the media's influences on the experience of relational aggression among college women. Women in the United States of America are learning to stifle their true selves in favor of the feminine ideal, which includes behaving covertly. Examples of female behavior as presented in the Western media include a wide…

  14. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  15. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Physical and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Child Maltreatment and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, prelunch, and afternoon predeparture salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp.…

  16. Aversive Parenting in China: Associations with Child Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…

  17. Ponytails & Death-Ray Looks: A Review of Research on Relational Aggression among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Glenn L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) involves either indirect, verbal, or covert acts with the intent to humiliate, exclude peers from groups, and/or damage a peer's reputation and social status. RA is believed to be particularly devastating psychologically for adolescent girls, as they tend to form smaller and more intimate social groups. Unfortunately, RA…

  18. Alcohol Expectancies in Relation to Personality and Aggression among Juvenile Delinquents in Northern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman A.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Sidorov, Pavel I.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related…

  19. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  20. Crossing Social Contexts: Relational Aggression between Siblings and Friends during Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffacher, Kirstin; DeHart, Ganie B.

    2006-01-01

    Children often learn and apply behaviors in sibling interactions before they routinely use such behaviors in peer interactions. As part of a longitudinal study of relational aggression, 46 children were videotaped at home in semi-structured free play situations with siblings and with friends at age 4 and again at age 8. Observations revealed that…

  1. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system. PMID:20730640

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  3. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  4. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  5. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  6. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  7. Can We See It? Can We Stop It? Lessons Learned from Community-University Research Collaborations about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    The collection of articles in this special issue on relational aggression gives a glimpse into the complex social networks, first, of children's relational aggression and, second, of the collaborators who develop and validate children's prevention programs. The programs described in this special section are among the first to address relational…

  8. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  9. The Experiences of School Counselors in Reducing Relational Aggression among Female Students K-12: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Tomeka C.

    2014-01-01

    The current generic qualitative study investigated the experiences of eight K-12 school counselors working with female students and relational aggression. School counselors can be a resource in schools to help students that may have been involved with relational aggression incidents. They can collaborate with administrators, teachers, parents, and…

  10. The Age Related Prevalence of Aggression and Self-Injury in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Louise; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse statistically published data regarding the age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with intellectual disability. Studies including prevalence data for aggression and/or self-injury broken down by age band were identified and relative risk analyses conducted to generate indices of age…

  11. Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D

    2003-03-01

    Although the relation between TV-violence viewing and aggression in childhood has been clearly demonstrated, only a few studies have examined this relation from childhood to adulthood, and these studies of children growing up in the 1960s reported significant relations only for boys. The current study examines the longitudinal relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggressive behavior about 15 years later for a sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Follow-up archival data (N = 450) and interview data (N = 329) reveal that childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior for both males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence also predict later aggression. These relations persist even when the effects of socioeconomic status, intellectual ability, and a variety of parenting factors are controlled.

  12. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.

  13. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  14. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  15. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  16. The Relation Between Compulsive Sexual Behaviors and Aggression in a Substance-Dependent Population

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research supports a high comorbidity between compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) and SUDs, which are both classified by increased impulsivity. Literature has also indicated that increased impulsivity and substance use are associated with aggression. However, no known research has examined the relationship between CSBs and aggression among a substance dependent population. The purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship. Participants included 349 male patients in treatment for SUDs. Results indicated that after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and age, CSBs were significantly associated with total aggression, aggressive attitudes, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. This is the first known study to examine this relationship, thus continued research is needed to extend and replicate these findings. PMID:27445453

  17. Trait Aggressiveness Is Not Related to Structural Connectivity between Orbitofrontal Cortex and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Frederike; Münte, Thomas F.; Wiechert, Juliana; Heldmann, Marcus; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in both pathological and healthy samples have suggested altered functional connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala as a possible cause of anger and aggression. In patient populations presenting with pathological aggression, there is also evidence for changes in structural connectivity between OFC and amygdala. In healthy samples, however, the relationship between white matter integrity and aggression has not been studied to date. Here, we investigated the relationship between trait aggressiveness and structural OFC-amygdala connectivity in a large sample (n = 93) of healthy young men. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured the distribution of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along the uncinate fascicle bilaterally. We found no differences in either measure between participants high and low in physical aggressiveness, or between those high and low in trait anger. Our results therefore argue against a direct relationship between structural OFC-amygdala connectivity and normal-range trait aggressiveness. PMID:24977414

  18. Comorbid alcohol addiction increases aggression level in soldiers with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zoricić, Zoran; Karlović, Dalibor; Buljan, Danijel; Marusić, Srdan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare aggressive behavior in soldiers with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction and alcohol addiction only. Three groups of male combat experienced soldiers with PTSD (n=43), PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction (n=41) and alcohol addiction (n=39) were compared by Aggression rating scale A-87. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and Watson's PTSD rating scale. Alcohol addiction was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and CAGE Questionnaire. Combat-experienced soldiers with alcohol addiction as well as soldiers with combat-related PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction have a high level of verbal latent aggression (VLA), (F=26.65; P<0.001), physically latent aggression (PLA), (F=37.86; P<0.001), indirect aggression (INA), (F=56.94; P<0.001), verbal manifest aggression (VMA), (F=18.35; P<0.001), and physically manifest aggression (PMA), (F=43.22; P<0.001), vs. soldiers with combat-related PTSD without comorbid conditions. Alcohol addiction is a severe factor in increasing aggression levels in soldiers with PTSD.

  19. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  20. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  1. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  2. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  3. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  4. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  5. A Testosterone-Related Structural Brain Phenotype Predicts Aggressive Behavior From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N.; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6 to 22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. PMID:26431805

  6. Pathways to Aggression in Young, Highly Stressed Urban Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Sara E.; Cowen, Emory L.; Crean, Hugh F.; Wyman, Peter A.; Work, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Examined correlates of aggression in highly stressed urban children in second and third grade and again in third through fifth grade. Found that difficult temperament and lack of parental warmth related to aggression in early grades; learning problems and poor social skills related to aggression at both times. Early aggression predicted later…

  7. Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the effect of media violence on individual differences in aggression is primarily the result of a cumulative learning process during childhood. Presents a developmental theory holding that a child's repeated viewing of media violence, in combination with other factors, can culminate in aggressive behavior patterns (including…

  8. Narcissistic Features in Young Adolescents: Relations to Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Jason J.; McMahon, Susan D.; King, Cheryl A.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silver, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research and theory suggest narcissistic features contribute to aggression in adults. The present study examined the association of narcissistic features with aggression and internalizing symptoms in 233 students of 5th-8th grade at three inner-city schools. A factor analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in this sample revealed…

  9. Direct Observation of Peer Rejection Acts and Their Temporal Relation with Aggressive Acts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David H.; Homrok, Susan; Ortiz, Camilo; Stowe, Rebecca M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the temporal relationship between peer rejection and aggression as seen in videotaped encounters among 86 preschoolers from 6 preschool classrooms. Found that acts of rejection were reliably coded. Aggressive acts and acts of rejection tended to occur closely together in time. Found a clear temporal pattern in which children were likely…

  10. A Study of Workplace Aggression as Related to Pedagogical Reform in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Frank Wai-ming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research on pedagogical reforms has seldom looked at how reform may contribute to aggression in school organizations. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that teachers' disengagement from school mediates the tendency for teachers to manifest aggression when they are implementing pedagogical reform in school. Behind this…

  11. Relational Aggression in Schools: Implications for Future Research on Screening Intervention and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression, in its various forms, is a construct that underlies many of the social toxins that have plagued the society for so long. The unifying theme of aggression undergirds conceptualizations and theories of anti-social behavior (overt and covert), bullying, and interpersonal violence. School settings provide one of the very best settings…

  12. Peer Ratings of Aggression: Relation to Social Skills, Behavior Problems, and Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon

    This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…

  13. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  14. Contextual Influences on the Relations between Physical and Relational Aggression and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Bukowski, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that several contextual factors influence the relationship between aggression and peer victimization in early adolescence, including gender of the same-sex peer group and gender composition of the school. The current study replicated and expanded on this research by examining the moderating influences of gender…

  15. Associations between parental psychological control and relational aggression in children and adolescents: a multilevel and sequential meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Sofie; Laurent, Laura; Heyvaert, Mieke; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Youth aggression has been associated with negative parenting practices, but previous research about this association has mainly focused on physical and verbal aggression. Because more subtle forms of aggression are considered at least as harmful as their physical and verbal counterparts, there is a growing scientific interest in parenting practices that are linked with relational aggression. Guided by social learning theory, a link between youth relational aggression and parental psychological control has been postulated, but the empirical evidence is inconsistent. The present meta-analysis provides a multilevel and sequential quantitative synthesis of 165 dependent effect sizes (23 studies) encompassing 8,958 youths. Across studies, a positive, albeit weak, association between parental psychological control and relational aggression was found. The sequential analysis demonstrated that sufficient cumulative knowledge was attained to yield convincing evidence on this overall association. Moderator analyses revealed that developmental period and assessment method were associated with differences in research findings. Overall, however, results suggest that clarifying the precise role of psychological control in the development and maintenance of relational aggression requires more targeted primary research, which in turn would allow additional and more complex synthesis efforts with potentially more nuanced conclusions.

  16. Longitudinal Mediators of Relations Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Aggression Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Fortson, Beverly L; Valle, Linda A; Breiding, Matthew J; Merrick, Melissa T

    2015-08-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the pathways through which family violence leads to dating aggression. In the current study the authors used 3 waves of data obtained from 8th- and 9th-grade adolescents (N = 1,965) to examine the hypotheses that the prospective relationship between witnessing family violence and directly experiencing violence and physical dating aggression perpetration is mediated by 3 constructs: (a) normative beliefs about dating aggression (norms), (b) anger dysregulation, and (c) depression. Results from cross-lagged regression models suggest that the relationship between having been hit by an adult and dating aggression is mediated by changes in norms and anger dysregulation, but not depression. No evidence of indirect effects from witnessing family violence to dating aggression was found through any of the proposed mediators. Taken together, the findings suggest that anger dysregulation and normative beliefs are potential targets for dating abuse prevention efforts aimed at youth who have directly experienced violence.

  17. Reciprocal Relations between the Trajectories of Mothers' Harsh Discipline, Responsiveness and Aggression in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Akcinar, Berna

    2017-02-18

    Theoretical advances in the study of the development of aggressive behaviors indicate that parenting behaviors and child aggression mutually influence one another. This study contributes to the body of empirical research in this area by examining the development of child aggression, maternal responsiveness, and maternal harsh discipline, using 5-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of Turkish children (n = 1009; 469 girls and 582 boys). Results indicated that: (i) maternal responsiveness and harsh discipline at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectory of aggression; (ii) reciprocally, aggressive behaviors at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectories of these two types of parenting behaviors; (iii) deviations from the linear trajectories of the child and mother behaviors tended to be short lived; and, (iv) the deviations of child behaviors from the linear trajectories were associated with the subsequent changes in mother behaviors after age 5. These findings are discussed in the cultural context of this study.

  18. Playing violent electronic games, hostile attributional style, and aggression-related norms in German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2004-02-01

    The relationship was examined between exposure to and preference for violent electronic games and aggressive norms as well as hostile attributional style. Following a pilot study to sample widely used electronic games varying in violent content, 231 eighth-grade adolescents in Germany reported their use of and attraction to violent electronic games. They also completed measures of hostile attributional style and endorsement of aggressive norms. There were significant gender differences in usage and attraction to violent electronic games, with boys scoring higher than girls. Significant relationships were found between attraction to violent electronic games and the acceptance of norms condoning physical aggression. Violent electronic games were linked indirectly to hostile attributional style through aggressive norms. The findings are discussed with respect to North American research on the aggression-enhancing effect of violent electronic games.

  19. The relational context of aggression in borderline personality disorder: using adult attachment style to predict forms of hostility.

    PubMed

    Critchfield, Kenneth L; Levy, Kenneth N; Clarkin, John F; Kernberg, Otto F

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting critical aspects of aggression in the personality disorders. An association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and insecure forms of adult attachment marked by high relationship anxiety has been repeatedly observed in the empirical literature. Aggression also has been linked to insecure attachment. The present study extends previous work by exploring the degree to which the underlying attachment dimensions of relationship anxiety and avoidance are associated in BPD with the following forms of hostility: (a) direct aggression (verbal or physical) initiated towards others, (b) expectation/perception of aggression from others (including "reactive" counteraggression when/if provoked), (c) aggression directed towards the self in the form of suicidality or parasuicidality, and (d) affective experience of irritability or anger. The issue was studied in a sample of 92 patients diagnosed with BPD. Results show significant association between more fearful forms of attachment (simultaneous presence of relationship anxiety and avoidance) and the more reactive form of aggression involving expectation of hostility from others. Self-harm was significantly associated only with relational avoidance while anger and irritability were associated only with relational anxiety. Implications for understanding relational aspects of BPD aggression in research and clinical work are discussed.

  20. Locus of control as a contributing factor in the relation between self-perception and adolescent aggression.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Marion T; Barry, Christopher T; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Green, Bradley A

    2012-01-01

    Researchers continue to debate the role of self-esteem in aggression, but research has shown a consistent association between narcissism and aggression in adults and adolescents [e.g., Barry et al., 2007; Bushman and Baumeister, 1998; Stucke, 2007]. The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether locus of control (LOC) moderated the relation between self-perception variables (i.e., self-esteem and narcissism) and aggression in adolescents. Participants were 174 youth (145 males, 26 females) between the ages of 16 and 19 who were enrolled in a voluntary residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. The results showed that LOC moderated the association between self-esteem and aggression such that low self-esteem was associated with higher levels of aggression for individuals with an external LOC. Contrary to expectations, LOC failed to moderate the narcissism-aggression relation. The implications of this study for understanding how self-perception is related to adolescent aggression are discussed.

  1. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  2. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  3. Social Problem-Solving and Self Esteem of Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    Secondary prevention programs for aggressive children should be based on research about processes which mediate children's expression of aggressive behavior. The relative importance of perceived competence, self-esteem, and social problem solving processes was investigated in 20 aggressive and 18 non-aggressive fourth and fifth grade boys. Teacher…

  4. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  5. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    PubMed

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  7. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  8. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  9. Reactive Aggression and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Preliminary Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Castellanos, Daniel

    2017-01-03

    The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation. Results from the meta-analysis indicated a consistent, medium-sized association (k = 7; N = 4,693; rbar = .25). The narrative review and results of the preliminary meta-analysis support the promise of pursuing future research on reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents. A theoretical model is proposed to guide the development of future research.

  10. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    PubMed

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  11. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  12. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  13. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  14. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  16. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    PubMed

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms.

  17. Exploring Personal Attitudes towards Parent Involvement as It Relates to Relational Aggression Acted out through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Karla M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…

  18. Applying the Attention-Allocation Model to the Explanation of Alcohol-Related Aggression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giancola, Peter R.; Josephs, Robert A.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Gunn, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to apply the attention allocation model (AAM; Steele & Josephs, 1990) to the explanation, as well as the prevention, of alcohol-related violence. The AAM contends that alcohol has a “myopic” effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus on the most salient provocative cues, that are naturally present in hostile situations, rather than less salient inhibitory cues. Data are presented to demonstrate support for the AAM with regard to alcohol-related aggression. The model has also been expanded to suggest some intermediary mechanisms that may account for how distracting attention away from provocative cues might be involved in the reduction of aggression. Finally, a number of practical suggestions are put forth regarding how the AAM can be applied to the prevention of intoxicated aggression. PMID:19938917

  19. Applying the attention-allocation model to the explanation of alcohol-related aggression: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Josephs, Robert A; DeWall, C Nathan; Gunn, Rachel L

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to apply the attention-allocation model (AAM; Steele and Josephs, 1990 ) to the explanation, as well as the prevention, of alcohol-related violence. The AAM contends that alcohol has a "myopic" effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus on the most salient provocative cues that are naturally present in hostile situations, rather than on less salient inhibitory cues. Data are presented to demonstrate support for the AAM with regard to alcohol-related aggression. The model has also been expanded to suggest some intermediary mechanisms that may account for how distracting attention away from provocative cues might be involved in the reduction of aggression. Finally, a number of practical suggestions are put forth regarding how the AAM can be applied to the prevention of intoxicated aggression.

  20. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  1. Issues in the Assessment of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehby, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes four major hypotheses related to aggressive behavior and reviews current means for assessment. Hypotheses suggest that aggressive behavior is the result of a social skills deficit, positive or negative reinforcement, environmental deficits, or deficits in the cognitive processing of social stimuli. Changes in assessment…

  2. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  3. “Yes, I Do But Not With You”-Qualitative Analyses of Sexual/Romantic Overture-related Aggression in Bars and Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha; Bernards, Sharon; Dennison, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Assaultive and aggressive behaviors related to sexual overtures are common in commercial drinking establishments (bars, pubs and clubs). In this paper, we examined the thematic content of 251 incidents of verbal and physical aggression related to sexual/romantic overtures documented by researcher-observers in a study of Toronto bar and clubs. Aggression was examined as it emerged in the following stages of the social interaction process: (a) sexual/romantic overtures that began aggressively; (b) initiators of sexual/romantic overtures who became aggressive later in the social interaction process; (c) aggression by targets of overtures; and (d) aggression by third parties. From these thematic analyses, we identify the distinctions between predatory and genuine overtures and explore the potential role of the effects of alcohol. In these social overtures, aggression occurred as part of the initial overture, during the interaction following the overture (i.e., aggression by the person who made the initial overture, by the target or third parties) and in response to rejection by the target. Targets of overtures responded aggressively to perceived inappropriate overtures; third parties played important aggressive and nonaggressive roles; and alcohol intoxication was identified as contributing to aggression in a number of ways. The theoretical significance and practical implications for prevention of the findings are discussed. PMID:21625360

  4. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  5. Intimate partner aggression-related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Overstreet, Nicole M; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2016-09-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427-440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  7. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  8. Associations of Workplace Aggression With Work-Related Well-Being Among Nurses in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines. Methods. Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n = 687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift). Results. Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.20; PR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.15; PR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions. Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines. PMID:21088262

  9. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  10. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  12. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions.

  13. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (p<0.001). Results form the conditional logistic regression models showed that cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=4.20) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=6.24) were associated with AUD suicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from

  14. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  15. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  16. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  17. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  18. The relation of ADHD and violent aggression: What can we learn from epidemiological and genetic studies?

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive behavior includes psychopathological and behavioral constructs like aggression, impulsivity, violence, antisociality and psychopathy and is often closely related with diagnostic categories like conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit disorder (ADHD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASP). There is now clear evidence that neurobiological and environmental factors contribute to these phenotypes. A mounting body of evidence also suggests interactive effects of genetic and environmental risks. In this selective review we give an overview over epidemiological aspects of the relation between ADHD and antisocial behavior, including violent aggression and psychopathy. Moreover, we summarize recent findings from molecular genetic studies and particularly discuss pleiotropic effects of a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5HTTLPR) and childhood adversity on ADHD and violent behavior. The reported gene-environment interactions are not only informative for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of disruptive behavior, but also throw some light on the relation between ADHD and violent behavior from a genetic perspective. The impact of genetic research on forensic psychiatry and future directions of neurobiological research are discussed.

  19. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  20. Is relational aggression part of the externalizing spectrum? a bifactor model of youth antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Daoud, Stephanie L S B; De Bolle, Marleen; Burt, Sybil Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine support for the inclusion of relational aggression (RAgg) alongside physical aggression (Agg) and rule-breaking behaviors (RB) as a subfactor of antisocial behavior (ASB). Caregiver reports were collected for 1,087 youth (48.9% male) ages 6-18. Results indicated that all three subfactors of ASB demonstrated substantial loadings on a general ASB factor. Using a bifactor model approach, specific factors representing each ASB subfactor were simultaneously modeled, allowing for examination of common and specific correlates. At the scale level, results demonstrated consistently strong connections with high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness across all 3 ASB subfactors, a pattern which was replicated for the general ASB factor in the bifactor approach. Specific factors in the bifactor model demonstrated connections with personality and psychopathology correlates, primarily for Agg. These findings provide some support for an overall grouping of RAgg with other ASB subfactors in youth, and further distinguish Agg as potentially representing a more potent variant of youth ASB relative to both RB and RAgg.

  1. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  2. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  3. The Role of Parenting Styles in the Relation Between Functions of Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.

  4. Factors relating to the aggressive behavior of primary caregiver toward a child.

    PubMed

    Isaranurug, S; Nitirat, P; Chauytong, P; Wongarsa, C

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to testify the relationship between specific characteristics of family or the caregiver and the aggressive behavior of the caregiver toward a child. The survey was conducted from 2nd to 30th of December 1996 among grade-six students in schools under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). During the survey, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from the target group of 413 students. Among these, 81.8 per cent reported experiencing at least one form of aggressive behavior from their caregivers or parents. The findings revealed that the family relationship, economic status and caregiver's educational level reversibly correlated with the number of types of aggressive behavior with statistical significance at p-value < 0.05 and r = -0.7697, -0.2467 and -0.1641, respectively. The family crisis positively correlated with the number of types of aggressive behaviors with r = 0.1249 and p-value < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that students from nuclear families, living in congested surroundings, having a caregiver with experience of unskilled-work, unemployment or gambling had a higher mean score of the number of types of aggressive behaviors than their counterparts which were statistically significant by t and F tests (p-value < 0.05). Hence, the quality of the parent-and-child relationship should be strengthened and a proactive approach should be conducted for families potentially at risk.

  5. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  6. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  7. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  8. Relational stressors as predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Ulke, Christine; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether relational stressors such as psychosocial stressors, the therapist's absence and a change of therapist are associated with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care. The study data were derived from critical incident reports and chart reviews of 107 inpatients. In multinomial regression analysis, patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents were compared with patients with single incidents. Results suggested that a higher number of psychosocial stressors and a change of therapist, but not the therapist's absence are predictors for repeat aggressive and self-harming incidents. There was a high prevalence of therapist's absence during both, single and repeat, incidents. Repeat aggressive incidents were common in male children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Repeat self-harming incidents were common in adolescent females with trauma-related disorders. Patients with repeat aggressive or self-harming incidents had a higher number of abnormal intrafamilial relationships and acute life events than patients with single incidents. Interventions to reduce a change of therapist should in particular target children and adolescents with a higher number of psychosocial stressors and/or a known history of traumatic relational experiences. After a first incident, patients should have a psychosocial assessment to evaluate whether additional relational support is needed.

  9. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  10. Trait modulation of alcohol-induced laboratory aggression.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Matthew D; King, Alan R

    2006-06-15

    Modest alcohol and aggressive trait effects on laboratory-induced aggression among men have been reported with some consistency in the literature. Relationships between aggressive personality traits and laboratory-induced aggression appear to become less consistent under the influence of alcohol. Several research teams have found suggestions that the effects of alcohol on laboratory aggression may be reduced or even reversed among individuals with aggressive personality traits. This study examined the effects of alcohol on the aggressive responding on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) of eight undergraduate men who generated evidence on the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) of sadistic-aggressive personality disorder features. This sample was compared with a group of 18 undergraduate male peers without MCMI-II elevations described in a previous study. Neither alcohol ingestion (0.8 ml/kg) nor aggressive personality traits predicted laboratory behavior in isolation, but alcohol was found to selectively attenuate (d = 0.75) PSAP responding for the sadistic-aggressive as opposed to the control subjects (i.e., a significant aggressive trait by alcohol interaction). The possible value of this counterintuitive response tendency in identifying men at elevated risk for alcohol-related aggression was discussed. Large, immediate reductions in laboratory-based aggressive responding while under the influence of alcohol might provide a paradoxical high risk indicator that has not been previously identified.

  11. The role of alcohol and steroid hormones in human aggression.

    PubMed

    von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.

  12. The effect of early life experience, environment, and genetic factors on spontaneous home-cage aggression-related wounding in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Stottler, Aurora M; Garner, Joseph P; Winnicker, Christina W; Mulder, Guy B; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2017-03-22

    Aggression is a major welfare issue in mice, particularly when mice unfamiliar to each other are first placed in cages, as happens on receipt from a vendor, and following cage cleaning. Injuries from aggression are the second leading cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice, following ulcerative dermatitis. Commonly employed strategies for reducing aggression-related injury are largely anecdotal, and may even be counterproductive. Here we report a series of experiments testing potential explanations and interventions for post-shipping aggression-related injuries in C57BL/6 mice. First, we examined the effects of weaning: testing whether manipulating weaning age reduced aggression-related injuries, and if repeated mixing of weaned mice before shipping increased these injuries. Contrary to our predictions, repeated mixing did not increase post-shipping injurious aggression, and early weaning reduced aggression-related injuries. Second, we examined potential post-shipping interventions: testing whether lavender essential oil applied to the cage reduced aggression-related injuries, and whether a variety of enrichments decreased injurious aggression. Again, contrary to predictions, lavender increased wounding, and none of the enrichments reduced it. However, consistent with the effects of weaning age in the first experiment, cages with higher mean body weight showed elevated levels of aggression-related wounding. Finally, we tested whether C57BL/6 substrains and identification methods affected levels of intra-cage wounding from aggression. We found no effect of strain, but cages where mice were ear-notched for identification showed higher levels of wounding than cages where mice were tail-tattooed. Overall, these results emphasize the multifactorial nature of home-cage injurious aggression, and the importance of testing received wisdom when it comes to managing complex behavioral and welfare problems. In terms of practical recommendations to reduce aggressive wounding in

  13. Emotion regulation and childhood aggression: longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Röll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and aggressive behavior, moderating and mediating factors like gender and peer rejection have been established. Furthermore, results suggest emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior. Several directions for future research are pointed out to further validate and refine the reviewed relationships.

  14. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  15. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Card, Noel A; Casper, Deborah M

    2014-05-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed.

  16. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  17. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  18. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  19. Impulsive-aggressive traits, serotonin function, and alcohol-enhanced aggression.

    PubMed

    Fulwiler, Carl; Eckstine, Joy; Kalsy, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is involved in most acts of violence, most people do not become violent when they drink. Individuals also respond differently to alcohol on laboratory measures of aggression. The objective of this study was to determine whether individual differences in the effects of alcohol on a laboratory measure of aggression are related to specific personality traits and/or serotonin function, as measured by prolactin response to pharmacochallenge. Psychometric scales for impulsiveness, aggression, and anger, as well as a probe for suspiciousness, were administered to 10 healthy male social drinkers. Trait serotonin function was determined by citalopram challenge. The effect of alcohol on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm was determined by comparing aggression scores with and without 1 g/kg alcohol. Impulsivity scores were significantly correlated with the change in aggressive responding after alcohol. Aggression, anger, and suspiciousness scores were not. Prolactin response did not predict the effect of alcohol on aggressive responding. The results suggest that trait impulsiveness may mediate the effects of alcohol on aggression in normal males.

  20. Sugar or spice: Using I3 metatheory to understand how and why glucose reduces rejection-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; DeWall, C Nathan; Fries, Veronika; Geiger, Babette; Krämer, Tanya; Krug, Sebastian; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social rejection can increase aggression, especially among people high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection impairs self-control, and deficits in self-control often result in aggression. A dose of glucose can counteract the effect of situational factors that undermine self-control. But no research has integrated these literatures to understand why rejection increases aggression, and how to reduce it. Using the I(3) model of aggression, we proposed that aggression would be highest under conditions of high instigation (rejection), high impellance (high rejection sensitivity), and low inhibition (drinking a beverage sweetened with a sugar substitute instead of glucose). As predicted, aggression was highest among participants who experienced social rejection, were high in rejection sensitivity, and drank a placebo beverage. A dose of glucose reduced aggression, especially among rejected people high in rejection sensitivity. These findings point to the importance of self-control in understanding why social rejection increases aggression, and how to prevent it.

  1. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  2. Children's dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament.

  3. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents.

  4. Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcohol-related aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric

  5. Associations between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Children and Adolescents: A Multilevel and Sequential Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Sofie; Laurent, Laura; Heyvaert, Mieke; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Youth aggression has been associated with negative parenting practices, but previous research about this association has mainly focused on physical and verbal aggression. Because more subtle forms of aggression are considered at least as harmful as their physical and verbal counterparts, there is a growing scientific interest in parenting…

  6. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  7. Analysis of Component of Aggression in the Stories of Elementary School Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamandar, Fateme; Jabbari, D. Susan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the content analysis of children's stories based on the components of aggression. Participants are 66 elementary school students (16 girls and 50 boys) selected from fourth and fifth grades, using the Relational and Overt Aggression Questionnaire; completed by the teachers. Draw a Story Test (Silver, 2005) is…

  8. Winning territorial disputes selectively enhances androgen sensitivity in neural pathways related to motivation and social aggression.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Coss, Dylan J; Auger, Catherine J; Auger, Anthony P; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-07-06

    Winning aggressive disputes can enhance future fighting ability and the desire to seek out additional contests. In some instances, these effects are long lasting and vary in response to the physical location of a fight. Thus, in principle, winning aggressive encounters may cause long-term and context-dependent changes to brain areas that control the output of antagonistic behavior or the motivation to fight (or both). We examined this issue in the territorial California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) because males of this species are more likely to win fights after accruing victories in their home territory but not after accruing victories in unfamiliar locations. Using immunocytochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR, we found that winning fights either at home or away increases the expression of androgen receptors (AR) in the medial anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a key brain area that controls social aggression. We also found that AR expression in brain regions that mediate motivation and reward, nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), increases only in response to fights in the home territory. These effects of winning were likely exclusive to the neural androgenic system because they have no detectible impact on the expression of progestin receptors. Finally, we demonstrated that the observed changes in androgen sensitivity in the NAcc and VTA are positively associated with the ability to win aggressive contests. Thus, winning fights can change brain phenotype in a manner that likely promotes future victory and possibly primes neural circuits that motivate individuals to fight.

  9. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  10. Playing Violent Electronic Games, Hostile Attributional Style, and Aggression-Related Norms in German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The relationship was examined between exposure to and preference for violent electronic games and aggressive norms as well as hostile attributional style. Following a pilot study to sample widely used electronic games varying in violent content, 231 eighth-grade adolescents in Germany reported their use of and attraction to violent electronic…

  11. Social Information Processing, Moral Reasoning, and Emotion Attributions: Relations with Adolescents' Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenio, William F.; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated.…

  12. Domain-Specific Self-Concept in Relation to Traditional and Cyber Peer Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledano, Shanee; Werch, Brittany L.; Wiens, Brenda A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who aggress against others have been described both as having overall low self-concept and as having high, inflated self-concept. The conceptualization of self-concept as domain specific provides an alternate means to resolving this controversy. In this study, 223 middle school students completed self-report measures assessing…

  13. Investigation of vehicle and driver aggressivity and relation to fuel economy testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichter, Jonathan Seth

    As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced in fuel economy testing unless the impact of the driver on fuel economy is the variable being tested. It is also recommended, for certain tests, that the driver stay with the same vehicle for the tests entirety. Although these are the requirements, having the same trained drivers for the entirety of a fuel economy test may not always be a viable option. This leads to the question of, what impact can a set of drivers, who are asked to drive the same, have on fuel consumption during a fuel consumption test? The SAE J1321 Type II Fuel Consumption Test Procedure was followed on two identical trucks with two drivers that were untrained in fuel economy testing in order to answer this question. It was found in this particular study that the driver variability can impose up to a 10% fuel economy difference on shorter distance routes where the driver is kept the same. By increasing the distance of the route and swapping drivers variability in fuel economy reduced to 5%. It was shown by this particular test that the impact of the driver when asked to drive the same is minimal compared to real world results of up to 30%. A larger data set and more testing is still necessary to completely understand and validate the impact of the driver on fuel economy testing.

  14. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment.

  15. Association of GABAA receptor α2 subunit gene (GABRA2) with alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strac, Dubravka Svob; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2015-12-03

    Alcohol dependence is a common chronic disorder precipitated by the complex interaction between biological, genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms of the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2 subunit (GABRA2) are associated with alcohol dependence in different populations of European ancestry. As aggression often occurs in the context of alcohol dependence, the aim of this study was to examine the allelic and haplotypic association of GABRA2 gene with alcohol dependence and related aggressive behavior in subjects of Eastern European (Croatian) origin. Genotyping of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the GABRA2 gene (rs567926, rs279858 and rs9291283) was performed in patients with alcohol dependence (N=654) and healthy control subjects (N=574). Alcohol-dependent participants were additionally subdivided according to the presence/absence of aggressive behavior and type of alcohol dependence according to the Cloninger's classification. The association of rs279858 with alcohol dependence yielded nominal significance level. Haplotype analysis revealed a high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for rs567926 and rs279858, but not for rs9291283 polymorphism in the GABRA2 gene. In patients with alcohol dependence, the A-C (rs567926 and rs279858) haplotype carriers were more likely to demonstrate aggressive behavior. The same haplotype (present only in 1.6% of all subjects) was significantly more often present in patients with a combination of early onset alcohol abuse and aggression, corresponding to the Cloninger's type II alcoholism subgroup. These findings support the involvement of GABRA2 gene in alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

  16. Chronotype-related differences in childhood and adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Sopp, Roxanne; Ambiel, David; Grünwald, Julia

    2014-02-01

    Eveningness has been found to negatively affect adolescents' sleep and daytime functioning. Furthermore, eveningness is associated with greater impulsivity than morningness. Externalizing behavior could be chronotype-related, implying that the alteration of the circadian rhythm itself is connected to aspects of emotion and emotion regulation. The present study investigated chronotype-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems, especially aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive search via web of knowledge (MEDLINE, web of science), EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed, Google Scholar and PsycINDEX using the keywords: chronotype, chronobiology, morningness, eveningness, owls and larks as well as diurnal preference to fully capture every aspect of chronotype. For aggression we used the search terms: aggression, anger, hostility, violence, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, social adjustment and externalizing behavior. N = 13 studies were included concerning chronotype, childhood, adolescence and antisocial behavior. Results showed that children and adolescents being E-types were more affected by daytime impairments. Additionally, behavioral and emotional problems as aggression or antisocial behavior were more pronounced in E- than in M-types. Our findings support an association of eveningness and the impact of aggression on children and adolescents. Longitudinal investigations should be conducted in order to insure causality of the effects in question. In addition, the elevated vulnerability toward aggression in evening types demonstrates the need for prevention and intervention programs that educate youths in proper sleep hygiene and evoke an awareness of the consequences of a habitually diminished sleep quality.

  17. Relations among appetitive aggression, post-traumatic stress and motives for demobilization: a study in former Colombian combatants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government. We predicted those who were demobilized collectively would still be attracted to violence, and benefit from the resilience against trauma-related mental suffering, moderated by appetitive aggression, as they would have continued fighting had they not been forced to stop. Method A sample of 252 former Colombian former combatants from paramilitary and guerrilla forces was investigated. Appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I). We distinguished between individual and group demobilization and assessed reasons for disarmament. Results Most of the guerrilla troops who demobilized individually and were tired of fighting reported both an attraction to violence as well as increased trauma symptoms, owing to their former engagement in violent behaviour. In contrast, among those who were demobilized collectively, appetitive aggression was associated with a reduced risk of PTSD. However, this effect was not present in those combatants in the upper quartile of PTSD symptom severity. Conclusion The influence of combat experience on traumatization, as well as the motivation for demobilization, differs remarkably between those combatants who demobilized individually and those who were members of a group that was forced to demobilize. This has important implications for the implementation

  18. Biased self-perceptions of social competence and engagement in physical and relational aggression: the moderating role of peer status and sex.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D; Achufusi, Adaora K; Shoulberg, Erin K; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to expand on prior research suggesting that children low in peer status who either over- or underestimate their social competence relative to others' reports are more likely to be aggressive (White and Kistner [2011]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 645-656). The curvilinear associations between social competence bias and two forms of aggression (physical and relational) were examined in a sample of 4th through 6th graders (n = 183); moderation by both sex and peer status (peer preference and popularity) also were tested. Social competence bias was operationally defined as the residual difference between child and teacher ratings of the child's social competence. Aggression and peer status were measured using peer nomination procedures. There was a significant curvilinear association between social competence bias and physical aggression moderated by both types of peer status. For low peer status children greater underestimation and overestimation of social competence was associated with higher physical aggression. The curvilinear association between social competence bias and relational aggression was moderated by both peer status and sex. Popular boys had higher rates of relational aggression when they had accurate, rather than biased, self-perceptions of social competence. However, for very highly preferred girls, a more extreme positive bias was associated with an exponential increase in relational aggression. Results are discussed in terms of implications for aggression theory and intervention.

  19. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  20. Associations Between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use Among Elementary School-Age Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250

  1. The Validity of Physical Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…

  2. Effects of Attack and Uncontrollable Noise on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    1978-01-01

    The past decade has been marked by mounting public concern over noise as a source of environmental pollution. Simultaneously, research has shown that noise is also a potent cause of physiological stress. This research relates noise to aggression concluding that noise facilitates aggression in subjects who have been instigated to aggress to the…

  3. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  4. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  5. The Effects of a Bully Intervention Program on the Relational Aggressive Behaviors of 5th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Waukita; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a mixed method design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a bully intervention program aimed at fifth-grade girls. The Ophelia Project provided the framework for a six-week prevention program. Results showed that the bullying intervention program did decrease the relational aggressive behaviors among the participants and indicated…

  6. Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…

  7. Can You Read My Mind? Age as a Moderator in the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether age moderates the relationship between cognitive factors (theory of mind and attribution of intentions) and relational aggression. Participants (N = 426; 216 boys) between 6 and 9 years of age were asked to complete theory of mind tasks and answer an attribution of intentions questionnaire. Teachers evaluated…

  8. Aggression, behavior and peripheral amine concentrations in relation to ractopamine feeding, sex, and social rank of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the widely used feed additive ractopamine (RAC) on behavioral and physiological responses in finishing pigs are limited. Aggression is of concern for its potential to impair pig’s productivity and well-being; thus its relation with feeding of RAC, an adrenoreceptor agonist, warrants f...

  9. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  10. Relations of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity to Preadolescent Peer Functioning: The Mediating Roles of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Banny, Adrienne M.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the structural relations of preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, aggressive and prosocial behaviors, and peer functioning. There were 739 fourth (n = 239) and fifth (n = 500) graders (52.23% boys) in Taiwan who participated in this study. Preadolescents' inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were…

  11. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  12. Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Outcome Expectancies, and Partner Aggression among Males Court-Mandated to Batterer Intervention Programs: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Moore, Todd; Zucosky, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk for partner aggression exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with partner aggression irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and partner aggression among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of partner aggression. PMID:25519237

  13. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  14. Sabotaging Our Sisters: Perceptions of Female Relational Aggression in Higher Education among Female Faculty and Administrators at Three Western U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyborg, Deborah G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and understand relational workplace aggression among female faculty and administrators at three western U.S. universities. This study was designed to address the gap in empirical knowledge of the phenomenon by elucidating how workplace relational aggression affects the lives of female university faculty and…

  15. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles Associated with Relational Aggression in Children and Adolescents: A Conceptual Analysis and Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tseng, Wan-Ling; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    How does parenting affect relational aggression in children? The goal of the present series of meta-analyses based on 48 studies (28,097 children) was to analyze and integrate the findings on the associations between various types of parenting behaviors and relational aggression, and to identify potential substantive and methodological factors…

  16. Do predisposing and family background characteristics modify or confound the relationship between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression? A study of late adolescent and young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Speechley, Mark; Koval, John J

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined whether predisposing and family background characteristics confounded (common cause/general deviance theory) or modified (conditional/interactive theory) the association between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression. A secondary analysis of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was conducted using a composite sample of drinkers, ages 17 to 21, from the 1994, 1996, and 1998 Young Adult surveys (n=602). No evidence of confounding of the relationship between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression was found. In addition, predisposing characteristics did not modify the association between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression. However, family background variables (mother's education and any poverty) were important explanatory variables for alcohol-related aggression among males, whereas recent aggression (fights at school or work) was an important predictor for females. Overall, lack of support for the conditional/interactive and common cause theories of the alcohol and aggression relationship suggests that alcohol has an independent explanatory role in alcohol-related aggression. In addition, the gender differences found in the present study highlight the need for more gender-focussed research on predictors of alcohol-related aggression, especially among adolescents and young adults.

  17. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  18. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  19. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  20. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.

  1. Associations between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use among Elementary School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% male) second- through fourth-grade students (mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes…

  2. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  3. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  4. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  5. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  6. The Social Values of Aggressive-Prosocial Youth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristina L; Benish-Weisman, Maya; O'Brien, Christopher T; Ungvary, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has identified youth who utilize both aggressive and prosocial behavior with peers. Although the social values and motivations associated with aggression and prosocial behavior have been well studied, the values of youth who utilize both aggression and prosocial behavior are unknown. The current study identified groups of adolescents based on peer nominations of aggression and prosocial behavior from both Israel (n = 569; 56.94% Arab, 43.06% Jewish; 53.78% female) and the United States (n = 342; 67.54% African-American; 32.46% European-American; 50.88% female). Self-enhancement, self-transcendence, openness-to-change, and conservation values predicted behavioral group membership. Power values predicted membership in the aggressive group relative to the aggressive-prosocial, prosocial, and low-both groups. For Israeli boys, openness-to-change values predicted membership in the aggressive-prosocial group relative to the prosocial group. The values of aggressive-prosocial youth were more similar to the values of prosocial peers than to aggressive peers, suggesting that motivational interventions for aggressive-prosocial youth should differ in important ways than those for aggressive youth.

  7. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  8. The Effects of Continuities in Parent and Peer Aggression on Relational Intimate Partner Violence in the Transition to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Holfeld, Brett; Temple, Jeffery R

    2017-04-01

    Past research suggests that exposure to parent psychological control and peer relational aggression and victimization experienced during adolescence is associated with relational intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adults (ages 22 to 29). However, the effects of continuities in these concerns across young adulthood have not been assessed. Relational IPV is characterized by behaviors intended to damage partner's emotional well-being and security in a romantic relationship (e.g., threatening to break up, purposefully ignoring, or causing jealousy). Six waves of data were collected biennially across 10 years from 662 participants (342 females) who were 12 to 18 years old in 2003. The 334 youth who were in a current romantic relationship at the sixth wave (T6, 10 years later) are the focus of this research. Tests of hypothesized structural equation models indicated that adolescent experiences of psychological control with fathers (but not mothers) predicted relational IPV at T6, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for continuity in father psychological control in young adulthood. Adolescent experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers also predicted relational IPV at T6. This association remained significant for males, only, after continuity in experiences of relational aggression and victimization with peers in young adulthood was included in the model. Implications for the prevention of relational IPV in adolescence and young adults are discussed.

  9. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  10. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  11. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  12. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  13. Shared genes related to aggression, rather than chemical communication, are associated with reproductive dominance in paper wasps (Polistes metricus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In social groups, dominant individuals may socially inhibit reproduction of subordinates using aggressive interactions or, in the case of highly eusocial insects, pheromonal communication. It has been hypothesized these two modes of reproductive inhibition utilize conserved pathways. Here, we use a comparative framework to investigate the chemical and genomic underpinnings of reproductive dominance in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. Our goals were to first characterize transcriptomic and chemical correlates of reproductive dominance and second, to test whether dominance-associated mechanisms in paper wasps overlapped with aggression or pheromone-related gene expression patterns in other species. To explore whether conserved molecular pathways relate to dominance, we compared wasp transcriptomic data to previous studies of gene expression associated with pheromonal communication and queen-worker differences in honey bees, and aggressive behavior in bees, Drosophila, and mice. Results By examining dominant and subordinate females from queen and worker castes in early and late season colonies, we found that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and genome-wide patterns of brain gene expression were primarily associated with season/social environment rather than dominance status. In contrast, gene expression patterns in the ovaries were associated primarily with caste and ovary activation. Comparative analyses suggest genes identified as differentially expressed in wasp brains are not related to queen pheromonal communication or caste in bees, but were significantly more likely to be associated with aggression in other insects (bees, flies), and even a mammal (mice). Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive chemical and molecular analysis of reproductive dominance in paper wasps. We found little evidence for a chemical basis for reproductive dominance in P. metricus, and our transcriptomic analyses suggest that different pathways

  14. How do different dimensions of adolescent narcissism impact the relation between callous-unemotional traits and self-reported aggression?

    PubMed

    Lee-Rowland, Lauren M; Barry, Christopher T; Gillen, Christopher T A; Hansen, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16-19 enrolled in a 22-week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy-linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non-pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  16. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  17. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  18. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  19. What do Spanish adolescents think about obsessive-compulsive disorder? Mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Roncero, María

    2017-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and disabling disorder with a long delay in seeking help that could partly be due to poor mental health literacy and stigmatizing attitudes. This study analyzes the mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD in a Spanish adolescent sample. This age group was chosen because adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of OCD, and adolescents are often reluctant to seek professional help. One hundred and two non-clinical adolescents read two vignettes describing symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD. Then, referring to these two vignettes, they answered questions related to problem recognition, causality perception, need for treatment, treatment recommendations, and stigma. Results show that a high percentage of adolescents recognize the interference of order- and aggression-related OCD, consider that a peer with order- or aggression-related OCD needs treatment, and would recommend a formal source of help. Although order symptoms are highly recognized as OCD by adolescents, aggression-related OCD is frequently misidentified as schizophrenia or depression. Results also show higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes in adolescents, associated with aggression-OCD (versus order-OCD), especially in male adolescents and adolescents with no previous experience with mental health services/providers. Results suggest the need to develop school-based programs emphasizing OCD content heterogeneity, especially the aggression, sexual, and religious contents, and work toward eliminating stigma.

  20. Siblicidal aggression and resource monopolization in birds.

    PubMed

    Mock, D W

    1984-08-17

    In Texas, great egret Casmerodius albus chicks attack younger nestmates, often fatally (siblicide). By contrast, the young of neighboring great blue herons Ardea herodias seldom strike or kill siblings. These interspecific differences seem related to prey size: only fish provided by egret parents are small enough for chicks to monopolize (a process facilitated by aggression). Experimentally cross-fostered heron chicks raised on small prey by egret parents became siblicidal, but the reverse procedure of cross-fostering egret chicks did not reduce aggression or siblicide.

  1. Child sex and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as moderators of the relation between internalizing symptoms and aggression.

    PubMed

    Aults, Christopher D; Cooper, Patrick J; Pauletti, Rachel E; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Perry, David G

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have examined sex differences in physiological responding, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to changing stimulus conditions involving situation specific or gender related cues, in children and adolescents. The present study examined whether RSA reactivity moderates the relation between aggression and internalizing symptoms and whether there are sex differences in this effect. Participants were 82 adolescents (M age = 12.1 years; 44 girls) from the general middle-school population. Peer nominations assessed aggression and internalizing symptoms, and RSA reactivity (defined as change in RSA from baseline to task) was recorded while participants anticipated and responded to an 85 dB signaled white-noise burst. For girls, internalizing symptoms were associated with aggression only if girls showed low RSA reactivity from baseline to task; there was no effect for boys. This association was absent when girls showed high RSA reactivity. Thus, child sex appears to influence not only levels of physiological responding but also relations of physiological responding to comorbidity of adjustment problems.

  2. Reciprocal relations between teacher-child conflict and aggressive behavior in kindergarten: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien; Germeijs, Veerle; Luyckx, Koen; Soenens, Bart

    2008-07-01

    In recent developmental theorizing, it has been hypothesized that teacher-child conflict and children's externalizing behavior affect one another reciprocally over time. However, the relation between teacher-child conflict and externalizing behavior has been mainly studied from a unidirectional point of view. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypothesis of bidirectionality by means of a cross-lagged longitudinal design with kindergarten teacher reports on core variables at 3 measurement occasions in 1 year. Structural equation modeling with data of 148 kindergartners provided evidence for the hypothesis of bidirectionality. Specifically, results supported a transactional sequence in which children's aggressive behavior at the beginning of kindergarten led to increases in teacher-child conflict midyear, which in turn led to an increase of aggressive behavior at the end of the kindergarten school year.

  3. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  4. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  5. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and the Development of Relational and Physical Aggression: The Importance of a Gender-Informed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Cassidy, Adam R.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the associations between maltreatment and aggression using a gender-informed approach. Peer ratings, peer nominations, and counselor reports of aggression were collected on 211 maltreated and 199 nonmaltreated inner-city youth (M age = 9.9 years) during a summer day camp. Maltreatment was associated with aggressive…

  7. Diet-related modification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, diminishes intercolony aggression.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Kumar, Ranjit; Suib, Steven L; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    Territorial boundaries between conspecific social insect colonies are maintained through a highly developed nestmate recognition system modulated by heritable and, in some instances, nonheritable cues. Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, use both genetic and environmentally derived cues to discriminate nestmates from nonnestmates. We explored the possibility that intraspecific aggression in the Argentine ant might diminish when colonies shared a common diet. After segregating recently field-collected colony pairs into high or moderate aggression categories, we examined the effect of one of three diets: two hydrocarbon-rich insect prey, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa, and an artificial (insect-free) diet, on the magnitude of aggression loss. Aggression diminished between colony pairs that were initially moderately aggressive. However, initially highly aggressive colony pairs maintained high levels of injurious aggression throughout the study, independent of diet type. Each diet altered the cuticular hydrocarbon profile by contributing unique, diet-specific cues. We suggest that acquisition of common exogenous nestmate recognition cues from shared food sources may diminish aggression and promote fusion in neighboring colonies of the Argentine ant.

  8. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Torrecillas, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    2004-03-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N=6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N=6 pairs). A pigeon in each pair received an s.c. dose of naloxone (1 mg kg(-1) ml saline(-1)) and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min) were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 +/- 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 +/- 6.6 s; P<0.05) and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 +/- 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 +/- 2.4 s; P<0.05) than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 +/- 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 +/- 8.0 s; P<0.05). The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  9. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  10. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  11. Screening and Brief Intervention for Substance Misuse: Does It Reduce Aggression and HIV-Related Risk Behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180

  12. Relation between aggression exposure in adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress symptoms: Moderating role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Barry, Samantha A; Rabkin, Ari N; Olezeski, Christy L; Rivers, Alison J; Gordis, Elana B

    2015-03-15

    The present study examines the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), on the link between family aggression experienced during adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms during young adulthood. Participants completed retrospective self-report measures of interparental aggression and harsh parenting exposure during adolescence and measures of current posttraumatic stress symptoms. RSA indexed PNS activity. Among females, the three-way interaction between harsh parenting, interparental aggression, and resting RSA was significant in accounting for young adulthood PTSD symptoms. At higher values of resting RSA and higher levels of interparental aggression exposure, harsh parenting experienced during adolescence was positively associated with adulthood PTSD symptoms. Among males, adolescent aggression exposure and resting RSA did not significantly account for variation in adulthood PTSD symptoms. Thus, this study suggests that resting PNS activity may play an important role in the relationship between stressors during adolescence and later PTSD in females.

  13. Psychopathy and the Prediction of Alcohol-Related Physical Aggression: The Roles of Impulsive Antisociality and Fearless Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica L.; Giancola, Peter R.; Lance, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that individual difference factors modulate aggression under the acute effects of alcohol. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that one core dimension of psychopathy, Impulsive Antisociality, would modulate intoxicated aggression, whereas another dimension, Fearless Dominance, would not. Methods Participants were 516 young social drinkers (253 men and 263 women). Psychopathy was measured using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996). Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, aggression was measured with a task in which participants administered and received electric shocks to/from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Results Hierarchical regression analyses supported our hypothesis: Impulsive Antisociality predicted aggression under alcohol, whereas Fearless Dominance did not. Conclusions Persons who tend to endorse antisocial and impulsive externalizing behaviors appear to be at greater risk for aggression under the acute influence of alcohol. PMID:22959485

  14. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  15. On the Association Between Self-Reported Own- and Other-Gender Similarity and the Use of Physical and Relational Aggression in Sixth Grade Children.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Naomi C Z; Martin, Carol Lynn; Gallagher, Annabella M

    2016-10-01

    The goal was to assess the association between felt similarity to each gender (an aspect of gender identity) and girls' and boys' differential use of relational versus physical aggression. We extend past research on gender differences in the use of aggression by expanding the gender dichotomy and allowing for more variations in an individual's gender identity. Students (N = 414, 47 % female, 6th grade) reported how similar they felt to both their own- and other-gender peers, from which cluster analyses derived four typologies of perceived gender similarity (those who feel similar to their own-gender group; those who feel similar to the other-gender group; those who feel similar to both gender groups; those who feel similar to neither gender group). Peers reported which classmates were relationally and physically aggressive. Analyses compared how girls and boys in each typology of gender similarity differed in their use of relational and physical aggression. Results indicated that most children were engaged in gender normative aggression more than gender non-normative aggression (with the notable exception of low-gender similar girls). Findings were discussed in terms of their importance both for examining a broad spectrum of gender similarity and for understanding the use of aggressive behavior among children.

  16. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  18. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  19. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  20. Arousal, Anxiety, Aggression, and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Philip H.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of an aggressive habit and emtional arousal, measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report, on two types of attitude change. Psychological arousal was positively related to degree of influence by the reflaxation communication. (DB)

  1. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Maternal Attachment Buffers the Association Between Exposure to Violence and Youth Attitudes About Aggression.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jessica; Grych, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative and cumulative predictive power of parent-child, interparental, and community aggression on youths' perceptions of the acceptability of aggression between peers and siblings. The potential for mother-child attachment to buffer the effects of violence on aggressive attitudes was tested, as well as the link between aggressive attitudes and aggressive behaviors. A diverse sample of 148 children (ages 9-14) completed measures of interparental, parent-child, and community aggression; a measure of mother-child attachment quality; and a measure of aggressive behaviors. Participants also rated the acceptability of aggressive interactions between two peers and two siblings in written vignettes. Mothers completed a measure of their child's aggressive behaviors. Youths' violence exposure was related to perceptions of aggression as more acceptable, with parent-child aggression having the only unique association. Maternal attachment buffered the relation between exposure to community violence and perceived acceptability of aggression, which predicted decreased aggression. When exposed to high levels of community violence, youths with more secure maternal attachment perceived aggression as less acceptable than youths with less secure attachment and, in turn, displayed fewer aggressive behaviors. Interventions that focus on strengthening the caregiver-child relationship in children exposed to violence may reduce aggressive behaviors by interrupting the development of aggressive attitudes.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  4. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  5. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  6. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  7. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.

  8. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  9. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine.

  10. Emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in preschoolers: the mediating role of social information processing.

    PubMed

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-02-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision) was measured from children's responses to hypothetical social conflicts. Findings revealed that the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was direct and not mediated by SIP biases (i.e., aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision). Results are discussed from a theoretical and methodological perspective.

  11. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  12. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  13. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  14. Alcohol use and perceived social and emotional consequences among perpetrators of general and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relation among alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression expectancies, and the perceived negative consequences of perpetrating general and sexual aggression. Participants (N = 2,941; 59% female) were incoming college freshmen who reported on the last 3 months of their senior year of high school. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses for general aggression reveal that heavy alcohol consumption at the time of the aggression and strong alcohol-related aggression expectancies were associated with more frequent social and emotional consequences. For sexual aggression, similar regression analyses found that any alcohol use at the time of the aggression, but not outcome expectancies, was associated with social and emotional consequences. Among individuals who perpetrated general and sexual aggression, consuming alcohol at the time of the aggression was positively associated with perceived negative social and emotional consequences. Results do not support the idea that alcohol is used as an excuse for aggressive behavior.

  15. Losing one’s Cool: Social Competence as a Novel Inverse Predictor of Provocation-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Hopkins, Kay; Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup

    2013-01-01

    Provocations and frustrating events can trigger an urge to act aggressively. Such behaviors can be controlled, but perhaps more so for people who can better distinguish effective from ineffective courses of action. The present three studies (total N = 285) introduce a scenario-based measure of this form of social competence. In Study 1, higher levels of social competence predicted lower levels of trait anger. Study 2 presented provocation scenarios and asked people whether they would engage in direct, indirect, and symbolic forms of aggression when provoked. Social competence was inversely predictive of all forms of aggressive responding. Study 3 focused on reactions to frustrating events in daily life. Such events were predictive of hostile behavior and cognitive failures particularly at low levels of social competence. The research establishes that social competence can be assessed in an objective manner and that variations in it are systematically predictive of reactive aggression. PMID:23754040

  16. Identifying component-processes of executive functioning that serve as risk factors for the alcohol-aggression relation.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Godlaski, Aaron J; Roth, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    The present investigation determined how different component-processes of executive functioning (EF) served as risk factors for intoxicated aggression. Participants were 512 (246 males and 266 females) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) that assesses nine EF components. After the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities and durations administered to the opponent. Although a general BRIEF-A EF construct consisting of all nine components predicted intoxicated aggression, the best predictor involved one termed the Behavioral Regulation Index that comprises component processes such as inhibition, emotional control, flexible thinking, and self-monitoring.

  17. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Lorant, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.

  18. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  19. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  20. [Validity of the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire for 5-10 Graders (RPA 5-10)].

    PubMed

    Beckers, Leif; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A precondition of an appropriate treatment of aggressive children and youth is a specific diagnosis. The Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire for 5-10 Graders (RPA 5-10) assesses reactive and proactive aggression and different facets of the subtypes such as angry-aggression, defensive attribution of aggression, obtaining of resources and power/domination-aggression. This study proves the validity of the questionnaire by differential correlates based on a sample of 9 to 17 year-old students (N = 250). The scales of the RPA 5-10 were associated with anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression, conduct problems and decreased prosocial behaviour. Reactive aggression but not proactive aggression was related to hostility, emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems. The relations between reactive aggression and anger and emotional symptoms are based on angry-aggression. Contrary to predictions hyperactivity/inattention was associated with reactive but also with proactive aggression.

  1. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  2. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  3. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  4. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  5. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  6. Aggressions and size-related fecundity of queenless workers in the ant Cataglyphis cursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clémencet, Johanna; Rome, Quentin; Fédérici, Pierre; Doums, Claudie

    2008-02-01

    In social hymenoptera, the reproductive division of labor is often linked to differences in individual body size with the reproductive caste (the queen) being larger than the workers. Likewise, the reproductive potential may vary with size within the worker caste and could affect the evolution of worker size in social insects. Here, we tested the relationship between worker size and reproductive potential in the facultative parthenogenetic ant Cataglyphis cursor. Colonies are headed by a multiply mated queen, but workers can produce gynes (virgin queens) and workers by thelytokous parthenogenesis after the queen’s death. We observed the behaviour of workers ( n = 357) until the production of gynes (212 h over 3 months) in an orphaned colony (mated queen not present). The size of workers was measured, and their paternal lineage determined using six microsatellite markers, to control for an effect of patriline. Larger workers were more likely to reproduce and lay more eggs indicating that individual level selection could take place. However, paternal lineage had no effect on the reproductive potential and worker size. From the behavioural and genetic data, we also show for the first time in this species, evidence of aggressive interactions among workers and a potential for nepotism to occur in orphaned colonies, as the five gynes produced belonged to a single paternal lineage.

  7. Some relations between classically conditioned aggression and conditioned suppression in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hake, D F; Campbell, R L

    1980-01-01

    During three experiments with squirrel monkeys, stimulus and shock pairings were given in the presence of a bite tube. Experiments 1 and 2 used a conditioned-suppression procedure in which bar pressing was reinforced with food. A transparent shield prevented biting of the bar. When the stimulus was paired with shock, bar pressing decreased (conditioned suppression) and tube biting increased during the stimulus (classically conditioned aggression). When the bite tube was removed on alternate sessions in Experiment 2, there was more suppression when the tube was present, thus suggesting that biting competed with bar pressing. However, this simple competing-response interpretation was complicated by the findings of Experiment 3 where, with naive monkeys, bar pressing was never reinforced with food, yet bar pressing was induced during the stimulus and was highest when the bite tube was absent. The fact that stimulus-induced bar pressing developed inciated that bar pressing in conditioned-suppression procedures, suppressed or not, may be maintained by two types of control--the food reinforcer and induced CS control. The higher rate of induced bar pressing during the stimulus with the bite tube absent confounds a simple competing response interpretation of conditioned suppression. It suggests that shock-induced responses during conditioned suppression could be both contributing to and competing with responding maintained by food, with the net effect depending on specific but ill-defined features of the situation. PMID:7190996

  8. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  9. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  10. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  11. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  12. 22 CFR 213.11 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation... Collection § 213.11 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) USAID takes actions and effective... compromise, termination or suspension of collection actions is set out in detail. This...

  13. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  14. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  15. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  16. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  17. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.

  18. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  19. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  20. Aggressive prolactinoma in a child related to germline mutation in the ARYL hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana Ansaneli; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Vêncio, Sergio Alberto Cunha; Jacomini, Clausmir Zaneti; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a familial screening for AIP mutations in the context of aggressive prolactinoma in childhood. A 12-year-old boy, presented headaches and bilateral hemianopsia. He had adequate height and weight for his age (50(th) percentile), Tanner stage G1 P1. His bone age was 10 years. Prolactin was 10.560 ng/mL (3-25), FSH and LH were undetectable, IGF-1, TSH, Free T4, ACTH, and cortisol were within normal ranges. MRI showed a pituitary macroadenoma, 5.3 X 4.0 X 3.5 cm with compression of the optic chiasm, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, encasement of carotids, and extension to clivus. Surgical debulking was performed. Resistance to cabergoline was characterized and he was submitted to two surgeries and radiotherapy. Immunohistochemical evaluation included prolactin, ACTH, GH, FSH, LH,AIP, c-erb B2, Ki-67, and p53. Genomic DNA was isolated from the index case and 48 relatives, PCR and sequencing were performed.A germline A195V mutation in AIP was identified in the index case and in five asymptomatic relatives. Germline mutations in the AIP gene may be involved in the predisposition to pituitary adenoma formation, as cause or co-factor in pathogenesis of aggressive tumors in young patients.

  1. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  2. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  3. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  4. Student Aggression: Prevention, Management, and Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…

  5. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  6. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  7. Canine aggression toward unfamiliar people and dogs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Lore I

    2008-09-01

    Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs and people is a common problem arising most commonly from fear and territoriality. A number of factors contribute to its development, including socialization deficits, hormones, and genetic and neurophysiologic components. These factors are discussed in this article, as are management and behavior modification approaches for controlling aggression.

  8. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  9. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  10. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  11. The Broader Impact of Friend to Friend (F2F): Effects on Teacher-Student Relationships, Prosocial Behaviors, and Relationally and Physically Aggressive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke S

    2016-07-01

    Girls often harm others' social standing by starting rumors about peers or by excluding others from peer group activities, which is called relational aggression. Although relational aggression is not a new phenomenon, there have been relatively few interventions designed to address this, especially for urban ethnic minority girls. The Friend to Friend (F2F) program, developed through an iterative participatory action research process, has proven to be effective in improving targeted relationally aggressive urban girls' social problem-solving knowledge and decreasing levels of relational aggression, with effects being maintained 1 year after treatment. In the current article, we examine the broader effects of the F2F program. Findings suggest that the indicated F2F program has broader effects such as increasing prosocial behaviors, decreasing relational and physical aggression, and improving teacher-student relationships among non-targeted boys. In addition, the program demonstrated some effects for non-targeted girls including an increase in prosocial behaviors and improved teacher-student relationships. Implications for examining the cost-effectiveness of indicated interventions such as F2F are discussed.

  12. [Aggressive vertebral hemangiomas: optimization of management tactics].

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, M N; Manukovskiĭ, V A; Zharinov, G M; Kandyba, D V; Tsibirov, A A; Savello, A V; Svistov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Today vertebral hemangioma is not completely understood entity, neither its pathogenesis nor optimal treatment is determined. Nowadays in majority of clinics in this country ineffective radiotherapy remains the first-line treatment. We analyzed results of treatment of 205 patients (286 lesions) with aggressive hemangiomas operated in Department of Neurosurgery of Military Medical Academy and Department of Nuclear Medicine of of Russian Scientific Center of Radiological and Surgical Technologies (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) since 1999 till 2009. Percutaneus vertebroplasty was performed in 167 lesions, radiotherapy was applied in 119 aggressive hemangiomas. Vertebroplasty is more effective for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas in comparison with radiotherapy. Signs of hemangiomas aggression, indications for surgery, and tactics of management were determined. Use of percutaneous vertebroplasty for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas resulted in fast recovery of the patients. This procedure is minimally invasive, it reduces hospital stay and duration of recovery.

  13. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.

  14. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gavin M.; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good. PMID:26982704

  15. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Gavin M; Vander Meiden, Laura N

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  16. Aggression as positive reinforcement in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in the behavior-analytic literature, a label that bares a striking resemblance to biobehavioral explanations of reward-seeking behaviors. Biobehavioral studies have revealed that aggression activates the same endogenous brain mechanisms as primary reinforcers like food. Therefore, integrating brain-environment explanations would result in a better understanding of the functional mechanisms associated with nonsocial aggression. The purpose of this paper was to explore aggression as a reinforcing consequence for reinforcement-seeking behaviors in people with intellectual disabilities. First, the literature establishing aggression as reinforcement for arbitrary responding will be reviewed. Next, the reward-related biological process associated with aggression was described. Finally, the paper discusses what might be done to assess and treat aggression maintained by nonsocial reinforcement.

  17. Empathic Accuracy and Aggression in Couples: Individual and Dyadic Links

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shiri; Schulz, Marc S.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Halassa, Muhannad; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined links between intimate partner aggression and empathic accuracy—how accurately partners can read one another’s emotions—during highly affective moments from couples’ (N = 109) video recall of laboratory-based discussions of upsetting events. Less empathic accuracy between partners was generally related to higher levels of aggression by both partners. More specific patterns emerged based on the type of aggression and emotion being expressed. Women’s poorer ability to read their partners’ vulnerable and positive emotions was linked to both men’s and women’s greater physical and psychological aggression. Moreover, women’s inaccuracy in reading their partner’s hostility was linked to women’s greater psychological aggression toward the men. Men’s inaccuracy in reading their partner’s hostility was linked to women’s (not men’s) greater physical and psychological aggression. The results suggest important nuances in the links between empathic inaccuracy and aggression, and implications for prevention and treatment of partner aggression are discussed. PMID:26339100

  18. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  19. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.

  20. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  1. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  2. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  3. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-12-02

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  6. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression.

  7. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-09-05

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

  9. Situational and respondent-level motives for drinking and alcohol-related aggression: a multilevel analysis of drinking events in a sample of Canadian university students.

    PubMed

    Mihic, Ljiljana; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F; Demers, Andrée

    2009-03-01

    Situational drinking motives (i.e., motives specific to the drinking situation) as well as respondent-level drinking motives (i.e., usual drinking motives across drinking situations) were examined in terms of their relations with aggression experienced by university students. Secondary, multi-level analyses were conducted on the Canadian Campus Survey (CCS), a national survey of 40 Canadian universities conducted between March 1 and April 30, 2004 (N=6,282). For their three most recent drinking events, students reported their motive for drinking (i.e., situational motive) and whether they had an argument/fight. Respondent-level drinking motives were computed by averaging motives across drinking events. Drinking to cope at the situational-level increased the likelihood of aggression. Respondent-level enhancement motives also increased the risk of aggression. Aesthetic motives were important at both situational and respondent levels decreasing the risk for alcohol-related aggression. Gender did not moderate these relations. These results suggest that prevention programming might benefit from a focus on altering drinking motives, or their underlying causes, in order to reduce alcohol-related aggression among young adults.

  10. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

  11. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  12. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  13. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression.

  14. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  15. Early rearing experience is related to altered aggression and vasopressin production following chronic social isolation in the prairie vole.

    PubMed

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L

    2015-04-15

    Parent-offspring interactions early in life can permanently shape the developmental path of those offspring. Manipulation of maternal care has long been used to alter the early-life environment of infants and impacts their later social behavior, aggression, and physiology. More recently, naturally occurring variation in maternal licking and grooming behavior has been shown to result in differences in social behavior and stress physiology in adult offspring. We have developed a model of natural variation in biparental care in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and have demonstrated an association between the amount of early care received and later social behavior. In this study, we investigate the relationship between early life care and later aggression and neuroendocrine responses following chronic social isolation. Male and female offspring were reared by their high-contact (HC) or low-contact (LC) parents, then housed for 4 weeks post-weaning in social isolation. After 4 weeks, half of these offspring underwent an intrasexual aggression test. Brains and plasma were collected to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone (CORT). Male offspring of LC parents engaged in more aggressive behavior in the intrasexual aggression test compared to HC males. Female offspring of HC parents had higher plasma CORT levels after chronic social isolation and increases in the number and density of AVP-immunopositive cells in the supraoptic nucleus following an intrasexual aggression test. These findings show that the impact of early life biparental care on behavior and HPA activity following a social stressor is both sex-dependent and early experience-specific.

  16. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence.

  17. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  18. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses.

  19. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  20. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  1. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  2. Links of justice and rejection sensitivity with aggression in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence.

  3. Aggression in Huntington's disease: a systematic review of rates of aggression and treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Caroline A; Sewell, Katherine; Brown, Anahita; Churchyard, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggression is commonly reported in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). While correlating factors for aggression are often speculated about, features that are associated with, and contribute to, aggression in this population have not been clearly determined. This systematic review investigates rates of aggression and treatment options for aggression in HD. A number of key findings were revealed. Studies reporting on rates of aggression revealed that its prevalence is high, falling between 22 and 66 percent in the majority of studies. Aggression may be more common in males with HD, and is also found in higher rates in individuals who experience frequent falls, have obsessive-compulsive symptoms and suicidal ideation. There is little research investigating antecedents for aggression in HD. A wide variety of psychotropic medications have been reported in the literature to treat individuals with HD and aggressive behaviour. However, due to methodological limitations, no treatment recommendations can be made, based on the current literature. Two non-medication therapies have been investigated, behaviour support and sensory modulation intervention. However, again, due to methodological limitations with these studies, further research is needed before they can be recommended as frontline interventions. This review highlights the need for further methodologically rigorous studies investigating the treatment of aggression in HD.

  4. Students' state motivation and instructors' use of verbally aggressive messages.

    PubMed

    Myers, S A; Rocca, K A

    2000-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between college students' (107 men, 123 women) state motivation and their instructors' perceived use of 10 verbally aggressive messages, e.g., attacks on competence, character, background, and physical appearance; malediction, teasing, ridicule, threats, swearing, or nonverbal symbols. Significant negative correlations were obtained between students' state motivation and instructors' use of seven verbally aggressive messages: attacks on competence, character, or background, malediction, ridicule, threats, and nonverbal symbols. These findings suggest that these types of verbally aggressive messages are related to students' state motivation whereas attacks on physical appearance, teasing, and swearing by the instructor are not related to students' state motivation.

  5. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations.

  6. Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Loeber, R; Hay, D

    1997-01-01

    Different manifestations of aggression from childhood to early adulthood are reviewed to establish how early manifestations are related to later manifestations. Similarities and differences in manifestations of aggression between the two genders are noted. Developmental sequences and pathways from minor aggression to violence are highlighted. Long-term escalation is contrasted with short-term escalation at older ages. Although studies have emphasized high stability of aggression over time, data show that a substantial proportion of aggressive youth desist over time. Temperamental, emotional, and cognitive aspects of aggression are reviewed, either as precursors or co-occurring conditions to aggression. Selected processes in the realms of the family, peers, and neighborhoods are highlighted that are known to be associated with juvenile aggression. Cumulative, long-term causes are contrasted with short-term causes, and causes associated with desistance in aggression are reviewed.

  7. An α-synuclein gene (SNCA) polymorphism moderates the association of PTSD symptomatology with hazardous alcohol use, but not with aggression-related measures.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Casey R; Fanning, Jennifer R; Liang, Tiebing; Leventhal, Adam M; Berman, Mitchell E

    2015-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often precedes comorbid substance use disorder and has been associated with aggression. Prior research has evidenced that alcohol use and other externalizing behaviors share genetic factors with PTSD; however, few studies have examined if specific genes are associated with externalizing behaviors in PTSD. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether an α-synuclein gene polymorphism (SNCA rs356195) moderates the association of PTSD symptomatology with externalizing behaviors. We examined the separate and combined effects of PTSD symptomatology and SNCA rs356195 on alcohol- and aggression-related measures in nonclinical participants (N=138 European Americans; 15 diagnosed with probable PTSD). Probable PTSD status and SNCA were both associated with externalizing measures. SNCA also moderated the association of PTSD symptomatology with hazardous alcohol use, but not with aggression-related measures. Current findings suggest that variations in SNCA may increase the likelihood that PTSD symptomatology results in excessive alcohol use.

  8. Low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in aggressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YOUTU; BAI, JIWEI; HONG, LINCHUAN; LIU, CHUNHUI; YU, SHENGYUAN; YU, GUOQIANG; ZHANG, YAZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a specific molecular marker for aggressiveness of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is urgently required in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFPAs. In the present study, low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in NFPAs was demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The results confirmed an abnormal accumulation of free β-catenin in the nuclei of NFPAs, which is the core step for the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Furthermore, cyclin D1 and c-Myc, the downstream proteins of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway, were overexpressed in aggressive NFPAs. These findings demonstrated the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway in aggressive NFPAs. In addition, sFRP2 expression was observed to be inversely correlated to the aggressiveness of NFPAs. Therefore, sFRP2 may act as a tumor suppressor through modulation of the cellular cytosolic pool of β-catenin in NFPAs. Furthermore, the expression of sFRP2 may serve as a biomarker for NFPAs aggressiveness and prognosis. PMID:27347125

  9. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prefrontal brain asymmetry and aggression in imprisoned violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; van der Heiden, Linda; Várkuti, Bálint; Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-05-02

    Anterior brain asymmetry, assessed through the alpha and beta band in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with approach-related behavioral dispositions, particularly with aggression in the general population. To date, the association between frontal asymmetry and aggression has not been examined in highly aggressive groups. We examined the topographic characteristics of alpha and beta activity, the relation of both asymmetry metrics to trait aggression, and whether alpha asymmetry was extreme in anterior regions according to clinical standards in a group of imprisoned violent offenders. As expected, these individuals were characterized by stronger right than left-hemispheric alpha activity, which was putatively extreme in anterior regions in one third of the cases. We also report that in line with observations made in the general population, aggression was associated with stronger right-frontal alpha activity in these violent individuals. This suggests that frontal alpha asymmetry, as a correlate of trait aggression, might be utilizable as an outcome measure in studies which assess the effects of anti-aggressiveness training in violent offenders.

  11. Registration of aggressive incidents in an adolescent forensic psychiatric unit and implications for further practice.

    PubMed

    Tremmery, S; Danckaerts, M; Bruckers, L; Molenberghs, G; De Hert, M; Wampers, M; De Varé, J; de Decker, A

    2014-09-01

    Although aggression is part of daily life in psychiatric units for adolescents, empirical data on its prevalence are sparse. Only few studies have described prevalence of aggressive incidents in adolescent psychiatric wards, and data in forensic psychiatric care are even more limited. Available studies reported high prevalence rates of aggression, ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 incidents of aggression per day across (forensic) child and adolescent psychiatric units. Between 27 and 78 % of all admitted youth committed an aggressive act. In this study, we collected systematically registered data of all aggressive incidents from the first 2 years (2010-2012) on a newly established forensic adolescent psychiatric unit, which used a formal aggression management program embedded in the social competence model, which is based on early intervention in the 'chain of behavior' to prevent any further escalation. The inclusion of also minor aggressive incidents is unique in the literature and the clinical relevance is highlighted. A mean of one incident a day took place, with each adolescent involved in at least one incident. Notably, 1.7 aggressive incidents per month made seclusion of restraint use necessary. Based on the social competence theory, the aggression management model suggests intervening early in the cascade of aggression, in order to prevent further escalation and reduce the need for intrusive interventions. Evidence supported that aggression is a contextual event, as external factors clearly influence the incidence of aggression. Aggression management should be built on both relational and structural security.

  12. Violent Victimization, Aggression, and Parent-Adolescent Relations: Quality Parenting as a Buffer for Violently Victimized Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Mario J.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Prospective associations between violent victimization, the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and the subsequent onset of violent aggression were examined. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), participants were divided into violent and non-violent cohorts based on whether they had committed an act…

  13. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Parrott, Dominic J

    2014-04-21

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men's adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21-30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men's risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men's adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts.

  14. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  15. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  16. Individualism and Socioeconomic Diversity at School as Related to Perceptions of the Frequency of Peer Aggression in Fifteen Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzer, Melissa M.; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine two aspects of context for peer aggression: national individualism and distributions of socioeconomic status in the school. School administrators for each school reported on their perceptions of the frequency of bullying and violence in their school. The sample comprised 990 school principals/headmasters…

  17. Relations between Theory of Mind and Indirect and Physical Aggression in Kindergarten: Evidence of the Moderating Role of Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…

  18. Temporal Ordering Effects of Adolescent Depression, Relational Aggression, and Victimization over Six Waves: Fully Latent Reciprocal Effects Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Parker, Philip D.; Parada, Roberto H.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah

    2016-01-01

    The temporal ordering of depression, aggression, and victimization has important implications for theory, policy, and practice. For a representative sample of high school students (Grades 7-10; N = 3,793) who completed the same psychometrically strong, multiitem scales 6 times over a 2-year period, there were reciprocal effects between…

  19. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  20. Frontal white matter changes and aggression in methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Katharina; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J; Uhlmann, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use can lead to white matter (WM) changes and increased levels of aggression. While previous studies have examined WM abnormalities relating to cognitive impairment, associations between WM integrity and aggression in MA dependence remain unclear. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate WM changes in 40 individuals with MA dependence and 40 matched healthy controls. A region of interest (ROI) approach using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) in FSL was performed. We compared fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel diffusivity (λ║) and perpendicular diffusivity (λ┴) in WM tracts of the frontal brain. A relationship of WM with aggression scores from the Buss & Perry Questionnaire was investigated. Mean scores for anger (p < 0.001), physical aggression (p = 0.032) and total aggression (p = 0.021) were significantly higher in the MA group relative to controls. ROI analysis showed increased MD (U = 439.5, p = 0.001) and λ┴ (U = 561.5, p = 0.021) values in the genu of the corpus callosum, and increased MD (U = 541.5, p = 0.012) values in the right cingulum in MA dependence. None of the WM changes were significantly associated with aggression scores. This study provides evidence of frontal WM changes and increased levels of aggression in individuals with MA dependence. The lack of significant associations between WM and aggressive behaviour may reflect methodological issues in measuring such behaviour, or may indicate that the neurobiology of aggression is not simply correlated with WM damage but is more complex.

  1. Aggressive responding in abstinent heroin addicts: neuroendocrine and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Moi, Gabriele; Bussandri, Monica; Bubici, Cristina; Mossini, Matteo; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Brambilla, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Objective measures of experimentally induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, in comparison with 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were preliminarily submitted to DSM-IV interviews, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participant. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response). Money-earning responses were not different in drug-free heroin addicts and controls during the first two sessions and significantly lower during the third session in heroin-dependent subjects (t=2.99, P<.01). Aggressive responses were significantly higher (F=4.9, P<.01) in heroin addicted individuals, in comparison with controls. During the experimentally induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) concentrations increased less significantly, and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), increased more significantly in abstinent heroin-dependent subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamine changes, BDHI "direct" and "irritability" scores, MMPI "psychopathic deviate" scores in heroin-dependent subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between heroin-exposure extent (substance abuse history duration) and aggressiveness levels. The present findings suggest that heroin-dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relation with monoamine hyperreactivity, after long-term opiate discontinuation. Aggressiveness in heroin addicts seems to be related more to the

  2. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma

    2016-01-21

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

  3. Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects-all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment.

  4. Human Aggression Across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects—all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment. PMID:22078481

  5. The Associations of Self-Reported and Peer-Reported Relational Aggression with Narcissism and Self-Esteem among Adolescents in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism…

  6. A Prospective Sequential Analysis of the Relation between Physical Aggression and Peer Rejection Acts in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chin-Chih; McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie; Symons, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: In early childhood education, the social ecology of the child is considered critical for healthy behavioral development. There is, however, relatively little information based on directly observing what children do that describes the moment-by-moment (i.e., sequential) relation between physical aggression and peer rejection acts…

  7. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  8. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  9. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  10. GC Gene Polymorphisms and Vitamin D-Binding Protein Levels Are Related to the Risk of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenli; Wang, Xian'e; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore whether GC (group-specific component) rs17467825, rs4588, and rs7041 polymorphisms are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Methods. This case-control study recruited 372 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (group AgP) and 133 periodontal healthy subjects (group HP). GC rs17467825, rs4588, and rs7041 genotypes and plasmatic vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were measured. Analysis of single SNP and multiple SNPs was performed and relevance between plasmatic DBP and haplotypes was analyzed. Results. GC rs17467825 GG genotype was statistically associated with lower risk for generalized aggressive periodontitis under the recessive model (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30–0.92, p = 0.028). GC rs17467825 and rs4588 had strong linkage disequilibrium with r2 ≥ 0.8 and D′ ≥ 0.8. Haplotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) GC was associated with the less risk for generalized aggressive periodontitis (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09–0.96, p = 0.043). In group AgP, individuals with combined genotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) AG+CA had significantly lower plasmatic DBP level than those with the other two combined genotypes (AG+CA versus AA+CC p = 0.007; AG+CA versus GG+AA p = 0.026). Conclusions. GC rs17467825 genotype GG and haplotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) GC are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The association may be acquired through regulating DBP levels. The functions of GC gene and DBP in inflammatory disease need to be further studied. PMID:28018430

  11. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  12. Treating Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Forensic psychiatric units are high-risk environments for aggressive behavior. Many elements are necessary for the successful reduction or elimination of aggression in the process of creating a safe treatment environment. Many specific interventions have been attempted over the years with various degrees of, usually limited, success. Tolisano et al. present an integrated behavioral approach with solid theoretical underpinnings and opportunities to support significant safety improvements for select patients, albeit with several caveats.

  13. Social status and aggressive and disruptive behavior in girls: individual, group, and classroom influences.

    PubMed

    Estell, David B; Farmer, Thomas W; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how the kind of status measured and the social ecology affect the association between overt aggression and social status in a sample of 187 3rd grade girls. Cluster analysis uncovered aggressive-popular, aggressive-unpopular, and prosocial-popular configurations. Although likeability was related solely to prosocial behavior, other measures of status co-occurred with both prosocial and aggressive behavior. Peer-group behavior complemented that of individuals, though peer-group and classroom acceptance of aggression were not related to cluster prevalence.

  14. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression.

  15. Adolescents' Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior: Associations with Jealousy and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culotta, Carmen M.; Goldstein, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined how relational aggression, physical aggression, and proactive prosocial behavior were associated with jealousy and social anxiety in a diverse sample of 60 middle school students. After the authors controlled for gender and race, jealousy predicted relational aggression and proactive prosocial behavior, but it did not predict…

  16. Media Violence Associations with the Form and Function of Aggression among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association between media violence exposure (MVE) and physical aggression (PA) has been well studied, few studies have examined the link between MVE and other subtypes of aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between MVE and reactive and proactive subtypes of both PA and relational aggression (RA). Six…

  17. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-09-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression.

  18. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  19. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  20. Modeling PTSD symptom clusters, alcohol misuse, anger, and depression as they relate to aggression and suicidality in returning U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Suicidal ideation and aggression are common correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. The existing literature has established a strong link between these factors, but a more nuanced understanding of how PTSD influences them is needed. The current study examined the direct and indirect relationships between PTSD symptom clusters and suicidal ideation in general aggression (without a specified target) regarding depression, alcohol misuse, and trait anger. Participants were 359 (92% male) U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans. Path analysis results suggested that the PTSD numbing cluster was directly (β = .28, p < .01) and indirectly (β = .17, p = .001) related through depression. The PTSD hyperarousal cluster was indirectly related to suicidal ideation through depression (β = .13, p < .001). The PTSD reexperiencing cluster was directly related to aggression (β = .17, p < .05), whereas the PTSD numbing and hyperarousal clusters were indirectly related to aggression through trait anger (β = .05, p < .05; β = .20, p < .001). These findings indicate that adjunct treatments aimed at stabilizing anger, depression, and alcohol misuse may help clinicians ameliorate the maladaptive patterns often observed in veterans. These results also point to specific manifestations of PTSD and co-occurring conditions that may inform clinicians in their attempts to identify at risk veterans and facilitate preventative interventions.