Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive behavior problems

  1. Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Stifter, Cynthia A; Coccia, Michael A; Cox, Martha J

    2011-05-01

    The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children's early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

  2. Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

  3. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions. PMID:16600064

  4. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  5. Prospective Associations Among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We controlled for other PD symptoms and demographic variables. BPD symptoms at baseline were associated with interpersonal sensitivity, interpersonal ambivalence, interpersonal aggression, need for social approval, and lack of sociability 6 months later. In turn, interpersonal sensitivity predicted not experiencing physical aggression, interpersonal aggression predicted experiencing physical aggression and perpetrating both psychological and physical aggression, need for social approval predicted experiencing both psychological and physical aggression, and lack of sociability predicted perpetrating physical aggression 2 years later. Results demonstrated that interpersonal problems mediated the relationship between BPD and later violent behaviors. Our findings suggest the importance of distinguishing between these groups of aggressive behaviors in terms of etiological pathways, maintenance processes, and treatment interventions. PMID:21859760

  6. Effects of caregiver-implemented aggression reduction procedure on problem behavior of dogs.

    PubMed

    Echterling-Savage, Kristyn; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D; Miller, L Keith; Savage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of companion animals poses a threat to caregivers, other targets of problem behavior (e.g., strangers, other nonhuman animals), and those animals engaging in problem behavior. This study examined the effects of an aggression reduction procedure (ARP) on dog problem behavior. After a baseline condition showing caregivers were unsuccessful in reducing dog aggression and the behaviors preceding aggression, caregivers were trained to implement a procedure to address dog problem behavior in relatively simple contexts. Generalization programming then was used to target caregiver plan implementation and dog problem behavior in more complex contexts. The ARP effectively reduced dog aggression for all dogs. A slight reduction and increased variability in dog precursor behavior was observed when the ARP was implemented. In addition, caregivers and experts rated the goals, procedures, and effects as acceptable. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25401975

  7. Peer Ratings of Aggression: Relation to Social Skills, Behavior Problems, and Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon

    This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…

  8. Aggressive Behavior among Israeli Elementary School Students and Associated Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Tammie; Rahav, Giora; Moldawsky, Ayala

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify aggression patterns among students, compare teachers' and students' reports on aggressiveness, and examine whether emotional and behavioral problems and self-control intercorrelate with aggression and can explain it among students. The study investigated 363 students aged 8 to 11 years and their 12 homeroom teachers in…

  9. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  10. Gender differences in the reciprocal relationships between parental physical aggression and children's externalizing problem behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Zhang, Qing; He, Xiaorui; Zhang, Wenxin

    2011-10-01

    The study examines gender differences in the reciprocal relations between parental physical aggression and child externalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children reported on three forms of their parents' physical aggression toward them (i.e., mild corporal punishment, severe corporal punishment, and physical abuse) and their externalizing problem behavior at two time points, 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that the three types of parental physical aggression predicted child externalizing problem behavior for girls but not boys, whereas child externalizing problem behavior predicted severe corporal punishment and physical abuse for boys but not girls; child externalizing problem behavior did not predict mild corporal punishment for either gender. The findings suggest that the intervention for and prevention of child externalizing problem behavior may be somewhat different for boys and girls in China. PMID:21823794

  11. Family Violence and Children’s Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522

  12. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  14. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  15. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  16. Aggressive Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hagen, Arlene D.; Kriz, Daniel J.; Duvall, Susanne W.; van Santen, Jan; Nigg, Joel; Fair, Damien; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior problems (ABP) are frequent yet poorly understood in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and are likely to co-vary significantly with comorbid problems. We examined the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of ABP in a clinical sample of children with ASD (N = 400; 2–16.9 years). We also investigated whether children with ABP experience more intensive medical interventions, greater impairments in behavioral functioning, and more severe comorbid problems than children with ASD who do not have ABP. One in four children with ASD had Child Behavior Checklist scores on the Aggressive Behavior scale in the clinical range (T-scores ≥ 70). Sociodemographic factors (age, gender, parent education, race, ethnicity) were unrelated to ABP status. The presence of ABP was significantly associated with increased use of psychotropic drugs and melatonin, lower cognitive functioning, lower ASD severity, and greater comorbid sleep, internalizing, and attention problems. In multivariate models, sleep, internalizing, and attention problems were most strongly associated with ABP. These comorbid problems may hold promise as targets for treatment to decrease aggressive behavior and proactively identify high-risk profiles for prevention. PMID:25221619

  17. Aggressive Behavior between Siblings and the Development of Externalizing Problems: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sibling aggression and the development of externalizing problems using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically sensitive design. The sample consisted of 780 adolescents (390 sibling pairs) who participated in 2 waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project.…

  18. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  19. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents. PMID:26641307

  20. Problems in the study of rodent aggression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J; Wall, Philip M; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Laboratory research has produced detailed descriptions of aggression and defense patterns in the rat, mouse, and hamster, showing strong similarities, but also some differences, across these species. Research on target sites for attack, in conjunction with analyses of the situational antecedents of attack behaviors and of responsivity of these to conditions that elicit fear, has also provided a strong basis for analysis of offensive and defensive aggression strategies and for identification of combinations of these modalities such as may occur in maternal aggression. These patterns have been empirically differentiated from phenomena such as play fighting or predation and compared for laboratory rodents and their wild ancestors. An array of tasks, suitable for use with pharmacological and experimental manipulations, is available for analysis of both aggression and defense. These developments should produce a firm basis for research using animal models to analyze a broad array of aggression-related phenomena, including systematic approaches to understanding the normal antecedents and consequences of each of several differentiable types of aggressive behavior. Despite this strong empirical and analytic background, laboratory animal aggression research has been in a period of decline, spanning several decades, relative to comparable research focusing on areas such as sexual behavior or stress. Problems that may have contributed to the relative neglect of aggression research include confusion about the interpretation of different tasks for eliciting aggression; difficulties and labor intensiveness of observational measures needed for an adequate differentiation of offensive and defensive behaviors; analytic difficulties stemming from the sensitivity of offensive aggression to the inhibitory effects of fear or defensiveness; lack of a clear relationship between categories of aggressive behavior as defined in animal studies and those used in human aggression research; and

  1. The role of grandparents in preventing aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems in children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Kathryn; Haight, Wendy L.; Cleeland, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Preventive interventions are urgently needed for children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families, who are at risk for the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavioral problems. This mixed method study explored naturally occurring sources of protection and considers the implications for targeted interventions. Participants were 41 children aged six to 14 years from rural families involved with methamphetamine and the public child welfare system, their primary caregivers, and 19 parents recovering from methamphetamine addiction. When invited during semi-structured interviews to talk about their families, 48% of children spontaneously described socially and emotionally supportive relationships with healthy grandparents. Children’s reports of support from grandparents were associated with lower scores on CBCL Social Problems, [t(37)= 2.23, p<.05 ]; externalizing behaviors, [t(37)= 2.07, p<.05]; and aggressive behaviors, [t(37)= 2.75, p<.01]. When asked to talk about their families, 58% of parents spontaneously described the support their children received from grandparents, and 26% also described the support that they had received from their own grandparents. Children’s and parents’ descriptions of grandparent support suggest how grandparents may protect children from the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems. First, grandparents may prevent obstacles to healthy development by providing their grandchildren with safe shelter and basic child care when parents are incapacitated from substance misuse. Second, they may promote their grandchildren’s positive social-emotional development through supportive relationships. Third, they may promote social competence through enjoyable leisure activities with healthy adults and non-delinquent peers. Understanding naturally occurring sources of protection for children can inform the development of interventions by identifying strengths on which to build, and suggesting

  2. Competence, Problem Behavior, and the Effects of Having No Friends, Aggressive Friends, or Nonaggressive Friends: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Hanneke; Vermande, Marjolijn M.; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relations between competence (academic achievement and social preference) and problem behavior (loneliness and aggression) in 741 elementary school boys and girls in the Netherlands (Grades 1-5). Also, we examined the moderation effects of having no friends, aggressive friends, or nonaggressive friends on the…

  3. M-Rated Video Games and Aggressive or Problem Behavior among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…

  4. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  5. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  6. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  7. The Constructive Control of Aggressive Behavior. Developing Curricula for the Education of Youth in Meeting Modern Problems. Project Termination Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakewood Public Schools, OH.

    The project's purpose was to develop a Grade 1-12 curriculum to assist students in dealing with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors involved in the constructive control of aggression. Approximately 1,870 public and parochial students participated in piloting thecurriculum. Staff from the Lakewood City Schools and The Educational Research Council…

  8. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  9. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  10. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  12. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  13. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  14. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  15. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  16. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  17. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  18. Effective Classroom Strategies for Three Problem Behaviors: Hostile-Aggressive, Passive-Aggressive, and Withdrawn Failure-Image. Occasional Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medick, Jean M.

    This guide involves a synthesis of three inservice models (Glasser's Reality Therapy, Gordon's Teacher Effectiveness Training, and Focus) with the author's knowledge of and experiences with teaching to develop an effective classroom strategy for helping students. This guide concentrates on strategies for dealing with three problem behaviors:…

  19. Reciprocating Risks of Peer Problems and Aggression for Children's Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Chisholm, Courtney A.

    2014-01-01

    Three complementary models of how peer relationship problems (exclusion and victimization) and aggressive behaviors relate to prospective levels of internalizing problems are examined. The additive risks model proposes that peer problems and aggression cumulatively increase risks for internalizing problems. The reciprocal risks model hypothesizes…

  20. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  1. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  2. Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

  3. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  4. Comparison of a Cognitive Re-Appraisal Approach and a Problem-Solving Approach to Improve Social Cognition in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Who Exhibit Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collado-Castillo, Carmen J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been established in the literature that aggressive behaviors in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) represents a high percentage of referrals to mental health services (Davidson, Cain, Sloane-Reeves, Speybroech, Segel, et al., 1994). The results of several studies conducted with children with ID and aggressive behaviors indicate…

  5. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-07-28

    We tested a model that children's tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children's chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child's chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26170281

  6. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T.; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26170281

  7. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  8. Problem Behaviors & Tourette Syndrome. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, Ruth Dowling; And Others

    This pamphlet discusses behavioral problems which are sometimes associated with Tourette Syndrome (TS), along with suggestions for parents to help manage these behaviors. Consideration is given to the following problems: obsessive-compulsive symptoms; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; aggressive and explosive behaviors; self-injurious…

  9. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  10. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes. PMID:25990672

  11. Examining Masculinity Norms, Problem Drinking, and Athletic Involvement as Predictors of Sexual Aggression in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; Mahalik, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Male sexual aggression toward women is a serious social problem, particularly on college campuses. In this study, college men's sexually aggressive behavior and rape myth acceptance were examined using conformity to 11 masculine norms and 2 variables previously linked to sexual aggression: problem drinking and athletic involvement. Results…

  12. Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The Revised Behavior Problem Checklist is used to screen for behavior disorders in K-12 students, develop clinical diagnoses, classify juvenile offenders, and evaluate psychological and pharmacological interventions. The checklist addresses conduct disorder, socialized aggression, attention problems-immaturity, and anxiety-withdrawal. This paper…

  13. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  14. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  15. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  16. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  17. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  18. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  19. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  20. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  1. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. PMID:24452487

  2. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  3. Anger Coping Method and Skill Training for Chinese Children with Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…

  4. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  5. Effects of Aggressive vs. Nonaggressive Films on the Aggressive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Charles

    Examined was the effect of viewing an aggressive film on the behavior of 22 moderately and mildly mentally retarded children (5-11 years old). Ss' doll playing was observed after they viewed a nonaggressive and an aggressive film. Results supported the hypothesis that Ss would exhibit more aggressive behavior following the aggressive than the…

  6. Is there an association between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male) was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. PMID:25767409

  7. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  8. Teacher and Peer Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britsch, Brenda; And Others

    This study investigated neighborhood differences in perceptions of aggressive behavior from teachers and students' peers. Predominantly African American students (n=764) in grades 3 through 5 from 2 urban public schools (29 classrooms) in southern California participated in this study. The neighborhoods surrounding the schools differ substantially…

  9. Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the manifestation of aggressive behavior in children with autism, although it is commonly cited as a significant problem. Existing reports in autism do not emphasize subtypes of aggression, whereas distinguishing forms of aggression is commonplace in the typically developing literature. This study compared a sample of 121…

  10. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  11. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  12. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  13. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  14. Eliminating Problem Behaviors with Positive Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoi, Margaret

    A teacher describes her efforts to deal with an 11-year-old severely emotionally impaired girl in a classroom with other acting out, aggressive students. The girl's behavior problems included breaking, tearing, spitting, swearing, running, and sexual aggression. A positive reinforcedment system was found to be primarily responsible for success in…

  15. Young People's Aggressive Behavior in the Context of the Social Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdov, A. Iu.

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior by young people is one of the most urgent social problems. Rising violent crime among adolescents is being observed over the entire post-Soviet space. Scientists have singled out a number of groups of factors causing an individual to engage in aggressive behavior--biological, genetic, and individual psychological…

  16. Contributing Factors to Aggressive Behaviors in High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing…

  17. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Aggressive Behavior: Impairments in Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Smidts, Diana P.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The question whether executive function (EF) deficits in children are associated with conduct problems remains controversial. Although the origins of aggressive behavior are to be found in early childhood, findings from EF studies in preschool children with aggressive behavior are inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate whether…

  18. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  19. Behavior Genetics of Aggression in Children: Review and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a thorough understanding of factors that influence aggression in children cannot be achieved without including behavior genetic studies that allow examination of the effects of shared versus non-shared environment, as well as genes, on aggressive behaviors. Details the growing body of evidence on the genetic effects on aggression.…

  20. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  1. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  2. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  3. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  4. Links between Preschool Children's Prosocial Skills and Aggressive Conduct Problems: The Contribution of ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  6. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  7. Behavior Problems in Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.

    This paper reviews the problems of antisocial student behavior in schools, tries to identify causes, and examines programs and procedures for remediating and preventing such behavior. This review focuses particularly on senior and junior high schools and all forms of antisocial, aggressive, disruptive behaviors that interfere with school…

  8. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  9. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  10. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. PMID:26075351

  11. Verbal Aggression by Parents and Psychosocial Problems of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses on 3,346 parents with a minor child living at home found that 63 percent reported one or more instances of verbal aggression. Children (of both sexes and all ages) who experienced this frequently exhibited higher rates of physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems than other children. (BRM)

  12. The Impact of High School Teacher Behaviors on Student Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive student behaviors are of concern to every school in the nation. Discovering ways to help teachers prevent and/or respond to such student behavior is of great importance. This reported research sought to discover if and how teacher behaviors impact student aggression in the classroom. In doing so, the researcher did not set out to blame…

  13. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt, 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome. PMID:24906982

  14. Verbal aggression by parents and psychosocial problems of children.

    PubMed

    Vissing, Y M; Straus, M A; Gelles, R J; Harrop, J W

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of data on a nationally representative sample of 3,346 American parents with a child under 18 living at home found that 63% reported one or more instances of verbal aggression, such as swearing and insulting the child. Children who experienced frequent verbal aggression from parents (as measured by the Conflict Tactic Scales) exhibited higher rates of physical aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems than other children. This relationship is robust since it applies to preschool-, elementary school-, and high school-age children, to both boys and girls, and to children who were also physically punished as well as those who were not. Children who experienced both verbal aggression and severe physical violence exhibited the highest rates of aggression, delinquency, and interpersonal problems. PMID:2043974

  15. A Review of Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Aggression in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Julie; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Aggression can present as a significant problem behavior in individuals with a diagnosis of developmental disability. Much research has focused on the prevalence of aggression in individuals with varying degrees of severity of intellectual disability (AD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and co-morbidity of ID and ASD. Research has also focused on…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  17. Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking stress exposure to adolescent aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Herts, Kate L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z = 2.35, p = 0.019) and stressful life events (z = 2.32, p = 0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  18. Genetic variations in the serotoninergic system and environmental factors contribute to aggressive behavior in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; Chen, Wen; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a major public health problem worldwide and has been associated with many gene variants, especially those related to the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, and environmental factors. However, the overall contribution of serotonin-related genes to aggressive behavior is not well understood. With a sample of 478 healthy Chinese volunteers, this study investigated the relation between aggressive behavior and genetic variations of the serotoninergic system (as characterized by 129 representative polymorphisms) interacting with environmental factors (parental warmth and acceptance; stressful life events). We adopted a system-level approach to identify SNPs and environmental factors associated with aggressive behavior, and estimated their overall contribution to aggressive behavior using multiple regression, which was then verified by permutation analysis. We identified 12 SNPs that made statistically significant contributions to aggressive behavior. Next, main effects, interactions among these SNPs, and interactions between these SNPs and environmental factors were assessed using multiple regression. The final model accounted for approximately 19% of the variance for aggressive behavior. Permutation analysis confirmed that the probability of obtaining these findings by chance was low (p=0.045, permuted for 1000 times). These results showed that genetic variations in the serotoninergic system, combined with environmental risk factors, made a moderate contribution to individual differences in aggressive behavior among a healthy population sample. PMID:25447480

  19. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  20. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  1. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Morgan, Theodore J; Mackay, Trudy F. C

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression. The realized heritability of aggressive behavior was approximately 0.10, and the phenotypic response to selection specifically affected aggression. We used whole-genome expression analysis to identify 1,539 probe sets with different expression levels between the selection lines when pooled across replicates, at a false discovery rate of 0.001. We quantified the aggressive behavior of 19 mutations in candidate genes that were generated in a common co-isogenic background, and identified 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex traits. PMID:17044737

  2. An Initial Evaluation of a Culturally-Adapted Social Problem Solving and Relational Aggression Prevention Program for Urban African American Relationally Aggressive Girls

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Paskewich, Brooke S.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Jawad, Abbas F.; Grossman, Michael; Munro, Melissa A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research demonstrating that relational aggression is associated with peer relationship difficulties, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social processing deficits, and possibly later mental health disorders among girls has emphasized the need to address the unique expression of aggression amongst females. Despite these findings, almost all aggression interventions have been directed towards physically aggressive boys. In the current manuscript, authors describe the acceptability and initial effectiveness of a culturally-adapted social problem solving/social skills intervention for inner-city third to fifth grade urban, African American, relationally aggressive girls called the Friend to Friend Program. The authors partnered with youth, teachers, parents, and playground supervisors to design the program, and the current study presents preliminary data suggesting that the intervention is viewed as highly acceptable by participating girls and teachers. Further, the intervention appears to have promise for decreasing at-risk girls’ levels of relationally and physically aggressive behaviors, hostile attributions, and loneliness. PMID:19830622

  3. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  4. Youth with Aggressive and Violent Behaviors: Pieces of a Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Hank M.; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the perceptions of five male elementary students with behavior disorders regarding aggression and violence in schools. Students associated aggressive and violent behavior with drug use, stealing, destruction of property, fighting, and gangs. Participants suggested adding more police to schools and involving students in…

  5. Environmental Influences, the Developing Brain, and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Novac, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors review research on highly stressful environments that are known to support the development and display of aggressive behavior in childhood, adolescence, and beyond. They also examine some of the mechanisms through which such stressful environments may influence adolescents' aggressive behavior. The review concentrates…

  6. Assessing and Treating Aggression and Conduct Problems in Schools: Implications from the Coping Power Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Baden, Rachel; Stromeyer, Sara; Minney, Jessica A.; Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior and conduct problems create major management problems in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates and with their own academic achievement. A contextual social-cognitive model can provide a framework for understanding risk factors involved in the development and…

  7. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  8. The Role of Biased Processing in the Development of Aggressive Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John F. Kennedy Center: Research Progress, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes recent and ongoing research on processes involved in the development of antisocial behavior disorders in children and adolescents. Studies address both the applied problem of preventing aggressive behavior and the overall relation of cognition to social behavior. A social information processing model of social competence is…

  9. Aggression and Tantrums in Children with Autism: A Review of Behavioral Treatments and Maintaining Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis…

  10. Sex Differences in Autonomic Correlates of Conduct Problems and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hong, James; Marsh, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate group differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding between males and females with conduct problems and determine whether aggression accounts for variance in ANS responding over the effects of conduct problems. The results indicated marked differences in psycho-physiological responses between males and females.

  11. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  12. Tickling, Punching, and Poking: Mock Aggressive Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Green, Shavonda

    Several hypotheses have been generated about the functions of mock aggression, including its association with dominance. This paper describes a study that expanded this line of research by interviewing college students about a broad array of mock aggressive behaviors and their contexts, targets, benefits, and functions. The hypotheses were that:…

  13. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  14. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  15. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  16. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  17. Unsupervised self-care predicts conduct problems: The moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Olivia E; Schofield, Thomas J; Sitka, Angela; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2016-04-01

    Despite widespread speculation about the detrimental effect of unsupervised self-care on adolescent outcomes, little is known about which children are particularly prone to problem behaviors when left at home without adult supervision. The present research used data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin children residing in the United States to examine the prospective effect of unsupervised self-care on conduct problems, and the moderating roles of hostile aggression and gender. Results showed that unsupervised self-care was related to increases over time in conduct problems such as lying, stealing, and bullying. However, unsupervised self-care only led to conduct problems for boys and for children with an aggressive temperament. The main and interactive effects held for both mother-reported and observational-rated hostile aggression and after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:26820648

  18. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, A.J.; Kalb, L.; Mazurek, M.O.; Kanne, S.M.; Freedman, B.; Vasa, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD. PMID:27239223

  19. Specific strategies: interventions for identified problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A

    1990-12-01

    Negativism, complaining, underachievement, game playing, passive-aggressive behavior, and workaholism constitute a repertoire of problem employee behaviors that impact on the productivity and morale of the work environment. Responding appropriately to the employee who presents with any of these behaviors is a formidable challenge to the nurse manager. Understanding the etiology of unmet needs, psychosocial dynamics (as discussed in Chapter 1) and variety of interventions can empower the nurse manager to achieve success in these difficult interactions. PMID:2081113

  20. Childhood behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Novak, L L

    1996-01-01

    Educating parents about normal, age-appropriate behavior in their children, teaching them basic behavioral techniques (such as the time-out and positive-reward systems) and giving them specific suggestions for intervention can increase parental confidence and decrease anxiety. Anticipating problems before they develop can help parents prevent inappropriate behavior patterns from developing in their children and may decrease abusive behavior. PMID:8546052

  1. A genome-wide approach to children's aggressive behavior: The EAGLE consortium.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Irene; St Pourcain, Beate; Benke, Kelly; Cavadino, Alana; Hakulinen, Christian; Nivard, Michel G; Nolte, Ilja M; Tiesler, Carla M T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Davies, Gareth E; Evans, David M; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Grallert, Harald; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Hudziak, James J; Kemp, John P; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; McMahon, George; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Motazedi, Ehsan; Power, Christine; Raitakari, Olli T; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rodriguez, Alina; Scheet, Paul A; Seppälä, Ilkka; Snieder, Harold; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Timpson, Nicholas J; Veenstra, René; Velders, Fleur P; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Hypponen, Elina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Middeldorp, Christel M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pennell, Craig E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-07-01

    Individual differences in aggressive behavior emerge in early childhood and predict persisting behavioral problems and disorders. Studies of antisocial and severe aggression in adulthood indicate substantial underlying biology. However, little attention has been given to genome-wide approaches of aggressive behavior in children. We analyzed data from nine population-based studies and assessed aggressive behavior using well-validated parent-reported questionnaires. This is the largest sample exploring children's aggressive behavior to date (N = 18,988), with measures in two developmental stages (N = 15,668 early childhood and N = 16,311 middle childhood/early adolescence). First, we estimated the additive genetic variance of children's aggressive behavior based on genome-wide SNP information, using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Second, genetic associations within each study were assessed using a quasi-Poisson regression approach, capturing the highly right-skewed distribution of aggressive behavior. Third, we performed meta-analyses of genome-wide associations for both the total age-mixed sample and the two developmental stages. Finally, we performed a gene-based test using the summary statistics of the total sample. GCTA quantified variance tagged by common SNPs (10-54%). The meta-analysis of the total sample identified one region in chromosome 2 (2p12) at near genome-wide significance (top SNP rs11126630, P = 5.30 × 10(-8) ). The separate meta-analyses of the two developmental stages revealed suggestive evidence of association at the same locus. The gene-based analysis indicated association of variation within AVPR1A with aggressive behavior. We conclude that common variants at 2p12 show suggestive evidence for association with childhood aggression. Replication of these initial findings is needed, and further studies should clarify its biological meaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26087016

  2. The Threat of Abuse: Problems in Aggression and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Carolyn I.

    1979-01-01

    Describes cases of adults whose early developmental years were marked by constant threat of parental abuse and who manifest, as adults, an inability to tolerate aggression or to develop close relationships. Uses Mahler's separation-individuation process framework to provide an understanding of the early foundations of these adults' problems. (SS)

  3. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  4. Parental Separation and Child Aggressive and Internalizing Behavior: An Event History Calendar Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…

  5. Self-Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Social Standing in Children with Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…

  6. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics that Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…

  7. Cognitive Mediation of Aggressive, Assertive, and Submissive Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Examines three critical components of interpersonal cognitive problem solving (alternative-thinking ability, evaluative judgments of response alternatives, and consequential thinking) among 188 elementary school students with differing levels of aggressiveness, assertiveness, and submissiveness. Findings indicate interrelatedness of the cognitive…

  8. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  9. Problem Behaviors as Operants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyer, William J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Many of the clinically disabling behaviors of elderly persons may be viewed as operants. Research bearing on the efficacy of operant techniques for programming individualized, group based, and ward-wide therapeutic intervention is reviewed. Suggests the operant view is useful for conceptualizing and treating many problem behaviors of elderly…

  10. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics. PMID:26100892

  11. Status Differences in Target-Specific Prosocial Behavior and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Closson, Leanna M; Hymel, Shelley

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies exploring the link between social status and behavior have predominantly utilized measures that do not provide information regarding toward whom aggression or prosocial behavior is directed. Using a contextualized target-specific approach, this study examined whether high- and low-status adolescents behave differently toward peers of varying levels of status. Participants, aged 11-15 (N = 426, 53 % females), completed measures assessing aggression and prosocial behavior toward each same-sex grademate. A distinct pattern of findings emerged regarding the likeability, popularity, and dominance status of adolescents and their peer targets. Popular adolescents reported more direct aggression, indirect aggression, and prosocial behavior toward popular peers than did unpopular adolescents. Well-accepted adolescents reported more prosocial behavior toward a wider variety of peers than did rejected adolescents. Finally, compared to subordinate adolescents, dominant adolescents reported greater direct and indirect aggression toward dominant than subordinate peers. The results highlight the importance of studying target-specific behavior to better understand the status-behavior link. PMID:27083913

  12. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior. PMID:26862988

  13. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or “voluntary” aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they attack. In males that exhibit rapid task learning, we find that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, is essential for aggression seeking. Using both single unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we find that VMHvl neurons become active during aggression seeking and their activity tracks changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduces aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerates moment-to-moment aggression seeking and intensifies future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack. PMID:26950005

  14. Behavioral differences in aggressive children linked with neural mechanisms of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marc D; Granic, Isabela; Lamm, Connie

    2006-12-01

    Children with aggressive behavior problems may have difficulties regulating negative emotions, resulting in harmful patterns of interpersonal behavior at home and in the schoolyard. Ventral and dorsal regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been associated with response inhibition and self-control-key components of emotion regulation. Our research program aims to explore differences among aggressive and normal children in the activation of these cortical regions during emotional episodes, to the extent possible using electrophysiological techniques, to identify diagnostic subtypes, gain insights into their interpersonal difficulties, and help develop effective treatment strategies. This report reviews several recent studies investigating individual and developmental differences in cortical mechanisms of emotion regulation, corresponding with different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Our methods include event-related potentials (ERPs) and cortical source modeling, using dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) technology, as well as videotaped observations of parent-child interactions, with both normal and aggressive children. By relating patterns of brain activation to observed behavioral differences, we find (i) a steady decrease in cortical activation subserving self-regulation across childhood and adolescence, (ii) different cortical activation patterns as well as behavioral constellations distinguishing subtypes of aggressive children, and (iii) robust correlations between the activation of cortical mediators of emotion regulation and flexibility in parent-child emotional communication in children referred for aggressive behavior problems. These findings point toward models of developmental psychopathology based on the interplay among biological, psychological, and social factors. PMID:17347349

  15. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    PubMed

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442766

  16. Knowledge Structures, Social Information Processing, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Virginia Salzer; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although a multitude of factors may be involved in the development of children's violent behavior, the actual aggressive act is preceded by a decision-making process that serves as the proximal control mechanism. The primary goal of this longitudinal study was to understand the nature of this proximal control mechanism involved in children's aggressive acts by focusing on two aspects of social cognitions: social information processing and stored knowledge (i.e., internal knowledge structures that are the latent memories of past events). It was hypothesized that: (1) children with hostile knowledge structures will display more biased patterns of aggressive social information processing than children whose knowledge structures are less hostile and negative; (2) children who display hostile knowledge structures will behave in chronically aggressive ways; and (3) the development of hostile knowledge structures and hostile patterns of social information processing contribute to the stability of aggressive behavior and thus partially mediate the relation between early and later aggressive behavior. 585 boys and girls (19% African-American) were followed from kindergarten through eighth grade. Results from this investigation support the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of the significance of the inclusion of knowledge structures in our theories of the mental processes involved in children's violent behaviour. PMID:20011226

  17. A Directed Research Project Investigating Aggressive Behavior in Paradise Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Ruth A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment that examines the aggressive behavior of male paradise fish. Students design the experiment, collect data, and analyze and interpret the results. This activity is appropriate for biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes and allows students to be involved in the entire scientific process. (Author/NB)

  18. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  19. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  20. Common behavioral problems in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Brayden, R M; Poole, S R

    1995-03-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as important sources of behavioral information to patients of infants, toddlers, school-aged children, and adolescents. Behavior results from a blend of biologic qualities, such as gender and temperament, and social experiences, such as attachment and family experiences. Common problems include disorders of sleep, crying, feeding and diet, discipline and sexuality, aggression and biting, toilet training, and school avoidance. Family physicians should be aware of the management of behavioral problems and provide anticipatory or responsive guidance or reference information. PMID:7777639

  1. Client characteristics associated with behavior change for treated and untreated aggressive boys.

    PubMed

    Lochman, J E; Lampron, L B; Burch, P R; Curry, J F

    1985-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between subject characteristics of aggressive boys and their behavioral changes during a school year. Seventy-six boys in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades were identified by their teachers as the most disruptive and aggressive in their classes. These boys were assigned to untreated control, anger-coping, anger-coping plus goal-setting treatment, and minimal treatment goal-setting cells. The anger-coping treatment was based on cognitive behavioral procedures. In both anger-coping cells, greater reductions in rates of disruptive/aggressive off-task classroom behavior was predicted by having higher rates of these behaviors initially, and greater reductions in parents' ratings of aggression was predicted by having poor social problem-solving skills initially. Additional predictors of reductions in parents' ratings of aggression in one, but not both, anger-coping cells included having higher rates of somatic symptoms and poorer social acceptance by peers. In contrast to the other cells, those boys in the no-treatment group who demonstrated the greatest spontaneous improvement on these change measures were the ones who initially were the best problem-solvers and who had higher levels of self-esteem. This cognitive-behavioral treatment appeared to have most impact with those boys who were the most in need of intervention. PMID:4078184

  2. Decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, A E; Page, D T

    2015-02-01

    Aggression is an aspect of social behavior that can be elevated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a concern for peers and caregivers. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), one of several ASD risk factors encoding negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, have been reported in individuals with ASD and comorbid macrocephaly. We previously showed that a mouse model of Pten germline haploinsufficiency (Pten(+/-) ) has selective deficits, primarily in social behavior, along with broad overgrowth of the brain. Here, we further examine the social behavior of Pten(+/-) male mice in the resident-intruder test of aggression, using a comprehensive behavioral analysis to obtain an overall picture of the agonistic, non-agonistic and non-social behavior patterns of Pten(+/-) mice during a free interaction with a novel conspecific. Pten(+/-) male mice were involved in less aggression than their wild-type littermates. Pten(+/-) mice also performed less social investigation, including anogenital investigation and approaching and/or attending to the intruder, which is consistent with our previous finding of decreased sociability in the social approach test. In contrast to these decreases in social behaviors, Pten(+/-) mice showed increased digging. In summary, we report decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten(+/-) mice, thus extending our characterization of this model of an ASD risk factor that features brain overgrowth and social deficits. PMID:25561290

  3. and Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-min conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart ["M" age was 13 at Time 1 (T1)]. Non-verbal expressive and verbal…

  4. The effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children.

    PubMed

    Day, R C; Ghandour, M

    1984-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. The sample consisted of 48 boys and 48 girls of Lebanese origin who were students in an elementary school in Beirut, Lebanon. After controlling for pre-experimental aggression, the subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: human-film aggression, cartoon-film aggression, neutral film, or real-life (act of war) aggression. The results indicated that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression after viewing both violent film and real-life violence. Girls were not more violent after viewing filmed aggression but were affected by the real-life violence. Comparisons of Bandura's work within the Lebanese culture are made. PMID:6470621

  5. How do we optimally conceptualize the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior? An argument for aggressive versus non-aggressive behavioral dimensions.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2012-06-01

    Extant research has highlighted meaningful distinctions in the correlates, developmental trajectories, and etiologies of physically aggressive (AGG) as compared to non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior. AGG is a highly heritable behavioral dimension that emerges in early childhood and exhibits specific ties to negative emotionality and executive dysfunction. Although the frequency of aggressive behaviors decreases after early childhood, those who are most aggressive early in life typically continue to aggress at relatively high rates across the lifespan. By contrast, RB demonstrates specific associations with impulsivity, is most frequent during adolescence, and evidences more moderate levels of stability and stronger environmental influences as compared to AGG. These etiological and developmental differences link up quite well to Moffitt's (1993) developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior, providing a clear theoretical basis for examining differences between AGG and RB. Perhaps more importantly, however, the link between AGG/RB and Moffitt's taxonomy allows us to conceptualize her categorical taxonomy in dimensional terms, an important development given the recent emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology. Available evidence further indicates that neither AGG nor RB is redundant with callous-unemotional traits. The current review thus underscores the clear advantages of differentiating between AGG and RB when studying antisocial behavior. PMID:22459789

  6. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (∼50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3′UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ∼50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3′UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  7. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-05-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (~50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3'UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2 mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ~50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3'UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  8. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  9. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  10. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  11. Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brandon G; Lapré, Genevieve E; Marsee, Monica A; Weems, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Despite an abundance of evidence linking maltreatment and violence-related trauma exposure to externalizing problems in youth, there is surprisingly little evidence to support a direct link between disaster exposure and youth aggressive behavior. This study tested the theory that there is primarily an indirect association between disaster exposure and aggression via posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study also examined the association between aggression and academic achievement. A sample of 191 4th- to 8th-grade minority youth who experienced Hurricane Katrina were assessed for aggressive behavior using the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS), disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and academic achievement. Structural equation modeling of the set of associations was consistent with the theory suggesting that there is an indirect link between disaster exposure and aggression through PTSD symptoms. Aggression was negatively associated with academic achievement, and modeling indicated that the set of associations was age and gender invariant. Findings advance the theoretical understanding of the linkage between aggression and disaster exposure. Findings also support the utility of the PCS in disaster research and the link between PCS scores and academic achievement. PMID:23795776

  12. The social behavior carried out by unacquainted sows on mixing may predict the likelihood of escalation into aggression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression is a major problem when housing sows in groups. Aggression can increase injuries, stress, and cost of production, and decrease productivity. The aim of this project was to determine the behavioral sequences associated with fight and non-fight interactions when two unacquainted sows are mi...

  13. Intrapersonal and Maternal Correlates of Aggression, Conflict, and Externalizing Problems in Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hastings, Paul; Chen, Xinyin; Stewart, Shannon; McNichol, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Examined factors associated with young children's aggression. Observed 104 toddlers during free play with same-sex peer, with both mothers present. Found that early out-of-home care was not related to aggression. Boys were more aggressive than girls. Observed aggression and mother-reported externalizing problems were associated significantly with…

  14. Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…

  15. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  16. Prenatal exposure to fipronil disturbs maternal aggressive behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Julia Z; Udo, Mariana S B; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Bernardi, Maria M; Spinosa, Helenice S

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a second-generation phenilpirazol insecticide that is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for protection against fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches and other pests. The insecticide blocks the chloride channels associated with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors in mammals and the chloride channels associated with the GABA and glutamate (Glu) receptors in insects. In this study, a commercial product that contain fipronil was administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats at dosages of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/day from the 6th to the 20th day of gestation (n=10 pregnant rats/group) to assess the maternal aggressive behavior (on the 6th day of lactation) and the histopathology of the ovaries and the thyroid gland of the dams. The fipronil caused a disturbance of the maternal aggressive behavior; the aggression against a male intruder decreased at the lowest dose, but increased at the highest dose, without interfering with the general activity of the dams in the open field test at either dose. The histopathological analysis revealed no abnormalities. The differential effects of fipronil behavior appeared to be a consequence of actions on central nervous system areas that control these behaviors. We suggest that fipronil acts on maternal aggressive behavior through GABA(A) receptors. PMID:26409903

  17. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname “warrior gene” because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as “altruistic” punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions. PMID:19168625

  18. Resident-to-Resident Aggression in Long-Term Care Facilities: An Understudied Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Tony; Pillemer, Karl; Lachs, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) between long-term care residents includes negative and aggressive physical, sexual, or verbal interactions that in a community setting would likely be construed as unwelcome and have high potential to cause physical or psychological distress in the recipient. Although this problem potentially has high incidence and prevalence and serious consequences for aggressors and victims, it has received little direct attention from researchers to date. This article reviews the limited available literature on this topic as well as relevant research from related areas including: resident violence toward nursing home staff, aggressive behaviors by elderly persons, and community elder abuse. We present hypothesized risk factors for aggressor, victim, and nursing home environment, including issues surrounding cognitive impairment. We discuss methodological challenges to studying RRA and offer suggestions for future research. Finally, we describe the importance of designing effective interventions, despite the lack currently available, and suggest potential areas of future research. PMID:19750126

  19. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed. PMID:24942813

  20. Sleep and behavioral problems in rolandic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Samaitienė, Rūta; Norkūnienė, Jolita; Tumienė, Birutė; Grikinienė, Jurgita

    2013-02-01

    Although patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes exhibit a benign course of the disease, some of them display sleep and behavioral problems. Sixty-one patients with rolandic epilepsy, aged 6-11 years, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of seizures over the preceding 6 months. The control group comprised 25 patients without epilepsy and with similar characteristics in terms of age and sex. All patients underwent evaluation of sleep (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children) and behavior (Lithuanian version of the Child Behaviour Checklist). Only patients who had had seizures over the preceding 6 months displayed significantly higher scores for sleep problems (disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness, disorders of sleep-wake transition, and scores for total sleep problems), worse sleep quality (longer sleep-onset latency), and behavioral problems (anxiety/depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior) than the patients of the control group. Our data add to evidence that active epilepsy has an impact on sleep and behavior. Clinically significant sleep problems were related to the higher risk of behavioral problems. Parents' ratings for existing sleep problems were sensitive to Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children scores above normal values. PMID:23337004

  1. Aggression and the Risk for Suicidal Behaviors among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…

  2. Aggressive Behavior and Quality of Friendships: Linear and Curvilinear Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigates linear and curvilinear associations between overt aggressive behavior and the adolescents' reports of the quality of their friendships over time. Moderation by gender was also investigated. The sample consisted of 246 boys and 253 girls from the sixth and seventh grades of a large public middle school. Findings…

  3. Multilevel Correlates of Childhood Physical Aggression and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boulerice, Bernard; Swisher, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The study identified independent individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of children's physical aggression and prosocial behavior. Participants were 2,745-11-year olds nested in 1,982 families, which were themselves nested in 96 Canadian neighborhoods. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that the total variation explained by the…

  4. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

  5. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  6. Aggressive versus nonaggressive antisocial behavior: distinctive etiological moderation by age.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2009-07-01

    Research has supported the existence of distinct behavioral patterns, demographic correlates, and etiologic mechanisms for aggressive (AGG) versus nonaggressive but delinquent (DEL) antisocial behavior. Though behavioral genetic studies have the potential to further crystallize these dimensions, inconsistent results have limited their contribution. These inconsistencies may stem in part from the limited attention paid to the impact of age. In the current study, the authors thus examined age-related etiological moderation of AGG and DEL antisocial behavior in a sample of 720 sibling pairs (ranging in age from 10 to 18 years) with varying degrees of genetic relatedness. Results reveal that the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on AGG remained stable across adolescence. By contrast, genetic influences on DEL increased dramatically with age, whereas shared environmental influences decreased. Subsequent longitudinal analyses fully replicated these results. Such findings highlight etiological distinctions between aggression and delinquency, and offer insights into the expression of genetic influences during development. PMID:19586186

  7. An Evaluation of Functional Variables Affecting Severe Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation by Using the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale (QABF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Heather; Matson, Johnny L.; Cherry, Katie E.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Questions about Behavior Function Scale to examine the functions of five severe problem behaviors (self-injurious behavior, aggression, stereotypies, pica, and rumination) in 417 institutionalized persons with mental retardation. The most common function for all behaviors except aggression was nonsocial. Aggression was maintained…

  8. The impact of functional analysis methodology on treatment choice for self-injurious and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Pelios, L; Morren, J; Tesch, D; Axelrod, S

    1999-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggression have been the concern of researchers because of the serious impact these behaviors have on individuals' lives. Despite the plethora of research on the treatment of SIB and aggressive behavior, the reported findings have been inconsistent regarding the effectiveness of reinforcement-based versus punishment-based procedures. We conducted a literature review to determine whether a trend could be detected in researchers' selection of reinforcement-based procedures versus punishment-based procedures, particularly since the introduction of functional analysis to behavioral assessment. The data are consistent with predictions made in the past regarding the potential impact of functional analysis methodology. Specifically, the findings indicate that, once maintaining variables for problem behavior are identified, experimenters tend to choose reinforcement-based procedures rather than punishment-based procedures as treatment for both SIB and aggressive behavior. Results indicated an increased interest in studies on the treatment of SIB and aggressive behavior, particularly since 1988. PMID:10396771

  9. Preschool Teacher Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Misty

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to identify teacher perceptions within the classroom of preschool violence and what, if any were the perceived associations between teacher perceptions and the problem of school violence up to and including incarceration in later years. The study included open interview questions for data…

  10. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.

    PubMed

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553

  11. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138

  12. Behavioral Scripts and Instructional Procedures for Students with Learning and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew J.; Patriarca, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Student academic failure and serious behavior problems are closely intertwined. Two related bodies of research pertain to the crossover of academic problems and behavioral issues: behavioral scripts and best instructional practices. The authors drew on that research to (a) help explicate relationships between aggressive or disruptive student…

  13. Visual perception of texture in aggressive behavior of Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bando, T

    1991-07-01

    In order to elucidate the role of texture in fish vision, the agonistic behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) was tested in a response to models composed by means of image processing techniques. Using the models with the contour shape of a side view of Betta splendens in an aggressive state, the responses were vigorous when there was a fine distribution of brightness and naturalistic color, producing textures like a scale pattern. Reactions became weaker as the brightness and color distribution reverted to more homogeneous levels and the scale pattern disappeared. When the artificial models with the circular contour shape were used, models with the scale pattern evoked more aggressive behaviors than those without it, while the existence of spherical gradation affected the behavior slightly. These results suggest that texture plays an important role in fish visual perception. PMID:1941718

  14. Orca Behavior and Subsequent Aggression Associated with Oceanarium Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert; Waayers, Robyn; Knight, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Orca behaviors interacting with humans within apparent friendship bonds are reviewed, and some impediments to the human evaluation of delphinid intelligence are discussed. The subsequent involvement of these orcas and their offspring in aggressive incidents with humans is also documented and examined. This is particularly relevant given that the highest recorded rates of aggressive incidents have occurred among orcas who had previously established unstructured human friendship bonds prior to their inclusion within oceanaria performances. It is concluded that the confinement of orcas within aquaria, and their use in entertainment programs, is morally indefensible, given their high intelligence, complex behaviors, and the apparent adverse effects on orcas of such confinement and use. Abstract Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors. Our observations were consistent with those of a former Seaworld trainer, and provide important insights into orca cognition, communication, and social intelligence. However, after being trained as performers within Seaworld’s commercial entertainment program, a number of orcas began to exhibit aggressive behaviors. The orcas who previously established apparent friendships with humans were most affected, although significant aggression also occurred in some of their descendants, and among the orcas they lived

  15. Relations between Hormone Levels and Observational Measures of Aggressive Behavior of Young Adolescents in Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoff-Germain, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Relations between hormone levels and aggressive behavior of adolescents in family interactions were examined. Higher estradiol and androstenedione levels were associated with higher degrees of aggressive behaviors in girls. Findings for boys were sparse. (PCB)

  16. Classroom Aggression: Determinants, Controlling Mechanisms, and Guidelines for the Implementation of a Behavior Modification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper concentrates on one principal disruptive behavior-aggression. Several of the basic determinants of aggression have been summarized and some methods of effective control are reviewed. Guidelines for the implementation of a behavior modification program are presented. (Author)

  17. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking. PMID:16262775

  18. The Phenomenology of Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior During Childhood.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Brent Donnellan, M; Slawinski, Brooke L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-05-01

    Although the phenomenology of overt or aggressive antisocial behavior during childhood is well-documented, far less is known about covert or non-aggressive, rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior. Gaps in knowledge include issues as basic as RB's typical symptom presentation during childhood and which symptoms differ across sex. The current study sought to fill these gaps in the literature by establishing the prevalence and psychometric properties of specific RB behaviors in a sample of 1022 twin boys and 1010 twin girls between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Legal RB behaviors (e.g., breaking rules, swears, lying or cheating) were present to varying degrees in most children, regardless of whether or not they passed the clinical threshold for RB. They were also more common in boys than in girls regardless of their clinical status. In sharp contrast, illegal RB behaviors (e.g., stealing, vandalism, setting fires) were rarely observed in typically-developing children, but were seen at moderate levels in boys and girls with clinically-significant levels of RB. Moreover, sex differences in illegal RB behaviors were observed only for those youth with clinically meaningful levels of RB. Such findings collectively imply that while legal RB behaviors can be found (albeit at different frequencies) in children with and without clinically meaningful levels of RB, illegal RB behaviors may function as relatively 'unambiguous' indicator of clinically-significant levels of RB. PMID:26344016

  19. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing features on this ... sleep and stay asleep Tips for Behavior and Sleep Problems Having a daily routine may help. Calmly ...

  20. Do Perceived Popular Adolescents Who Aggress against Others Experience Emotional Adjustment Problems Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The…

  1. The Efficacy of a Response Cost-Based Treatment Package for Managing Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Larissa Kern; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1997-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a response cost treatment package for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers. Teachers removed smiley faces and reprimanded children contingent on aggressive behavior. Results indicate that this method substantially decreased aggressive behavior and was a highly acceptable classroom treatment…

  2. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305

  3. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  4. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  5. The Relationship Between Coat Color and Aggressive Behaviors in the Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Stelow, Elizabeth A; Bain, Melissa J; Kass, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored a possible relationship between coat color and aggressive behaviors in the domestic cat. This study used an Internet-based survey to collect information on coat color, affiliative behaviors toward cats/humans, agonistic behaviors toward cats/humans, other "problem" behaviors, and cat and guardian demographic data. A total of 1,432 cat guardians completed the online survey; after exclusions based on study protocol, data analysis included 1,274 completed surveys. Guardians reported sex-linked orange female (tortoiseshells, calicos, and "torbies"), black-and-white, and gray-and-white cats to be more frequently aggressive toward humans in 3 settings: during everyday interactions, during handling, and during veterinary visits. Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance was used to compare possible differences between the 2 sexes and among different coat colors. Analyses of aggression due to handling, as well as aggression displayed during veterinarian visits, showed little difference among coat colors in these settings. PMID:26467020

  6. Acute and chronic glue sniffing effects and consequences of withdrawal on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bouchatta, Otmane; Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Kerekes, Nóra; Bennis, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse act on brain mechanisms that cause a high-risk individual to engage in aggressive and violent behavior. While a drug-violence relationship exists, the nature of this relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. Glue sniffing is often a springboard to the abuse of more addictive drugs. Despite its high prevalence and serious consequences, we know relatively little about the aggressive behavioral effects of volatile inhalants abuse, especially glue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the duration of glue exposure, a common substance abuse problem in Morocco, and the level of aggressive behavior during withdrawal. For this we used the isolation-induced aggression model "residents" in three groups of mice. The first group served as control resident animals (n=10, without exposure); the second group as experimental resident mice (n=10) tested before and after acute (first day) and chronic exposure to the glue, and at 1 and 2weeks of withdrawal; and the third group of 10 intruder animals. The results showed that the number of attacks decreased (halved) and the latency of the first attack increased (doubled) following acute glue sniffing. However, the effects of chronic exposure and of 1week of withdrawal led to an increase in the intensity of agonistic encounters. After 2weeks of withdrawal, the intensity of aggressive behavior decreased again. These results indicated that chronic glue exposure and the first week of withdrawal are associated with increased aggression in mice. PMID:26969766

  7. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  8. Choosing or Being Chosen by Aggressive-Disruptive Peers: Do They Contribute to Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylive; Hoza, Betsy; Bukowski, William M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which aggressive-disruptive peers contribute to the development of externalizing and internalizing problems in children, while controlling for children's own behavior. We examined 2 sets of peers: (1) those that the child nominated as friends, and (2) those that nominated the child as a…

  9. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  10. A longitudinal study of forms and functions of aggressive behavior in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated with distinct subtypes of aggressive behavior. Females and socially dominant children were more relationally aggressive and older children were less physically aggressive than their peers. Longitudinal analyses indicated that social dominance predicted decreases in physical aggression and peer exclusion predicted increases in relational aggression. Overall, the results provide support for the distinction between subtypes of aggression in early childhood. PMID:19489906

  11. Reducing Aggressive Behavior and Increasing Motivation in School: The Evolution of an Intervention to Strengthen School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudley, Cynthia; Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April

    2007-01-01

    The pervasive links between problem behaviors and school adjustment suggest that effective intervention programs to enhance school adjustment must focus both on decreasing the motivation to aggress and increasing the motivation to achieve. We describe a program of intervention research to improve social behavior and academic motivation in…

  12. Perinatal Factors, Parenting Behavior, and Reactive Aggression: Does Cortisol Reactivity Mediate This Developmental Risk Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stacy R.; Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this…

  13. Patterns of Adolescents' Beliefs about Fighting and Their Relation to Behavior and Risk Factors for Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental…

  14. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

  16. Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers' Social Networks: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farver, Jo Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    Examined influence of gender, behavioral style, social competence, reciprocal friendships, and social clique membership on naturally occurring aggression in preschoolers. Found that variations in aggression were associated with behavioral style and social competence and that children within cliques were similar in frequency of observed aggression.…

  17. Orca Behavior and Subsequent Aggression Associated with Oceanarium Confinement.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert; Waayers, Robyn; Knight, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego's SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors. Our observations were consistent with those of a former Seaworld trainer, and provide important insights into orca cognition, communication, and social intelligence. However, after being trained as performers within Seaworld's commercial entertainment program, a number of orcas began to exhibit aggressive behaviors. The orcas who previously established apparent friendships with humans were most affected, although significant aggression also occurred in some of their descendants, and among the orcas they lived with. Such oceanaria confinement and commercial use can no longer be considered ethically defensible, given the current understanding of orcas' advanced cognitive, social, and communicative capacities, and of their behavioral needs. PMID:27548232

  18. Using the theory of planned behavior to predict aggression and weapons carrying in urban African American early adolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control. PMID:25228369

  19. Parenting Practices and Child Disruptive Behavior Problems in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2009-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child’s disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  20. Precursor manic behavior in the assessment and treatment of episodic problem behavior for a woman with a dual diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marissa B; Baker, Jonathan C; Nuernberger, Jodi E; Vargo, Kristina K

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis examined the relation between consequences that maintained episodic problem behavior (aggression, property destruction, and elopement) in the presence and absence of manic behaviors (MB). Results suggested that the presence of MB was correlated with the sensitivity of problem behavior to attention as a reinforcer during a functional analysis and that problem behaviors were maintained by attention. Noncontingent reinforcement was subsequently implemented and demonstrated to be effective in reducing problem behavior during the presence of manic behaviors. PMID:24114233

  1. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying In Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0) from urban middle schools. 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p=0.02). 78.4% of youth reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were 5 times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (OR: 0.76; CI: 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR: 0.59; CI: 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR: 0.56; CI: 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR: 0.52; CI: 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the TPB may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. PMID:25228369

  2. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:16902237

  3. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others. PMID:27375520

  4. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0–2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others. PMID:27375520

  5. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  6. Neighborhood as a predictor of non-aggressive, but not aggressive, antisocial behaviors in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior meta-analytic work has highlighted important etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior. Among these is the finding that RB is influenced by the environment more than is AGG. Relatively little research, however, has sought to identify the specific environmental experiences that contribute to this effect. Method The current study examined whether adults residing in the same neighborhood (N = 1,915 participants in 501 neighborhoods) were more similar in their AGG and RB than would be expected by chance. Analyses focused on simple multi-level models, with the participant as the lower-level unit and the neighborhood as the upper-level unit. Results Results revealed little-to-no evidence of neighborhood-level variance in AGG. By contrast, 11+% of the variance in RB could be predicted from participant neighborhood, results that persisted even when considering the possibility of genetic relatedness across participants and neighborhood selection effects. Moreover, 17% of this neighborhood-level variance in RB was accounted for by neighborhood structural characteristics and social processes. Discussion Findings bolster prior suggestions that broader contextual experiences, like the structural and social characteristics of one's neighborhood, contribute in a meaningful way to RB in particular. Our results also tentatively imply that this association may be environmental in origin. Future work should seek to develop additional, stronger designs capable of more clearly leveraging genetic un-relatedness to improve causal inferences regarding the environment. PMID:26040779

  7. Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    An unusual uterine adenolipoleiomyoma forming intramural and subserosal masses and recurring within 16 months in the form of huge coalescent uterine masses is described. Histology showed the mass to be composed of benign-appearing smooth muscle, mature adipose tissue, and bland endocervical-type glands. The recurrent adenolipoleiomyoma contained, in addition, benign-appearing endometrial-type glands and stroma and showed small foci of atypically proliferating endocervical-type epithelium. This is the fourth report of adenolipoleiomyoma within the uterus, the second with an intramural location, and the first with an aggressive behavior in the form of massive local recurrence. PMID:18317215

  8. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  9. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer-dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for first grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three second grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to third grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  10. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents’ experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and aggression. We also examined the effects of individual differences in emotional and behavioral problems. We used questionnaire data from a population-based sample of youth 12–18 years old who were in dating relationships (n = 149). Parental monitoring emerged as a protective factor in reducing both dating victimization and relational aggression. Our findings also point to a significant transfer of aggression in peer relationships to relational aggression in dating relationships. PMID:27307651

  11. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Behavior on a Nursery School Bus: A Case Study.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Carol; Miller, Edward

    1973-01-01

    A case study is presented in which aggressive behavior of two pre-school boys on a nursery school bus was modified by the introduction of a negative punishment contingency in which the Ss were told they would be detained on the bus until the second time the bus passed their house (delay of reinforcement) if abusive behavior occurred. (Author)

  12. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  13. Nest platforms increase aggressive behavior in common loons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mager, John N., III; Walcott, Charles; Piper, Walter H.

    2008-02-01

    Artificial manipulations of habitat, such as those that incorporate adding nesting boxes or platforms for birds, often enhance the breeding success of threatened animals. However, such alterations are likely to have unintended behavioral and ecological effects that might negatively impact the target species or others in its community. We conducted a controlled study to investigate the effect of artificial nesting platforms on aggressive behavior and reproductive success of male common loons ( Gavia immer). Males residing on territories to which platforms were added produced longer territorial “yodels” (reflecting willingness to escalate a contest), experienced increased levels of confrontation and aggression with territorial intruders, and experienced increased rates of territorial displacement by intruders. Surprisingly, males of treatment territories also experienced lower productivity. Therefore, in addition to providing novel empirical support of sequential assessment models of animal contests that predict contest escalation with increasing resource quality, this study is one of a few to show that tools used to mitigate habitat loss can negatively impact reproductive fitness in a threatened species.

  14. Behavior: My Problem or Yours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    Activities are described for learning about problem classroom behaviors, the impact of one's manner of attire on one's behavior, and personal responsibility for one's behavior. Learning activities include role playing, making math puzzles, writing personal anecdotes, drawing a persuasive cartoon concerning smoking and discipline, and making bar…

  15. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs. PMID:27387554

  16. Side effects of extinction: prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Wallace, M D

    1999-01-01

    Findings from basic and applied research suggest that treatment with operant extinction may produce adverse side effects; two of these commonly noted are an increase in the frequency of the target response (extinction burst) and an increase in aggression (extinction-induced aggression). Although extinction is often used to treat problem behavior in clinical settings, few applied studies have examined the prevalence of these side effects or their possible attenuation with other operant procedures. An analysis of 41 data sets for individuals who received treatment for self-injurious behavior indicated that extinction bursts or increases in aggression occurred in nearly one half of the cases. The prevalence of bursting and aggression was substantially lower when extinction was implemented as part of a treatment package rather than as the sole intervention. PMID:10201100

  17. Evaluation of behavioral impulsivity and aggression tasks as endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Michael S.; New, Antonia S.; Siever, Larry J.; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Flory, Janine D.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is marked by aggression and impulsive, often self-destructive behavior. Despite the severe risks associated with BPD, relatively little is known about the disorder’s etiology. Identification of genetic correlates (endophenotypes) of BPD would improve the prospects of targeted interventions for more homogeneous subsets of borderline patients characterized by specific genetic vulnerabilities. The current study evaluated behavioral measures of aggression and impulsivity as potential endophenotypes for BPD. Subjects with BPD (N = 127), a non cluster B personality disorder (OPD N = 122), or healthy volunteers (HV N = 112) completed self report and behavioral measures of aggression, motor impulsivity and cognitive impulsivity. Results showed that BPD subjects demonstrated more aggression and motor impulsivity than HV (but not OPD) subjects on behavioral tasks. In contrast, BPD subjects self-reported more impulsivity and aggression than either comparison group. Subsequent analyses showed that among BPD subjects behavioral aggression was associated with self-reported aggression, while behavioral and self-report impulsivity measures were more modestly associated. Overall, the results provide partial support for the use of behavioral measures of aggression and motor impulsivity as endophenotypes for BPD, with stronger support for behavioral aggression measures as an endophenotype for aggression within BPD samples. PMID:19232640

  18. A Model of Contagion through Competition in the Aggressive Behaviors of Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Keith; Schoppelrey, Susan; Moberg, D. Paul; McDonald, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    This article extends the work of Kellam, Ling, Merisca, Brown and Ialongo (1998) by applying a mathematical model of competition between children to peer contagion in the aggressive behaviors of elementary school students. Nonlinearity in the relationship between group aggression and individual aggression at 2-year follow-up is present. Consistent…

  19. How Passive-Aggressive Behavior in Emotionally Disturbed Children Affects Peer Interactions in a Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Janet

    Passive-aggressive behavior in an emotionally disturbed child affects the child's progress and affects peer interactions in classroom settings. Passive-aggressive personalities are typically helpless, dependent, impulsive, overly anxious, poorly oriented to reality, and procrastinating. The characteristics of passive-aggressive children need to be…

  20. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220

  1. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  2. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  3. Chinese Adolescents' Social Status Goals: Associations with Behaviors and Attributions for Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…

  4. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  5. Laboratory-measured aggressive behavior of women: acute tryptophan depletion and augmentation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Dawn M; Dougherty, Donald M; Moeller, F Gerard; Swann, Alan C; Spiga, Ralph

    2002-05-01

    Plasma L-tryptophan (Trp) reductions have been related to aggression increases in men. Impairment of serotonin synthesis and neurotransmission is one explanation. Using repeated-measures, this Trp manipulation study measured laboratory-induced aggression in 12 women after Trp augmentation (T+), depletion (T-), and food-restricted (fasting control) conditions. Participants were provoked with periodic subtraction of money from their task earnings by a (fictitious) partner. Aggression was defined as the number of point subtractions participants made from their fictitious partner. Participants completed five testing sessions under each condition. T+ decreased aggressive responses and T- increased aggressive responses. Post-hoc analyses showed changes in aggressive behavior were specific to women with higher fasting control plasma Trp, which is consistent with research demonstrating that men with higher levels of baseline Trp are more aggressive. These findings indicate that both T+ and T- can influence aggressive behavior and that certain subgroups of women may be more susceptible to serotonin manipulation. PMID:11927191

  6. A Behavior Modification Classroom for Head Start Children with Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, K. Eileen; And Others

    A demonstration Head Start class enrolled 12 to 15 children with problem behaviors. The class utilized behavior modification procedures with individualized programing and natural contingencies. Favorable results were noted; three case studies presented concern an aggressively disruptive child, a severely withdrawn child, and a child whose total…

  7. Peer Group Status as a Moderator of Group Influence on Children's Deviant, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Zarbatany, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social…

  8. Elimination of aggressive behavior in male mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Demas, G E; Kriegsfeld, L J; Blackshaw, S; Huang, P; Gammie, S C; Nelson, R J; Snyder, S H

    1999-10-01

    Male mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) display increased aggressive behavior compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Specific pharmacological inhibition of nNOS with 7-nitroindazole also augments aggressive behavior. We report here that male mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding endothelial NOS (eNOS(-/-)) display dramatic reductions in aggression. The effects are selective, because an extensive battery of behavioral tests reveals no other deficits. In the resident-intruder model of aggression, resident eNOS(-/-) males show virtually no aggression. Latency for aggression onset is 25-30 times longer in eNOS(-/-) males compared with WT males in the rare instances of aggressive behaviors. Similarly, a striking lack of aggression is noted in tests of aggression among groups of four mice monitored in neutral cages. Although eNOS(-/-) mice are hypertensive ( approximately 14 mmHg blood pressure elevation), hypertension does not appear responsible for the diminished aggression. Reduction of hypertension with hydralazine does not change the prevalence of aggression in eNOS(-/-) mice. Extensive examination of brains from eNOS(-/-) male mice reveals no obvious neural damage from chronic hypertension. In situ hybridization in WT animals reveals eNOS mRNA in the brain associated exclusively with blood vessels and no neuronal localizations. Accordingly, vascular eNOS in the brain appears capable of influencing behavior with considerable selectivity. PMID:10493775

  9. Who is violent?: factors associated with aggressive behaviors in Latin America and Spain.

    PubMed

    Orpinas, P

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to evaluate the strength of the association between: 1) aggressive behaviors and 2) attitudes and self-efficacy for alternatives to violence, in different cities of the Region of the Americas and Spain. Results were based on a cross-sectional house-hold survey of a sample of the population aged 18 to 70 years. The survey was conducted in eight metropolitan areas of Latin America and Spain: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; Cali, Colombia; San José, Costa Rica; San Salvador, El Salvador; Caracas, Venezuela; and Madrid, Spain. Each sample of approximately 1,200 respondents per city was stratified by clusters and was proportional in terms of socioeconomic position and population density. In all cities and for all targets of aggression studied, people who reported using aggression were less likely to feel confident that they could solve conflicts without violence, and they were more likely to hold attitudes supporting violence. Young persons were also more likely to commit aggression against all the targets. In addition, aggression toward nonfamily members was found most frequently among young men who reported binge drinking, who either carried a firearm or would have liked to carry one, or who perceived the police as inefficient. Additional studies need to be done in each country to describe more specific attitudes associated with aggression within each subculture. Future prevention programs should focus on modifying attitudes that support violence, increasing self-efficacy in solving problems without using violence, supporting the development of a police system that people can trust, regulating firearms and access to alcohol, and raising people's education levels. PMID:10355323

  10. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  11. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human. PMID:21422464

  12. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point. PMID:27087729

  13. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Dill, K E

    2000-04-01

    Two studies examined violent video game effects on aggression-related variables. Study 1 found that real-life violent video game play was positively related to aggressive behavior and delinquency. The relation was stronger for individuals who are characteristically aggressive and for men. Academic achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time spent playing video games. In Study 2, laboratory exposure to a graphically violent video game increased aggressive thoughts and behavior. In both studies, men had a more hostile view of the world than did women. The results from both studies are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term (e.g., delinquency). PMID:10794380

  14. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence. PMID:26113064

  15. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  16. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  17. The relationship between basal and acute HPA axis activity and aggressive behavior in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Katja; Kruk, Menno R.; Naumann, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis seems to play a major role in the development, elicitation, and enhancement of aggressive behavior in animals. Increasing evidence suggests that this is also true for humans. However, most human research on the role of the HPA axis in aggression has been focusing on highly aggressive children and adolescent clinical samples. Here, we report on a study of the role of basal and acute HPA axis activity in a sample of 20 healthy male and female adults. We used the Taylor Aggression Paradigm to induce and measure aggression. We assessed the cortisol awakening response as a trait measure of basal HPA axis activity. Salivary free cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were obtained on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60 min after. Half of the subjects were provoked with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm to behave aggressively; the other half was not provoked. Acute HPA axis activity was measured four times, once before and three times after the induction of aggression. Basal cortisol levels were significantly and negatively related to aggressive behavior in the provoked group and explained 67% of the behavioral variance. Cortisol levels following the induction of aggression were significantly higher in the provoked group when baseline levels were taken into account. The data implicate that the HPA axis is not only relevant to the expression of aggressive behavior in clinical groups, but also to a large extent in healthy ones. PMID:20333417

  18. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  19. Explosive, Oppositional, and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Autism Compared to Other Clinical Disorders and Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santoshkumar; Anderson, Robert; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ratings of explosiveness, opposition, and aggression were analyzed in 1609 children 6-16 years of age. Behavior problems were common in autism, ADHD-Combined type, and depression, whereas children with ADHD-Inattentive type, anxiety disorder, and acquired brain injury did not differ from typical controls. More than 40% of children with…

  20. The Sleeper Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure: Long-Term Consequences on Young Children's Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a wide variety of short-term social adjustment and emotional difficulties, including externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression. While children are affected by IPV at all ages, little is known about the long-term consequences of IPV exposure at…

  1. Extensive Reorganization of Behavior Accompanies Ontogeny of Aggression in Male Flesh Flies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Darrell; Paquette, Caleb; Shropshire, J. Dylan; Seier, Edith; Joplin, Karl H.

    2014-01-01

    Aggression, costly in both time and energy, is often expressed by male animals in defense of valuable resources such as food or potential mates. Here we present a new insect model system for the study of aggression, the male flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis, and ask whether there is an ontogeny of aggression that coincides with reproductive maturity. After establishing that reproductive maturity occurs by day 3 of age (post-eclosion), we examined the behavior of socially isolated males from different age cohorts (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) upon introduction, in a test arena, with another male of the same age. The results show a pronounced development of aggression with age. The change from relative indifference to heightened aggression involves a profound increase in the frequency of high-intensity aggressive behaviors between days 1 and 3. Also noteworthy is an abrupt increase in the number of statistically significant transitions involving these full-contact agonistic behaviors on day 2. This elevated activity is trimmed back somewhat by day 3 and appears to maintain a stable plateau thereafter. No convincing evidence was found for escalation of aggression nor the establishment of a dominance relationship over the duration of the encounters. Despite the fact that aggressive interactions are brief, lasting only a few seconds, a major reorganization in the relative proportions of four major non-aggressive behaviors (accounting for at least 96% of the total observation time for each age cohort) accompanies the switch from low to high aggression. A series of control experiments, with single flies in the test arenas, indicates that these changes occur in the absence of the performance of aggressive behaviors. This parallel ontogeny of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors has implications for understanding how the entire behavioral repertoire may be organized and reorganized to accommodate the needs of the organism. PMID:24714439

  2. The Role of Executive Functions in the Control of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Ulrike M.; Kopyciok, Robert P. J.; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people. PMID:21747775

  3. The role of executive functions in the control of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Ulrike M; Kopyciok, Robert P J; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people. PMID:21747775

  4. Aggressive and Prosocial? Examining Latent Profiles of Behavior, Social Status, Machiavellianism, and Empathy.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan

    2015-12-01

    The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships. PMID:25987411

  5. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

  6. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-component, process-oriented approach, the links between Social Information Processing in the preschool years and a) sociodemographic risk, and b) behavior problems in preschool, were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and to behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation, and in particular, the positive evaluation of an aggressive response, were related to both sociodemographic risk and children’s aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool. PMID:21420102

  7. The effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on aggressive behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Royalty, J; Taylor, G T; Korol, B A

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of isolation-induced aggressive behavior to prenatal treatment of 6.0 mg/kg methylmercuric chloride (MMCl) by gavage on gestation days 6-9 was assessed in a subset of animals from the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study (CBTS). CBTS behavioral measures consisted of negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination, auditory startle habituation, 1-hr activity, 23-hr activity, activity following pharmacological challenge and visual discrimination learning. Auditory startle was the only CBTS behavioral measure that discriminated among prenatal treatment groups. MMCl animals also were reliably more aggressive than vehicle controls in dyadic encounters. The results suggest that tests of aggressive behavior, which rarely have been included in teratologic assessments, be considered in the formulation of behavioral screening paradigms. The advantages of including tests of aggression and the relationship between aggressive and startle responses are discussed. PMID:3657757

  8. Managing Aggression Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: State of the Practice and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lochman, John E.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2005-01-01

    Education professionals consistently rank disruptive/aggressive student behavior as persistent and troubling, reporting various types of maladaptive behaviors ranging from talking out in class to assault. Researchers suggest that childhood aggression accounts for a high proportion of the referrals to special education for emotional and behavioral…

  9. Self-Management of Aggression in an Adult Male with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry L.; Altman, Reuben

    1996-01-01

    A community-based social-learning program that combined behavior modification with cognitive intervention was used to help an adult male with a history of aggressive, antisocial behavior develop self-management skills. Results showed a significant decline in physical and nonphysical aggression, allowing the man to maintain competitive employment…

  10. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  11. Best Friends' Preference and Popularity: Associations with Aggression and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ellen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how children's aggression and prosocial behavior are related to the preference and popularity of their best friends. Participants were 1,953 fourth-graders (52.2% boys). Measures included peer nominations of friendship, peer status, overt and relational aggression, and prosocial behavior. A total of 334 reciprocal same-sex best…

  12. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  13. Parental Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: Inhibitory Control Moderates the Association with Negative Emotionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Smaling, Hanneke J. A.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) and negative emotionality (NE) are both linked to aggressive behavior, but their interplay has not yet been clarified. This study examines different NE × IC interaction models in relation to aggressive behavior in 855 preschoolers (aged 2-5 years) using parental questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  14. The Friendship Features of Preschool Children: Links with Prosocial Behavior and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebanc, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether features of preschool children's mutual friendships were associated with prosocial and aggressive behavior. Teacher reports of friendship features showed moderate interrater reliability and were associated with teacher reports of aggression and prosocial behavior, and with peer reports of acceptance and rejection. Friendship…

  15. Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior: A Look across Grade, Sex, and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, William D.; And Others

    This study investigated teacher and peer perceptions of aggressive behavior across grade, sex, and school type. Using student sociometric nominations and teacher ratings, perceptions of aggressive behavior were analyzed to investigate grade, sex, and school differences. African American and Latino students in third through fifth grades and their…

  16. Teacher Reports of Verbal Aggression in School Settings among Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Gregory Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Results from state and national surveys suggest that behaviors such as cursing at others, verbal threats, and intimidation are among the most prevalent forms of aggression on school campuses. A behavior that attacks a person's self-concept to cause psychological harm, Verbal Aggression (VA) leads to many undesirable outcomes for both the…

  17. Family Caregiver Uplift and Burden: Associations with Aggressive Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of family caregivers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display aggressive behavior in terms of associations with caregiver burden and uplift. The family caregivers of 44 people with ID and aggressive behavior were interviewed using a suite of questionnaires and…

  18. Social-Cognitive Mediators of the Association between Community Violence Exposure and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Garbarino, James

    2009-01-01

    There is increased awareness that exposure to violence in the community can influence students' aggressive behavior at school; however, less is known about the mechanisms that mediate this process. Having an enhanced understanding of how community violence exposure relates to students' aggressive behavior at school may inform the use of preventive…

  19. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  20. Staff Perspectives of Precipitants to Aggressive Behavior of Adolescents in Residential Treatment Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dosReis, Susan; Davarya, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 18 staff in a public psychiatric adolescent residential treatment facility were conducted to obtain an inductive approach to their understanding of what leads to aggressive behavior among adolescents. Staff's views of the precipitants of aggressive behavior centered on three themes: understanding of the…

  1. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general…

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders. PMID:24375428

  3. Factors Associated With Aggressive Behavior Among Nursing Home Residents With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Whall, Ann L.; Colling, Kathleen B.; Kolanowski, Ann; Kim, HyoJeong; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeCicco, Barry; Ronis, David L.; Richards, Kathy C.; Algase, Donna; Beck, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In an attempt to more thoroughly describe aggressive behavior in nursing home residents with dementia, we examined background and proximal factors as guided by the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model. Design and Methods We used a multivariate cross-sectional survey with repeated measures; participants resided in nine randomly selected nursing homes within four midwestern counties. The Minimum Data Set (with verification by caregivers) identified participants. We used a disproportionate probability sample of 107 participants (51% with a history of aggressive behavior) to ensure variability. Videotaped care events included four of direct care (shower baths, meals, dressing, and undressing) and two of nondirect care (two randomly selected 20-minute time periods in the afternoon and evening). The majority of participants (75%) received three shower baths, for a total of 282 videotaped baths. Results Because the shower bath was the only care event significantly related to aggressive behavior (F = 6.9, p < .001), only those data are presented. Multilevel statistical modeling identified background factors (gender, mental status score, and lifelong history of less agreeableness) and a proximal factor (amount of nighttime sleep) as significant predictors (p < .05) of aggressive behavior during the shower bath. We found significant correlations between aggressive behavior and negative subject affect (r = .27) during the bath, and aggressive behavior and lifetime agreeableness level (r = − .192). We also found significant correlations between mental status and the amount of education (r = .212), and between negative caregiver affect and negative participant affect (r = .321). Implications We identified three background and one proximal factor as significant risk factors for aggressive behavior in dementia. Data identify not only those persons most at risk for aggressive behavior during care, but also the care event most associated with aggressive

  4. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Micah O; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-06-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were significantly associated with physical aggression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. In multivariate analyses, distinct sets of sleep problems accounted for between 22 and 32 % of the variance in behavior problems across models. These results indicate that sleep disturbance is associated with behavioral dysregulation among children with ASD. Of note, night awakenings had the most consistently strong association with daytime behavior problems, even after controlling for the effects of age and sex. PMID:26823076

  5. The Green Chair: A Motivation for Teenagers To Replace Aggressive Behavior with Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipetz, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Using a technique designed to channel students' aggressive behavior into constructive energy, students who intend to act out sit in a chair and say anything they want. This therapeutic talk reduces disruptive behavior. (SK)

  6. Do Motivational Interviewing Behaviors Predict Reductions in Partner Aggression for Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    Woodin, Erica M.; Sotskova, Alina; O’Leary, K. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a directive, non-confrontational intervention to promote behavior change. The current study examined therapist behaviors during a successful brief motivational interviewing intervention for physically aggressive college dating couples (Woodin & O’Leary, 2010). Forty-five minute motivational interviews with each partner were videotaped and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (MITI; Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003). Hierarchical modeling analyses demonstrated that therapist behaviors consistent with motivational interviewing competency predicted significantly greater reductions in physical aggression perpetration following the intervention. Specifically, greater reflection to question ratios by the therapists predicted reductions in aggression for both men and women, greater percentages of open versus closed questions predicted aggression reductions for women, and there was a trend for greater levels of global therapist empathy to predict aggression reductions for women. These findings provide evidence that motivational interviewing seems to have an effect on behavior change through therapist behaviors consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of motivational interviewing. PMID:22119133

  7. The mainstreaming of verbally aggressive online political behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cicchirillo, Vincent; Hmielowski, Jay; Hutchens, Myiah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between verbal aggression and uncivil media attention on political flaming. More specifically, this paper examines whether the use of uncivil media programming is associated with the perceived acceptability and intention to engage in aggressive online discussions (i.e., online political flaming) and whether this relationship varies by verbal aggression. The results show that individuals less inclined to engage in aggressive communication tactics (i.e., low in verbal aggression) become more accepting of flaming and show greater intention to flame as their attention to uncivil media increases. By contrast, those with comparatively higher levels of verbal aggression show a decrease in acceptance and intention to flame as their attention to these same media increases. PMID:25965860

  8. MAOA-VNTR polymorphism modulates context-dependent dopamine release and aggressive behavior in males.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Thorben; Winz, Oliver; Henkel, Karsten; Eggermann, Thomas; Mohammadkhani-Shali, Siamak; Dietrich, Claudia; Heinzel, Alexander; Decker, Michel; Cumming, Paul; Zerres, Klaus; Piel, Markus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2016-01-15

    A recent [(18)F]FDOPA-PET study reports negative correlations between dopamine synthesis rates and aggressive behavior. Since dopamine is among the substrates for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), this investigation examines whether functional allelic variants of the MAOA tandem repeat (VNTR) promotor polymorphism, which is known to modulate aggressive behavior, influences dopamine release and aggression in response to violent visual stimuli. We selected from a genetic prescreening sample, strictly case-matched groups of 2×12 healthy male subjects with VNTRs predictive of high (MAOA-High) and low (MAOA-Low) MAOA expression. Subjects underwent pairs of PET sessions (dopamine D2/3 ligand [(18)F]DMFP) while viewing a movie of neutral content, versus violent content. Directly afterwards, aggressive behavior was assessed by the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). Finally, PET data of 23 participants and behavioral data of 22 participants were analyzed due to post hoc exclusion criteria. In the genetic prescreening sample MAOA-Low carriers had significantly increased scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. In the PET-study-group, aggressive behavior under the emotional neutral condition was significantly higher in the MAOA-Low group. Interestingly, the two MAOA-groups showed inverse dopaminergic and behavioral reactions to the violent movie: The MAOA-High group showed higher dopamine release and increased aggression after the violent movie; MAOA-Low subjects showed decreases in aggressive behavior and no consistent dopamine release. These results indicate a possible impact of the MAOA-promotor polymorphism on the neurobiological modulation of aggressive behavior. However, the data do not support approaches stating that MAOA-Low fosters aggression by a simple pro-dopaminergic mechanism. PMID:26481676

  9. Escape as a factor in the aggressive behavior of two retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, E G; Newsom, C D; Binkoff, J A

    1980-01-01

    This study sought to identify some of the variables controlling the severely aggressive behavior of two retarded children. In Experiment 1, each child was presented with several demand and nondemand situations. Aggression was frequent in the demand situations and rare in the nondemand situations. When a stimulus correlated with the termination of demands was introduced, aggression fell to a near zero level. In Experiment 2, for one child, a variety of preferred reinforcers was introduced into the demand situation contingent on correct responding. Aggression abruptly decreased to a low level. Experiments 3 and 4 involved the second child. In Experiment 3, this child was permitted, in one condition, to leave the demand situation if he emitted a nonaggressive response. Aggression decreased to a low level. In Experiment 4, he was prevented, in one condition, from leaving the demand situation in spite of high levels of aggression. Aggression fell to a near zero level. In Experiments 3 and 4, he was permitted, in several conditions, to leave the demand situation following aggressive behavior. Aggression increased to a high level. The results suggested that: (1) aggression can sometimes function as an escape response; and (2) escape-motivated aggression can be controlled by: (a) introducing strongly preferred reinforcers to attenuate the aversiveness of the demand situation; (b) strengthening an alternative, nonaggressive escape response; or (c) using an escape-extinction procedure. PMID:7189192

  10. Parental Problem Drinking, Marital Aggression, and Child Emotional Insecurity: A Longitudinal Investigation*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Peggy S.; Gilbert, Lauren R.; Koss, Kalsea J.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Marital aggression plays an important role in relations between parental problem drinking and child maladjustment. The purpose of the current study was to apply emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the role of marital aggression. Method: A community sample of 235 children in kindergarten participated once a year for 3 years. Parents completed measures of parental problem drinking and marital aggression, and children were interviewed about their emotional security reactions to marital conflict vignettes. Results: Greater parental problem drinking was directly associated with children's more negative emotional reactions to conflict. Maternal problem drinking predicted increased sad reactions and negative expectations for the future. Paternal problem drinking predicted increases in child anger reactions and negative expectations for the future. Parental problem drinking was also indirectly associated with child reactions via marital aggression. Conclusions: Results confirmed hypotheses that parental problem drinking would be related to child emotional insecurity and that associations would be indirect via greater marital conflict. Findings are interpreted in terms of emotional security theory as a framework for understanding the effects of parental problem drinking on marital aggression and child development. PMID:21906498

  11. Reflections on "A Qualitative Analysis of Mainstreamed Behaviorally Disordered Aggressive Adolescents' Perceptions of Helpful and Unhelpful Teacher Attitudes and Behaviors."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, E. Paula

    1993-01-01

    The author of EC 607 583 responds to questions about her research on mainstreamed behaviorally disordered aggressive adolescents' perceptions of helpful and unhelpful teacher attitudes and behaviors. Issues relevant to future research in this area are noted. (JDD)

  12. Brief report: Violent false memories and engagement in aggressive and delinquent behavior: an investigation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents. PMID:25310267

  13. Transcriptome analysis of genes and gene networks involved in aggressive behavior in mouse and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Du Rietz, Ebba; Crusio, Wim E; Pain, Oliver; Paya-Cano, Jose; Karadaghi, Rezhaw L; Sluyter, Frans; de Boer, Sietse F; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip; Tosto, Maria Grazia

    2016-09-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates, the molecular architecture of aggressive behavior remains poorly characterized. This study compared gene expression profiles from a genetic mouse model of aggression with zebrafish, an animal model traditionally used to study aggression. A meta-analytic, cross-species approach was used to identify genomic variants associated with aggressive behavior. The Rankprod algorithm was used to evaluated mRNA differences from prefrontal cortex tissues of three sets of mouse lines (N = 18) selectively bred for low and high aggressive behavior (SAL/LAL, TA/TNA, and NC900/NC100). The same approach was used to evaluate mRNA differences in zebrafish (N = 12) exposed to aggressive or non-aggressive social encounters. Results were compared to uncover genes consistently implicated in aggression across both studies. Seventy-six genes were differentially expressed (PFP < 0.05) in aggressive compared to non-aggressive mice. Seventy genes were differentially expressed in zebrafish exposed to a fight encounter compared to isolated zebrafish. Seven genes (Fos, Dusp1, Hdac4, Ier2, Bdnf, Btg2, and Nr4a1) were differentially expressed across both species 5 of which belonging to a gene-network centred on the c-Fos gene hub. Network analysis revealed an association with the MAPK signaling cascade. In human studies HDAC4 haploinsufficiency is a key genetic mechanism associated with brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), which is associated with aggressive behaviors. Moreover, the HDAC4 receptor is a drug target for valproic acid, which is being employed as an effective pharmacological treatment for aggressive behavior in geriatric, psychiatric, and brain-injury patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27090961

  14. Peer relationships of young children: affiliative choices and the shaping of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J; Horsch, E; Childs, J

    1997-06-01

    Examined the occurrence of selective peer affiliation, and its impact on the development of aggressive behavior in four classrooms serving 72 preschool-age, high-risk boys and girls. Children classified as aggressive and nonaggressive were both highly selective in their peer affiliations, spending the majority of their time with a few same-sex classmates. Children generally established strong, stable, mutual affiliations with peers similar to themselves in aggression, but aggressive children had more difficulty establishing such affiliations. The interaction of peer dyads containing at least one aggressive child were characterized by more frequent, lengthy, and intense conflicts regardless of the affiliative relationship characterizing the dyad. The amount of time children spent interacting with aggressive peers predicted changes in observed and teacher-rated aggressiveness 3 months later. PMID:9169375

  15. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  16. Low spinophilin expression enhances aggressive biological behavior of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Anna Lena; Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Schauer, Silvia; Wagner, Karin; Langsenlehner, Tanja; Resel, Margit; Gerger, Armin; Ling, Hui; Ivan, Cristina; Calin, George Adrian; Hoefler, Gerald; Rinner, Beate; Pichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spinophilin, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of certain types of cancer, but its role has never been systematically explored in breast cancer. In this study, we determined for the first time the expression pattern of spinophilin in human breast cancer molecular subtypes (n = 489) and correlated it with survival (n = 921). We stably reduced spinophilin expression in breast cancer cells and measured effects on cellular growth, apoptosis, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and self-renewal capacity in vitro and metastases formation in vivo. Microarray profiling was used to determine the most abundantly expressed genes in spinophilin-silenced breast cancer cells. Spinophilin expression was significantly lower in basal-like breast cancer (p<0.001) and an independent poor prognostic factor in breast cancer patients (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.03; p = 0.004) A reduction of spinophilin levels increased cellular growth in breast cancer cells (p<0.05), without influencing activation of apoptosis. Anchorage-independent growth, migration and self-renewal capacity in vitro and metastatic potential in vivo were also significantly increased in spinophilin-silenced cells (p<0.05). Finally, we identified several differentially expressed genes in spinophilin-silenced cells. According to our data, low levels of spinophilin are associated with aggressive behavior of breast cancer. PMID:25857299

  17. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization. PMID:16207775

  18. Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Diener, E

    1976-05-01

    Three of Zimbardo's deindividuation input variables (group presence, anonymity, and arousal) were manipulated in laboratory experiment, and their effects on aggression and deindividuation were measured. Only arousal produced a significant increase in aggression (p less than .05), while group presence produced a significant decrease in aggression (p less than .01). Anonymity had no significant effect on subjects' aggressiveness. Deindividuation per se was measured on a postsession questionnaire that assessed subjects' memory for their own aggressive behavior, self-consciousness, concern for social evaluation, and memory for central and peripheral cues. Only arousal condition participants showed deindividuation changes, but a factor analysis revealed that the deindividuation changes did not comprise a unified factor. Also it did not appear that the internal changes caused aggressive behavior, since the correlation between the two was low. PMID:1271222

  19. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  20. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment

    PubMed Central

    STORMSHAK, ELIZABETH A.; BIERMAN, KAREN L.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child’s externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment. PMID:9741677

  1. Immune responses in male mice with aggressive and submissive behavior patterns: strain differences.

    PubMed

    Devoino, L; Alperina, E; Kudryavtseva, N; Popova, N

    1993-03-01

    Immune responses in two strains of male mice with aggressive and submissive behavior patterns was studied. In aggressive CBA males immunized on the 10th day of agonistic confrontations with submissive partners, greater numbers of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and rosette-forming cells (RFC) were noted compared to control mice. Unlike the CBA strain, both PFC and RFC levels in aggressive C57BL males did not increase, but both PFC and RFC numbers decreased in submissive animals. PMID:8471801

  2. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one’s own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  3. Moderators of the dynamic link between alcohol use and aggressive behavior among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129

  4. Pattern and Type of Aggressive Behavior in Patients with Severe Mental Illness as Perceived by the Caregivers and the Coping Strategies Used by Them in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Abin; Khakha, Deeepika C; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Aggressive behavior by patients with severe mental illness is a major problem needing intervention. This descriptive cross sectional study examined the perception and coping strategies of caregivers with a sample of 100 toward aggressive behavior by patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient and inpatient unit of the department of psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital. The data were collected by a semistructured interview using Revised Overt Aggression Scale-modified, Aggressive Behavior and Intervention Checklist, Ways of Coping Checklist-Hindi Adaptation and Impact of Patient Aggression on Carers Scale-Adapted. The caregivers perceived aggression in varying extent from the patients. Majority used problem-focused coping to deal with aggressive behavior. Most of the caregivers perceived insisting to take medicines and talking about patient's illness as the triggers for aggressive behavior which was managed by talking to the patient calmly, lovingly and by leaving the patient alone. The findings strongly suggest aggressive behavior as a frequent problem faced by family members of patient with severe mental illness. Nursing interventions should focus on counseling and psycho education for empowering caregivers to utilize strategies to reduce occurrence of aggressive behavior from patient and ways to effectively cope with the situation. PMID:26804503

  5. Hemoglobin Status and Externalizing Behavioral Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianhua; Cui, Naixue; Zhou, Guoping; Ai, Yuexian; Sun, Guiju; Zhao, Sophie R.; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Still considered one of the most prevalent nutritional problems in the world, anemia has been shown in many studies to have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral development. While most research efforts have focused on investigating the effects of anemia on social and emotional development of infants by using a cross-sectional design, research is still needed to investigate whether early childhood anemia, beyond infantile years, is linked with behavioral problems. Objective: This study assessed whether (1) hemoglobin (Hb) levels in early childhood are associated with externalizing behavior; and (2) this relationship is confounded by social adversity. Methods: Hemoglobin levels were taken from children (N = 98) of the China Jintan Cohort Study at age 4 years, and externalizing behaviors (attention and aggression) were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (ASEBA-CBCL) at age 6 years (mean age 5.77 ± 0.39 years old). Results: Compared with other children in the sample, children with relatively lower Hb levels at age 4 had more behavioral problems in both attention and aggression at age 6, independent of social adversity. For boys, this association was significant for attention problems, which did not interact with social adversity. For girls, the association was significant for aggression, which interacted with social adversity. While girls on average exhibited higher social adversity than boys, the main effect of Hb was only significant in girls with low social adversity. Conclusions: These results indicate that there is an inverse association between hemoglobin levels and later behavioral problems. Findings of this study suggest that regular monitoring of children’s hemoglobin levels and appropriate intervention may help with early identification of behavioral problems. PMID:27472352

  6. Aggressive Behaviors in Young Siblings: Associations with Executive Functions and Maternal Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Spann, Catherine A; Gagne, Jeffrey R

    2016-04-01

    Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, academic failure, and substance abuse. This investigation employed a family study design to examine child, mother and sibling predictors of early-emerging aggressive behaviors. These predictors included several indices of executive functioning within children, depression symptoms and education level of mothers, and inhibitory control (IC) of siblings. The sample consisted of 95 families (191 children; boys = 100) with at least two, typically developing children between 30 and 66 months of age (M(age) = 45.93 months, SD = 12.40). Measures included laboratory-assessed working memory and IC, parent-reported aggressive behaviors, as well as self-reported maternal depression symptoms and education. Results revealed that children showed substantial sibling similarity in aggressive behaviors. Using multilevel regression analyses, low child IC and greater maternal depression symptoms were associated with increased child aggressive behaviors. Child working memory, maternal education, and sibling IC did not uniquely predict child aggressive behaviors. Moderation analyses revealed an interaction between maternal depression symptoms and maternal education, such that the effect of depression symptoms on child aggressive behaviors was particularly evident amongst highly educated mothers. The current analysis moved beyond a main effects model of maternal depression and extended previous findings on the importance of child IC to aggressive behaviors by using a multiple-child-per-family framework. A promising direction for future research includes assessing whether efforts to increase child IC are successful in reducing child aggressive behaviors. PMID:26084593

  7. Behavioral effects of fluoxetine on aggression and associative learning in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2015-12-01

    Past research has implicated serotonin as an important neurotransmitter in the facilitation of aggressive behavior. In Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), the SSRI fluoxetine has been demonstrated to reduce both frequency and duration of aggressive displays across a variety of concentration exposure procedures. While this multi-method approach has provided strong evidence for fluoxetine's impact on aggression, no study has sought to examine the behavioral mechanism by which fluoxetine exerts its anti-aggressive effect. To address this question, a Go-No Go discrimination task utilizing mirror presentations as a reinforcer was designed. Consistent with previous reports, the results indicated that fluoxetine may exert a sedative effect upon aggressive behavior via decreased arousal to external stimuli. PMID:26478253

  8. Behavioral orientations and peer-contact patterns of relationally aggressive girls.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Miyoshi; de Carvalho Filho, Moisés Kirk; Maeda, Kenichi

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess the behavioral orientations and peer-contact patterns of relationally aggressive girls. Based on teachers' assessments of relational aggression, 16 preschool girls were assigned to either a relationally aggressive group or a nonaggressive group and then observed in a free play setting. Several aspects of their interactive behaviors, e.g., cooperative play and social conversation, and noninteractive behaviors, e.g., solitary play and transition, were observed. Analysis indicated the relationally aggressive group spent more time engaged in social conversation and transition and less time in cooperative play than did the nonaggressive group. Further, findings indicated that the relationally aggressive group spent more time with one particular peer than did the nonaggressive group. PMID:15077786

  9. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  10. Gene-environment correlation linking aggression and peer victimization: do classroom behavioral norms matter?

    PubMed

    Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Using a genetically informed design based on 197 Monozygotic and Dizygotic twin pairs assessed in grade 4, this study examined 1) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for physical aggression or relational aggression puts children at risk of being victimized by their classmates, and 2) whether this rGE is moderated by classroom injunctive norm salience in regard to physical or relational aggression. Physical aggression and relational aggression, as well as injunctive classroom norm salience in regard to these behaviors, were measured via peer nominations. Peer victimization was measured via self-reports. Multi-Level Mixed modeling revealed that children with a genetic disposition for either aggressive behavior are at higher risk of being victimized by their peers only when classroom norms are unfavourable toward such behaviors. However, when classroom injunctive norms favor aggressive behaviors, a genetic disposition for physical or relational aggression may actually protect children against peer victimization. These results lend further support to the notion that bullying interventions must include the larger peer context instead of a sole focus on victims and bullies. PMID:25723009

  11. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Aggression among Elementary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as a proactive single-component aggression-reduction intervention for 24 students (ages 6- 9) classified as having emotional disabilities in a day school/treatment program. Students also had histories of aggressive behavior. Results supported PMR as a proactive short-term…

  12. Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Attributes of Aggressive Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toblin, R.L.; Schwartz, D.; Hopmeyer Gorman, A.; Abou-ezzeddine, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of children who are concurrently aggressive and victimized by their peers. The characteristics of these ''aggressive victims'' were examined in comparison to bullies, passive victims, and normative comparison children. The sample included 240 urban Los Angeles elementary school…

  13. A Mindfulness-Based Strategy for Self-Management of Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…

  14. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  15. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  16. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Children's Peer Victimization and Aggressive Behavior in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kopp, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the extent to which characteristics of the teacher-child relationship (closeness, dependency, and conflict) are predictive of changes in children's peer victimization and aggressive behavior over the course of a school year. Relational and physical forms of victimization and aggression were studied, and changes in peer…

  17. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  18. Effects of Anger Management Training on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri; Gold, Andrew; Garcia, Enemencio III

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the impact of Anger Management Training on reducing aggressive behavior in court-referred adolescent males (N=20) in a residential treatment facility. Participants were involved in 12 anger management training sessions. Results show that anger management may be an effective treatment strategy for reducing aggressiveness among…

  19. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  20. Factors Related to Aggressive and Violent Behavior among Preadolescent African-American Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Pierce, Lois

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical studies, this paper hypothesized that attitudes towards the use of violence and the use of aggressive and violent behavior among preadolescent African American males would be affected by verbal aggression in the home, violence observed in the community, family environment, and peer models. Data on aggressive…

  1. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  2. Genetic Variations in Chicken Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Serotonergic System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior via binding to its receptors, such as 5HT-1A and -1B, in humans and rodents. This study was designed to test if 5-HT regulating aggressiveness has a heritable component in chickens. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (low and high ...

  3. Genetic variations in chicken aggressive behavior: The role of serotonergic system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior via binding to its receptors, such as 5-HT 1A and 1B, in humans and rodents. This study was designed to test if 5-HT regulating aggressiveness has a heritable component in chickens. Chickens from two divergently selected lines HGPS and LGPS (low and hig...

  4. Patterns of Aggressive Behavior and Peer Victimization from Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Anne Powell; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra

    2011-01-01

    The developmental period characterized by the transition from childhood and elementary school to early adolescence and middle school has been associated with increases in aggressive behavior and peer victimization. Few longitudinal studies, however, have examined the stability of aggression and victimization during this critical transition. This…

  5. An Examination of the Reciprocal Relationships between Adolescents' Aggressive Behaviors and Their Perceptions of Parental Nurturance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Marshall, Sheila K.; Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined reciprocal relationships between adolescents' perceptions of parental nurturance and two types of adolescent aggressive behaviors (indirect and direct aggression) using a transactional model. Three waves of longitudinal data were drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample included…

  6. Psychopathic traits and maltreatment: Relations with aggression and mental health problems in detained boys.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Lindauer, Ramon; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathic traits and a history of maltreatment are well-known risk factors for mental health problems and aggression. A better insight in the impact of such risk factors on juvenile delinquents is likely to help tailoring treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to examine mental health problems and aggression in detained delinquent youths with various levels of psychopathic traits and maltreatment. Standardized questionnaires were used to assign 439 detained male adolescents (N = 439; from 13 to 18years of age) to one of six mutually exclusive groups: adolescents with (1) low psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (2) low psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment; (3) low psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment; (4) high psychopathic traits without maltreatment; (5) high psychopathic traits and one type of maltreatment and finally (6) high psychopathic traits and multiple types of maltreatment. Next, groups were compared on mental health problems, mental disorders and reactive and proactive aggression. Findings indicated that compared to the low psychopathic traits groups, high psychopathic traits groups had markedly higher levels of externalizing mental health problems (such as attention deficit/hyperactivity, substance abuse, rule-breaking), proactive and reactive aggression, but not of internalizing mental health problems (anxiety and depression). Mental health problems in boys with a low level of psychopathic traits increased with the number of types of maltreatment in their history. In boys with a high level of psychopathic traits, group differences did not reach significance. Levels of proactive and reactive aggression increased with the number of types of maltreatment in boys with low levels of psychopathic traits, but not in those with high psychopathic traits. Thus, in detained adolescents both psychopathic traits and the number of maltreatment types are related to the severity of mental health problems and types of aggression

  7. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  8. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  9. Emotionally abusive behavior in young couples: exploring a role for implicit aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Birch, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Emotionally abusive behaviors reported across a 6-month period in intimate relationships were examined. There were 269 participants aged 18-25 years who took part (98 men, 171 women). All completed the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and a measure of implicit aggression, the Puzzle Test. Implicit processing refers to subtle cognitive processing that occurs outside of conscious awareness. This study focused on aggressive implicit processing. Overall emotional victimization by a partner was associated with increased implicit aggressive levels, particularly for women. Those classified as perpetrators/victims (mutual aggressors and victims) were also predicted by increased implicit aggression. Women reported higher levels of implicit aggression than men. Results are discussed regarding future research and the value of theory in understanding the association between emotional abuse and implicit aggression. PMID:24047045

  10. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID

  11. [Problems of aggressive behaviour and its measurement in various age levels. Introduction of two questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Csorba, János; Radványi, Katalin; Barthel, Betty; Dinya, Elek

    2013-01-01

    Authors give a detailed overview on aspects of aggressive behaviour in childhood and adolescence especially on the basis of the literature of the last two decades, then. the measurement opportunities of aggression is discussed. The Children's Aggression Scale- parent version (Halperin et al 2002) rated by parents is presented and Hungarian validity data are published. In the second part of the publication, authors focus on the viewpoints of differences between aggressiveness of IQ deficit people and those of having normal intelligence, preliminary experiences are reported about the behavioural dimensions of intellectually disabled (ID) patients rated by the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn et al, 2001) suitable for measuring frequency and severity of behavioural qualities of both ID adolescents and adults. PMID:23689433

  12. [Justification of violence as a mediator between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior in children].

    PubMed

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of the justification of violence schema in the relationship between exposure to violence and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. We differentiated between direct and indirect exposure in four contexts: home, neighborhood, school and TV. A total of 675 children, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. They answered questionnaires about exposure to violence, justification of violence, and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior in two waves six months apart. The results showed that witnessing violence at home and on TV predicted aggressive behavior, and this relationship was mediated by the justification of violence. Victimization in all contexts predicted aggressive behavior and this relationship was generally mediated by the justification of violence. PMID:22269362

  13. Automatic Recognition of Aggressive Behavior in Pigs Using a Kinect Depth Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonguk; Jin, Long; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha

    2016-01-01

    Aggression among pigs adversely affects economic returns and animal welfare in intensive pigsties. In this study, we developed a non-invasive, inexpensive, automatic monitoring prototype system that uses a Kinect depth sensor to recognize aggressive behavior in a commercial pigpen. The method begins by extracting activity features from the Kinect depth information obtained in a pigsty. The detection and classification module, which employs two binary-classifier support vector machines in a hierarchical manner, detects aggressive activity, and classifies it into aggressive sub-types such as head-to-head (or body) knocking and chasing. Our experimental results showed that this method is effective for detecting aggressive pig behaviors in terms of both cost-effectiveness (using a low-cost Kinect depth sensor) and accuracy (detection and classification accuracies over 95.7% and 90.2%, respectively), either as a standalone solution or to complement existing methods. PMID:27144572

  14. Automatic Recognition of Aggressive Behavior in Pigs Using a Kinect Depth Sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonguk; Jin, Long; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha

    2016-01-01

    Aggression among pigs adversely affects economic returns and animal welfare in intensive pigsties. In this study, we developed a non-invasive, inexpensive, automatic monitoring prototype system that uses a Kinect depth sensor to recognize aggressive behavior in a commercial pigpen. The method begins by extracting activity features from the Kinect depth information obtained in a pigsty. The detection and classification module, which employs two binary-classifier support vector machines in a hierarchical manner, detects aggressive activity, and classifies it into aggressive sub-types such as head-to-head (or body) knocking and chasing. Our experimental results showed that this method is effective for detecting aggressive pig behaviors in terms of both cost-effectiveness (using a low-cost Kinect depth sensor) and accuracy (detection and classification accuracies over 95.7% and 90.2%, respectively), either as a standalone solution or to complement existing methods. PMID:27144572

  15. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Alipour, Abdolrasool; Edraki, Mitra; Tavakoli, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01), verbal (P=0.02) and physical (P=0.01) aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09) and impulsive anger (P=0.08) subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014042617436N1 PMID:26793733

  16. Predicting Aggression among Male Adolescents: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% signifi­cant level. Result:The three predictor variables of 1) attitude, 2) subjective norms, and 3) perceived behavioral control, accounted for 40% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression intention. Besides, intention accounted for 15% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression behavior. There was a sig­nificant correlation between drug abuse and alcohol consumption, have friend drug user, unprotect sex and parents divorced with aggression (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Designing intervention to reduction positive attitude and subjective norms toward aggressive behavior among adolescents could be usefulness result to aggression prevention. PMID:24688977

  17. Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kupersmidt, J B; Coie, J D

    1990-10-01

    The comparative effectiveness of preadolescent aggressive behavior, peer rejection, and school functioning were evaluated in the prediction of adolescent delinquency and school maladjustment. Fifth-grade children (n = 112, 69% white, 53% male, M = 11 years old) were followed forward for 7 years until the end of high school. Rejected children were more likely to have a nonspecific negative outcome and more types of negative outcomes than average, popular, or neglected children, particularly among the white students. However, in regression models containing sex, race, aggression, frequent school absences, low grades, and rejection, the only significant predictor of juvenile delinquency or of a nonspecific negative outcome was aggression toward peers. Both aggression and frequent school absences were significant predictors of early school withdrawal. Analyses for the white children in the sample revealed that both rejection and aggression best predicted to the nonspecific negative outcome, whereas aggression alone best predicted to school dropout and to having one or more police contacts. Implications for future longitudinal outcome research and for risk-group identification in racially heterogeneous samples are discussed. PMID:2245729

  18. Emotional Triggers and Psychopathology Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Urban Children with Elevated Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Peter A.; Gaudieri, Patricia A.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Cross, Wendi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Sworts, Luke; West, Jennifer; Burke, Katharine C.; Nathan, Janaki

    2009-01-01

    8.6% suicidal ideation (SI) was found among 349 urban 6-9 year olds in the top tercile of aggressive-disruptive behavior. SI was associated with more self-reported depression, ODD, conduct problems, and ADHD symptoms (ES 0.70-0.97) and 3.5-5 times more clinically significant symptoms. Parents rated more symptoms in older children associated with…

  19. Effects of Mixing on the Aggressive Behavior of Commercially Housed Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Shin-Jae; Son, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Hong, Joon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mixing on the aggressive behavior of commercially housed pigs. The behavioral patterns of 36 groups of pigs (a total of 360 animals) were observed over 3 consecutive days directly after weaning (25±1.2 days of age), and 25 and 50 days later with the aid of video technology. Fight latency and total duration and frequency of fighting were significantly different among the age groups. The aggressive behaviors decreased in 75-day old pigs if compared to 25- and 50-day old animals. Moreover, dominance index (DI) was higher in 25-day old and lower in 75-day old pigs. A comparison of dominant (DI>0) and submissive (DI<0) pigs showed significant differences (p<0.05) for major aggressive behaviors in all age groups. Dominant pigs were involved in more aggressive interactions, had longer fights, and initiated more fights than submissive pigs. Post-mixing aggressive behavior was altered by previous experience of mixing. Aggressive behavior and DI are suitable methods for analyzing the effects of mixing on commercially housed growing pigs. PMID:26104410

  20. Effects of Mixing on the Aggressive Behavior of Commercially Housed Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Shin-Jae; Son, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Hong, Joon-Ki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mixing on the aggressive behavior of commercially housed pigs. The behavioral patterns of 36 groups of pigs (a total of 360 animals) were observed over 3 consecutive days directly after weaning (25±1.2 days of age), and 25 and 50 days later with the aid of video technology. Fight latency and total duration and frequency of fighting were significantly different among the age groups. The aggressive behaviors decreased in 75-day old pigs if compared to 25- and 50-day old animals. Moreover, dominance index (DI) was higher in 25-day old and lower in 75-day old pigs. A comparison of dominant (DI>0) and submissive (DI<0) pigs showed significant differences (p<0.05) for major aggressive behaviors in all age groups. Dominant pigs were involved in more aggressive interactions, had longer fights, and initiated more fights than submissive pigs. Post-mixing aggressive behavior was altered by previous experience of mixing. Aggressive behavior and DI are suitable methods for analyzing the effects of mixing on commercially housed growing pigs. PMID:26104410

  1. Physical and verbal aggressive behavior and COMT genotype: Sensitivity to the environment.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Comasco, Erika; Andershed, Henrik; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-07-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investigating the susceptibility properties of COMT genotype to adverse and favorable environment in relation to physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped in a Swedish population-based cohort including 1,783 individuals, ages 20-24 years (47% males). A significant three-way interaction was found, after correction for multiple testing, between COMT genotype, exposure to violence, and parent-child relationship in association with physical but not verbal aggressive behavior. Homozygous for the Val allele reported lower levels of physical aggressive behavior when they were exposed to violence and at the same time experienced a positive parent-child relationship compared to Met carriers. Thus, susceptibility properties of COMT genotype were observed in relation to physical aggressive behavior supporting the hypothesis that COMT genotypes are modifying the sensitivity to environment that confers either risk or protection for aggressive behavior. As these are novel findings, they warrant further investigation and replication in independent samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888414

  2. Problem Behavior and Heart Rate Reactivity in Adopted Adolescents: Longitudinal and Concurrent Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…

  3. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  4. Reducing Children's Aggressive and Oppositional Behaviors in the Schools: Preliminary Results on the Effectiveness of a Social-Cognitive Group Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Vincken, Manon; Eijkelenboom, Anneke

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design was used in which one group of children first received…

  5. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  6. Competence-impeding electronic games and players' aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Deci, Edward L; Deci, Edward; Rigby, C Scott; Ryan, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 106(3) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2014-07574-006). In the article, the name of author Edward Deci was missing his middle name initial and should have read as Edward L. Deci. In addition, an incorrect version of figure 1 was published.] Recent studies have examined whether electronic games foster aggression. At present, the extent to which games contribute to aggression and the mechanisms through which such links may exist are hotly debated points. In current research we tested a motivational hypothesis derived from self-determination theory-that gaming would be associated with indicators of human aggression to the degree that the interactive elements of games serve to impede players' fundamental psychological need for competence. Seven studies, using multiple methods to manipulate player competence and a range of approaches for evaluating aggression, indicated that competence-impeding play led to higher levels of aggressive feelings, easier access to aggressive thoughts, and a greater likelihood of enacting aggressive behavior. Results indicated that player perceived competence was positively related to gaming motivation, a factor that was, in turn, negatively associated with player aggression. Overall, this pattern of effects was found to be independent of the presence or absence of violent game contents. We discuss the results in respect to research focused on psychological need frustration and satisfaction and as they regard gaming-related aggression literature. PMID:24377357

  7. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Rajchert, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140) were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007). PMID:27247687

  8. The use of novel stimuli as indicators of aggressive behavior in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Tracy L; Houpt, Katherine A; Erb, Hollis N

    2004-01-01

    To test the predictive value of a doll and an artificial hand, reactions of dogs (n=100) were compared to histories of behavior toward children. Each dog's reaction to the doll and the hand was categorized as normal, fearful, fearfully aggressive, or offensively aggressive. Sixty-five percent (n=37) of the dogs that had a normal or no reaction to the stimuli had a history of being good with children. Eighty-eight percent (n=34) of the dogs that had an aggressive reaction to the doll had a history of aggressive behavior toward a child. Dogs that were fearfully aggressive were significantly more likely to show fearful responses to the doll, and dogs that were either dominant or fearfully aggressive were more likely to exhibit aggression of the same type to the hand. The results of this study indicate that the doll and, to a lesser extent, the hand may be useful components in determining the aggressive tendencies of dogs. The results also point out the major limitations, because the false positives and false negatives are too frequent. PMID:14736900

  9. Behavior problems in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Verónica; Grañana, Nora E; Richaudeau, Alba; Torres, Silvio; Giannotti, Adrián; Suburo, Angela M

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavior in a group of children with specific language impairment in its 2 subtypes (expressive and mixed receptive/expressive). After exclusion of other psychiatric conditions, we evaluated 114 children of ages 2 to 7 years using language developmental tests and behavioral screening scales. Behavior problems appeared in 54% of the children. Withdrawn was the most frequently found syndrome in preschool children, whereas anxious/depressed and social problems were the most frequent in older children. The high frequency of behavioral syndromes in children with specific language impairment is remarkable and requires the awareness of primary attendants and specialists. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and aggressive and rule-breaking behavior can obscure identification of the language impairment. Taking into account this relationship would improve the chances of a timely and appropriate intervention. PMID:24272522

  10. The Positive Aspects of Aggressive Behavior in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Periolat, Janet; Nager, Nancy

    Not all fighting or aggression in young children is bad, and some kinds of teacher intervention may be beneficial. Play-fighting refers primarily to rough and tumble play and chasing, and several studies have shown that play and serious fighting can be clearly distinguished in young children. Numerous authors have pointed out the value and…

  11. Internet Training to Respond to Aggressive Resident Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, A. Blair; Billow, Molly B.; Gates, Donna M.; Fitzwater, Evelyn L.; Seeley, John R.; Bourgeois, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research evaluated an individualized Internet training designed to teach nurse aides (NAs) strategies to prevent or, if necessary, react to resident aggression in ways that are safe for the resident as well as the caregiver. Design and Methods: A randomized treatment and control design was implemented, with baseline, 1-, and 2-month…

  12. Think First: Addressing Aggressive Behavior in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This highly practical book presents a complete anger and aggression management training program for middle and high school students. The volume incorporates a newly revised version of the author's proven "Think First" manual, which includes step-by-step skills training guidelines and 20 reproducible handouts and forms. Also provided are a clear…

  13. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  14. The Difficult Parent: An Educator's Guide to Handling Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaksec, Charles M., III

    2004-01-01

    Parents are a vital source of support for our schools. School personnel interact with parents on a daily basis and fortunately, most of these interactions are pleasant and helpful, keeping students' needs in mind. Instances of parental aggression, however, do occur. Volatile or confrontational parents present many unique challenges for educators…

  15. Teenage Girls' Perceptions of the Functions of Relationally Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent girls reported on their experiences both as perpetrators and as victims of several distinct forms of relational aggression. Details of these incidents were gathered from 114 ethnically diverse ninth and tenth graders via a secure online survey. The frequency with which girls perpetrated or were targeted for particular acts of relational…

  16. Female juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior. PMID:22392721

  17. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing. PMID:26244710

  18. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  19. A survey of feline behavioral problems in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, Naqa; Malmasi, Abdolali; Talebi, Aniseh; Tamimi, Fatemeh; Amini, Atoosa

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral problems in cats have drawn more attention in recent years since they affect the cat-owner relationship. This study was designed to study the rate of cats with undesirable behaviors according to their owners. Frequency of behavioral problems in 167 cats attending Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, was evaluated using a questionnaire. According to the results, 94.6% of owners reported that their cats have exhibited at least one undesirable behavior. Fearfulness, attention seeking, aggression towards other cats/people, scratching, and elimination problems were the most prevalent behavioral complaints reported by the owners; whereas obsessive behaviors were the least common behavioral complaints. In addition, data analysis suggested that age, breed, outdoor access, owner reaction towards the behavior and the cat’s interaction with other cats/people might have been associated with the development of some behavioral problems in cats. Considerable rate of undesirable behaviors in domestic cats in Iran is important enough to highlight the significance of veterinary intervention. PMID:26261710

  20. [Comparisons of aggressive behavior for Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) to tourists from Mt. Huangshan, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Huan; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourists at Mt. Huangshan in two periods (Nov.-Dec.2008 and Apr.-May 2009). After we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.Our observations indicate that Tibetan macaques respond differently to human according to the age/sex classes involved. On one hand, We found that the adult male monkeys tend to be more aggressive than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female monkeys and immature monkeys participated in AGIII behaviors (threat) less than expected (P<0.01); On the other hand, The adult male human received more aggressive behaviors than expected (P<0.01), while the adult female human and child received less aggressive in AGIII behaviors (threat) (P<0.01). Our results provide not only a scientific basis for the management advice that adult male monkeys and adult male human should be given special attention, but also a good management model of Huangshan for other primate tourist exploring places. PMID:20740706

  1. Intrasexual peer aggression and dating behavior during adolescence: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; O'Brien, Daniel T; Wilson, David Sloan

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of intrasexual aggression is a form of competition associated with reproductive opportunities. Here the authors investigated the relationship between retrospective dating and flirting behavior and peer aggression and victimization during middle and high school. Results indicate that the use of peer aggression was associated with adaptive dating outcomes in both sexes, whereas experiencing peer victimization was correlated with maladaptive dating behaviors among females only. Females who perpetrated high levels of indirect (i.e. nonphysical) aggression reported that they began dating at earlier ages in comparison to their peers, whereas aggressive males reported having more total dating partners. Experiencing female-female peer victimization was correlated with a later onset of dating behavior, more total dating partners, and less male flirtation while growing up. This report strengthens the connection between adolescent peer aggression and reproductive competition, suggesting a potential functionality to adolescent peer aggression in enhancing one's own mating opportunities at the expense of rivals. PMID:21433032

  2. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs. PMID:22307443

  3. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of aggression and antisocial behavior, and the quality of intergroup relationships. Applied implications of these findings, including preventative studies, are discussed, as are possible future directions. PMID:21221410

  4. Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…

  5. Psychophysiology of Aggression, Psychopathy, and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 95 studies was conducted to investigate the relations of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) with aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems. Analyses revealed a complex constellation of interactive effects, with a failure in some cases of autonomic patterns to generalize across antisocial spectrum behavior…

  6. Peer Aggression and Mental Health Problems: Self-Esteem as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene; Armelius, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediates the association between peer aggression and internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. A total of 204 Swedish adolescents aged between 12- and 16-years-old completed self-report measures; self-esteem was assessed with "I think I am" (ITIA) and internalizing and externalizing problems…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  8. The Broader Impact of Friend to Friend (F2F): Effects on Teacher-Student Relationships, Prosocial Behaviors, and Relationally and Physically Aggressive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke S

    2016-07-01

    Girls often harm others' social standing by starting rumors about peers or by excluding others from peer group activities, which is called relational aggression. Although relational aggression is not a new phenomenon, there have been relatively few interventions designed to address this, especially for urban ethnic minority girls. The Friend to Friend (F2F) program, developed through an iterative participatory action research process, has proven to be effective in improving targeted relationally aggressive urban girls' social problem-solving knowledge and decreasing levels of relational aggression, with effects being maintained 1 year after treatment. In the current article, we examine the broader effects of the F2F program. Findings suggest that the indicated F2F program has broader effects such as increasing prosocial behaviors, decreasing relational and physical aggression, and improving teacher-student relationships among non-targeted boys. In addition, the program demonstrated some effects for non-targeted girls including an increase in prosocial behaviors and improved teacher-student relationships. Implications for examining the cost-effectiveness of indicated interventions such as F2F are discussed. PMID:27222262

  9. Temporary Increases in Problem Behavior and Sleep Disruption Following Decreases in Medication: A Descriptive Analysis of Conditional Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Swanson, Greg; Dornbusch, Kaitlin

    2007-01-01

    Conditional rates of problem behavior for weeks that followed medication decreases and no medication changes were compared for 12 individuals who exhibited severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury, aggression). The results indicate that conditional rates of problem behavior were higher following medication decreases than following no changes in…

  10. Implications for the prevention of aggressive behavior within psychiatric hospitals drawn from interpersonal communication theory.

    PubMed

    Daffern, Michael; Day, Andrew; Cookson, Amy

    2012-05-01

    Although interpersonal style is a defining feature of personality and personality disorder and is commonly identified as an important influence on aggressive behavior, treatment completion, and the development of an effective therapeutic alliance, it is rarely considered in practice guidelines for preventing, engaging, and managing patients at risk of aggression. In this article, the authors consider three potential applications of interpersonal theory to the care and management of patients at risk of aggression during hospitalization: (a) preventing aggression through theoretically grounded limit setting and de-escalation techniques, (b) developing and using interventions to alter problematic interpersonal styles, and (c) understanding therapeutic ruptures and difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Interpersonal theory is proposed to offer a unifying framework that may assist development of intervention and management strategies that can help to reduce the occurrence of aggression in institutional settings. PMID:21518699

  11. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    PubMed

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed. PMID:23746345

  12. The breakdown of meaning and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Hazani, Moshe

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to account for the upsurge of adolescents' problem behavior in high-income countries in terms of Lifton's paradigm of symbolic immortality. Whilst most of the works dealing with this subject focus on the level of the individual adolescent and his or her surrounding, Lifton shows that societal processes can affect the individual. Drawing upon his approach, it was argued that desymbolization,--the collapse of society's symbols system--produces "divided selves," individuals who harbor an 'aggressor-victim double' in their psyche, wherein an internal conflict between the aggressor and the victim engenders self-destructive impulses. In this study it is hypothesized that problem behaviors are external manifestations of underlying self-destructiveness. Thirty-four Jewish-Israeli adolescents involved in sexual promiscuity, drug abuse, anorexia nervosa, and violence were interviewed. It was found that despite individual and social dissimilarities, and the different problem behaviors, the participants were marked by inner-directed destructiveness as well as a sense of meaninglessness of life and lack of symbolic relationship to what transcends their here-and-now selves. Significantly, violent adolescents whose aggression is other-directed were found to be marked by underlying self-directed aggression as well. If the findings of this study are representative of Israeli society at large or of other affluent societies, then the epidemic proportions of youth problem behavior may indicate that these societies are undergoing desymbolization, a psychocultural breakdown. PMID:12964443

  13. Perceived threat mediates the relationship between psychosis proneness and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Jennifer Renee; Berman, Mitchell Eric; Mohn, Richard Samuel; McCloskey, Michael Sean

    2010-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are associated with aggressive tendencies, but this relationship is both complex and imperfect. In contrast to psychotic disorders, little is known about aggressive behavior and sub-clinical psychotic symptoms (e.g., “psychosis proneness”), which are relatively common in the general population. Threat/control-override (TCO), which is the propensity to overestimate the likelihood that an outside agent will (1) inflict harm (threat) or (2) control one’s behaviors (control-override), has been associated with aggression in both psychiatric and community samples. The purpose of this study was to determine if psychosis proneness is related to aggression, and if one or both aspects of TCO mediate this relationship. We hypothesized that the propensity to overestimate threat would mediate this relationship, but control-override would not. Sixty men and sixty women (mean age = 20.00 years, sd = 3.00) with no history of psychotic disorder completed measures assessing psychosis proneness, threat control/override, aggressive history, aggressive ideation, and aggressive behavior. Three structural equation models were tested: (1) Threat and control-override modeled as separate mediating variables, (2) TCO as a unitary mediating latent construct, and (3) TCO considered as part of a psychosis-proneness latent variable. Results indicated that psychosis proneness is positively related to aggression and that the best model fit was obtained when threat and control-override were modeled as separate variables, with mediation through threat alone. The utility of TCO for explaining the relation between psychosis spectrum symptoms and aggression is discussed. PMID:20965573

  14. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability) while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships). Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females. PMID:23864299

  15. Mothers' violence victimization and child behavior problems: examining the link.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128

  16. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  17. An examination of social cognitive theory with differences among sexually aggressive, physically aggressive and nonaggressive children in state care.

    PubMed

    Burton, D L

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of boys in Washington State care (37 sexually aggressive, 17 physically aggressive, and 15 nonaggressive) are compared on measures of behavior and cognition. Bandura's Social Cognition theory is offered as a possible explanation for sexual aggression by children. Two theory-based hypothesis are tested. First, are sexually aggressive children cognitively deficient when compared to the other groups? Second, do the sexually aggressive children have cognitive distortions about their behavior and about sex? Similarities were found in the aggressive and sexually aggressive groups on several measures. Physically aggressive boys were found to have some sexual behavior problems. Sexually aggressive boys were also found to be physically aggressive. Physically aggressive boys were found to have the least severe and least frequent victimization history. No support was found for the first hypothesis, while some evidence of cognitive distortions regarding both social behavior and sex was found in the sexually aggressive children. Discussion and some implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:10418769

  18. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked. PMID:9559028

  19. Increased aggressive and affiliative display behavior in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) baboons

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Hillary F; Ford, Susan M; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized intrauterine growth restricted offspring (IUGR) demonstrate higher rates of aggression and higher dominance ranks than control (CTR) offspring with normal weight at term; if aggressive behavior is advantageous during resource scarcity, developmental programming may lead to an association between aggression and IUGR. Methods We studied 22 group-housed baboons (ages 3-5 years). CTR (male n=8, female n=5) mothers ate ad libitum. IUGR (male n=4, female n=5) mothers were fed 70% feed eaten by CTR mothers during pregnancy and lactation. Results IUGR showed higher rates of aggressive displays (p<0.01) and friendly displays (p<0.02). Dominance ranks and physical aggression rates did not differ between groups. Conclusions High rates of IUGR aggressive display might reflect developmental programming of behavioral phenotypes enhancing fitness. Friendly displays may reflect reconciliation. Potential mechanisms include neurodevelopment and learning. Exploration of IUGR as a risk factor for behavioral patterns is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25891005

  20. Anti-Social Behavioral Correlates of Self-Reported Sexual Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn W.; And Others

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that sexually coercive behavior is part of a larger constellation of non-sexual deviant behaviors. The first study considered the relationship between various antisocial intentions and self-reported levels of sexual aggression. As a part of a larger study, college men (N=108) responded to the Sexual Experiences…

  1. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  2. Teachers' Assessment of Antisocial Behavior in Kindergarten: Physical Aggression and Measurement Bias across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Thijs, Jochem T.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analytic study was conducted to obtain evidence for physical aggression as a distinct construct of nonaggressive antisocial behavior in young children. Second, the authors investigated factorial invariance across gender. Teachers completed the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for two independent samples of…

  3. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  4. Adolescents with Childhood ADHD and Comorbid Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Aggression, Anger, and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood. Methods: Participants were a clinically referred sample of 85 individuals diagnosed with ADHD, initially recruited in the…

  5. Relational and Physical Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Peer Relations: Gender Moderation and Bidirectional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2005-01-01

    In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…

  6. Factors Associated with Aggressive Behavior among Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whall, Ann L.; Colling, Kathleen B.; Kolanowski, Ann; Kim, HyoJeong; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeCicco, Barry; Ronis, David L.; Richards, Kathy C.; Algase, Donna; Beck, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In an attempt to more thoroughly describe aggressive behavior in nursing home residents with dementia, we examined background and proximal factors as guided by the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model. Design and Methods: We used a multivariate cross-sectional survey with repeated measures; participants resided in nine randomly…

  7. Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in the School Environment among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…

  8. Assessment and Treatment of Aggressive Behavior without a Clear Social Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; Call, Nathan A.; Mews, Jayme B.; Boelter, Eric W.; Christensen, Tory J.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of two individuals' aggressive behavior. Results of each of the initial functional analyses were inconclusive with respect to the role of social reinforcers in the maintenance of the behavior. Further assessment was conducted to clarify the role of social reinforcers. One individual's results suggested social…

  9. [The BASYS observation system for the analysis of aggressive behavior in classroom-settings].

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Educational or therapeutic measures of aggressive student behavior are often based on the judgments of teachers. However, empirical studies show that the objectivity of these judgments is generally low. In order to assess aggressive behavior in classroom settings, we developed a context-sensitive observational system. The observation system exists in a version for teachers in action as well as a version for the uninvolved observer. The teacher version allows categorizing aggressive behavior while teaching. The aim is to differentiate the perception and the judgments of teachers, so that the judgments can serve as trustable diagnostic information. The version for an independent observer, in addition, contains categories to collect information about the context in which aggressions take place. The behavior observation system was tested in four field-studies in regular and special classes. The empirical results show that, after training, teachers were able to make objective observations, and that aggressive behavior depends to a large extent on situational factors. The system allows identification of problematic people-environment relationships and the derivation of intervention measures. PMID:22748725

  10. Distinctive effects of fear and sadness induction on anger and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jun; Ren, Jun; Fan, Jin; Luo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for “cognition free” self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing “cognition free” regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger and aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger and aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1) and by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2). Then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and viewed sad, fear-inducing, or neutral materials to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results showed that participants displayed a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was later induced and a higher level of anger when fear was later induced. These results provide evidence that supports the hypothesis of mutual promotion and counteraction relationships among these types of emotions and imply a “cognition free” approach to regulating anger and aggressive behavior. PMID:26124725

  11. Adolescent Problem Behavior and Problem Driving in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…

  12. Comparative mRNA analysis of behavioral and genetic mouse models of aggression.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Tosto, Maria G; Pain, Oliver; Sluyter, Frans; Mineur, Yann S; Crusio, Wim E; de Boer, Sietse; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; Kesserwani, Jad; Robinson, Edward; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of aggression have traditionally compared strains, most notably BALB/cJ and C57BL/6. However, these strains were not designed to study aggression despite differences in aggression-related traits and distinct reactivity to stress. This study evaluated expression of genes differentially regulated in a stress (behavioral) mouse model of aggression with those from a recent genetic mouse model aggression. The study used a discovery-replication design using two independent mRNA studies from mouse brain tissue. The discovery study identified strain (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) × stress (chronic mild stress or control) interactions. Probe sets differentially regulated in the discovery set were intersected with those uncovered in the replication study, which evaluated differences between high and low aggressive animals from three strains specifically bred to study aggression. Network analysis was conducted on overlapping genes uncovered across both studies. A significant overlap was found with the genetic mouse study sharing 1,916 probe sets with the stress model. Fifty-one probe sets were found to be strongly dysregulated across both studies mapping to 50 known genes. Network analysis revealed two plausible pathways including one centered on the UBC gene hub which encodes ubiquitin, a protein well-known for protein degradation, and another on P38 MAPK. Findings from this study support the stress model of aggression, which showed remarkable molecular overlap with a genetic model. The study uncovered a set of candidate genes including the Erg2 gene, which has previously been implicated in different psychopathologies. The gene networks uncovered points at a Redox pathway as potentially being implicated in aggressive related behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888158

  13. Modulatory action of taurine on ethanol-induced aggressive behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Barbara D; Meinerz, Daniele L; Rosa, Luiz Vinícius C; Mezzomo, Nathana J; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Quadros, Vanessa A; Filho, Gilvan L B; Blaser, Rachel E; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol is a potent agent for eliciting aggression in vertebrates. Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid with pleiotropic actions on brain function. It is one of the most abundant molecules present in energy drinks frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. However, the combined effects of TAU and ethanol (EtOH) on behavioral parameters such as aggression are poorly understood. Considering that zebrafish is a suitable vertebrate to assess agonistic behaviors using noninvasive protocols, we investigate whether TAU modulates EtOH-induced aggression in zebrafish using the mirror-induced aggression (MIA) test. Since body color can be altered by pharmacological agents and may be indicative of emotional state, we also evaluated the actions of EtOH and TAU on pigment response. Fish were acutely exposed to TAU (42, 150, and 400mg/L), EtOH (0.25%), or cotreated with both molecules for 1h and then placed in the test apparatus for 6min. EtOH, TAU 42, TAU 400, TAU 42/EtOH and TAU 400/EtOH showed increased aggression, while 150mg/L TAU only increased the latency to attack the mirror. This same concentration also prevented EtOH-induced aggression, suggesting that it antagonizes the effects of acute alcohol exposure. Representative ethograms revealed the existence of different aggressive patterns and our results were confirmed by an index used to estimate aggression in the MIA test. TAU did not alter pigment intensity, while EtOH and all cotreated groups presented a substantial increase in body color. Overall, these data show a biphasic effect of TAU on EtOH-induced aggression of zebrafish, which is not necessarily associated with changes in body color. PMID:26631619

  14. Aggressive Behavior Among Military Veterans in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Reilly, Patrick; Timko, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and impulsivity as predictors of aggressive behavior among 133 male military Veterans entering substance abuse treatment who endorsed difficulty controlling anger in the past year. At treatment intake, participants completed measures assessing PTSD symptom severity, impulsivity and aggressive behavior. Perpetration of aggressive behavior was reassessed four months later. Results from multivariate models indicated that PTSD symptom severity and impulsivity explained unique variance in aggressive behavior at intake but not follow-up. Mediation models indicated that the association between PTSD symptom severity and aggressive behavior was accounted for by impulsivity. The identification of impulsivity as a key mediator between trauma symptoms and aggressive behavior has significant clinical and research implications. Based on these findings, clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of impulsivity and the selection of interventions that target impulsivity as a trans-diagnostic process among at-risk client populations. PMID:25468005

  15. Etiological distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior: results from a nuclear twin family model.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2012-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt (Clinical Psychology Review, 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment. Unfortunately, behavioral genetic research on antisocial behavior to date (and thus, the research upon which the meta-analysis was based) has relied almost exclusively on the classical twin model. This reliance is problematic, as the strict assumptions that undergird this model (e.g., shared environmental and dominant genetic influences are not present simultaneously; there is no assortative mating) can have significant consequences on heritability estimates when they are violated. The nuclear twin family model, by contrast, allows researchers to relax and statistically evaluate many of the assumptions of the classical twin design by incorporating parental self-report data along with the more standard twin data. The goal of the current study was thus to evaluate whether prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB persisted when using the nuclear twin family model. We examined a sample of 312 child twin families from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Results strongly supported prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB, such that broad genetic influences were observed to be particularly important to AGG whereas shared environmental influences contributed only to RB. Nevertheless, the current findings also implied that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior may be overestimated when using the classical twin design. PMID:22466619

  16. Variable Effects of Children's Aggression, Social Withdrawal, and Prosocial Leadership as Functions of Teacher Beliefs and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    2003-01-01

    Examined link between Chinese teachers' beliefs about classroom aggression and withdrawal and their support of middle schoolers, and student behaviors, peer acceptance, and self-perceived social competence. Found that teachers' aversion to aggression and empathy toward withdrawal enhanced self-perceptions of both aggressive and withdrawn children…

  17. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  18. Androgen-mediated nurturing and aggressive behaviors during paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Chandra M C; Neff, Bryan D; Knapp, Rosemary

    2013-03-01

    Male parental care in vertebrates often involves both defensive and nurturing behaviors. Whether androgens differentially mediate these two types of behaviors, or a trade-off exists between them, has been studied by behavioral endocrinologists for years but predominantly in species with biparental care. In such systems, potential detrimental effects of elevated androgens on parental care behaviors are often compensated for by changes in behavior of the unmanipulated parent. In contrast, for species where only one parent provides care, manipulation of androgen levels may more clearly determine if there are differential effects of androgens on these two types of behaviors and whether the proposed trade-off between defensive and nurturing behavior exists. Here, we manipulated androgen levels in two ways in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), a species where males provide sole parental care for the young. At the onset of the care period, males were implanted with 11-ketotestosterone, a major teleost androgen, the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, or a blank implant. A separate control group experienced no manipulation. Males were then observed over several days and tested for their aggressiveness towards an experimentally-presented brood predator and for nurturing behavior (fanning of the eggs, removal of dead or fungal-infected eggs). Males implanted with 11-ketotestosterone displayed 64% more aggressive behaviors and 71% fewer nurturing behaviors than control groups. In contrast, males implanted with flutamide displayed 7% fewer aggressive behaviors and 126% more nurturing behaviors than control males. Taken together, these results show that aggression and nurturing behaviors are mediated by androgens and suggest that there is a trade-off between the two behaviors during parental care in this species. PMID:23268781

  19. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. PMID:26349636

  20. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  1. Ethanol-induced enhancement of defensive behavior in different models of murine aggression.

    PubMed

    Berry, M S

    1993-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on agonistic behavior in mice were studied by introducing an intruder mouse to a resident, alcohol-treated test animal (or saline-injected control). Alcohol (0.1-2.0 g/kg, IP) was administered 20 minutes before testing, and an ethological analysis was made of all behavioral elements shown by the treated animal during a 500-second period. Alcohol did not increase aggression, whether baselines were high, low or experimentally suppressed. Defensive activities, however, were dose-dependently increased, with a threshold dose of 0.5 g/kg or lower in some situations. This suggests that alcohol did not reduce "anxiety" or "fear." Aggression tended to decrease, even with doses as low as 0.5 g/kg, which produced BACs of only 25-40 mg/dl at the start of the testing period. With the highest dose, however, aspects of timidity were still increased after 3 hours, but aggression returned to control level after 1 hour, when the BAC was about 250 mg/dl. In other studies, increased aggression has generally been found only with low alcohol doses. This acute tolerance to the anti-aggressive effect of alcohol reported here suggests the possibility of finding pro-aggressive effects at much higher BACs, perhaps more closely simulating the human situation. PMID:8410957

  2. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27300740

  3. Compliance training and behavioral covariation in the treatment of multiple behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Russo, D C; Cataldo, M F; Cushing, P J

    1981-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of a compliance-training procedure and its effect on untreated deviant child behaviors. Three children, each generally noncompliant to adult requests and with several additional problems, such as crying, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, were trained in the compliance procedure under a multiple-baseline design across therapists. Compliance was defined as the correct response to prespecified requests. Other classes of deviant child behavior were measured continuously throughout the study but not directly reinforced. The results of the study showed that (a) increases in compliance to requests were directly related to the contingencies employed; (b) decreases in untreated deviant behaviors occurred when compliance increased, even though no direct contingencies had been placed on these behaviors; and (c) the relationship between untreated deviant behaviors and compliance appeared to be maintained by a different set of events in each of the three children. The results are discussed in terms of behavioral covariation and generalization. PMID:7298534

  4. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and callous-unemotional traits as moderators of conduct problems when examining impairment and aggression in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Examined whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderate the association between conduct problems (CPs) and impairment and aggression. Participants were 214 children who were rated by their elementary school classroom teachers. Results indicated that the association between CP and impairment and aggressive outcomes is almost always moderated by ADHD and/or CU. Moreover, in many instances, the association between CP and outcomes was moderated by both ADHD and CU such that the moderating effects of CU on CP were more pronounced at lower levels of ADHD. Results are discussed with respect to developmental taxonomies and trajectories of the disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:17696164

  6. Behavioral treatment for common childhood problems.

    PubMed

    Hodson, G; Mathews, J R; Macdonald, G W; McNeill, G; Grantmyre, J

    1984-01-01

    Parents often consult family physicians about child rearing, child development, and school-related problems. Behavioral treatment is one method of dealing with such concerns. It involves identifying problems with a child's behavior, working to resolve them by rewarding desirable behavior and withholding rewards for undesirable behavior, and evaluating the outcome. Before treatment begins, it is necessary to establish that the parents feel the child's behavior is a problem; that the child can voluntarily control the behavior; that at least one parent or primary caretaker can benefit from instruction in how to modify behavior, and that the behavior to be changed is not just one facet of a larger family problem. Both parents and physicians may find self-help books and printed handouts very useful. Referral to specialized services may be appropriate for complex or recalcitrant problems. PMID:21283501

  7. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  8. Aggression and Related Behavioral Traits: The Impact of Winning and Losing and the Role of Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching; Li, Cheng-Yu; Earley, Ryan L.; Hsu, Yuying

    2012-01-01

    A suite of correlated behaviors reflecting between-individual consistency in behavior across multiple situations is termed a “behavioral syndrome.” Researchers have suggested that a cause for the correlation between different behaviors might lie in the neuroendocrine system. In this study, we examined the relationships between aggressiveness (a fish's readiness to perform gill display to its mirror image) and each of boldness (the readiness to emerge from a shelter), exploratory tendency (the readiness to approach a novel shelter), and learning performance (the probability of entering the correct reservoir in a T-maze test) in a mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus. We explored the possibility that the relationships between them arise because these behaviors are all modulated by cortisol and testosterone. We also tested the stability of the relationships between these behaviors shortly after using a winning or losing experience to alter individuals’ aggressiveness. The results were that aggressiveness correlated positively with boldness and the tendency to explore, and that these three behavioral traits were all positively correlated with pre-experience testosterone levels. Aggressiveness and boldness also positively correlated with pre-experience cortisol levels; exploratory tendency did not. The relationship between aggressiveness and boldness appeared to be stronger than that between either of them and exploratory tendency. These results suggest that testosterone and cortisol play important roles in mediating the correlations between these behavioral traits. Learning performance was not significantly correlated with the other behavioral traits or with levels of testosterone or cortisol. Recent experience in contests influenced individuals’ aggressiveness, tendency to explore, and learning performance but not their boldness; individuals that received a winning experience were quicker to display to their mirror image and performed better in the

  9. Decreased aggressive and locomotor behaviors in Betta splendens after exposure to fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Kohlert, Jess G; Mangan, Brian P; Kodra, Christine; Drako, Linsay; Long, Emily; Simpson, Holly

    2012-02-01

    The failure of sewage treatment plants to remove pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine from waste water has become a concern given that these products are being detected in the surface waters of many countries of the world. The effects of fluoxetine in sub-lethal doses on the neural systems and behaviors of aquatic life are worthy of investigation. This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal amounts fluoxetine dissolved in water on the aggressive and locomotor behaviors of 44 male Betta splendens. Fish treated with 705 microg/l of fluoxetine and 350 microg/l of fluoxetine generally demonstrated significant decreases in locomotion and number of aggressive attacks compared to 0 microg/l of fluoxetine (controls) on Days 11 and 19 of drug exposure and persisted for at least 13 days after removal of fluoxetine. Consistent with decreases in the number of aggressive attacks, there was a significant increase in aggression-response time to a perceived intruder for treated males on Days 11 and 19 and persisted for 6 days following removal of fluoxetine. However, the differences in aggressive and locomotor behaviors seen in the fluoxetine-treated groups were indistinguishable from controls three weeks following drug removal. PMID:22489377

  10. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the person during outbursts. Do not take their behavior personally. Try to prevent them from getting hurt ... may be the cause of changes in the behavior of the person who has dementia. You think ...

  11. Assessment of Feeding and Mealtime Behavior Problems in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2004-01-01

    Feeding and mealtime behavior problems are commonly observed among individuals with developmental disabilities. These problems include, but are not limited to, food refusal, food selectivity, mealtime aggression, rumination, pica, and insufficient feeding skills. Difficulties of this type can be associated with life-threatening consequences of…

  12. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  13. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  14. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions. PMID:24043499

  15. Social Context Influences Aggressive and Courtship Behavior in a Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Julie K.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions require knowledge of the environment and status of others, which can be acquired indirectly by observing the behavior of others. When being observed, animals can also alter their signals based on who is watching. Here we observed how male cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni) behave when being watched in two different contexts. In the first, we show that aggressive and courtship behaviors displayed by subordinate males depends critically on whether dominant males can see them, and in the second, we manipulated who was watching aggressive interactions and showed that dominant males will change their behavior depending on audience composition. In both cases, when a more dominant individual is out of view and the audience consists of more subordinate individuals, those males signal key social information to females by displaying courtship and dominant behaviors. In contrast, when a dominant male is present, males cease both aggression and courtship. These data suggest that males are keenly aware of their social environment and modulate their aggressive and courtship behaviors strategically for reproductive and social advantage. PMID:22807996

  16. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26886483

  17. Sexual aggression between residents in nursing homes: literature synthesis of an underrecognized problem.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Tony; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl

    2010-10-01

    Evidence exists suggesting that most sexual aggression against older adults occurs in long-term care facilities. Fellow residents are the most common perpetrators, often demonstrating inappropriate hypersexual behavior caused by dementing illness. This resident-to-resident sexual aggression (RRSA) is defined as sexual interactions between long-term care residents that, in a community setting, at least one of the recipients would be likely to construe as unwelcome and that have high potential to cause physical or psychological distress in one or both of the involved residents. Although RRSA may be common, and physical and psychological consequences for victims may be significant, this phenomenon has received little direct attention from researchers. This is a review of the existing literature and relevant related research examining elder sexual abuse and hypersexual behavior that describes the epidemiological features of this phenomenon, including risk factors for perpetrators and victims. The legitimate and recognized need for nursing home residents, even those with advanced dementing illness, to express themselves sexually makes preventing and managing sexual aggression in nursing homes more challenging. This review discusses the ethical dilemma this situation creates and the need to evaluate the capacity to consent to sexual activity of residents with dementing illness and to re-evaluate capacity as the diseases progress. Suggestions are offered for managing incidents of RRSA and for future research, including the importance of designing effective interventions. PMID:20840462

  18. Lattice hydrodynamic modeling of two-lane traffic flow with timid and aggressive driving behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sapna

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model is proposed by considering the aggressive or timid characteristics of driver's behavior. The effect of driver's characteristic on the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. It is shown that for both the cases of lane changing or without lane changing the stability region significantly enlarges (reduces) as the proportion of aggressive (timid) drivers increases. To describe the propagation behavior of a density wave near the critical point, nonlinear analysis is conducted and mKdV equation representing kink-antikink soliton is derived. The effect of anticipation parameter with more aggressive (timid) drivers is also investigated and found that it has a positive (negative) effect on the stability of two-lane traffic flow dynamics. Simulation results are found consistent with the theoretical findings which confirm that the driver's characteristics play a significant role in a two-lane traffic system.

  19. Bullying-Victimization Problems and Aggressive Tendencies in Spanish Secondary Schools Students: The Role of Gender Stereotypical Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raul; Larranaga, Elisa; Yubero, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents data concerning culturally prescribed gender traits and their influence on bullying/victimization problems and aggressive tendencies from a wide sample of 1,654 Spanish adolescents. The aims of this study were to clarify the effect of masculine traits on male and female secondary students' aggression, and also to explore the…

  20. The Role of Reactive Aggression in the Link Between Hyperactive-Impulsive Behaviors and Peer Rejection in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Evans, Spencer C; Fite, Paula J; Hendrickson, Michelle L; Rubens, Sonia L; Mages, Anna K

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and aggressive behaviors are both associated with peer rejection, but little is known the nature of this association with respect to the two symptom dimensions of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention and different types of aggression. The present study examines the relations between dimensions of ADHD symptomatology, proactive and reactive aggression, and peer rejection in adolescence. Teacher-reported data were obtained for 200 high school students (grades 9-12; 48% female; predominately Latino). In structural equation modeling path analyses, the indirect effects of reactive aggression accounted for the link between hyperactivity-impulsivity and peer rejection. Within the same model, neither inattention nor proactive aggression were associated with peer rejection. These findings suggest that reactive aggression may be a key mechanism through which hyperactive-impulsive behavior is associated with peer rejection. Future research and intervention efforts should address the role of reactive aggression among youth with ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25552242

  1. Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-01-01

    There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. PMID:18161877

  2. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. PMID:27601407

  3. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism.

    PubMed

    Schwichtenberg, Amy Jo; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-06-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal prospective study, children completed the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Communication Questionnaire at 36 months of age. This study focuses on developmental concerns outside of ASD; therefore, only siblings who did not develop an ASD were included in analyses. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that children in the high-risk group were more likely to have elevated behavior problems on the CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Aggression subscales. To explore sleep problems as a correlate of these behavior problems, a second series of models was specified. For both groups of children, sleep problems were associated with elevated behavior problems in each of the areas assessed (reactivity, anxiety, somatic complaints, withdrawal, attention, and aggression). These findings support close monitoring of children with a family history of ASD for both behavioral and sleep issues. PMID:23436793

  4. The Relationship between Functional Assessment and Treatment Selection for Aggressive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hile, Matthew G.; Desrochers, Marcie N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on functional assessment in the behavioral treatment of aggression in persons with mental retardation or developmental delays. Increased use of functional assessment and skill training is noted but no concomitant decrease in the use of intrusive procedures. (Author/DB)

  5. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  6. Training Early Childhood Educators to Promote Peer Interactions: Effects on Children's Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the effects of educators' participation in an in-service training program on the aggressive and prosocial behaviors of preschool-age children. Seventeen early childhood educators were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 68 preschool children, 4 from each educator's classroom, also…

  7. Physical Aggression in Higher Education: Student-Athletes' Perceptions and Reporting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Jason Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study examined internal (personal) and external (situational) factors that previous research found affected perceptions of physical aggression and associated reporting behaviors among student-athletes. Results of this study suggested certain factors significantly impacted a student-athlete's decision to report and who received that report.…

  8. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  9. Physical Punishment By Parent Figures as a Model of Aggressive Behavior in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Louis; Erwin, William M.

    1977-01-01

    This project investigated the effect of a filmed, physically punitive parent model on the behavior of 60 elementary age boys. The total percentage of aggressive responses emitted in doll play was significantly higher for those who viewed the film compared to those who had not. (MS)

  10. Temperament Moderates Associations between Young Children's Hostile Attributions and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Luster, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that the association between hostile attributions and aggressive behavior with peers is moderated by children's temperament among three samples of preschoolers. Hostile attributions were assessed through videotape-based and story-based laboratory procedures. Maternal ratings and laboratory-based assessment…

  11. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  12. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  13. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  14. A Vodcasted, Cross-Disciplinary, Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise Investigating the Effects of Methamphetamine on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Ryan A.; Southard, E. Megan; Tarnowski, Laura; Bruster, Matthew; Wingate, Stacia W.; Dalman, Nancy; Lloyd, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory experience utilizing videos to engage students in hypothesis-driven experimentation in behavioral neuroscience. It provides students with an opportunity to investigate the effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on aggression in adult mice using a resident-intruder paradigm. Instructors and students only…

  15. Mothers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness as a Predictor of Maternal and Child Behavior during Playtime Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Steven R.; Roberts, Felicia; Rack, Jessica J.; Delaney, Julie E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores associations between mothers' trait verbal aggressiveness (VA) and maternal and child behavior during playtime interactions. Forty mothers completed a 10-minute play period with one of their children (range = 3-8 years) and then responded to D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley's (1986) trait VA scale. Mothers' trait VA was…

  16. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood. PMID:24681586

  17. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships with Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Bettencourt, Amie F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6…

  18. Canadian Early-Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Children's Gendered Shy, Aggressive, and Prosocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Heather; Bosacki, Sandra; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood educators' (ECE) perceptions of gender roles may contribute to the development of children's own gender-role identities. This qualitative study examined 40 Canadian female ECEs' perceptions of gender and children's shy, aggressive, and prosocial behaviors. Content analysis of extensive interviews revealed three themes: (1) shyness…

  19. Moderators of the Dynamic Link between Alcohol Use and Aggressive Behavior among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between…

  20. The Best Friendships of Aggressive Boys: Relationship Quality, Conflict Management, and Rule-Breaking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Coie, John D.

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined the best friendships of aggressive and nonaggressive boys (N=96 boys, 48 dyads, mean age=10.6 years). Friends completed self-report measures of friendship quality, and their interactions were observed in situations that required conflict management and provided opportunities for rule-breaking behavior. Although there…

  1. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  2. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Aggressive Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Paul J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Olson, Abbie A.; van Brederode, Tara M.

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America. A growing body of research links violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. This study tested the predictions that exposure to violent video game content is: (1) positively correlated with hostile attribution bias; (2) positively…

  3. The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviors, and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.

    2004-01-01

    Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…

  4. Professional Wrestling: Can Watching It Bring Out Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Caroline

    This study investigated the effect of viewing professional wrestling programs on first grade boys' violent and aggressive behavior. Interviews were conducted, in focus groups of 4 children, with 16 students who watched wrestling 4-6 hours a week. The children indicated that they enjoyed watching professional wrestling and that after viewing, they…

  5. Clozapine: Its Impact on Aggressive Behavior among Children and Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Harvey; Roofeh, David; Gerbino-Rosen, Ginny; Dombrowski, Carolyn; McMeniman, Marjorie; DeThomas, Courtney; Frederickson, Anne; Nusser, Laurie; Bienstock, Mark D.; Fisch, Gene S.; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of clozapine on aggressive behavior for treatment-refractory adolescents (age range 8.5-18) with schizophrenia (295.X) at Bronx Children's Psychiatric Center. Method: Clozapine treatment was administered in an open-label fashion using a flexible titration schedule. The frequency of administration of…

  6. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  7. Interparental Aggression and Antisocial Behavior among African American Youth: A Simultaneous Test of Competing Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoli; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    Interparental aggression has long been implicated as a cause of child and adolescent antisocial behavior. Four theoretical explanations (viz., an aggressogenic cognition model, general strain theory, an emotional security model, and a spillover model) have been proposed to account for this deleterious effect. To gain a better understanding of the…

  8. Executive Functions in Children: Associations with Aggressive Behavior and Appraisal Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mesha L.; Weiss, Bahr; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how deficits in executive functioning and distortions in appraisal processing are related to subtypes of aggressive behavior. The sample included 83 boys assessed using multi-informant reports and performance measures. Deficits in two executive functions, response inhibition and planning ability were related…

  9. The Relationships between Social Goals, Skills, and Strategies and Their Effect on Aggressive Behavior among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstok, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that conflict-related goals, skills, and strategies are linked. Yet it is rarely explored how these factors relate to each other and how they jointly promote or inhibit aggressive behaviors. The aim of this study is to provide answers to these questions. Data were derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 660…

  10. Reducing the Threatening and Aggressive Behavior of a Middle School Student with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate the success of a multicomponent intervention to reduce the threatening and aggressive behaviors of a middle school student with Asperger's syndrome. The author provides information pertaining to the student and details the procedures for developing a packaged intervention. Results of this approach,…

  11. A Psychoeducational Program to Prevent Aggressive Behavior among Japanese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Mikayo; Asakura, Takashi; Ando, Shinichiro; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of a school-based intervention program on aggressive behavior among junior high school students in Japan. One hundred and four seventh-graders were enrolled in the program and completed Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3 surveys. The program was implemented in two classes between Time 1 and Time 2 surveys (the first…

  12. Tempol protects sleep-deprivation induced behavioral deficits in aggressive male Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Asghar, Saman; Salim, Samina

    2016-01-26

    Earlier, we reported that elevated anxiety-like behavior and high aggression in aged retired breeder Long-Evans (L-E) rats was associated with increased plasma corticosterone and elevated oxidative stress levels. In the present study, we examined how this aged aggressive and anxious rat strain responds to acute sleep deprivation (24h) and whether their behaviors can be modulated via antioxidant tempol treatment. Four groups of L-E rats were utilized: naïve control (NC), tempol treated control (T+NC), sleep deprived (SD), tempol treated and sleep deprived (T+SD). Thus, two groups were treated with tempol (1mM in drinking water for 2 weeks) while the other two were not. Two groups were subjected to acute sleep deprivation (24h) using the columns-in-water model while the other two were not. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, led to significant depression-like behavior and short-term memory impairment in SD rats. And, decision-making behavior also was compromised in SD rats. These behavioral and cognitive impairments were prevented with tempol treatment in T+SD rats. Tempol treatment also reduced SD-induced increase in corticosterone and oxidative stress levels in T+SD rats. These results suggest potential involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in regulation of sleep deprivation induced behavioral and cognitive deficits in male aged-aggressive rats. PMID:26724222

  13. Sex Differences in Aggressive and Withdrawn Behavior on the Playground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Judith A.; And Others

    An exception to most observational studies examining sex differences is Ladd's (1983) study of popular, average, and rejected children, which reported sex differences within as well as across groups. Like Ladd's research, the present study looks at sex differences within and across subsamples of boys and girls, comparing the playground behavior of…

  14. Teachers' Assessment of Physical Aggression with the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire: A Multitrait-Multimethod Evaluation of Convergent and Discriminant Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Thijs, Jochem T.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2011-01-01

    The distinctiveness of physical aggression from other antisocial behavior is widely accepted but little research has explicitly focused on young children to empirically test this assumption. A Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix (MTMM) approach was employed to confirm the distinctiveness of physical aggression from nonaggressive antisocial behavior in…

  15. In the Eye of the Beholder: Eye-Tracking Assessment of Social Information Processing in Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Tako A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Van der Schoot, Menno

    2010-01-01

    According to social information processing theories, aggressive children are hypersensitive to cues of hostility and threat in other people's behavior. However, even though there is ample evidence that aggressive children over-interpret others' behaviors as hostile, it is unclear whether this hostile attribution tendency does actually result from…

  16. The Moderating Effects of Support for Violence Beliefs on Masculine Norms, Aggression, and Homophobic Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Kimmel, Michael S.; Wilchins, Riki

    2011-01-01

    In 2 studies, beliefs supporting the use of violence moderated the association between normative masculine activities and aggressive behavior (Study 1) and normative masculine attitudes and aggressive and homophobic behavior (Study 2) among adolescent boys. These beliefs also moderated the association between normative masculine activities and…

  17. Judgments of Aggressive, Withdrawn and Prosocial Behavior: Perceived Control, Anger, Pity and Sympathy in Young Dutch Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Frits A.; Bokhorst, Koos; Bruinsma, Cees; van Boxtel, Herman W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines first- and second-grade children's judgments of aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior by means of fictional scenarios. Results reveal that aggressive children were perceived as more responsible for their behavior and elicited more feelings of anger, while withdrawn children were more likely to be chosen as a friend and elicited…

  18. Who Is Likely to Help and Hurt? Profiles of African American Adolescents with Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…

  19. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  20. Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Singh, Judy; Curtis, W John; Wahler, Robert G; McAleavey, Kristen M

    2007-11-01

    Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with 4 parents of children who had developmental disabilities, exhibited aggressive behavior, and had limited social skills. After mindfulness training, the parents were able to decrease aggressive behavior and increase their children's social skills. They also reported a greater practice of mindfulness, increased satisfaction with their parenting, more social interactions with their children, and lower parenting stress. Furthermore, the children showed increased positive and decreased negative social interactions with their siblings. We speculate that mindfulness produces transformational change in the parents that is reflected in enhanced positive behavioral transactions with their children. PMID:17932234

  1. Combined Norepinephrine/Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression, and Oxytocin in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Elizabeth Thomas; Jarrett, Thomas Merryfield; McMurray, Matthew Stephen; Greenhill, Kevin; Hofler, Vivian E.; Williams, Sarah Kaye; Joyner, Paul Wayland; Middleton, Christopher L.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior (MB), although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent MB in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression, and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on MB, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. MB and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days 1 and 6 respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day 7. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease MB and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. Results: Amitriptyline and desipramine differentially reduced MB, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care. PMID:21713063

  2. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  3. Stability of early identified aggressive victim status in elementary school and associations with later mental health problems and functional impairments.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-02-01

    Aggressive victims-children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression-experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al. 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children's involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems. PMID:20811772

  4. Mothers’ Night Work and Children’s Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-01-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9–5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. The present paper uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3–5) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children’s behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers’ night shift work. We employ three analytic strategies that take various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provide an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children’s behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious/depressed behavior in children compared to mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts. PMID:23294148

  5. Examination of Personal and Socio-Behavioral Characteristics as Predictors of Aggressive Behavioral Tendencies of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Heewon; An, Dongsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine university students' aggressive behavioral tendencies. Students ("n" = 405) at a Midwestern University, were selected as study sample. This study hypothesized that demographic variables (e.g., age, gender, class standing, racial minority status, and G.P.A. score) and study variables (e.g.,…

  6. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  7. Aggressive behavior in humans: Genes and pathways identified through association studies.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggressive behavior has both genetic and environmental components. Many association studies have been performed to identify genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviors in humans. In this review we summarize the previous work performed in this field, considering both candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), excluding those performed in samples where the primary diagnosis is a psychiatric or neurological disorder other than an aggression-related phenotype. Subsequently, we have studied the enrichment of pathways and functions in GWAS data. The results of our searches show that most CGAS have identified associations with genes involved in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and in hormone regulation. On the other hand, GWAS have not yet identified genome-wide significant associations, but top nominal findings are related to several signaling pathways, such as axon guidance or estrogen receptor signaling, and also to neurodevelopmental processes and synaptic plasticity. Future studies should use larger samples, homogeneous phenotypes and standardized measurements to identify genes that underlie aggressive behaviors in humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773414

  8. Asymmetry in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressive behavior: a continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Perach-Barzilay, N; Tauber, A; Klein, E; Chistyakov, A; Ne'eman, R; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is aimed at causing damage or pain to another individual. Aggression has been associated with structural and functional deficits in numerous brain areas, including the dorsolateral region of the prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), typically related to inhibition and impulse control. In this study, we used inhibitory continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation (cTBS) to explore the role of the right and left DLPFC in aggression. Sixteen healthy right-handed volunteers underwent two sessions involving random, real and sham, right and left DLPFC stimulations. These sessions were followed by the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary task that was specially designed to assess participants' aggressive tendencies by measuring the patterns of their reactive aggression (a response to a perceived provocation) and proactive aggression (an aggressive act with goal-oriented purposes). Results indicate that using cTBS to target the left DLPFC was associated with a greater increase in aggressive responses than right DLPFC stimulation. This pattern of results was found for both reactive and proactive types of aggressive reactions. It is concluded that DLPFC asymmetry is involved in modulating reactive and proactive aggression. Our results are in line with recent studies suggesting that the left DLPFC plays a major role in aggressive behavior. PMID:22963204

  9. Exposure to "low-level" aggression in school: associations with aggressive behavior, future expectations, and perceived safety.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Edwards-Leeper, Laura; Goldstein, Sara E; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Dubow, Eric F

    2003-12-01

    Examined associations with witnessing and being victimized by "low-level" aggressive acts (e.g., pushing, gossip) and three indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 771 elementary school students from one urban and one suburban school district. Results indicated that exposure to low-level aggression appears to relate to psychosocial functioning in ways similar to more severe forms of aggression. Students who were exposed to higher levels of both witnessing and victimization by low-level aggression reported the highest levels of engagement in aggression, the lowest levels of positive expectations for the future, and the lowest levels of perceived safety. Findings are discussed in the context of research on exposure to aggression in general, with suggestions offered for future studies. Implications of the findings for school-based intervention programs are raised. PMID:15109121

  10. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  11. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  12. Relative role of neural substrates in the aggressive behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shrirang N; Brid, Shivaji V

    2010-01-01

    Early animal studies have shown an association between aggression and brain dysfunction. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of lesions of different parts of brain on aggression in rats. Adult rats (n = 40, weighing 200-260 g) were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each and subjected to lesions of the septum (Group I), medial preoptic area (Group II), medial accumbens (Group III), and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (Group IV), using stereotaxy apparatus. Aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder was observed before and after the lesion. The aggression score of each animal was recorded three times before lesion and averaged for use in analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for finding homogeneity of the groups. Postoperative scores were also similarly recorded and summarized as mean +/- standard deviation. Pre- and post-lesion scores were compared using the t test. The scores were significantly reduced in Group I, II, and III, but increased in Group IV. We can conclude that the septum, medial preoptic area, medial accumbens, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis, by virtue of their interconnections, influence aggressive behavior. PMID:21305851

  13. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. PMID:20627370

  14. Does social status of males change their aggressive behavior repertoire in goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa guld., 1780)?

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Yang, W

    2014-10-01

    Aggression in ungulates is a very common behavior which serves a great variety of social functions, the most important of which is territorial protection from intruders. Typically during the rut, territorial males in Antilopinae species have access to mating females, and territoriality leads to a drastic change in the males' lifestyle as they spend most of their aggressive efforts on protecting their territories from other males. In contrast, non-territorial males generally behave in a constant manner all year round, with most of their aggression spent on hierarchical interactions within groups. In this paper, we discuss the differences in aggressive behaviors between territorial and non-territorial males of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa). We found that territorial males of this species demonstrated most of their aggressive displays, such as threat postures and space-claim patterns, to other territorial males-neighbors, but rarely chased after them at the end of a conflict. Inversely, territorial males frequently chased non-territorial and immature males while only occasionally demonstrating aggressive patterns. Non-territorial males mostly chased other males in their agonistic interactions, displaying threat postures less often than territorial males, but also showing aggressive patterns not found in territorial males. So we concluded that territorial and non-territorial males of goitered gazelles had different repertoires of aggressive behaviors, and when adult males switched their social status from territorial during the rut to non-territorial outside the rut, they obviously changed their preference in aggressive behaviors accordingly. PMID:25242724

  15. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  16. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  17. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  18. Proven practices for reducing aggressive and noncompliant behaviors exhibited by young children at home and at school.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, A; Witt, J C

    2000-10-01

    One of the single most powerful predictors of aggressive and noncompliant behaviors exhibited in early childhood is coercive parent-child interaction. Coercive parent-child interaction has been linked to multiple negative outcomes in the lives of children. When children learn to relate to their parents and the world in the context of coercive interaction, they are likely to experience significant deficits in the prosocial skills critical to school success. These children are much more likely to experience school failure and teacher and peer rejection. Further, when noncompliant and aggressive children enter school, they are most frequently exposed to a series of ineffective and increasingly restrictive treatments. Proven strategies exist to teach parents and children prosocial ways of interacting and to address these problems in the classroom, but in many cases these types of services are not easily accessible or routinely available. This paper makes recommendations for identifying effective, proven treatment strategies when practitioners observe coercive parent-child interaction or child noncompliance and aggression. PMID:11059918

  19. The effect of a self-monitored relaxation breathing exercise on male adolescent aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of this study was single-subject with multiple baselines across 6 subjects on 2 behavioral measures. The setting was a residential juvenile justice program for male adolescents, and the treatment was a relaxation breathing exercise. The results of the study were mixed, with improvement on both behavioral measures in 2 of the 6 participants. PMID:18689102

  20. Cortical thinning, functional connectivity, and mood-related impulsivity in schizophrenia: relations to aggressive attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21< Cohen’s ds < 1.50). Positive and negative urgency significantly correlated with Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506

  1. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation?: A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method A diverse community sample (55% African-American) of males (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of age (M = 25.80) were randomly assigned to one of two beverage conditions (i.e., alcohol, no-alcohol control) and one of two distraction conditions (i.e., distraction, no-distraction). Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks and a verbal insult from a fictitious male opponent. Participants’ attention-allocation to aggression words (i.e., aggression bias) and physical aggression were measured using a dot probe task and a shock-based aggression task, respectively. Results Intoxicated men whose attention was distracted displayed significantly lower levels of aggression bias and enacted significantly less physical aggression than intoxicated men whose attention was not distracted. However, aggression bias did not account for the lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in the distraction, relative to the no-distraction, condition. Conclusions These results replicated and extended past evidence that cognitive distraction is associated with lower levels of alcohol-related aggression in highly provoked males and provide the first known cognitive data to support the attentional processes posited by the attention-allocation model. Discussion focused on how these data inform intervention programming for alcohol-related aggression. PMID:21500889

  2. Differential Risk for Late Adolescent Conduct Problems and Mood Dysregulation Among Children with Early Externalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5–7) to late adolescence (ages 17–19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger (“conduct problems”), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation (“mood dysregulation”), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality – possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood. PMID:25183553

  3. Intimate partner aggression-related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Overstreet, Nicole M; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2016-09-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427-440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26699821

  4. Relationship Self-efficacy Protects against Mental Health Problems among Women in Birectionally Aggressive Intimate Relationships with Men

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study is to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman’s ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy, RSE), plays a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who are victimized and use aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and wellbeing of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships. PMID:23815627

  5. Canine behavioral problems and their effect on relinquishment of the Jindo dog

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Sun-A; Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Yoon-Ju; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavior problems of the Jindo dog, the native dog of Korea, based on an owner's survey and their effect on pet relinquishment. To live a better life with their own pet and prevent relinquishment, it is important to understand the innate behavior characteristics of dog breed and the potential causes of relinquishment. Information concerning various factors and demonstration of the five most common behavior problems was collected via 189 completed questionnaires. No factors significantly affected the demonstration of behavior problem. A total 151 of 189 dogs had behavior problems (79.9%) and 38 dogs did not have behavior problems (20.1%). Among 151 dogs, 139 dogs showed single behavior problem (92.1%). They were 'excessive excitability' (46.8%), 'excessive vocalization' (30.2%), 'inappropriate elimination' (17.3%), 'destructive behavior' (4.3%), and 'aggressive behavior' (1.4%), respectively. In addition, 12 dogs showed two concurrent behavior problems (7.9%) According to the results, the relinquishment of Jindo dogs was not significantly associated with canine behavior problems, which is the single greatest risk factor of relinquishment in general. The possible reasons for potential behavior problems include improper raising, lack of socialization, and insufficient dog training classes, therefore canine behavior would be improved by owner education. PMID:21113105

  6. He Did It First! A Path Model of Interactions in the Aggressive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys during Three Successive Recess Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Keith; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study uses observations of the aggressive behavior of elementary school boys during three successive recess periods to test the hypothesis that aggressive behavior can spread between recess periods through peer contagion. If this hypothesis is correct, aggressive behaviors during the second recess period should mediate any…

  7. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. PMID:25880890

  8. Warning Signs of Problems in Schools: Ecological Perspectives and Effective Practices for Combating School Aggression and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; VanAcker, Richard; Morrison, Gale M.; Gable, Robert; Dwyer, Kevin; Quinn, Mary

    2004-01-01

    One need not look hard to find evidence of concern related to the nature of student behavior in our schools. School violence, aggression, bullying, and harassment (e.g., racial or sexual) are often cited as challenging behaviors confronting educators and community leaders. Unfortunately, most schools address these concerns with aversive…

  9. Internalizing Symptoms and Affective Reactivity in Relation to the Severity of Aggression in Clinically Referred, Behavior-Disordered Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Brown, Elissa J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the affective correlates of aggression in children referred to a partial hospitalization program for the treatment of behavior disorders who did not have a mood or anxiety disorder. Parent and teacher ratings of the children's impulsivity, internalizing symptoms, affective reactivity, and aggression were examined for their…

  10. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest to…

  11. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  12. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  13. High aggression in rats is associated with elevated stress, anxiety-like behavior, and altered catecholamine content in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Patki, Gaurav; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    The social defeat paradigm involves aggressive encounters between Long-Evans (LE) (resident) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) (intruder) rats. Successful application of chronic social defeat stress in SD rats is dependent upon selection of highly aggressive LE rats. Half of the LE rats screened for aggression did not meet the criterion for aggression (LE rats performing a defeat, characterized by the intruder surrendering or acquiring a supine position for at least 3 sec). The observation of the differences in the level of aggression between age and weight matched LE rats was quite compelling which led us to the present study. Herein, we measured behavioral differences between aggressor and non-aggressor LE rats. We analyzed their anxiety-like behavior using open-field and elevated plus maze tests. We also measured aggression/violence-like behavior using two tests. In one, time taken to defeat the intruder SD rat was recorded. In the second test, time taken to attack a novel object was compared between the two groups. We observed a significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in aggressor rats when compared to the non-aggressive group. Furthermore, time taken to defeat the intruder rat and to attack a novel object was significantly lower in aggressive LE rats. Biochemical data suggests that heightened anxiety-like behavior and aggression is associated with increased plasma levels of corticosterones and elevated oxidative stress. Significant alterations in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) were observed within the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, suggesting potential involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in regulation of aggressive behaviors. PMID:25450144

  14. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  15. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies. PMID:18423088

  16. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    PubMed

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable. PMID:25460097

  17. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  18. Male crickets adjust their aggressive behavior when a female is present.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Kaitlyn; Loranger, Michelle J; Bertram, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Communication in nature often occurs within a broad social network, as signals can be perceived by other individuals beyond the primary intended receiver. Because signals often contain information about the signaller's quality, receivers other than the primary intended receiver may use this information in future interactions with the signaller. As a result, individuals who adjust their behavior depending on who is present may experience a selective advantage. The social environment can therefore have an important influence on the evolution of communication signals. We examined how the presence of a female audience influenced male aggressive behavior and post-contest victory displays in the Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis. We found a significant effect of female audience on aggressive interactions. When there was a female audience present, males were more likely to initiate and escalate fights, but they spent less time producing victory displays, compared to when there was no audience present. Our experiment suggests that the social environment is important in shaping the behavior of individuals during aggressive interactions. PMID:26707007

  19. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  20. Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qinghui; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Mahadevia, Darshini; Huang, Yung-Yu; Balsam, Daniel; Mann, J John; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypo-activity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (> P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

  1. Etiology and measurement of relational aggression: A multi-informant behavior genetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Waldman, Irwin D; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2009-11-01

    Although the study of relational aggression is gaining attention in the literature, little is known about the underlying causes of this behavior and the relative validity of various informants. These issues were addressed in a sample of 1,981 6- to 18-year-old twin pairs (36% female, 34% male, 30% opposite-sex). Relational aggression was assessed via maternal and self-report using a structured interview. Univariate models estimated genetic and environmental influences by informant and examined evidence for gender differences. A psychometric model combined data from both informants to estimate etiologic influences that were both common to the informants and informant specific. In both sexes, the latent variable reflecting the mother's and child's shared perception of the child's relational aggression was substantially influenced by both additive genetic (63%) and shared environmental (37%) influences, although this latent variable accounted for much greater variance in the maternal report (66%) than it did in the youth report (9%). In addition, informant-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences were found only for the youth report, with all remaining variance in the mother's report attributed to nonshared environmental influences. Results are discussed in the context of measuring relational aggression and the importance of multiple informants. PMID:19899842

  2. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  3. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  4. Demography of Problem Behavior in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Kate; Christian, Christina; Marr, Mary Beth; McClanahan, Tina; White, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of systematic and unsystematic discipline that characterizes most schools creates heightened potential for variation and violation in school and classroom behavior. The challenge of maintaining order intensifies with teachers' concerns about the growing inclusion of students with emotional and behavioral problems in general…

  5. Problems of studying antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Offord, D R; Reitsma-Street, M

    1983-01-01

    The importance of antisocial behaviour is underlined by the magnitude of the problem (largest category of emotional disturbance in youth) and by the poor psychosocial prognosis for the chronically affected child. The medical/psychological approach has pointed to the role of marital discord and parental psychopathology as significant features in the individual's environment predicting antisocial development. Conversely, sociology and criminology, which have begun with social theories, appear to have had less statistical success in accounting for aetiology. Definition of conduct disorder in terms of type, duration, frequency, and severity of anti-social behaviour is indispensible for the characterization of subgroups of affected children, and hence variables which protect against or accentuate risk factors. Prognosis depends among other things on age of onset (worse younger) and setting (home or community), implying that treatment programmes cannot be evaluated adequately without the differential characterisation of subgroups, their natural histories, and responsiveness to intervention. Although such data come from the study of individuals, case-by-case treatment runs the risk in certain groups of escalating anti-social behaviour. Thus community/youth oriented interventions, focusing on the remedial treatment of learning handicaps, improvement of non-school skills, may provide more promising points of attack. Incomplete knowledge of aetiology should not prevent action, provided the methodological issues raised serve as the basis for vigorous evaluation. PMID:6371799

  6. Effects of socialization games on proximity and prosocial behavior of aggressive mentally retarded institutionalized women.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, B; Han, S S

    1983-01-01

    Socialization games, designed to reinforce prosocial behavior between moderately and severely mentally retarded aggressive institutionalized women, were presented to two groups on 12 occasions over 8 weeks, randomly interspersed with 12 sessions of arts and crafts or filmstrip stories. Half of the sessions were presented in the morning and half in the afternoon. Video-taped observations of interpersonal behavior for 10 minutes after each session were analyzed in terms of friendly, unfriendly, and inactive behavior, and the distance of each subject from each other subject was measured. The rate of friendly behavior was significantly greater after the games and was higher in morning than afternoon sessions. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Both unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after the "placebo" sessions. The relevance of these results to institutional programming was discussed. PMID:6829621

  7. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5- ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young ...

  8. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety- eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  9. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  10. Problems in Child Behavior and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Milton J. E.; Solnit, Albert J.

    Intended for the pediatrician and general practitioner, the text presents methods of dealing with problems in child and family behavior. Areas covered include developmental theory, pregnancy, pediatric evaluation, therapeutic management, paramedical support in pediatric practice, and special problems. Also discussed are five age groups: the…

  11. Pornography use as a risk marker for an aggressive pattern of behavior among sexually reactive children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alexy, Eileen M; Burgess, Ann W; Prentky, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Sexually reactive children and adolescents (SRCAs), sometimes referred to as juvenile sexual offenders, may be more vulnerable and likely to experience damaging effects from pornography use because they are a high-risk group for a variety of aggressive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of those who use pornography and those who do not and to examine the associations between pornography use and aggressive behaviors among SRCAs. This secondary analysis used a descriptive, exploratory design to study 160 SRCAs. Chi-square and individual odds ratio analyses were employed to examine the associations between use of pornography and aggressive behaviors. SRCAs who used pornography were more likely to display aggressive behaviors than their nonusing cohort. Recommendations for nurses and mental health professionals encountering these children and adolescents are offered. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2009; 14(6), 442-453. PMID:21665787

  12. Fluoxetine alters behavioral consistency of aggression and courtship in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Hebert, Olivia L

    2012-08-20

    The detrimental effects of steroid-mimics are well known but investigations on non-steroid pharmaceuticals are less common. In addition, most behavioral studies do not examine the effects at multiple time points. This study examined the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on behavior when male Siamese fighting fish encounter female and male dummy conspecifics simultaneously. Thus, how chemical exposure impacts behavioral consistency and whether individuals differ in their sensitivity to exposure was assessed. Overall aggression was reduced after fluoxetine administration while courtship was unaffected. Fluoxetine affected behavioral consistency towards both the male and female, with individuals behaving less consistently to the male and more consistently to the female. In addition, males appeared to differ in their sensitivity to fluoxetine exposure as not all males reduced their aggression after administration. This has important implications for studying the effects of unintended pharmaceutical exposure. Exposure may have evolutionary implications as it may influence both territorial defense and mating success. In sum, these findings demonstrate that pharmaceutical exposure may alter more than just overall level of behavior and stress the importance of examining the effects of exposure on an individual level. PMID:22722098

  13. Natural Genetic Variation Underlying Differences in Peromyscus Repetitive & Social/Aggressive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Kimberly R.; Owen, Amy; Anderson, Vanessa; Hall-South, April C.; Hayford, Samantha; Cakora, Patricia; Crossland, Janet P.; Georgi, Velina R. M.; Perkins, Amy; Kelly, Sandra J.; Felder, Michael R.; Vrana, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Peromyscus maniculatus (BW) and P. polionotus (PO) are interfertile North American species that differ in many characteristics. For example, PO exhibit monogamy and BW animals are susceptible to repetitive behaviors and thus a model for neurobehavioral disorders such as Autism. We analyzed these two stocks as well as their hybrids, a BW YPO consomic line (previously shown to alter glucose homeostasis) and a natural P. maniculatus agouti variant (ANb = wide band agouti). We show that PO animals engage in far less repetitive behavior than BW animals, that this trait is dominant, and that trait distribution in both species is bi-modal. The ANb allele also reduces such behaviors, particularly in females. PO, F1, and ANb animals all dig significantly more than BW. Increased self-grooming is also a PO dominant trait, and there is a bimodal trait distribution in all groups except BW. The inter-stock differences in self-grooming are greater between males, and the consomic data suggest the Y chromosome plays a role. The monogamous PO animals engage in more social behavior than BW; hybrid animals exhibit intermediate levels. Surprisingly, ANb animals are also more social than BW animals, although ANb interactions led to aggressive interactions at higher levels than any other group. PO animals exhibited the lowest incidence of aggressive behaviors, while the hybrids exhibited BW levels. Thus this group exhibits natural, genetically tractable variation in several biomedically relevant traits. PMID:24407381

  14. Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D

    2003-03-01

    Although the relation between TV-violence viewing and aggression in childhood has been clearly demonstrated, only a few studies have examined this relation from childhood to adulthood, and these studies of children growing up in the 1960s reported significant relations only for boys. The current study examines the longitudinal relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggressive behavior about 15 years later for a sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Follow-up archival data (N = 450) and interview data (N = 329) reveal that childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior for both males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence also predict later aggression. These relations persist even when the effects of socioeconomic status, intellectual ability, and a variety of parenting factors are controlled. PMID:12661882

  15. The etiological moderation of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior by age.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2009-08-01

    A recent study has suggested that aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive, rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior evidence differential and subtype-specific patterns of genetic expression during development. Namely, although genetic influences on RB increase dramatically during early- to mid-adolescence, genetic influences on AGG appear to remain stable. As no other study has examined age-related change in AGG versus RB, more research is clearly needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn. The current study thus examined whether and how age impacted genetic and environmental influences on AGG and RB in a sample of 252 10- to 15-year-old twin pairs assessed as part of the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Results constructively replicated and extended prior findings, indicating that while the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on AGG remained stable across adolescence, genetic influences on RB increased dramatically with age. Such findings provide additional support for etiological distinctions within the broader construct of antisocial behavior based on the presence or absence of aggression, and offer insights into the expression of genetic influences during development. PMID:19653834

  16. The interactive effect of MAOA-LPR genotype and childhood physical neglect on aggressive behaviors in Italian male prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Elena; Bevilacqua, Laura; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Roy, Alec; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive disorders are moderately heritable; therefore, identification of genetic influences is important. The X-linked MAOA gene, encoding the MAOA enzyme, has a functional 30bp repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that has been shown to influence aggression. Childhood trauma is a known risk factor for numerous psychopathologies in adulthood including aggressive behaviors. We investigated the interactive effect of MAOA-LPR genotype and a history of childhood trauma in predicting aggressive behaviors in a prisoner population. A total of 692 male prisoners were genotyped for MAOA-LPR with genotypes grouped into high and low transcriptional activity. Participant evaluations included measures of aggression (BGHA), hostility (Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), violence directed towards self and others, and childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)). MAOA-LPR interacted with CTQ physical neglect (PN), the most common (47%) form of childhood trauma in this sample, to predict BGHA aggression (P=0.002). Within the group not exposed to PN, carriers of the MAOA-LPR high activity variant were more aggressive: (t(R) =2.47, p<0.014). We observed a crossover effect in that the increase in aggression scores with PN was greater in low activity individuals (t(R) =5.55, p <0.0001) than in high activity individuals (t(R) =4.18, p <0.0001). These findings suggest that childhood trauma and the functional MAOA-LPR polymorphism may interact to specifically increase risk for over aggressive behavior but not impulsivity or hostility. The MAOA-LPR low activity variant may be protective against the development of aggressive behavior under low stress conditions, at least in this prisoner population. PMID:24805005

  17. In the eye of the beholder: eye-tracking assessment of social information processing in aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Tako A; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Van der Schoot, Menno

    2010-07-01

    Acording to social information processing theories, aggressive children are hypersensitive to cues of hostility and threat in other people's behavior. However, even though there is ample evidence that aggressive children over-interpret others' behaviors as hostile, it is unclear whether this hostile attribution tendency does actually result from overattending to hostile and threatening cues. Since encoding is posited to consist of rapid automatic processes, it is hard to assess with the self report measures that have been used so far. Therefore, we used a novel approach to investigate visual encoding of social information. The eye movements of thirty 10-13 year old children with lower levels and thirty children with higher levels of aggressive behavior were monitored in real time with an eyetracker, as the children viewed ten different cartoon series of ambiguous provocation situations. In addition, participants answered questions concerning encoding and interpretation. Aggressive children did not attend more to hostile cues, nor attend less to non-hostile cues than non-aggressive children. Contrary, aggressive children looked longer at non-hostile cues, but nonetheless attributed more hostile intent than their non-aggressive peers. These findings contradict the traditional bottom-up processing hypotheses that aggressive behavior would be related with failure to attend to non-hostile cues. The findings seem best explained by topdown information processing, where aggressive children's pre-existing hostile intent schemata (1) direct attention towards schema inconsistent non-hostile cues, (2) prevent further processing and recall of such schema-inconsistent information, and (3) lead to hostile intent attribution and aggressive responding, disregarding the schema-inconsistent non-hostile information. PMID:19823928

  18. In the Eye of the Beholder: Eye-tracking Assessment of Social Information Processing in Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tako A.; Van der Schoot, Menno

    2009-01-01

    Acording to social information processing theories, aggressive children are hypersensitive to cues of hostility and threat in other people’s behavior. However, even though there is ample evidence that aggressive children over-interpret others’ behaviors as hostile, it is unclear whether this hostile attribution tendency does actually result from overattending to hostile and threatening cues. Since encoding is posited to consist of rapid automatic processes, it is hard to assess with the selfreport measures that have been used so far. Therefore, we used a novel approach to investigate visual encoding of social information. The eye movements of thirty 10–13 year old children with lower levels and thirty children with higher levels of aggressive behavior were monitored in real time with an eyetracker, as the children viewed ten different cartoon series of ambiguous provocation situations. In addition, participants answered questions concerning encoding and interpretation. Aggressive children did not attend more to hostile cues, nor attend less to non-hostile cues than non-aggressive children. Contrary, aggressive children looked longer at non-hostile cues, but nonetheless attributed more hostile intent than their non-aggressive peers. These findings contradict the traditional bottom-up processing hypotheses that aggressive behavior would be related with failure to attend to non-hostile cues. The findings seem best explained by topdown information processing, where aggressive children’s pre-existing hostile intent schemata (1) direct attention towards schema inconsistent non-hostile cues, (2) prevent further processing and recall of such schema-inconsistent information, and (3) lead to hostile intent attribution and aggressive responding, disregarding the schema-inconsistent non-hostile information. PMID:19823928

  19. Creativity and aggression as ornament and armament: intersexual and intrasexual selection on men's mating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that men respond to intersexual and intrasexual selection by facultatively choosing between weapon-like and ornament-like behaviors. In the first two studies, we manipulated intersexual and intrasexual selection by having male participants take part in a simulated dating game (Study 1) or imagine having a date (Study 2). In both studies, participants were told either that the target female would choose her date (intersexual) or that male suitors would nominate one another (intrasexual). Under the intersexual selection condition, men demonstrated increased creativity levels and decreased aggression levels, whereas the opposite pattern was observed under the intrasexual selection condition. Study 3 showed that individual differences in creativity and aggression as personality traits similarly predicted intrasexual and intersexual mating strategies, respectively. These extend existing evolutionary mating research by specifying the mechanism of intrasexual or intersexual selection in shaping men's weapon-like or ornament-like situational response and personality development. PMID:25812074

  20. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795