Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.
Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…
Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.
Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…
Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.
Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…
Björklund, Gunilla M
A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.
Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary
Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…
Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E
A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.
Van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Clémencet, Johanna; Tsutsui, Neil D.
All animals interact with conspecifics during their life, and nearly all also display some form of aggression. An enduring challenge, however, is to understand how the experiences of an individual animal influence its later behaviours. Several studies have shown that prior winning experience increases the probability of initiating fights in later encounters. Using behavioural assays in the laboratory, we provide evidence that, in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), the mere exposure to an opponent, without the encounter escalating to a fight, also increases the probability that it will display aggression in later encounters. Argentine ant workers differ in their propensity to attack non-colonymates, with some ants repeatedly aggressive and others consistently more docile. Although 78 per cent of the workers were consistent in their behaviour from one encounter to the next, workers that did change their behaviour after an encounter with a non-colonymate more often changed from non-aggressive to aggressive, rather than the reverse. Surprisingly, a single encounter with a non-colonymate increased a worker's propensity to fight in encounters up to a week later. An encounter with a non-colonymate also increased the probability that a worker would attack ants from a colony that it had not previously encountered. Thus, these interactions lowered the overall aggression threshold, rather than stimulating a specific aggressive response to a particular foreign colony. Finally, our data suggest that aggression towards non-colonymates increases with age. PMID:19793741
Herron, Rachel V; Rosenberg, Mark W
Behaviours such as hitting, spitting, swearing and kicking can be a common response to personal, social and environmental challenges experienced by people with dementia. Little attention, however, has been given to how partners in care experience and respond to these behaviours in the home. This paper examines the emerging theme of 'aggression,' in seven interviews with nine former partners in care of people with dementia in Ontario, Canada. We explore how partners in care talk about, interpret and respond to these behaviours drawing on recent conceptualizations of structural and interpersonal violence in health and social geography and contributing to the growing body of research on relational care. We discuss the responses to, and implications of, these behaviours at a range of spatial scales and identify important considerations for future research.
Tarbuck, P; Thompson, T
Behavioural disorders present extreme problems for clients and careers. In this article, the authors discuss a definition of challenging behaviour. Types of behaviour classified as 'challenging' and possible responses to them, are also considered. Some of the points are illustrated with short case studies.
de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo
Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.
Nagar, Jessica; Evans, Rosie; Oliver, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Liedtka, Natalie; Tarabi, Aris
Background Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. Aims To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL). The scale was subsequently used in a randomised controlled trial and tested for interrater reliability. Scores were also compared with a standard scale, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Results Seven identified factors – personal violence, violence against property, self-harm, sexually inappropriate, contrary, demanding and disappearing behaviour – were scored on a 5-point scale. A subsequent factor analysis with the second population showed demanding, violent and contrary behaviour to account for most of the variance. Interrater reliability using weighted kappa showed good agreement (0.91; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). Good agreement was also shown with scores on the MOAS and a score of 1 on the PBCL showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (85%) for a threshold MOASscore of 4. Conclusions The PBCL appears to be a suitable and practical scale for assessing all aspects of challenging behaviour. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703753
Jones, Glyn; Philp, Clare
The issue of poor student behaviour within higher education institutions (HEIs) has been well documented in recent years. Although the number of reported cases constitutes a very small percentage of the overall student population in the UK, the impact of student misconduct on the rest of the student body and staff in HEIs can be substantial. For…
Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan
In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826
Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J
Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations.
Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.
Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…
Chamero, Pablo; Marton, Tobias F; Logan, Darren W; Flanagan, Kelly; Cruz, Jason R; Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stowers, Lisa
Mice use pheromones, compounds emitted and detected by members of the same species, as cues to regulate social behaviours such as pup suckling, aggression and mating. Neurons that detect pheromones are thought to reside in at least two separate organs within the nasal cavity: the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each pheromone ligand is thought to activate a dedicated subset of these sensory neurons. However, the nature of the pheromone cues and the identity of the responding neurons that regulate specific social behaviours are largely unknown. Here we show, by direct activation of sensory neurons and analysis of behaviour, that at least two chemically distinct ligands are sufficient to promote male-male aggression and stimulate VNO neurons. We have purified and analysed one of these classes of ligand and found its specific aggression-promoting activity to be dependent on the presence of the protein component of the major urinary protein (MUP) complex, which is known to comprise specialized lipocalin proteins bound to small organic molecules. Using calcium imaging of dissociated vomeronasal neurons (VNs), we have determined that the MUP protein activates a sensory neuron subfamily characterized by the expression of the G-protein Galpha(o) subunit (also known as Gnao) and Vmn2r putative pheromone receptors (V2Rs). Genomic analysis indicates species-specific co-expansions of MUPs and V2Rs, as would be expected among pheromone-signalling components. Finally, we show that the aggressive behaviour induced by the MUPs occurs exclusively through VNO neuronal circuits. Our results substantiate the idea of MUP proteins as pheromone ligands that mediate male-male aggression through the accessory olfactory neural pathway.
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.
Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…
Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tschernig, Thomas; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A; Bäumer, Wolfgang
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently been developed for allergic diseases. We focused on the 2 different JAK inhibitors, tofacitinib (selective for JAK3) and oclacitinib (selective for JAK1 and 2), to clarify the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-itching potency of these drugs. In the process of detecting anti-itching potency, we observed that tofacitinib treated mice showed aggression behaviour. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the aggressive behaviour induced by tofacitinib by using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis and the resident-intruder test. For the allergic dermatitis model, female BALB/c mice were sensitised and challenged topically with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI). Vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib, was administered orally 30 min before TDI challenge. Scratching, aggression and standing behaviours were monitored in the 60 min period immediately following challenge of TDI. Another group of male BALB/c mice treated with vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib was evaluated in the resident-intruder test and brains were obtained to determine blood brain barrier penetration. In the allergic dermatitis model, a significant increase in aggression and standing behaviour was only obvious in the tofacitinib treatment group. There was no effect in non-sensitised mice, but similar aggression was also induced by tofacitinib in male resident-intruder test. Penetration of blood-brain barrier was observed both in tofacitinib and oclacitinib treated mice. These results suggest that aggression was induced by tofacitinib under some kind of stressful environment. This study indicates a possible role of the JAK-STAT pathway in modulation of aggression behaviour.
The fifth and final article in the series on patients with dementia in acute care examines challenging behaviour. Hospital admission, combined with unfamiliar surroundings and memory problems, can be frightening and disorientating for those with dementia. This can lead to behaviour which is perceived as 'disruptive' or 'difficult'. Aspects of the hospital environment or care practice can contribute to problems that may be misinterpreted and lead to challenging behaviour. Staff should seek to understand the cause of challenging behaviour, assess the possible causes and use strategies to reinforce familiarity and minimise distress for these patients.
Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe
A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…
Lipp, H P
The aggressive and flight behaviour of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is described and split into behavioural units, allowing analysis of agonistic behaviour evoked by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. The social context of the described units is also considered. C. jacchus shows clearly recognizable behavioural patterns. Free-born animals are very timid and show typical flight reactions. Within aggressive behaviour, two types of aggression can be distinguished: very violent attacks causing severe injuries, often accompanied by particular threat displays and observed during dominance and territorial encounters, and, on the other hand, relatively harmless short attacks, together with a noisy vocalization, for defensive purposes or keeping group members at a distance.
D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B
Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.
Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…
Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…
Haessler, Frank; Glaser, Thomas; Beneke, Manfred; Pap, Akos F; Bodenschatz, Ralf; Reis, Olaf
We investigated the effects of zuclopenthixol on aggressive behaviour in patients with intellectual disabilities by randomly withdrawing it after a 6-week period of open treatment. Of the 49 patients responding to the treatment, 39 took part in a randomised withdrawal trial. The placebo subgroup (n=20) showed more aggressive behaviour as indicated by outcomes observed by external raters on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale than did the continuing subgroup (n=19). The results indicate that discontinuation of zuclopenthixolin this population leads to an increase in aggressive behaviour.
Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.
Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence
Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin
Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870
Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin
Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.
Pavlović, Miroslav; Zunić-Pavlović, Vesna; Glumbić, Nenad
This study investigated aggressive behaviour in Serbian adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) compared to typically developing peers. The sample consisted of both male and female adolescents aged 12-18 years. One hundred of the adolescents had ID, and 348 adolescents did not have ID. The adolescents were asked to complete the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and their teachers provided ratings of aggression for the adolescents using the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive-Proactive (C-SHARP). Results indicated that adolescents reported a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than their teachers. Reactive aggression was more prevalent than proactive aggression in both subsamples. In the subsample of adolescents with ID, there were no sex or age differences for aggression. However, in the normative subsample, boys and older adolescents scored significantly higher on aggression. According to adolescent self-reports the prevalence of aggression was higher in adolescents without ID, while teachers perceived aggressive behaviour to be more prevalent in adolescents with ID. Scientific and practical implications are discussed.
At a time when brain-based explanations of behaviour are proliferating, how will law respond to the badly behaved child? In Australia, children and youth with challenging behaviours such as aggression, swearing, or impulsivity are increasingly understood as having a behavioural disability and so may be afforded the protections of discrimination law. A brain-based approach to challenging behaviour also offers a seemingly neutral framework that de-stigmatises a child's 'bad' behaviour, making it a biological or medical issue rather than a failure of discipline or temperament. Yet this 'brain-based' framework is not as neutral as it appears. How law regulates the brain-based subject in the form of the badly behaved child depends on how law conceptualises the brain. This article examines two competing approaches to the brain in law: a structural, deterministic model and a 'plastic', flexible model. Each of these impacts differently on disabled and abled identity and consequently on discrimination law and equality rights. Using examples from Australian discrimination law, this article argues that as new brain-based models of identity develop, existing inequalities based on race, gender, and disability are imported, and new forms of stigma emerge. In the neurological age, not all brains are created equal.
Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.
Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…
Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien
Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…
We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of moderate learning disability with challenging behaviour and treatment refractory epilepsy. Antiepileptics can increase challenging behaviour; however, antipsychotics can provoke seizures. This results in a difficult balance for patient care. Due to worsening seizures, the patient was prescribed perampanel. This increased her aggression and agitation resulting in admission. We trialled four antipsychotic drugs to reduce her challenging behaviour, two of which worsened her seizures. It was necessary to continue antiepileptic medication to maintain adequate seizure control. However, the resulting uncontrolled challenging behaviour persisted, meaning she was unable to return to her family home on discharge. This case emphasises the difficult scenario clinician's encounter when balancing the use of antipsychotics and antiepileptics. The case demonstrates the significant functional loss due to challenging behaviour, balanced against controlling life threatening seizures. PMID:25580340
Burchards, H; Dölle, A; Parzefall, J
The different populations have been tested for aggressive behaviour in groups of four to eight animals of both sexes in tanks ranging from 251 to 9501. In darkness less aggressive behaviour has been observed with the help of an infrared video-camera in the epigean fish and the eyed Micos cave fish. The strongest degree of reduction in aggressive behaviour is shown by the totally blind populations. The aggressiveness increases in the epigean fish as soon as space and food supply diminish.
Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.
Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…
Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel
This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…
Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona
The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists.
Rogers, Bill, Ed.
This book came about as a result of working directly alongside teachers working with challenging children and children with emotional behavioural disorders. These teachers (from Australia and the UK) work with children in mainstream and special education settings. Teachers spend a third of their waking and working day with children. Most teachers…
Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David
Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students.
Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.
Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…
Tsiouris, J. A.
Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…
Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony
A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…
Van den Bergh, Filip; Spronk, Marjolein; Ferreira, Leila; Bloemarts, Emilie; Groenink, Lucianne; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald
Impulsivity is an important symptom of many psychiatric disorders, and can be divided into two subtypes: response inhibition deficits and delay aversion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between delay aversion and response inhibition, both to each other and to locomotion, extinction of conditioned responses, sexual behaviour, and aggressive behaviour. To that end, we quantified the behaviour of 24 rats in several tests. To measure response inhibition, rats were trained in a stop-signal task. In this operant task, rats were rewarded food if they inhibited execution of a response after presentation of an audible stop-signal. Delay aversion was measured in an operant task in which rats made a choice between a small, immediately available reward and a large reward available after a delay. The results showed that delay aversion and response inhibition were independent. Responses during extinction and various measures of aggressive behaviour were positively correlated to delay aversion. The speed of go-trials in the stop-task was correlated to non-aggressive behaviour. We conclude that the role of response inhibition in various behaviours is small, but delay aversion in particular contributes to several other behaviours, such as aggressive behaviour and extinction.
Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant
Pedersen, William C; Denson, Thomas F; Goss, R Justin; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Kelley, Nicholas J; Miller, Norman
Although rumination following a provocation can increase aggression, no research has examined the processes responsible for this phenomenon. With predictions derived from the General Aggression Model, three experiments explored the impact of two types of post-provocation rumination on the processes whereby rumination augments aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to distraction, self-focused rumination uniquely increased the accessibility of arousal cognition, whereas provocation-focused rumination uniquely amplified the accessibility of aggressive action cognition. In Experiment 2, provocation-focused rumination uniquely increased systolic blood pressure. In Experiment 3, both types of rumination increased aggressive behaviour relative to a distraction condition. Angry affect partially mediated the effects of both provocation- and self-focused rumination on aggression. Self-critical negative affect partially mediated the effect of self-focused rumination but not provocation-focused rumination. These findings suggest that provocation-focused rumination influences angry affect, aggressive action cognition, and cardiovascular arousal, whereas self-focused rumination increases self-critical negative affect, angry affect, and arousal cognition. These studies enhance our understanding of why two types of post-provocation rumination increase aggressive behaviour.
Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892
Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.
Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.
Avoiding predators may conflict with territorial defence because a hiding territorial resident is unable to monitor its territory or defend it from conspecific intrusions. With persistent intruders, the presence of an intruder in the near past can indicate an increased probability of future intrusions. Therefore, following a conspecific-intrusion, territorial residents should minimize costs from future intrusions at the cost of higher predation risks. I conducted experiments with males of the territorial lizard Tropidurus hispidus recording approach distance (distance between predator and prey when the prey escapes) and time to re-emergence from a refuge after hiding. Past aggressive interactions affected anti-predator behaviour: lizards re-emerged sooner (compared to a control) when the predator attacked 5 min after an aggressive encounter. If the predator attacked while an aggressive encounter was ongoing, there was also a reduction in approach distance. The results are consistent with an economic hypothesis which predicts that T. hispidus incur greater predation risks to minimize future territorial intrusion; additionally they show that the effects of past and ongoing aggressive interactions are different, consistent with the minimization of present intrusion costs. These results are relevant for studies of the changes in aggressive behaviour due to changes in the social environment and for studies of the costs and (co) evolution of aggressive and anti-predator strategies. PMID:10693815
Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.
Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.
Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…
Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bédard, Annick
Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use
In this study, data from 2814 15- and 16-year-old secondary school students were analysed to investigate the collective influence of family, school and peers on behavioural problems in adolescence. Adolescents with addiction-risk and/or aggressive/criminal behaviour were compared to those who did not display such behaviour. Adolescents with behavioural problems were characterized by having a more negative perception of the environment with regard to most of the variables related with family, school and peers. Clearly behavioural problems are associated with problems in multiple environments. Some differences were found between boys and girls: multiple regression analyses showed that for boys, problems at school were the most important predictor of behavioural problem scores, while for girls, this applied to problems at home.
Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana
The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…
Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel
Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…
According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour.
Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.
Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…
Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.
Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…
Chang, Lei; Li, Kin Kit; Lei, Li; Liu, Hongyun; Guo, Boliang; Wang, Yan; Fung, Kitty Y.
This study presents a model of maladaptive social interactions that includes both behavioural and communication correlates of peer acceptance and self-perceived social competence. Tested in a sample of 377 Hong Kong secondary school students, verbal and nonverbal aggression contributed concurrently and longitudinally to peer acceptance.…
Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania
Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…
Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John
Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…
Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando
This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state.
Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M
The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.
Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita
Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.
Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.
Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180
Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W
We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.
Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.
This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…
This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…
LaVigna, Gary W.; Willis, Thomas J.
Background: Positive behaviour support (PBS) is behaviour analysis applied in support of people with challenging behaviour. Questions have been raised as to PBS effectiveness, costs, and accessibility. Method: Outcome studies meeting specified criteria for PBS were selected for review. All told, 12 outcome studies encompassing 423 cases were…
Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.
Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190
Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle
Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…
Murik, Joe; Shaddock, Anthony; Spinks, Anthony; Zilber, David; Curry, Craig
This research examines the strategies reported by teachers who have managed aggressive and extremely disruptive behaviour of students who have special needs. A sample of 52 teachers from mainstream and special settings listed the strategies that they have used to respond to this behaviour, the reasons for their choice and their estimate of the…
Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid
Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…
Grieve, Ann M.
This paper focuses on taking a first step in the process of influencing teachers' attitudes by building a description of beliefs about inappropriate behaviour that can be used in staff development work to provoke dissonance-led change. It describes a study, undertaken in two parts, exploring teachers' attitudes to inclusion, and ascertaining their…
McCallum, Erin S; Bose, Aneesh P H; Warriner, Theresa R; Balshine, Sigal
Fluoxetine (Prozac™) is designed to alter human behaviour; however, because many physiological pathways are conserved across vertebrates, this drug may affect the behaviour of fish living in fluoxetine-polluted environments. Although a number of studies have used behaviour to document the sub-lethal effects of fluoxetine, the repeatability of these effects across experiments, across behavioural contexts, and over different exposure durations are rarely considered. Here, we conducted two experiments and assessed how fluoxetine exposure affected a range of fitness-related behaviours in wild round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). We found that fluoxetine impacts round goby behaviour at high (40 μg/l) doses, but not at environmentally relevant low doses (1 μg/l). In both experiments, an acute 3-day exposure to fluoxetine reduced round goby aggression in multiple behavioural contexts, but had no detectable effect on overall activity or social affiliative behaviour. While a chronic 28-day exposure to fluoxetine exposure still reduced aggression, this reduction was only detectable in one behavioural context. Our findings demonstrate the importance of repeated behavioural testing (both between and within experiments) and contribute to a growing body of literature evaluating the effects of fluoxetine and other pharmaceuticals on animal behaviour.
Presents author's perspective on the challenging behavior of her son, theorizing about that behavior while drawing on research into temperament. Outlines history of "attention and behavior problems," culminating in most recent work on neuropsychological factors. Considers ways various approaches assign blame for "problems" to…
Lyons, Claire W.; O'Connor, Fiona
Although the issue of challenging behaviour receives a great deal of attention in educational literature, the exact nature of this behaviour is open to debate. Challenging behaviour can be defined objectively by listing or describing behaviours that are considered disruptive and undesirable. On the other hand, challenging behaviour can be seen as…
Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin
The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during
Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara
The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed.
Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine
High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…
Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar
Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…
Rose, John L.; Cleary, Adam
Background: Past research has determined that fear of violence is often "irrational" in relation to the actual level of risk presented. This has been found to exacerbate the negative effects of exposure to work-related violence. Aims: This study investigates fear of assault in relation to exposure to challenging behaviour. The extent to which a…
This study examines how teachers of young children in Denmark perceived challenging behaviours in children who have characteristics consistent with Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study was conducted in schools and kindergartens in three demographically different…
Hurley, A. D.
Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…
Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric
Amore, Mario; Tonti, Cristina; Esposito, William; Baratta, Stefano; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco
The present study analyzes course and predictors of physically aggressive behaviour over a 1-year follow up in a sample of patients discharged from a psychiatric inpatient unit. One hundred and eighty-six patients discharged from a locked short-term Psychiatric Inpatient Unit at the Bologna University Hospital. After discharge, two data collection contacts at 1 month and at 1 year were scheduled. In particular, psychiatrists, nurses, and other professionals were interviewed by the research staff using the Overt Aggression Scale. About 20 % of discharged patients showed physical aggressiveness in subsequent follow-up contacts. Risk factors for physical violence in the short-time period were social problems and a longer time from the first psychiatric contact. Living in residential facilities and physical aggressiveness during hospitalization were correlated to violence in the long-time period. Risk factors for physically violent behaviour differed in the short-term and long-term follow-ups; different causes of violent behaviour could be hypothesized.
Feeley, Kathleen M; Jones, Emily A
Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may be part of a behavioural phenotype characteristic of Down syndrome. The methodology of applied behaviour analysis has been demonstrated effective with a wide range of challenging behaviours, across various disabilities. Applications to children with Down syndrome and the examination of behaviourally based strategies to specifically address the unique characteristics of children with Down syndrome are limited. However, there are several studies in which a subset of the participants did have Down syndrome. A handful of these studies are reviewed within the context of functional behaviour assessment and Positive Behavioural Supports. Drawing from these studies and the behavioural literature, as well as the authors' clinical experience and research, suggestions regarding early intervention for challenging behaviour with children with Down syndrome are provided.
Saltz, Julia B.
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the ‘focal interaction’ approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as ‘focal interactants’: the behavioural interaction between them was the ‘focal interaction’. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male—the ‘treatment male’. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359
Soliman, Dina S; Sabbagh, Ahmad Al; Omri, Halima El; Ibrahim, Firyal A; Amer, Aliaa M; Otazu, Ivone B
Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia is an extraordinary rare aggressive malignant neoplasm of natural killer cells. Although its first recognition as a specific entity was approximately 20 years ago, this leukemia has not yet been satisfactorily characterized as fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature and up to our knowledge, this is the first case report in Qatar. Reaching a diagnosis of aggressive natural killer leukemia was a challenging experience, because in addition to being a rare entity, the relative scarcity of circulating neoplastic cells, failure to obtain an adequate aspirate sample sufficient to perform flow cytometric analysis, together with the absence of applicable method to prove NK clonality (as it lack specific clonal marker); our case had atypical confusing presentation of striking increase in bone marrow fibrosis that was misleading and complicated the case further. The bone marrow fibrosis encountered may be related to the neoplastic natural killer cells' chemokine profile and it may raise the awareness for considering aggressive natural killer leukemia within the differential diagnosis of leukemia with heightened marrow fibrosis.
Lambrechts, G.; Kuppens, S.; Maes, B.
Background: Previous research has identified that staff-client interactions play an important role in the origin and maintenance of challenging behaviour. Particularly, the reciprocity between staff behaviour and client behaviour has been considered a key issue. Furthermore, severe challenging behaviour has been found to elicit negative emotional…
Doyle, David Michael
This paper differentiates between sexual offending behaviour and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. There is growing awareness that people with an intellectual disability can perform both classes of behaviour. The definitions of sexual offending and challenging behaviour are almost interchangeable, due to the poor…
Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris
Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal.
Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M
Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed.
In the Origin of Species (1859), Darwin argued that his revolutionary theory of evolution by natural selection represented a significant breakthrough in the understanding of instinctive behaviour. However, many aspects in the development of his thinking on behavioural phenomena indicate that the explanation of this particular organic feature was by no means an easy one, but that it posed an authentic challenge - something that Darwin himself always recognized. This paper explores Darwin's treatment of instincts within his theory of natural selection. Particular attention is given to elucidate how he tackled the difficulties of explaining instincts as evolving mental features. He had to explain and demonstrate its inheritance, variation, and gradual accumulation within populations. The historical and philosophical aspects of his theory are highlighted, as well as his study of the case in which the explanation of instincts represented a 'special difficulty'; that is, the sterile castes of social insects.
Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions
Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song. PMID:23433033
Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X
In a previous experiment, the behaviour of Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens was compared with that of Norwegian Forest kittens (NFO) in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT), and significant differences emerged. To further investigate such variations, we analyzed kittens' responses to a potentially threatening object (TO) during the OFT. It was a metal spring enveloped in a cotton case suddenly bouncing out of the cylinder after the first 6 min of OFT exposure, and the test lasted 6 more minutes. From the 4th to the 10th week of age, during each test, the response of 43 OSA kittens and 39 NFO kittens to the TO was analyzed. Heart rate (HR) before and after the test was recorded. Behaviours were recorded and analyzed by focal animal sampling. Behavioural modifications recorded after TO exposure confirmed our suggestions on slow limbic system development in NFO kittens, as previously suggested by poor habituation and poor memory retention of repeated OFT exposure. The evident avoiding response to the TO confirmed the adoption in NFO kittens of an active-coping strategy towards challenge, as indicated also by their high scores for exploration and escape attempts. Otherwise, poor TO influence on exploration observed in OSA kittens suggested the adoption of a passive coping strategy, as previously shown by low levels of exploration and intra-session reduction in the number of vocalizations. Nevertheless, some of the behaviours observed, and the evidence of emotional tachycardia in OSA kittens, suggested also that the low level of activity recorded could have been due to a low arousability predisposition in this breed. The perception of a poorly arousing potential in the experimental setting might have influenced the perception of danger and the behaviour adopted in OSA kittens.
Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim
The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately.
Hewitt, Olivia; Keeling, Natalie; Pearce, Malcom
Between 10% and 15% of people with a learning disability have behaviour that challenges others, and half of these people live within the family home (Emerson et al., "Research in Developmental Disabilities," 2001; 22, 77). Current best practice in managing challenging behaviour combines person-centred planning, functional analysis, and…
Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.
Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics--such as beliefs, attributions and emotional reactions--on staff behaviour. Little is known,…
Dowey, Alan; Toogood, Sandy; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie
Background: The working culture surrounding challenging behaviour may have a strong effect on staff behaviour. As a first step to influencing staff talk about challenging behaviour, the aim of the present study was to explore whether a 1-day training workshop could have an effect on staff causal explanations. Methods: Fifty-four front line staff,…
Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv
Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…
Byrne, Alison; Hennessy, Eilis
Background: The present study examines understanding of challenging behaviour among a sample of children and adolescents with a moderate intellectual disability, and investigates their behavioural intentions towards peers with challenging behaviour. Methods: The study involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. In the…
Tierney, Edel; Quinlan, Dave; Hastings, Richard P.
Background: A range of factors have been suggested as determinants of staff behaviour in the context of working with people with challenging behaviour. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a typical challenging behaviour staff training course had an effect on staff feelings of efficacy, their negative emotional reactions to…
Kim, Eun Young
This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…
Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew; Gayson, Charlotte; Moss, Fiona; Mohammed, Needa; Smith, Claire; Vanes, Nicola
Nurses hold children to administer treatment, prevent treatment interference and undertake clinical assessments, which can sometimes be invasive, as part of their regular duties. Clinical holding ensures this treatment or assessment is carried out safely, however, it has been reported that there is little training available in this area. This article explores the prevalent clinical holding techniques used by nursing staff when caring for children with behaviours that challenge. As an initial insight into what the researchers hope will become a more in-depth 2-year study, this investigation looks to explore current practice when holding children and the factors influencing this. It is hoped that this will inform the development of a training package offered to nurses when caring for these children. Thirteen semi-structured interviews took place with a small group of nurses, which were given thematic analysis. The overarching themes influencing holding practice were the nursing role itself along with intrinsic and external factors.
Grey, Ian M.; McClean, Brian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
Thirty-four staff providing services to people with intellectual disabilities completed the Challenging Behaviour Attribution Scale with respect to a specific client before, during, and after completing a course in assessment and intervention for challenging behavior. Significantly more staff attributed challenging behavior to negative…
Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles
People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…
Hill, Jennie; Furniss, Frederick
Emotional and behavioural disturbance was assessed in 82 individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). Levels of disturbance were compared firstly in individuals with and without features of autism as assessed by the DASH-II, and secondly in…
Baras, E; Lucas, M C
The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression.
Lucas, Victoria L.; Collins, Suzanne; Langdon, Peter E.
Background: We examined whether staff attributions, emotions and helping behaviours in reaction to "real" incidents of challenging behaviour (CB) exhibited by children with intellectual disabilities were different from reactions to "vignettes". We also examined whether these reactions are congruent with that predicted by attribution theory.…
Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.
Background: Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. Method: A group of…
Ruddick, Loraine; Davies, Louise; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique; Oliver, Chris
Children with severe intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of presenting with self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour. Severity of these behaviours is an important predictor of psychological and behavioural service use by people with intellectual disabilities. However, studies suggest that the needs of children with intellectual disabilities and their families are not being met. The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviours and subsequent support needs of children with severe intellectual disabilities attending special schools in one major city within the UK, (2) compare teacher and primary carer ratings of behaviour and service need and (3) explore the extent to which the needs of children with intellectual disabilities are being met in terms of contact with relevant specialist services. Questionnaires were completed by teachers and primary family carers of children with a severe intellectual disability. Results indicated that at least 5.3% and 4.1% of children showed at least one behaviour at a clinically significant frequency and management difficulty respectively. Primary carers identified more children with significant behaviour difficulties and support needs than teachers. The odds for children presenting with high levels of the behaviours of interest for having a service need for behavioural intervention were at least 13 times those for children not showing the behaviours, yet only doubled for contact with a specialist relevant health-care professional. These results quantify the magnitude of the substantial gap between level of need and relevant support received.
Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise
Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.
Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise
Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343
Fruchart, Eric; Rulence-Pâques, Patricia
The aim of this study was to compare the way in which 216 young handball players ("Mage" = 12.79, SD = 2.20) of different ages (nine- to 10-years-old, 11- to 12-years-old, 13- to 14-years-old, and 15- to 16-years-old) combined and integrated five different information cues (the consequences of the aggression, the current score, the time…
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities are increasingly reaching older adulthood. Little is known about age-related change in the prevalence of challenging behaviours among older adults with intellectual disabilities. Materials and method: The frequency and severity of staff-averse challenging behaviours of 132 older adults with…
Willems, A. P. A. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Hendriks, A. H. C.
Background: Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff attitude and staff emotional intelligence on…
Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.
Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…
McLean, Sara; Kettler, Lisa; Delfabbro, Paul; Riggs, Damien
Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to…
Cox, Alison D.; Dube, Charmayne; Temple, Beverley
Many individuals with intellectual disability engage in challenging behaviour. This can significantly limit quality of life and also negatively impact caregivers (e.g., direct care staff, family caregivers and teachers). Fortunately, efficacious staff training may alleviate some negative side effects of client challenging behaviour. Currently, a…
Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily
Children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for engaging in challenging behaviour that may present problems within community, leisure, and educational settings, and, in many instances, precludes them from accessing these environments. Factors contributing to the occurrence of challenging behaviours include characteristics associated with…
de Winter, C. F.; Jansen, A. A. C.; Evenhuis, H. M.
Background: Challenging behaviour is a major problem among people with intellectual disabilities. Physical factors may be an important cause. The aim of the present systematic review was to determine the physical conditions associated with challenging behaviour. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane systematic…
Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Maas, A. P. H. M.; Korzilius, H.; Smits, M. G.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Background: Persons with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems exhibit more daytime challenging behaviours than persons with ID without sleep problems. Several anecdotal reports suggest that melatonin is not only effective in the treatment of insomnia, but also decreases daytime challenging behaviour. However, the effect of melatonin…
Mulligan, Bethany; John, Mary; Coombes, Rachel; Singh, Rosemary
Seven per cent of individuals with learning disabilities also display challenging behaviour ("Challenging behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with severe intellectual disabilities," 2001, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), which has an effect on the whole family. Services need to be developed to support and reflect this…
Heyvaert, M.; Maes, B.; Onghena, P.
Background: Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show challenging behaviour. We review distinct interventions that are applied to treat these challenging behaviours, and analyse intervention effects and moderating variables. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the databases "ERIC," "PsycINFO," "Web of Science" and…
Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…
Background: There is a lack of empirical research investigating challenging behaviour in children with autism with severe speech impairments in naturalistic settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate challenging behaviour among Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who are non-verbal or have limited speech (i.e. less than…
Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra
Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.
Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana
The goals of this article are to review the major findings from alcohol administration studies that use sexual aggression proxies and to encourage additional experimental research that evaluates hypotheses about the role of alcohol in the etiology of men's sexual aggression. Experiments allow participants to be randomly assigned to drink conditions, therefore ensuring that any differences between drinkers and nondrinkers can be attributed to their alcohol consumption. One of the biggest challenges faced by experimental researchers is the identification of valid operationalizations of key constructs. The tension between internal and external validity is particularly problematic for violence researchers because they cannot allow participants to engage in the target behavior in the laboratory. The strengths and limitations associated with written vignettes, audiotapes, videotapes, and confederate proxies for sexual aggression are described. Suggestions are made for future research to broaden the generalizability of the findings from experimental research.
Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro; Deb, Tanya
Background: In the UK, people with intellectual disabilities who exhibit aggressive behaviour often receive community-based specialist health services from a community learning disability team (CLDT). Our aim was to estimate costs associated with this provision and to identify predictors of higher costs. Method: Costs were estimated for 60 adults…
Pant, Leela; Garg, Malini; Singh, Garima; Singh, Sompal
Primary well differentiated keratinising Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a rare gall bladder malignancy accounting for 3.3% of all gall bladder carcinomas. Here we present a case of a 70-year-old female with complaints of dyspepsia and right upper quadrant pain for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed gall stones along with thickened and irregular gall bladder wall. Grossly an exophytic growth was noted involving large part of the body of gall bladder. Histological features were of well differentiated SCC with extensive keratinisation involving full thickness of the wall. No glandular component was seen. Metastasis from other primary was ruled out after thorough work-up. SCC of gall bladder has an infiltrative growth pattern and behaves aggressively. Early diagnosis plays the most important role in increasing the survival. PMID:27790451
Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder
Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara
Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657
De Schipper, J. C.; Schuengel, C.
Background: Attachment research has shown the importance of attachment behaviour for the prevention of dysregulated behaviour due to emotional distress. The support of an attachment figure may be especially important for people with intellectual disability (ID), because they are less adept in dealing with stressful situations on their own. Our…
When a student demonstrates a challenging or problematic behaviour in the classroom, the climate and the instructional experience can change dramatically for both the students and the classroom teacher. Before resorting to sanctions and punitive consequences, there is a series of steps a classroom teacher can conduct to reduce and replace the…
Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Short, Maureen; Bullock, Lyndal M.
As the US student population continues to become increasingly diverse, educators have encountered difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine disability indicators. This concern is clearly evident in assisting students from diverse backgrounds who demonstrate chronic challenging behaviours. Past practices (e.g.…
This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model.
McCready, Lance T.; Soloway, Geoffrey B.
Elementary teachers often cite challenging student behaviours and classroom management as areas of concern and therefore priorities for professional development. In this paper, the authors discuss the findings from a two-year research project, Sociocultural Perspectives on Behaviour and Classroom Management (SPBCM). SPBCM examined the social and…
Kelly, Aine; Carey, Sean; McCarthy, Siobhan; Coyle, Ciaran
This paper examines the sources of stress and the effects of managing challenging behaviour on principals of special schools in Ireland, including schools for pupils with an intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, specific learning disability and physical and sensory disability, and children of traveller families. In this study principals…
The "Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviour" for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Outcomes on Internalizing Problems, Challenging Behaviours, Quality of Life and Clients' Satisfaction
Pruijssers, Addy; Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Teerenstra, Steven; van Achterberg, Theo
Background: People with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable to develop psychopathology (in particular anxiety) and related challenging behaviour. Method: A comparative multiple case study with an experimental and a control condition. Results: The application of the guideline showed a trend of decreases of internalizing problems (P = 0.07) and…
Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.
Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…
Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary; Harding, Cathy; Hill, Caley
This preliminary study explores the relationships between challenging behaviour and emotional perception in a population of adults with intellectual disabilities, in order to establish whether there are grounds for further study. Cross-sectional data were collected from 96 participants with intellectual disabilities and 95 carers. The service user participants completed the Emotional Perception Questionnaire, whilst carers completed the Checklist for Challenging Behaviour. Correlational analyses were employed to analyse relationships between the variables. A post hoc between-group analysis was conducted to compare the emotional recognition abilities of people with high-frequency challenging behaviour with those with low-frequency challenging behaviour. Significant negative associations were found between emotional perception and challenging behaviour frequency and management difficulty. Significant differences in emotional perception abilities were found between people with high frequency and those with low-frequency challenging behaviours. The study suggests that emotional perception is important in understanding challenging behaviour.
Murphy, Glynis; Macdonald, Sue; Hall, Scott; Oliver, Chris
A case study is used to argue that the function of the aggressive behavior of a young woman with severe mental retardation was to avoid or escape the termination of a chain of complex stereotyped ritual behaviors. This is an example of complex interaction between two behaviors and illustrates the need for very careful analysis of the functions of…
Winkens, Ieke; Ponds, Rudolf; Pouwels, Climmy; Eilander, Henk; van Heugten, Caroline
The ABC method is a basic and simplified form of behavioural modification therapy for use by nurses. ABC refers to the identification of Antecedent events, target Behaviours, and Consequent events. A single-case experimental AB design was used to evaluate the effects of the ABC method on a woman diagnosed with olivo-ponto-cerebellar ataxia. Target behaviour was verbal aggressive behaviour during ADL care, assessed at 9 time points immediately before implementation of the ABC method and at 36 time points after implementation. A randomisation test showed a significant treatment effect between the baseline and intervention phases (t = .58, p = .03; ES [Nonoverlap All Pairs] = .62). Visual analysis, however, showed that the target behaviour was still present after implementation of the method and that on some days the nurses even judged the behaviour to be more severe than at baseline. Although the target behaviour was still present after treatment, the ABC method seems to be a promising tool for decreasing problem behaviour in patients with acquired brain injury. It is worth investigating the effects of this method in future studies. When interpreting single-subject data, both visual inspection and statistical analysis are needed to determine whether treatment is effective and whether the effects lead to clinically desirable results.
Zijlmans, L. J. M.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Derksen, J. J. L.
Background: Staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display challenging behaviour may contribute to the continuation of this behaviour, because it causes emotional reactions such as anxiety, anger and annoyance, which may prohibit adequate response behaviour. To enhance staff behaviour and treatment skills a training…
Bissell, Lianne; Phillips, Neil; Kroese, Biza Stenfert
Carers' behaviour is thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviour in people with learning disabilities (Emerson et al. 1995; Hastings & Remington 1994). The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention in the management of such problem behaviours by means of a long-term…
Christopher, Rose; Horsley, Sarah
The Dudley Behavioural Support Team (BST) was set up based on Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) principles to support individuals with behaviours that challenge. The Winterbourne Review emphasises the importance of developing high-quality specialist community services and the Ensuring Quality Services (Local Government Association & NHS…
Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.
Background: The "Questions About Behavioral Function" (QABF) correctly identifies maintaining variables of challenging behaviour. However, for adults who have a long history of challenging behaviours, identifying one clear function of the maladaptive behaviour is difficult. Additionally, the person may develop multiple functions of their…
Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa
The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.
Dixon, Martin; Turner, Martin J; Gillman, Jamie
Previous research demonstrates that sports coaching is a stressful activity. This article investigates coaches' challenge and threat cognitive appraisals of stressful situations and their impact on coaching behaviour, using Blascovich and Mendes' (2000) biopsychosocial model as a theoretical framework. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilised to examine the relationships between irrational beliefs (Shortened general attitude and belief scale), challenge and threat appraisals (Appraisal of life events scale), and coaching behaviours (Leadership scale for sports) of 105 professional football academy coaches. Findings reveal significant positive associations between challenge appraisals and social support, and between threat appraisals and autocratic behaviour, and a significant negative association between threat appraisals and positive feedback. Results also show that higher irrational beliefs are associated with greater threat, and lesser challenge cognitive appraisals. However, no associations were revealed between irrational beliefs and challenge cognitive appraisals. Additionally, findings demonstrate a positive relationship between age and training and instruction. Results suggest that practitioners should help coaches to appraise stressful situations as a challenge to promote positive coaching behaviours.
Santucci, Daniela; Sorace, Alberto; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Alleva, Enrico
The long-term effects on isolation-induced aggressive behaviour and central NGF and BDNF levels of gestational exposures to ozone (O(3)) were evaluated in adult CD-1 mice. Females were exposed to O(3), at the dose of 0.0, 0.3 or 0.6 ppm from 30 days prior the formation of breeding pairs until gestational day 17. Litters were fostered at birth to untreated dams and, at adulthood, male offspring underwent five successive daily encounters (15 min each) with a standard opponent of the same strain, sex, weight and age. The encounters on day 1, 3 and 5 were videotaped and agonistic and non-agonistic behavioural items finely scored. O(3)-exposed mice showed a significant increase in freezing and defensive postures, a decrease in nose-sniffing behaviour and reduced progressively the aggressive behavioural profile displayed on day 1. Reduced NGF levels in the hippocampus and increased BDNF in the striatum were also found upon O(3) exposure.
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…
Feast, Alexandra; Orrell, Martin; Charlesworth, Georgina; Melunsky, Nina; Poland, Fiona; Moniz-Cook, Esme
Background Tailored psychosocial interventions can help families to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD), but carer responses to their relative's behaviours contribute to the success of support programmes. Aims To understand why some family carers have difficulty in dealing with BPSD, in order to improve the quality of personalised care that is offered. Method A systematic review and meta-ethnographic synthesis was conducted of high-quality quantitative and qualitative studies between 1980 and 2012. Results We identified 25 high-quality studies and two main reasons for behaviours being reported as challenging by family carers: changes in communication and relationships, resulting in ‘feeling bereft’; and perceptions of transgressions against social norms associated with ‘misunderstandings about behaviour’ in the relative with dementia. The underlying belief that their relative had lost, or would inevitably lose, their identity to dementia was a fundamental reason why family carers experienced behaviour as challenging. Conclusions Family carers' perceptions of BPSD as challenging are associated with a sense of a declining relationship, transgressions against social norms and underlying beliefs that people with dementia inevitably lose their ‘personhood’. Interventions for the management of challenging behaviour in family settings should acknowledge unmet psychological need in family carers. PMID:26989095
Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich
Background/Aim Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators. Methods Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness. Results Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only. Conclusions This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. PMID:26603647
Poppes, P; van der Putten, A A J; ten Brug, A; Vlaskamp, C
A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give for challenging behaviour in this group. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine the way staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD; and (2) to analyse whether more experienced staff attribute challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD differently than less experienced staff. In total, 195 direct support staff and an equal number of children and adults with PIMD participated in the study. Direct support staff filled out the Challenging behaviour Attribution Scale (five causal explanatory models of challenging behaviour) to explain challenging behaviour in one individual that they supported. The results show that direct support staff as a whole report the biomedical model as the most plausible explanation for challenging behaviour in children and adults with PIMD. However, in the present study the mean scores on all models are low. This might indicate that a large number of staff found none of the models particularly useful as possible explanations of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. This could mean that staff have difficulties stating the cause of challenging behaviour in this group. Another possible explanation could be that there is little scientific knowledge about causing and maintaining factors of challenging behaviour in people with PIMD. It could also mean that staff have additional explanations for challenging behaviour in this target group that are not mentioned in the instrument used. Future research should address these issues. No differences were found between more experienced and less experienced direct support staff.
Tomlinson, Sean; Withers, Philip C; Maloney, Shane K
We describe how behavioural responses are an important adjunct to physiological responses for two dunnart marsupials that live in arid environments. Behavioural responses of the stripe-faced dunnart Sminthopsis macroura and the Ooldea dunnart Sminthopsis ooldea differed with acclimation to four ambient temperature (T(a)) regimes, 12 h:12 h of 5-15 °C, 12-22 °C, 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. Aggression levels were low at regimes 5-15 °C and 12-22 °C, and high at regimes 18-28 °C and 25-35 °C. The proportion of S. macroura huddled in groups increased significantly with decreasing T(a) regime, but there was no aggregation by S. ooldea at low T(a) regimes. The energetic benefit of huddling by S. macroura was highest for pairs of dunnarts (27% saving compared with singles) and only 3% for triplets at T(a)=10 °C. Thermal conductance decreased for pairs but not triplets compared to singles. There were no energetic savings for S. ooldea with increased numbers, and thermal conductance was the same per individual for single, pairs and triplets, reflecting their lack of huddling behaviour. The flexible behavioural (huddling) responses of S. macroura may facilitate their capacity to occupy a broad geographical distribution, unlike S. ooldea, which had inflexible behavioural responses (no huddling) and has a more restricted geographical range. The phylogenetic relationships of the dunnarts suggest that social behaviours may have arisen only once in the most adaptable subgroup of the Sminthopsini.
Rzepecka, Halina; McKenzie, Karen; McClure, Iain; Murphy, Shona
Children with an intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are known to suffer from significantly more sleep problems, anxiety and challenging behaviour (CB) than typically developing children (TD), yet little is known about the relationship between these factors in the child ID/ASD population. The study aim was to examine…
Hassiotis, Angela; Parkes, Charles; Jones, Lee; Fitzgerald, Brian; Romeo, Renee
Background: English policy argues that people with intellectual disabilities should be supported in their local communities. There is considerable evidence that this aspiration is not being achieved. This paper seeks to look at the subsection of people with intellectual disabilities who have expensive care needs because of challenging behaviour,…
Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Shooshtari, Shahin; Stoesz, Brenda M.; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; North, Sebastian; Dodson, Lindsay; Senkow, Quinn; Douglas, Joyce
This synthesis paper summarizes research literature addressing challenging behaviours in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in school settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2000 and 2011. The methodological…
Romeo, R.; Knapp, M.; Tyrer, P.; Crawford, M.; Oliver-Africano, P.
Background: Antipsychotic drugs are used in the routine treatment of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour in the UK despite limited evidence of their effectiveness. There is no evidence on their cost-effectiveness. Methods: The relative cost-effectiveness of risperidone, haloperidol and placebo in treating…
Jones, Daniel; Monsen, Jeremy; Franey, John
This paper explores how educational psychologists working in a training/consultative way can enable teachers to manage challenging pupil behaviour more effectively. It sets out a rationale which encourages schools to embrace a group based teacher peer-support system as part of regular school development. It then explores the usefulness of the…
McKenzie, Karen; Paterson, Marion
This article evaluates an assertive outreach team which aimed to help support people with a learning disability who displayed challenging behaviour in their own environment. The service was evaluated using Maxwell's Multi-dimensional Quality Evaluation Model (Maxwell 1984), which recognises that different stakeholders in a service are likely to…
Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Hamilton, David; Leighton, Daniel
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate active support (AS) training and to investigate changes to perceived engagement in domestic tasks, opportunities for choice, frequency of challenging behaviour, and level of support needs. Method: Participants were 12 adults with ID aged 27-57 years (M = 37 years) residing in three group homes, and…
This article explores the varied ways in which schools can respond to students who present with challenging behaviours and who are at risk of disengagement from learning. It sets out a typology of school responses and reflects on the philosophies which underpin each approach. In an effort to rethink the use of suspensions within schools, which…
Mansell, Jim; Ritchie, Fiona; Dyer, Ricinda
Background: As institutions for people with intellectual disabilities have been replaced with community services, health care provision has developed to provide assessment and treatment, low and medium secure units for people with challenging behaviour or mental health problems. These include both public and private sector provision. Little is…
Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate
Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine agencies…
Self-efficacy has been reported to play a significant role in stress levels of parents facing challenging behaviours of their children with learning disabilities. The role of self-efficacy has also been found to affect the stress levels of professional caregivers in such situations. To understand the implications of staff self-efficacy in…
Grunstein, Rose; Nutbeam, Don
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics of resilience among Australian adolescents, the extent to which resilience might be strengthened through participation in a dance/drama competition, the Rock Eisteddfod Challenge (REC), and the impact participation may have on health related behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: …
Hayes, S.; McGuire, B.; O'Neill, M.; Oliver, C.; Morrison, T.
Background: We investigated the relationship between low mood and challenging behaviour in people in the severe and profound range of intellectual disability, while controlling for the presence of potentially confounding variables such as diagnosis of autism, physical and sensory problems and ill health. Methods: The key workers of 52 people with…
Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin
Background: The triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders and severe challenging behaviours are reasonably common among adults with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate whether they had an impact on lifestyle among such adults living in staff-supported community housing. Methods: Data were collected on the…
Forlin, Chris; Cooper, Paul
Social, emotional, and behavioural disorders of children, within the context of a whole-school approach to inclusion as adopted by Hong Kong, can be challenging for teachers and parents. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from a range of experts and parent groups in Hong Kong, specific scales were developed to measure…
"Positive handling" has become a popular intervention within education and other services in England in the management of behaviours that challenge. This paper uses a vignette of an observation of the handling of children with autism as a starting point for consideration of whether this practice can ever really be experienced as positive…
Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid
Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.
Strohmeier, Dagmar; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane
This study investigated (1) to what extent the goal to be accepted by friends is an underlying function of overt aggressive behavior in adolescents, and (2) whether this function is more predictive than reactive aggression for overt aggressive behavior in first and second generation immigrants compared with natives. The sample comprised 339 native Austrians (51.6% girls), 126 first generation immigrants (48.4% girls), and 175 second generation immigrants (54.3% girls) aged 14 to 19 (M = 15.61). Data were collected via self-assessments. Multiple group latent means and covariance structures (MACS) models revealed that the goal to be accepted by friends was a stronger predictor than reactive aggression for overt aggressive behavior in first generation immigrants compared with second generation immigrants and natives. Furthermore, gender moderated these associations. The goal to be accepted by friends was a very strong predictor of overt aggressive behavior in first generation immigrant boys, but not in first generation immigrant girls. Results are discussed regarding the process of acculturation in first generation immigrant youth.
Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson
Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities…
This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…
Hassiotis, A.; Robotham, D.; Canagasabey, A.; Marston, L.; Thomas, B.; King, M.
Background: Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) reduces challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability. There is interest, however, in whether such interventions reduce carer burden and increase community participation in this group. Methods: A 6-month randomised controlled trial was followed by a longer-term naturalistic follow-up of…
Etheridge, Leanne; Senior, Hannah
The impact on full-time carers of children with intellectual disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviour has been well researched (e.g., Lach et al., 2009; Shah et al., 2010; Wodehouse and McGill, 2009), however, there is to date no published research into the impact of behaviour that challenges on seasonal carers. Five participants who had…
Mills, S.; Rose, J.
Background: There is evidence to suggest a relationship between the way in which staff perceive challenging behaviour and burnout in staff working with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviour. However, the evidence of a direct link is equivocal and it is possible that a number of different variables mediate this…
Smidt, Andy; Balandin, Susan; Reed, Vicki; Sigafoos, Jeff
Background: Challenging behaviour often serves a communicative function. It therefore stands to reason that the residential staff working in developmental disability services require training to foster appropriate communicative interactions with adults with challenging behaviour. Method: Eighteen members of staff working in three residential…
Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen
The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of…
Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.
Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…
Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.
Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…
Gulati, Gautam; Behrman, Sophie; Khosla, Vivek; Murphy, Valerie
We report the case of a 42-year-old man with a 22-year history of schizophrenia, necessitating frequent detentions under the Mental Health Act for relapses in his mental state and challenging behaviour which has also brought him into contact with the law. His illness has proven resistant to treatment with conventional strategies and he developed serious priapism with clozapine. His challenging behaviour, some of which is not felt to be associated with schizophrenia, complicates any discharge planning from his current detention. Based on a history of childhood cardiac disease, and mildly atypical facies, a genetic screen was requested which showed a 1q21.1 duplication, likely causal in his schizophrenic illness. A review of proteins coded by the locus of the duplication did not reveal any specific targets for pharmacotherapy.
Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of
Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert
Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…
Blais, Louise T; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M
The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a 12 week weight loss intervention within a commercial fitness centre on body weight, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary intake, and behavioural regulations for exercise and healthy eating. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group received weekly coaching sessions and bi-weekly seminars designed to increase MVPA and improve dietary intake. Outcome variables were assessed at three time points over a six month period. Results showed a significant interaction for body weight (p = .04) and dietary changes (p < .05) following the weight loss challenge but were not maintained across the six month period. Changes in behavioural regulations favoured the intervention condition. Results imply that a 12 week weight loss challenge within a commercial fitness centre may be effective at prompting short-term weight loss and support the internalization of behavioural regulations specific to healthy eating and exercise.
Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana
The goals of this article are to review the major findings from alcohol administration studies that use sexual aggression proxies and to encourage additional experimental research that evaluates hypotheses about the role of alcohol in the etiology of men’s sexual aggression. Experiments allow participants to be randomly assigned to drink conditions, therefore ensuring that any differences between drinkers and nondrinkers can be attributed to their alcohol consumption. One of the biggest challenges faced by experimental researchers is the identification of valid operationalizations of key constructs. The tension between internal and external validity is particularly problematic for violence researchers because they cannot allow participants to engage in the target behavior in the laboratory. The strengths and limitations associated with written vignettes, audiotapes, videotapes, and confederate proxies for sexual aggression are described. Suggestions are made for future research to broaden the generalizability of the findings from experimental research. PMID:26048214
O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer
With the growing adoption of the Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) system state-wide in New South Wales, Australia, it was of interest to determine the readiness of behaviour specialists to conduct Functional Behaviour Assessments (FBA) as part of the third tier of School-wide PBS provision. This article presents the findings from a survey…
Bailey, B. A.; Hare, D. J.; Hatton, C.; Limb, K.
Background: Previous studies have attempted to apply Weiner's attributional model of helping behaviour to care staff who work with service users with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviours by using studies based on vignettes. The aims of the current study were to investigate the application of Weiner's model to "real" service users…
Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.
Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…
Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary
This review questions whether a relationship exists between emotional recognition ability and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. A search was completed of a number of databases to identify relevant articles, and these were then evaluated against defined criteria. Eight articles were reviewed and their aims, study methodology, samples, measurement tools and findings are discussed and evaluated. Overall, studies found no significant deficit in the emotional recognition abilities of those with challenging behaviour when they were asked to identify the emotions of others. Two areas for further investigation were identified. Firstly, to ascertain whether a bias for identifying anger or sadness is found in those with challenging behaviour, and secondly, to understand the role of context in recognition of emotions and the degree to which this is different in those who present with challenging behaviour. A critique relating to the research is provided and suggested clinical and research implications are put forward.
Schwarz, V; Reis, O; Glaser, T; Thome, J; Hiemke, C; Haessler, F
The trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison with a discontinuation design. 49 mentally retarded patients with aggressive behaviour were treated with zuclopenthixol at a dose of 2-20 mg/d. At each visit the clinical effect was evaluated. Correlations between dose, serum concentration, and efficacy measures were calculated. The mean dose was 10.0 mg/day (±5.17); the mean serum concentration 4.19 ng/mL (±3.16). Associations of dosage, serum concentration and clinical efficiency did not result in coherent patterns. Correlations with clinical efficiency measures appeared to be contradictory for dosage and serum concentrations, respectively. As no consistent associations between dosage, serum concentration, and clinical efficiency measures were found, different hypotheses explaining the results are discussed.
Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B
Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare.
Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter
Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…
Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina
Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798
Lau, Mark A; McMain, Shelley F
Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from each modality to accomplish treatment goals, implications for therapist training, and treatment effectiveness. In addition, we discuss the challenges of assessing the benefits of incorporating acceptance-based strategies. Both therapies have integrated acceptance-based mindfulness approaches with change-based cognitive and behavioural therapies to create efficacious treatments.
Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Felce, D.; Kerr, M.
Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…
Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen
Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content.
Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine
The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.
LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra
With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories
LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra
With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories
Winter, Korina; Spengler, Stephanie; Bermpohl, Felix; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp
Aggressive, violent behaviour is a major burden and challenge for society. It has been linked to deficits in social understanding, but the evidence is inconsistent and the specifics of such deficits are unclear. Here, we investigated affective (empathy) and cognitive (Theory of Mind) routes to understanding other people in aggressive individuals. Twenty-nine men with a history of legally relevant aggressive behaviour (i.e. serious assault) and 32 control participants were tested using a social video task (EmpaToM) that differentiates empathy and Theory of Mind and completed questionnaires on aggression and alexithymia. Aggressive participants showed reduced empathic responses to emotional videos of others' suffering, which correlated with aggression severity. Theory of Mind performance, in contrast, was intact. A mediation analysis revealed that reduced empathy in aggressive men was mediated by alexithymia. These findings stress the importance of distinguishing between socio-affective and socio-cognitive deficits for understanding aggressive behaviour and thereby contribute to the development of more efficient treatments.
Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary; Harding, Cathy; Hill, Caley
This preliminary study explores the relationships between challenging behaviour and emotional perception in a population of adults with intellectual disabilities, in order to establish whether there are grounds for further study. Cross-sectional data were collected from 96 participants with intellectual disabilities and 95 carers. The service user…
Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian
Objectives: The use of pharmacological interventions to manage challenging behaviour displayed by adults with intellectual disabilities remains controversial, with current clinical guidelines in the United Kingdom advocating the use of less invasive psychological interventions. This exploratory study aimed to discover what views and beliefs are…
Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Gore, Nick; Cooper, Vivien; Brown, Freddy Jackson; Reid, Caroline; Saville, Maria
Background: We describe current care arrangements in England for children, young people and adults with learning disabilities and behaviour that challenges, and estimate their comparative costs. Materials and Methods: A two-round Delphi exercise was performed in March and April 2014, followed by a costing exercise. Results: The study finds a mixed…
McConkey, Roy; Gent, Clare; Scowcroft, Emma
Background: Specialist short break services aim to provide enhanced support to family carers as a means of preventing children whose behaviours severely challenge from being placed in full-time residential care. To date, there is limited evidence as to the functioning and effectiveness of such services. Methods: In all, 17 children were selected…
Davies, Bronwen; Frude, Neil; Jenkins, Rosemary
This review questions whether a relationship exists between emotional recognition ability and challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. A search was completed of a number of databases to identify relevant articles, and these were then evaluated against defined criteria. Eight articles were reviewed and their aims, study…
Gerber, F.; Bessero, S.; Robbiani, B.; Courvoisier, D. S.; Baud, M. A.; Traore, M.-C.; Blanco, P.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli
Background: Owing to methodological issues, little research has been conducted to examine quality of life (QoL) as a treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID). This study was conducted to combine QoL measures and objective observations of challenging behaviours (CB) in order to evaluate changes over…
Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Lowe, Kathy; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela
Background: The issue of the views of neighbours of community-based residential supports for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour has not been examined till date. This study looks at the views of neighbours of two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the minority of residents have…
Campbell, Martin; Hogg, James
Background: Cognitive representations of challenging behaviour among staff may influence therapeutic outcomes. This study looked at how cognitive dimensions of Identity, Cause, Consequences, Emotional Reaction and Treatment/Control are affected by training. Materials and Methods: A theoretically derived questionnaire was used to measure the impact…
Robertson, Janet; Hatton, Chris; Felce, David; Meek, Andrea; Carr, Deborah; Knapp, Martin; Hallam, Angela; Emerson, Eric; Pinkney, Lisa; Caesar, Emma; Lowe, Kathy
Background: There are no studies that have compared outcomes for staff in different types of supported accommodation for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. This study looked at stress, morale and intended job turnover in staff in two types of community-based residential supports: non-congregate settings where the…
Willems, A.; Embregts, P.; Hendriks, L.; Bosman, A.
Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis,…
Harvey, Shane T.; Boer, Diana; Meyer, Luanna H.; Evans, Ian M.
Background: This meta-analysis of interventions with challenging behaviour in children with disabilities updates a comprehensive meta-analysis that previously addressed reported standards of practice and effectiveness of different strategies. Method: Four effect-size algorithms were calculated for published intervention cases, and results analysed…
Williams, Sophie; Dagnan, Dave; Rodgers, Jacqui; McDowell, Kathryn
Aim: This paper reviews the evidence for changes in carers' attributions regarding the behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities as a consequence of carer training in challenging and complex behaviour. Method: Papers were included in the review if they reported outcomes for carer training on the behaviour of people with intellectual…
Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs
Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Jansson, Lilian; Lindgren, Britt-Marie
This case study aims to illuminate the interactions between one woman (Alice) with schizophrenia, dementia, and challenging behaviour and her professional caregivers. We performed participant observations of these interactions and conducted informal interviews at the residential home where the woman lived. The transcripts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the interactions between Alice and her caregivers were experienced as hovering between heaven and hell. Alice struggled to bring order into her chaotic life world by splitting herself and others, and her caregivers struggled to protect Alice's and their own dignity by limiting her challenging behaviours. They also strived to understand their own and Alice's behaviour. Current practice in caring for people with challenging behaviour usually focuses on symptom reduction through medication and behavioural modification. Instead, we suggest moving toward an understanding of the experiences behind the challenging behaviours and designing person-centred care based on each patients' reality.
Buskermolen, Willem Meindert; Hoekman, Joop; Aldenkamp, Albert Pierre
Background: In this article, we describe our study of the prevalence of behaviour that challenges and which internal factors are related to behaviour that challenges in 21 people (fourteen are male, seven are female, varying in age from 12.4 to 42 years; mean 26.6, SD 7.27) with intellectual disabilities who have hearing impairments. Materials and…
There is ongoing debate about the best model of service provision for people with an intellectual disability who present severe behavioural challenges. The present paper reviewed research which evaluated a range of UK service provision in terms of impact on challenging behaviour and other quality of life indices. A literature search was carried…
Muller, Christoph Michael
Children and adolescents with aggressive and delinquent behaviours are often educated in special needs classes with others who exhibit the same kind of challenging behaviour. Beside the opportunities provided by this approach there are also risks, as several studies point to the problem of negative peer influence among this student population.…
An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…
The riots in English cities in August 2011 have brought debates on behaviour of young people into sharper focus. Criticism of softly-softly approaches and the lack of power for head teachers to discipline is a reoccurring theme within the debate on behaviour in schools. Regaining adult authority is also reflected in the tenor of the government's…
Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. Methods/Design We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. Discussion If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in
Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory.
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...
Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael
Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed.
van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T
From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.
Bell, Dorothy M.; Espie, Colin A.
People with learning disabilities who also exhibit challenging behaviour live in a social context that should be considered in order to understand and deal with their behaviours. This context includes the characteristics of staff members, and their satisfaction with the whole culture and environment in which they work. The social context will also…
Broomhead, Karen E.
This study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding the differential treatment or stigma experienced by pupils with challenging behaviour--more specifically, those with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD), as well as children with visible special educational needs (Down's syndrome and/or profound and multiple…
Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June
The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…
Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul
This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging…
Ferris, Craig F
Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.
Axup, Tina; Gersch, Irvine
In this article, Tina Axup, an educational psychologist working in Southend-on-Sea, and Irvine Gersch, director of educational and child psychology programmes at the University of East London, describe a small-scale study of teachers' attitudes regarding the impact of student behaviour on their professional lives. Anecdotal evidence within a local…
The present article provides a literature review and describes a study examining the effect of teaching young children (7-12 years of age) with social and emotional difficulties to use intelligent behaviours habitually when faced with a problem. While embedding a "habits of mind" (HOM) approach into the whole-school programme has become…
Arampatzi, Athina; Mouratidou, Katerina; Evaggelinou, Christina; Koidou, Eirini; Barkoukis, Vassilis
The aim of the present study was to examine whether gender and inclusion settings are associated with elementary school pupils' aspects of social development such as aggression, social insecurity and attitudes toward disability. The sample consisted of 658 pupils (M[subscript age]=11[plus or minus]1 years) of 15 primary schools (306 boys and 352…
Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura
Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.
Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia
Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666
Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia
Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis).
Macleod, Fiona J.; Morrison, Fred; Swanston, Michael; Lindsay, William
A study examined relocation effects on challenging and communicative behaviors of four individuals with severe learning disabilities who moved from a hospital for people with learning disabilities into a community project home. There was an overall decrease in adaptive behaviors and inactivity levels and increases in communicative and challenging…
Shaddock, A. J.; Zilber, D.
This paper examines the principles underlying normalization and social role valorization with respect to the values and directions they offer service providers and the social structures they impose on individuals with disabilities who exhibit challenging behaviors. The paper argues that versions of normalization presented by Bengt Nirje and Wolf…
Feddersen-Petersen, D U
The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.
Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen
The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.
Ortenzi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Primavilla, Sara; Valiani, Andrea
In the present study, a microbiological challenge test in artificially contaminated raw milk Pecorino Umbro cheese during cheese-making was carried out. Raw ewe milk was contaminated by a suspension of particular Listeria monocytogenes strains. The number of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes dynamic growth were evaluated during cheese-making and storage. A significant decrease of the viable count of L. monocytogenes was observed during ripening and L. monocytogenes viable count was below the limit of quantification during storage. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of the pathogen. PMID:27800412
Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly
Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…
This article reports the findings of a literature review of research that has explored the support experiences of family carers of a person with an intellectual disability who displays challenging behaviour and/or has a mental health problem. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the reported experiences of family carers from…
Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter
Background: The front-line management role in services for people with intellectual disabilities remains rather under-researched. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of registered managers in services for adults with intellectual disability who exhibit challenging behaviour. Method: Interviews, primarily focussed upon staff…
Quality of Diagnosis and Treatment Plans after Using the "Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviours" in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Multiple Case Study Design
Pruijssers, Addy; van Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Keeman, Noortje; van Achterberg, Theo
Background: People with intellectual disabilities often have a multitude of concurrent problems due to the combination of cognitive impairments, psychiatric disorders (particularly anxiety) and related challenging behaviours. Diagnoses in people with intellectual disabilities are complicated. This study evaluates the quality of the diagnoses and…
Little research has focussed on the perspectives of families caring for someone with severe or profound intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The main aim of this research was to gain understanding of the experiences and perspectives of families, especially mothers, of young people with these complex needs, including attitudes to…
Bringing "Patient Voice" into Psychological Formulations of In-Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Challenging Behaviours: Report of a Service Improvement Pilot
Rowe, Gareth; Nevin, Helen
This is a report of a service improvement pilot project undertaken at an inpatient autism service for adults with intellectual disabilities and severe challenging behaviours. Within the service, a key facet of the care pathway was the use of a biopsychosocial case formulation. Formulation meetings were led by psychology and involved a full…
Reid, Caroline; Gill, Freya; Gore, Nick; Brady, Serena
The current study presents findings from an acceptance and commitment therapy-based intervention for family carers of children who have an intellectual/developmental disability and display high levels of challenging behaviour. The parent well-being workshops consist of two workshops incorporating acceptance and mindfulness-based exercises and…
Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella
Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms.
Fisher, Caroline A; Sewell, Katherine; Brown, Anahita; Churchyard, Andrew
Aggression is commonly reported in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). While correlating factors for aggression are often speculated about, features that are associated with, and contribute to, aggression in this population have not been clearly determined. This systematic review investigates rates of aggression and treatment options for aggression in HD. A number of key findings were revealed. Studies reporting on rates of aggression revealed that its prevalence is high, falling between 22 and 66 percent in the majority of studies. Aggression may be more common in males with HD, and is also found in higher rates in individuals who experience frequent falls, have obsessive-compulsive symptoms and suicidal ideation. There is little research investigating antecedents for aggression in HD. A wide variety of psychotropic medications have been reported in the literature to treat individuals with HD and aggressive behaviour. However, due to methodological limitations, no treatment recommendations can be made, based on the current literature. Two non-medication therapies have been investigated, behaviour support and sensory modulation intervention. However, again, due to methodological limitations with these studies, further research is needed before they can be recommended as frontline interventions. This review highlights the need for further methodologically rigorous studies investigating the treatment of aggression in HD.
A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)
Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica
Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…
Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi
Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147
Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.
Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773
Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob
Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards teachers.…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul
The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also examined. Additionally,…
McClean, Brian; Grey, Ian
Background: Positive behaviour support emphasises the impact of contextual variables to enhance participation, choice, and quality of life. This study evaluates a sequence for implementing changes to key contextual variables for 4 individuals. Interventions were maintained and data collection continued over a 3-year period. Method: Functional…
Friedman, Z; Hayter, M A; Everett, T C; Matava, C T; Noble, L M K; Bould, M D
A key factor that may contribute to communication failures is status asymmetry between team members. We examined the effect of a consultant anaesthetist's interpersonal behaviour on trainees' ability to effectively challenge clearly incorrect clinical decisions. Thirty-four trainees were recruited to participate in a video-recorded scenario of an airway crisis. They were randomised to a group in which a confederate consultant anaesthetist's interpersonal behaviour was scripted to recreate either a strict/exclusive or an open/inclusive communication dynamic. The scenario allowed trainees four opportunities to challenge clearly wrong decisions. Performances were scored using the modified Advocacy-Inquiry Score. The highest median (IQR [range]) score was 3.0 (2.2-4.0 [1.0-5.0]) in the exclusive communication group, and 3.5 (3.0-4.5 [2.5-6.0]) in the inclusive communication group (p = 0.06). The study did not show a significant effect of consultant behaviour on trainees' ability to challenge their superior. It did demonstrate trainees' inability to challenge their seniors effectively, resulting in critical communication gaps.
Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran
Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.
Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Hailemariam, Damen
A range of activities are currently underway to improve access to malaria prevention and control interventions. As disease control strategies change over time, it is crucial to understand the health-seeking behaviour and the local socio-cultural context in which the changes in interventions operate. This paper reflects on how people in an area of seasonal malaria perceive the causes and transmission of the disease, and what prevention and treatment measures they practise to cope with the disease. It also highlights some of the challenges of malaria treatment for health care providers. The study was undertaken in 2003 in Adami Tulu District in south-central Ethiopia, where malaria is a major health problem. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were conducted among men and women. Malaria, locally known as busa, was perceived as the most important cause of ill health in the area. Respondent's perception and knowledge about the cause and transmission of the disease were relatively high. The newly introduced insecticide-treated nets were not popular in the area, and only 6.4% of households possessed at least one. The results showed that patients use multiple sources of health care for malaria treatment. Public health facilities, private clinics and community health workers were the main providers of malaria treatment. Despite higher treatment costs, people preferred to use private health care providers for malaria treatment due to the higher perceived quality of care they offer. In conclusion, effort in the prevention and control of malaria should be intensified through addressing not only public facilities, but also the private sector and community-based control interventions. Appropriate and relevant information on malaria should be disseminated to the local community. The authors propose the provision of effective antimalarial drugs and malaria prevention tools such as subsidized or free insecticide-treated nets.
McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Background: Concerns about the pharmacological management of the behaviour of individuals with intellectual disability have resulted in the development of legislative and procedural controls. Method: This Australian study provided a comparison of 873 reported cases where drugs were administered to manage behaviour in March 2000, with 762 cases…
Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W
This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression.
Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik
Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients…
Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo
Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.
Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors
Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment was positively associated with overt aggression, whereas parental psychological control was positively associated with relational aggression in both girls and boys. In addition, this study demonstrated that if both parents employed similar parenting strategies, it appeared to have a cumulative effect on child aggressive behaviour. Associations involving overt aggression were more pronounced for boys than girls, whereas associations involving relational aggression were not moderated by gender. Overall, the present study contributes to an emerging research field by supporting the hypothesis of specialized associations between parental control and child aggression.
Vigil-Colet, Andreu; Ruiz-Pamies, Mireia; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.
Moore, Thomas R.
Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)
The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)
Katoh, Emi; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Breithaupt, Thomas
The Norway lobster is one of the most important commercial crustaceans in Europe. A detailed knowledge of the behaviour of this species is crucial in order to optimize fishery yields, improve sustainability of fisheries, and identify man-made environmental threats. Due to the cryptic life-style in burrows, the great depth and low-light condition of their habitat, studies of the behaviour of this species in its natural environment are challenging. Here, we first provide an overview of the sensory modalities (vision, chemoreception, and mechanoreception) of Nephrops norvegicus. We focus particularly on the role of the chemical and mechanical senses in eliciting and steering spatial orientation behaviours. We then concentrate on recent research in social behaviour and biological rhythms of Nephrops. A combination of laboratory approaches and newly developed tracking technologies has led to a better understanding of aggressive interactions, reproductive behaviours, activity cycles, and burrow-related behaviours. Gaps in our knowledge are identified and suggestions for future research are provided.
O'Neill, Sue C.
Preservice teacher education courses provide an opportunity for the development of knowledge, skills, and confidence in classroom and behaviour management. This study reports the change in classroom management sense of efficacy (CMSE) of a small cohort of Australian preservice primary teachers at 4 time points (precoursework, preprofessional…
Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai
This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…
Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael
A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…
Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder
Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient's post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12-year-old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis.
Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder
Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428
Diaz, Jose Luis
Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…
Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry
Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety.
Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire
Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression.
Beckers, Leif; Petermann, Franz
A precondition of an appropriate treatment of aggressive children and youth is a specific diagnosis. The Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire for 5-10 Graders (RPA 5-10) assesses reactive and proactive aggression and different facets of the subtypes such as angry-aggression, defensive attribution of aggression, obtaining of resources and power/domination-aggression. This study proves the validity of the questionnaire by differential correlates based on a sample of 9 to 17 year-old students (N = 250). The scales of the RPA 5-10 were associated with anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression, conduct problems and decreased prosocial behaviour. Reactive aggression but not proactive aggression was related to hostility, emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems. The relations between reactive aggression and anger and emotional symptoms are based on angry-aggression. Contrary to predictions hyperactivity/inattention was associated with reactive but also with proactive aggression.
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J
The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints.
Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.
JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.
We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823
Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M
Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value.
Heinz, Adrienne J; Beck, Anne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp; Heinz, Andreas
Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact with genetic variations in serotonin-related genes that affect serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. This leads to increased amygdala activity and impaired prefrontal function that, together, predispose to both increased alcohol intake and impulsive aggression. In addition, acute and chronic alcohol intake can further impair executive control and thereby facilitate aggressive behaviour.
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming
This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…
It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…
Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Zhang, Weining; Russig, Holger; Ferger, Boris; Weston, Anna; Pedersen, Else-Marie; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R
Depression is diagnosed on the basis of abnormal positive affects (anhedonia) and negative affects (low mood, helplessness, coping deficit, fatigue), and associated physiological abnormalities include hyperactivity of the HPA endocrine system and autonomic nervous system. Adverse early life environments, including parent-offspring emotional and physical neglect, are associated with traits of altered physiological and neurobiological function and long-term predisposition to depression. Animal studies based on early life adversity can potentially yield environmental models of the developmental behavioural neurobiology of depression. In Wistar rats, we demonstrated that isolation of pups from dam and littermates at room temperature for 4 h per day on P1-14 (early deprivation, ED) led to adulthood anhedonia-like traits of reduced motivation to obtain gustatory reward and reduced social motivation, relative to subjects left undisturbed during infancy (non-handling, NH). We hypothesized that the depression-like effects of ED would be even more pronounced and multiple in the stress hyper-responsive Fischer rat strain. The effects of ED were studied relative to NH and 15 min of daily isolation (early handling, EH). Relative to NH and EH, which exhibited remarkably similar phenotypes, ED led, principally in males, to chronic traits of: reduced motivation for and consumption of gustatory reward; increased activity in the pre-test and test phases of the forced swim test; reduced coping behaviour in an aversive environment; attenuated plasma corticosterone stress response to a normal plasma ACTH stress response; increased hypertensive response to a novel environment; and increased prefrontal cortical serotonin. High sensitivity to an aversive early environment in male Fischer rats therefore constitutes an important model for the study of affective development and its neurobiology.
Fulwiler, Carl; Eckstine, Joy; Kalsy, Sapna
Although alcohol consumption is involved in most acts of violence, most people do not become violent when they drink. Individuals also respond differently to alcohol on laboratory measures of aggression. The objective of this study was to determine whether individual differences in the effects of alcohol on a laboratory measure of aggression are related to specific personality traits and/or serotonin function, as measured by prolactin response to pharmacochallenge. Psychometric scales for impulsiveness, aggression, and anger, as well as a probe for suspiciousness, were administered to 10 healthy male social drinkers. Trait serotonin function was determined by citalopram challenge. The effect of alcohol on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm was determined by comparing aggression scores with and without 1 g/kg alcohol. Impulsivity scores were significantly correlated with the change in aggressive responding after alcohol. Aggression, anger, and suspiciousness scores were not. Prolactin response did not predict the effect of alcohol on aggressive responding. The results suggest that trait impulsiveness may mediate the effects of alcohol on aggression in normal males.
Jull, Stephen K.
Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…
Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne
This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303
Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo
Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.
McLemore, Monica R
The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.
Sanderson, Saskia C; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E
Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of 'lifestyle-genetic' tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for selling these tests in advance of scientific support. Others are concerned that the tests may not motivate lifestyle improvements, instead causing distress in people receiving adverse test results and complacency in those receiving reassuring results. There is currently no regulatory oversight of genetic test utility, despite consensus in the Public Health Genomics community that clinical utility (including psychological and behavioural impact) of all emerging genetic tests should be evaluated before being introduced for individual use. Clearly, empirical data in this area is much needed, to inform understanding of the potential utility of these tests, and of whether stricter regulation of commercial exploitation is needed. In this article, we review the current situation regarding lifestyle-genetic tests, and discuss the challenges inherent in conducting this kind of behavioural research in the genomics era.
Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A
Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor
Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J
Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.
Increasingly, early childhood practitioners are faced with children who present with significant levels of oppositional and defiant behaviour. The management of this behaviour is often difficult and stressful. Efforts to minimise disruptive behaviour and to encourage more prosocial behaviour have very much revolved around the teaching of…
Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru
Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Friesen, Steven; Moulton, Lynne; Germani, Tamara; Miciak, Maxi; Parmar, Jasneet; Rogers, Laura G
Challenging responsive behaviours, such as aggression, wandering and social inappropriateness, exhibited by persons with neurological, mental health or developmental disorders are of increasing concern across Canada. These behaviours can cause distress or catastrophic outcomes for the person, others in care, caregivers and healthcare providers, and result in extensive resource utilization. The objective of this paper is to discuss the role and impact of a unique, grassroots provincial initiative aimed at networking among healthcare providers, decision-makers and caregivers across government ministries and service-provider agencies. This collaboration provides a model for informing service provision and policy development across multiple stakeholders.
Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…
Underwood, Marion K.
Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…
Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard
Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570
Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others
Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…
Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others
Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…
Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje
The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…
Selenius, Heidi; Hellström, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik
Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery 'The Pigeon'. The patients filled in the Aggression Questionnaire, and trained assessors performed the risk assessments using HCR-20 version 2. Patients with dyslexia self-reported more aggressive behaviour compared with those without dyslexia. There was only a nearly significant tendency (p = 0.06) for the patients with dyslexia to receive higher scores in the HCR-20 compared with the patients without dyslexia, and phonological processing skills did not significantly predict aggression or risk of future violence. However, regression analyses demonstrated that poor phonological processing skills are a significant predictor of anger, which in turn significantly predicts risk of future violence.
Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of
The Development and Utility of a Program Theory: Lessons from an Evaluation of a Reputed Exemplary Residential Support Service for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour in Victoria, Australia
Clement, Tim; Bigby, Christine
Background: Adults with severe challenging behaviour can achieve good "quality of life" outcomes in small supported accommodation services. Yet, the research indicates that they typically experience poorer outcomes than other adults with intellectual disability. This raises questions about the degree to which research has informed…
Burton, Robert W
Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.
Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom
Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts.
Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…
Munsters, Carolien C B M; Visser, Kathalijne E K; van den Broek, Jan; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M
A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ridden by a different rider and was challenged by three objects (A-C). Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) of horse and rider, and behaviour score (BS) of the horse were obtained for each object and as a total for each test. The horse-rider interaction was evaluated with each combination and assessed as 'matching' or 'mismatching', and the horses were categorised as 'compliant', 'partly-compliant' or 'non-compliant'. Horses exhibited a decreased HR (P=0.015) and a decreased BS (P=0.004) within and across different tests. 'Matching' horse-rider combinations exhibited less stress as indicated by reduced HR ('match' 69±10 vs. 'mismatch' 72±9, P=0.001) and BS ('match' 1.9±1.1 vs. 'mismatch' 3.8±1.4, P=0.017) of the horse. 'Compliant' (68±8, P<0.001) and 'partly-compliant' (71±9, P=0.002) horses had significantly lower HR than 'non-compliant' (75±9) animals. The findings of the study indicate that HR and BS measurements support a subjective 'match' diagnosis and HR measurement may be a valuable tool in assessing horse compliance.
Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto
Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.
Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline
Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…
Våge, J; Wade, C; Biagi, T; Fatjó, J; Amat, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Lingaas, F
Human-directed canine aggression was studied using 50 aggressive and 81 non-aggressive dogs. We examined 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in or in the close vicinity of 16 neurotransmitter-related genes. Allelic associations with aggression were identified for DRD1, HTR1D, HTR2C and SLC6A1. Risk or protective haplotypes for aggressive behaviour based on 2-5 SNPs were identified. The frequency of aggressive dogs varied significantly between the haplotypes within loci and the odds ratios of aggression in dogs with risk haplotypes compared with protective haplotypes varied from 4.4 (HTR2C) to 9.0 (SLC6A1). A risk haplotype across the neurotransmitter receptor gene HTR1D harboured a non-synonymous SNP with a potential effect on protein function. We identified no haplotypes in complete association with the recorded phenotypes, supporting a complex inheritance of aggression.
Carlini, E. A.; Hamaoui, A.; Märtz, Regina M. W.
1. Aggressive behaviour was elicited in rats that had been deprived of food for 20 h daily (starved), by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa extract or (-)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol. 2. The influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral glucose administration, cold environment, acidosis, and corn, and protein-free diets on this aggressiveness was studied. 3. Intraperitoneal injections of glucose (100-1,600 mg/kg) did not alter the aggressiveness induced by marihuana in starved rats; glucose given orally, however, blocked this behaviour. 4. Low temperature (14° C) strongly potentiated the aggressive behaviour induced by marihuana in the starved rats. 5. Lactic acid in doses capable of potentiating thiopental anaesthesia, failed to alter the marihuana-aggressiveness of starved rats or to facilitate this effect of marihuana in rats fed ad libitum. The same negative results were obtained with ammonium chloride. 6. In rats fed ad libitum with protein-free or corn diets, marihuana administered chronically did not elicit aggressive behaviour. However, aggressiveness appeared when rats were fed for only 2 h daily on those diets. 7. The results suggest that the stress of hunger (and not hypoglycaemia, acidosis or lack of specific nutrients due to starvation) is the factor that facilitates the development of aggressive behaviour by chronic administration of marihuana. PMID:5064930
McDonald, Grant C; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection). Pre- and postcopulatory components of male reproductive success covaried positively; males with high mating success also had high paternity share. Two male phenotypes affected male pre- and postcopulatory performance: average aggressiveness towards rival males and age. Aggressive males mated with more females and more often with individual females, resulting in higher sexual exclusivity. Younger males mated with more females and more often with individual females, suffering less intense sperm competition than older males. Older males had a lower paternity share even allowing for their limited sexual exclusivity, indicating they may produce less competitive ejaculates. These results indicate that - in these populations - postcopulatory sexual selection reinforces precopulatory sexual selection, consistently promoting younger and more aggressive males. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Kogan-Goloborodko, Olga; Brügmann, Elisabeth; Repple, Jonathan; Habel, Ute; Clemens, Benjamin
Approximately 73% of patients suffering from Borderline personality disorder (BPD) exhibit aggressive behaviour, which severely hinders therapeutic work and clinical improvement. Because the underlying mechanisms of aggression in BPD are not yet completely understood, additional research in this domain has a high clinical and scientific relevance. We employed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (mTAP), in order to examine for the first time whether this task can be used to differentiate between BPD patients and healthy controls with regard to reactive aggression. In the mTAP, the amount of money subtracted by a virtual opponent was categorized into ‘low’ (10–20 cents) and ‘high’ (80–100 cents) provocations, enabling us to compare how much money BPD patients and healthy controls subtracted (i.e., how aggressively participants responded) following high and low provocation trials. Our results showed that, compared to healthy controls, BPD patients showed higher overall aggression, higher aggression after high provocation trials, as well as a larger difference between high and low provocation trials. This finding was corroborated by a neuropsychological assessment, demonstrating higher levels of aggression and impulsivity in BPD patients. Interestingly, reactive aggression in the mTAP was positively correlated with symptom severity and impulsivity in BPD patients. We suggest that the mTAP provides a valuable tool allowing psychiatrists to quantify reactive aggression in BPD. Therefore, clinicians and researchers might consider this task, as a short experimental measure of reactive aggression, either in future studies or to aid diagnostic assessment during clinical practice. PMID:27851804
Lederer, Katharina; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J; Uhlmann, Anne
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use can lead to white matter (WM) changes and increased levels of aggression. While previous studies have examined WM abnormalities relating to cognitive impairment, associations between WM integrity and aggression in MA dependence remain unclear. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate WM changes in 40 individuals with MA dependence and 40 matched healthy controls. A region of interest (ROI) approach using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) in FSL was performed. We compared fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel diffusivity (λ║) and perpendicular diffusivity (λ┴) in WM tracts of the frontal brain. A relationship of WM with aggression scores from the Buss & Perry Questionnaire was investigated. Mean scores for anger (p < 0.001), physical aggression (p = 0.032) and total aggression (p = 0.021) were significantly higher in the MA group relative to controls. ROI analysis showed increased MD (U = 439.5, p = 0.001) and λ┴ (U = 561.5, p = 0.021) values in the genu of the corpus callosum, and increased MD (U = 541.5, p = 0.012) values in the right cingulum in MA dependence. None of the WM changes were significantly associated with aggression scores. This study provides evidence of frontal WM changes and increased levels of aggression in individuals with MA dependence. The lack of significant associations between WM and aggressive behaviour may reflect methodological issues in measuring such behaviour, or may indicate that the neurobiology of aggression is not simply correlated with WM damage but is more complex.
Why do individuals sometimes pursue apparently senseless aggression, whether on the street, in court, at work, or in politics? Past work converges on the idea that individuals do so to establish social rank and deter prospective challengers. However, the fundamental claims of this argument - that concerns for one's reputation cause individuals to behave aggressively, and that a reputation for aggression deters threats from others - remain controversial. This paper offers a theoretical argument linking concern for reputation to aggressive behavior and deterrence. The theory argues that in competitive interactions, determining one's likelihood of prevailing in conflict ("competitive ability") is crucial for deciding whether to pursue conflict, but also rife with uncertainty. This motivates individuals to engage in aggressive behavior to signal to others (perhaps falsely) that they are strong competitors. Two behavioral experiments test this argument, and find that reputation systems motivate aggressive behavior, competitive ability moderates this effect, and reputations for aggressive behavior deter aggression from others. The results contribute to understanding the role reputation systems play in the social organization of aggressive behavior.
Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie
We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…
Loneliness and aggressive behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 243–252. Chief of Naval Operations. (2006, December 29). Office of...A. W., & Russell , M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171, 627–631
Rortais, Agnès; Tentcheva, Diana; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Gauthier, Laurent; Arnold, Gérard; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max
Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed.
Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell
As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…
Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling
This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…
Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick
Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…
Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.
"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…
Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian
Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…
Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K
The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…
Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla
This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…
Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra
Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.
Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David
Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.
Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...
Meaden, Alan; Commander, Martin; Cowan, Colin; Edwards, Tom
Aims and method To build on previous research findings by examining engagement and problematic behaviours of patients in 10 residential rehabilitation units. Two measures were completed on patients in community rehabilitation, longer-term complex care and high-dependency units (109 patients in total). Data were analysed and categorised into higher-engagement ratings across the domains of engagement and behaviour over the past 6 months and lifetime in terms of presence of the behaviour and likelihood of resulting harm. Results Data were available for 73% of patients. All aspects of engagement were consistently low for all units, with highest levels in community rehabilitation units. Levels of problematic behaviours were similar across all units. Socially inappropriate behaviours and failure to complete everyday activities were evident for over half of all patients and higher for lifetime prevalence. Verbal aggression was at significantly lower levels in community units. Lifetime behaviours likely to lead to harm were much more evident in high-dependency units. Clinical implications Despite some benefits of this type of care, patients continue to present challenges in engagement and problematic behaviours that require new approaches and a change in focus. PMID:25505624
Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith
Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process.
Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith
Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours—linalool and 2-phenylethanol—have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599
Dierckx, Bram; Tulen, Joke H M; Tharner, Anne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Maternal psychopathology and the child's autonomic nervous system functioning are risk factors for aggressive behaviour later in life. While research has shown that maternal psychopathology already affects young children, less is known about the association between autonomic functioning and aggressive behaviour in young children. In addition, maternal psychopathology and autonomic nervous system functioning may interact to determine the risk of aggressive behaviour. In a sample of 375 infants and their mothers, maternal psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory and toddler aggressive behaviour with the Child Behaviour Checklist. Infant heart rate was recorded at 14 months. Maternal psychiatric problems, including hostility and depression, were associated with toddler aggressive behaviour. Maternal psychiatric problems interacted with mean heart rate (P=0.01) and HF variability (P=0.03) in their effect on toddler aggressive behaviour. Mothers with high psychiatric problems, in particular, high hostility, were more likely to have toddlers with high aggressive behaviour. Moreover, in the presence of maternal risk factors, low autonomic arousal renders children particularly susceptible to aggressive behaviour.
I studied the relationship between behaviour and plasma testosterone level (T) and the seasonal changes in T and plasma corticosterone levels (B) in male red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. I measured T and B using radioimmunoassay, and on the day after taking blood, I observed each male's behaviour for 60 min. The time that males spent conspicuously perched and the number of songs were positively correlated with T, but the proportion of time spent conspicuously perched and the frequency of song were not correlated with T. The frequency of aggressive encounters, sexual chases, epaulet exposure when singing and flights within the territory were positively correlated with T, suggesting a direct role for circulating testosterone influencing male aggressive behaviour. Both T and B increased early in the breeding season, peaked when the first females were receptive, and decreased through the remainder of the breeding season. Late in the season, the presence of a receptive female caused males to have increased T. The peak in T when the first females were receptive, the positive correlation between aggression and T, and the response to a receptive female with increased T support predictions of the challenge hypothesis. T was positively correlated with B, suggesting a cost to the males of maintaining high T. When a receptive female was present on the male's territory, T was negatively correlated with date. Male red-winged blackbirds in Indiana may respond less to receptive females late in the season when benefits associated with protecting paternity and gaining extra-pair fertilizations decrease.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.
The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others
Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…
French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K
Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals.
Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ
In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Re, Simona; Zanoletti, Marco; Emanuele, Enzo
Canine aggressive behaviour is one of the most common problems being reported by dog owners. However, the biochemical basis of this phenomenon remains unclear. In humans, alterations in omega-3 plasma polyunsatured fatty acids and elevated omega6/omega-3 ratio have been linked to behavioural alterations, including aggression. Thus far, however, the relationship between plasma polyunsatured fatty acid status and aggression has not been investigated in the dog. In the present study we sought to investigate whether polyunsatured fatty acid status could be altered in plasma of pathologically aggressive Canis familiaris. Eighteen adult male German Shepherd dogs, aged 4.9 +/- 0.9 years, showing no clinical signs but aggression, were investigated. Eighteen healthy male dogs, aged 4.8 +/- 0.7 years, with a negative history of behavioural and neurological disorders served as controls. Baseline fasting plasma polyunsatured fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Compared to normal dogs, aggressive dogs showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) concentrations and a higher omega6/omega-3 ratio. In addition, they showed reduced cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations compared to their normally behaving counterparts. Altogether, our results suggest that low omega-3 fatty acids may adversely impact behaviour in dogs, resulting in greater propensity to aggression. However, given the cross-sectional design of our study, we cannot claim any causal relationship between the presence of alterations in fatty acid status and canine aggressiveness. Whether omega-3 fatty acids supplementation may be useful to reduce aggressive behaviour in the dog deserves further investigation.
Persson, Gun E. B.
Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…
Wilson, S; Barrett, C
A verbally aggressive, 32-year-old male with a traumatic brain injury was admitted to a unit in an aged care facility for residential care. The homeostasis of the unit was disrupted by the resident's verbal aggression and other inappropriate behaviours. With the guidance of a neuropsychologist, nursing staff were able to use behaviour modification to successfully replace the disruptive behaviours with more socially appropriate ones. A series of positive rewards was implemented in response to socially appropriate behaviour, whilst inappropriate behaviours received a negative reward. Several disruptive behaviours were affected by the single treatment implemented. This interdependence of targeted behaviours was viewed as a clinical advantage, as it served to provide a more rapid restoration of homeostasis to the unit. The use of a single-subject, multiple baseline design in this case study demonstrates that disruptive behaviours may be reversible.
Khasakhala, Edward; Galava, Priscilla
The ministry of Public Health and Sanitation in Kenya together with ministry of Education recognizes that mental well being is important in psychosocial well being and cognitive development of children. They point out that learners with emotional and behavioural problems may engage in truancy, delinquency, drug and substance abuse and other…
Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S
Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data.
D'Eath, R B; Turner, S P; Kurt, E; Evans, G; Thölking, L; Looft, H; Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Klont, R; Foury, A; Ison, S H; Lawrence, A B; Mormède, P
Pre-slaughter stress has a negative impact on animal welfare and on meat quality. Aggressive behaviour when pigs are mixed together for transportation to, or on arrival at, the abattoir is an important factor in pre-slaughter stress. Aggressiveness of pigs varies between individuals in the population, and this study investigated its effects on stress and meat quality at slaughter. We mixed pigs at a young age to identify individuals of high (H) or low (L) aggressive temperament using the previously validated approach of lesion scoring. To contrast extremes of social stress single-sex groups of eight pigs were mixed according to their aggressiveness in HH, HL or LL combinations or left unmixed (U) prior to transport and slaughter (n = 271). Each treatment was replicated in at least two groups in each of four slaughter batches. Mixing per se had little effect, but mixed groups composed of aggressive pigs (HH) had more carcass skin lesions and higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter and had loin muscle samples with higher pH at 24 h, and lower redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) compared to the other treatments. Females had higher levels of plasma cortisol at slaughter, a more rapid decline in pH post-slaughter and greater lean content of meat. Lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels and meat pH were affected by the interaction of sex and treatment. Genetic factors, dam and sire line composition, and halothane locus (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1) genotype, also affected a number of production and meat quality parameters as expected. Additionally, 'commercially normal' levels of social stress were studied in four further slaughter batches with no manipulation of group composition (n = 313). In these pigs, the proportion of unfamiliar pigs and group size of lairage groups explained limited variation in lesion scores at slaughter, but earlier aggressiveness did not. High numbers of skin lesions on the carcass were associated with high levels of cortisol and lactate and
This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.
Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês
A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.
Aquino, Karl; Thau, Stefan
This article reviews research on workplace victimization, which we define as acts of aggression perpetrated by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended target. We compare several types of victimizing behaviors that have been introduced into the organizational psychology literature to illustrate differences and similarities among them. We then review studies looking at who is likely to become a victim of aggression. Predictors include personality, demographic, behavioral, structural, and organizational variables. We also review research on coping strategies for victimization, which include problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. We conclude with a summary of challenges for victimization research. These include addressing the proliferation of constructs and terms into the literature, attempting to clarify inconclusive findings, and using theory to guide the selection of study variables.
Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.
Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.
This monograph presents papers and dialogue group highlights from a symposium on the growing challenge of school aggression and violence, strategies to combat this aggression and violence, and ways to make schools safe again. An introductory paper by Cynthia L. Warger is titled "Responding to School Violence within an Educational Framework."…
Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.
Harris, M B
For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.
Gunenc, Cevher; O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L
Despite evidence about the negative effects of verbal aggression in mental health wards there is little research about its prevalence or about the factors that predict the behaviour among inpatients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service, and to examine the relationship of verbal aggression with risk factors for aggression in the risk assessment tool HCR-20 in order to establish whether, and with which factors, the behaviour can be predicted. Verbal aggression was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) over a 3-month period across a heterogeneous patient group (n = 613). Over half the patients (n = 341, 56%) engaged in 1594 incidents of verbal aggression. The HCR-20 total, clinical, and risk management subscale scores predicted verbal aggression, though effect sizes were not large. Item-outcome analysis revealed that impulsivity, negative attitudes, and non-compliance with medication were the best predictors of verbal aggression and, therefore, should be targeted for intervention. There are key synergies between factors predicting verbal aggression and the core mental health nursing role. Nurses, therefore, are in a prime position to develop and implement interventions that may reduce verbal aggression in mental health inpatients.
Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H
To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment.
Taylor, J L
Rates of aggression amongst people with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be high in studies conducted on several continents across a number of service settings. Aggression is the primary reason for people with ID to be admitted or re-admitted to institutional settings, and it is also the main reason for individuals in this client group to be prescribed behaviour-control drugs. Anger is a significant activator of aggression, but little is known about the emotional aspects of the lives of people with ID. There are many reasons for this, but a lack of reliable and validated assessment measures is chief among them. The present review found that very little work has been conducted to date concerning the development of robust tools for assessing anger and aggression in this population. A narrative review of interventions for reducing aggression and anger in people with ID showed that there is virtually no evidence to support the use of psychotropic medications. Research has shown that behavioural interventions can be effective; however, they are intrusive and have not been tested in naturalistic settings with higher-functioning clients and low-frequency aggression. More recently, cognitive-behavioural interventions have shown promise, but the mechanisms for effective change have yet to be delineated. Priority research questions relating to assessment, treatment and therapeutic skills in working with anger and aggression problems are offered by the present review.
Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y
Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.
Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene
Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…
Young, Catherine Mary; Cain, Kristal Elaine; Svedin, Nina; Backwell, Patricia Ruth Yvonne; Pryke, Sarah Rosalind
Quantifying differences in aggressive behaviour across contexts can be useful in developing an understanding of life histories and breeding systems, as well as the relative costs and benefits of such behaviour. We investigated whether age, relative body size and colouration, sex, and breeding stage influenced levels of aggressive behaviour in two contexts, towards conspecific and heterospecific intruders (mounts) around active nests of group living Crimson Finches (Neochmia phaeton). We found that when responding to a conspecific mount, relative body size, and age were important in predicting the aggressive response of males toward a conspecific, with older males and those close in size to their opponent showing a higher aggressive response. On the other hand, factors relating to female aggression were not as clear. In contrast, response to a heterospecific mount was unrelated to age, colour or size in either sex. Additionally, although birds were equally aggressive to conspecific and heterospecific mount types, we found no evidence that individuals are consistent in their level of aggression across these contexts. This suggests that aggressive behaviour in Crimson Finches is at least partially plastic and that individuals may be capable of assessing and responding to situations independently.
Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…
Stacy, Lauri L.
This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…
Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.
Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.
Wilson, Alastair J.; de Boer, Marloes; Arnott, Gareth; Grimmer, Andrew
Aggression occurs when individuals compete over limiting resources. While theoretical studies have long placed a strong emphasis on context-specificity of aggression, there is increasing recognition that consistent behavioural differences exist among individuals, and that aggressiveness may be an important component of individual personality. Though empirical studies tend to focus on one aspect or the other, we suggest there is merit in modelling both within- and among-individual variation in agonistic behaviour simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate how this can be achieved using multivariate linear mixed effect models. Using data from repeated mirror trials and dyadic interactions of male green swordtails, Xiphophorus helleri, we show repeatable components of (co)variation in a suite of agonistic behaviour that is broadly consistent with a major axis of variation in aggressiveness. We also show that observed focal behaviour is dependent on opponent effects, which can themselves be repeatable but were more generally found to be context specific. In particular, our models show that within-individual variation in agonistic behaviour is explained, at least in part, by the relative size of a live opponent as predicted by contest theory. Finally, we suggest several additional applications of the multivariate models demonstrated here. These include testing the recently queried functional equivalence of alternative experimental approaches, (e.g., mirror trials, dyadic interaction tests) for assaying individual aggressiveness. PMID:22140502
Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M
Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption.
Wilson, Alastair J; de Boer, Marloes; Arnott, Gareth; Grimmer, Andrew
Aggression occurs when individuals compete over limiting resources. While theoretical studies have long placed a strong emphasis on context-specificity of aggression, there is increasing recognition that consistent behavioural differences exist among individuals, and that aggressiveness may be an important component of individual personality. Though empirical studies tend to focus on one aspect or the other, we suggest there is merit in modelling both within- and among-individual variation in agonistic behaviour simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate how this can be achieved using multivariate linear mixed effect models. Using data from repeated mirror trials and dyadic interactions of male green swordtails, Xiphophorus helleri, we show repeatable components of (co)variation in a suite of agonistic behaviour that is broadly consistent with a major axis of variation in aggressiveness. We also show that observed focal behaviour is dependent on opponent effects, which can themselves be repeatable but were more generally found to be context specific. In particular, our models show that within-individual variation in agonistic behaviour is explained, at least in part, by the relative size of a live opponent as predicted by contest theory. Finally, we suggest several additional applications of the multivariate models demonstrated here. These include testing the recently queried functional equivalence of alternative experimental approaches, (e.g., mirror trials, dyadic interaction tests) for assaying individual aggressiveness.
Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula
Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)
Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…
Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…
Blair, Robert J R
This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.
Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707
Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T
Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.
Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J
The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.
Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S
Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes.
Lefevre, Carmen E.; Etchells, Peter J.; Howell, Emma C.; Clark, Andrew P.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.
Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes. PMID:25339656
Lheureux, Florent; Auzoult, Laurent
The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of the Non-Accident Experience (NAE) with regard to violations of traffic safety regulations. An NAE refers to the fact of not having been involved in an accident following the adoption of a behaviour socially recognised as promoting its occurrence. We hypothesise that this type of experiences has a strong effect on attitudes (valence and strength) and habits with regard to traffic offences such as speeding and drink-drive. An empirical study was conducted to test the relevance of this set of hypotheses. 543 French drivers participated to a survey designed to measure all these theoretical constructs. As expected, the results showed that the more frequently NAEs were experienced the more individuals had a favourable and weak (less certain, less important, more ambivalent) attitude towards violations, as well as strong habits. In addition, the more numerous NAEs experienced by others were perceived to be, the more ambivalent was the attitude. The discussion firstly concerns the methodological limitations of this study (e.g. use of cross-sectional design) as well as the integration of this concept into current research, especially in relation to the attitude strength concept and the theory of planned behaviour. Then, we discuss its practical implications (use of the experience based analysis technique, with consideration of both accident and non-accident experiences).
Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariève
Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap using household survey data collected from 571 households in three rural and peri-urban sites in Nepal in 2012. Questions encompassed household socioeconomic characteristics, illness characteristics, and treatment-seeking behaviour. Treatment choice was investigated through bivariate analyses. Results show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour. PMID:26130610
Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E
We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.
Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)
Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F
This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.
Wells, Valerie; Mallucci, Livio
, functional inhibition of the catalytic activity of PI3K by the βGBP cytokine and loss of akt mRNA results in apoptotic death. A functional correlation between ERK and the kt gene was also found. The relationship between ERK, akt mRNA, PI3K and cell vulnerability to βGBP challenge was sustained both in mammary ductal cells forced to mimic an aggressive behaviour and in non-aggressive breast cancer cells undergoing an enforced shift into an aggressive phenotype. Conclusions βGBP, a newly discovered physiological inhibitor of PI3K, is a selective and potent inducer of apoptosis in aggressive breast cancer cells. Due to its physiological nature, which carries no chemotherapeutic disadvantages, βGBP has the potential to be safely tested in clinical trials. PMID:19133120
Kolla, Nathan J; Malcolm, Charlotte; Attard, Stephen; Arenovich, Tamara; Blackwood, Nigel; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Objectif : Documenter les expériences de maltraitance dans l’enfance chez les délinquants violents souffrant du trouble de la personnalité antisociale (TPA) en distinguant entre ceux avec syndrome de psychopathie et sans (+P et –P), et déterminer si la maltraitance est associée à l’agressivité proactive et réactive. Méthode : L’échantillon comprenait 10 délinquants violents souffrant du TPA+P, 15 délinquants violents souffrant du TPA–P, et 15 non-délinquants. Tous les participants ont été interviewés par le même psychiatre légiste à propos des abus physiques, sexuels, et émotionnels subis avant l’âge de 18 ans, à l’aide de l’inventaire des traumatismes précoces. L’agressivité a été évaluée par le questionnaire de l’agressivité réactive–proactive. Résultats : Les délinquants violents souffrant du TPA+P rapportaient des abus physiques dans l’enfance significativement plus graves, mais pas plus d’abus sexuels ou émotionnels que les délinquants violents souffrant du TPA–P et que les non-délinquants. Les scores à la liste de contrôle révisée de la psychopathie (PCL-R), mais pas l’abus physique dans l’enfance, étaient associés à l’agressivité proactive. L’abus physique dans l’enfance était associé à l’agressivité réactive, comme l’était une interaction qui indiquait que lorsque les scores à la PCL-R et l’abus physique dans l’enfance étaient élevés, l’agressivité réactive l’était aussi. Conclusions : Chez les délinquants violents, les scores à la PCL-R étaient positivement associés à l’agressivité proactive, alors que les expériences de maltraitance dans l’enfance ne l’étaient pas. Ce résultat est en conformité avec les études précédentes d’enfants et d’adultes et suggère que l’agressivité proactive peut être un marqueur comportemental de traits psychopathiques. Par contre, l’abus physique dans l’enfance était associé à l’agressivité réactive, même chez les délinquants violents ayant des scores élevés à la PCL-R. Ce dernier résultat suggère une forte influence de l’abus physique dans l’enfance sur le développement de l’agressivité réactive qui persiste durant la vie.
Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.
Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…
Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...
Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448
Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308
Beck, Andrew; Virudhagirinathan, B S; Santosham, Sangita; Begum, Faiz Jahan
Although mental health workers in India across all major professional groups have identified an unmet need for training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), the uncritical export of models of mental health, therapy provision and training to low- and middle-income countries is a problematic process. This paper describes the context for the first stand-alone CBT training programme in India, based in Chennai. This paper includes an evaluation of the first phase of the training and information from trainees regarding the quality and applicability of the training to their working context. The paper provides an overview of some of the critiques that are pertinent to this process and considers the way that the Kolb learning cycle can be used as a framework within training to go some way to addressing these difficulties.
Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin
We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.
Amendola, Mark; Oliver, Robert
There have been longstanding debates in the scientific community regarding what qualifies as evidence for programs that work with challenging youth. There are also a variety of levels of evidence on a continuum from promising to proven. Aggression Replacement Training[R] has stood the test of time in terms of its scientific underpinning and…
Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko
Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794
Mrevlje, Gorazd V
Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.
McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W
Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.
Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin
Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.
Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.
Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219
Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M
Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories.
Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G
This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.
Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).
Cakiroğlu, D; Meral, Y; Sancak, A A; Cifti, G
The serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids--triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein--were determined in 18 normal dogs and 23 dogs diagnosed as aggressive on the basis of interviews with their owners and an assessment of their behaviour with reference to a canine overt aggression chart. The serum serotonin levels in the aggressive dogs were significantly lower than in the normal dogs (P<0.01), but the differences in serum lipids between the two groups were not statistically significant.
Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L
Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.
Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F
Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.
This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.
Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S
When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not.
Greig, Emma I.
When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male–female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not. PMID:26911342
Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean
Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for
Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.
Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146
Renouf, Annie; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pérusse, Daniel
This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior. PMID:20544385
Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel
This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and proactive aggression as well as peer victimization were assessed a year later in kindergarten. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed that low theory of mind was related to a high level of reactive aggression, but only in children who experienced average to high levels of peer victimization. In contrast, a high theory of mind was related to a high level of proactive aggression. Again, this relation was especially pronounced in children who experienced high levels of peer victimization. These findings challenge the social skills deficit view of aggression and provide support for a multidimensional perspective of aggressive behavior.
Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan
This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.
Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J
Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images PMID:6619889
Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Nardo, Antonio; Iannetti, Luigi; Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Trentini, Roberto; Serpell, James A; Siracusa, Carlo
Aggressiveness is reported to be the most important public health issue related to both owned and free‑roaming dogs. Common approaches to assess canine aggressiveness are temperament tests. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether one such test, the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test, created to evaluate aggressive and fearful behaviour in dogs in the Netherlands, could be used reliably to assess dog aggression and fear in a population of owned dogs in Central Italy. Reactions to the test were recorded and compared to the owners' perception of their dog's aggressiveness using a validated questionnaire (C‑BARQ). Dogs showing aggressive reactions during the test obtained significantly higher (more aggressive) scores on the C‑BARQ subscales 'stranger‑directed aggression' (SDA p<0.001), 'owner‑directed aggression' (ODA p = 0.03), and 'familiar dog aggression' (FDA p = 0.006), than dogs who did not react aggressively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that 7 of the SAB‑subtests were predictive of the SDA score. The findings indicated that aggression directed toward unfamiliar people can be reliably assessed using the SAB test for a population of Italian pet dogs.
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…
Livingstone, David; Murthy, Varsha; Reddy, Vineela Katam; Pillai, Ajay
Aggressive periodontitis previously termed as juvenile periodontitis is characterised by rapid destruction of the periodontium at a relatively young age. Rehabilitation of these patients is often challenging and difficult. Controlling the disease and restoring periodontal health is essential for successful prosthodontic rehabilitation. This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a young adult patient with generalised aggressive periodontitis. Treatment objectives included plaque control, prevention of further attachment loss, reduction/elimination of pockets, and prosthetic rehabilitation to enhance aesthetics and restore masticatory function. One year recall evaluation revealed stable periodontal support with no further loss of attachment and no other complications. PMID:25743856
Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.
Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.
Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.
The effects of multiple instructional conditions on self-injury/aggression and on-task behaviours were assessed with a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder. Behavioural responses were assessed as part of an educational evaluation to determine the occurrence of target behaviours in relation to varying degrees of…
van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel
Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…
Rose, M I
It is generally accepted that the type A behaviour pattern is a risk factor in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Type A people have been characterized as hard-driving, competitive, aggressive and hurried. A number of investigators have attempted to correlate these facets of type A behaviour with increased risks of CAD. However, there have been conflicting results, primarily owing to differences in methods and CAD outcomes and inconsistencies associated with measuring the type A behaviour pattern. As a result, researchers have begun to focus on subcomponents of the type A behaviour pattern, particularly hostility and anger, that appear to be more reliable predictors of CAD outcome. A reconceptualization of the type A behaviour pattern is required. PMID:3815195
Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R
Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.
Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority. PMID:19292848
Dominiak-Kochanek, Monika; Konopka, Karolina; Rutkowska, Marta; Frączek, Adam; Ramirez, J Martin
The purpose of this article was to determine the socialisation antecedents of socio-moral approval of aggression (SMAA). In Study 1, we assessed factorial structure and reliability of the SMAA with a sample of 355 students who reported on the extent to which they approved of six forms of aggressive behaviour and six justifications of aggression. Two-factor solutions were obtained with regard to forms and justifications of aggressive acts. Thus, approval of extreme and minor aggression was distinguished as well as legitimate and illegitimate justifications of aggression. In Study 2, we tested the path models of the socialisation antecedents that contributed to the high approval of minor and extreme aggressive acts as well as legitimate and illegitimate justifications of aggression. Data were collected from 173 undergraduate students. Path analyses showed that high levels of approval of extremely aggressive acts and of illegitimate justifications of aggression were preceded by a sequence of negative life events, beginning with frequent misbehaviour in childhood, corporal punishment used by parents and ending with delinquency in adolescence. The approval of minor aggression had little relation to socialisation factors apart from a detrimental effect of psychological aggression while approval of legitimate justifications of aggression had no socialisation antecedents.
Spiegel, Orr; Leu, Stephan T; Sih, Andrew; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Bull, C Michael
Understanding space use remains a major challenge for animal ecology, with implications for species interactions, disease spread, and conservation. Behavioural type (BT) may shape the space use of individuals within animal populations. Bolder or more aggressive individuals tend to be more exploratory and disperse further. Yet, to date we have limited knowledge on how space use other than dispersal depends on BT. To address this question we studied BT-dependent space-use patterns of sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in southern Australia. We combined high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) tracking of 72 free-ranging lizards with repeated behavioural assays, and with a survey of the spatial distributions of their food and refuge resources. Bayesian generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) showed that lizards responded to the spatial distribution of resources at the neighbourhood scale and to the intensity of space use by other conspecifics (showing apparent conspecific avoidance). BT (especially aggressiveness) affected space use by lizards and their response to ecological and social factors, in a seasonally dependent manner. Many of these effects and interactions were stronger later in the season when food became scarce and environmental conditions got tougher. For example, refuge and food availability became more important later in the season and unaggressive lizards were more responsive to these predictors. These findings highlight a commonly overlooked source of heterogeneity in animal space use and improve our mechanistic understanding of processes leading to behaviourally driven disease dynamics and social structure.
Dadomo, Harold; Volpi, Riccardo; Ferrari, Massimiliano; Vignali, Alessandro; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano
The effects of chronic intra-peritoneal administration of 10 mg/kg (t.i.w., for 5 weeks) of sildenafil on competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain was tested in CD1 subordinate male mice in two experimental contexts: 1) "low levels of aggression", i.e. housing in dyads of siblings 2) "high levels of aggression", i.e. exposure to a model of chronic psychosocial stress with an unfamiliar mice. Subordinate mice in both experimental contexts were injected with sildenafil or saline. After 2 weeks of sildenafil administration, a subgroup of subordinates exposed to "high levels of aggression" began to counterattack their dominant counterparts at higher rates than saline-injected subordinates. This effect was essentially similar but faster in subordinates subjected to "low levels of aggression". As far as sexual behaviour is concerned, in both experimental contexts, sildenafil-injected subordinated mice showed significant lower latencies to mount a proceptive female when compared to saline-injected subjects. Furthermore, in the "high levels of aggression" context, Sildenafil reduced stress-induced body weight gain. Sildenafil showed no effects in individually housed males serving as controls. In conclusion, chronic Sildenafil treatment counteracts the inhibitory effects of social subordination on male competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain. Overall our data suggests that sildenafil could be acting in the central nervous system to modulate sexual and agonistic motivation.
Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.
Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P
A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further.
Chua, Arlene C; Chen, Mark Ic; Cavailler, Philippe; Jiang, Lili; Abdullah, Mohammed Ridzwan; Ng, Oon Tek; Chio, Martin; Koe, Stuart; Tay, Joanne; Wong, Mee Lian; Chan, Roy
There is a lack of representative samples to provide reliable and accurate seroprevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as behavioural information among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM. Participants completed a survey used by Asian Internet MSM Sex Survey (AIMSS) and were tested for HIV and syphilis. We compared the characteristics of the RDS participants with STI diagnosis against those who did not have any STI diagnosis in the past 6 months. We compared RDS participants with AIMSS participants. Of 72 MSM recruited, 1 was positive for HIV (1.3%) and 4 (5.5%) tested positive for syphilis. Median age was 30 years and majority was Chinese (69.4%). RDS participants who had any STI diagnosis reported to have more use of recreational drugs (P = 0.006), and lower condom use (P = 0.054). Comparing RDS participants (n = 72) with the AIMSS participants (n = 2075), RDS respondents had ≥1 male partner in the past 6 months (P = 0.003), more casual sex partners (P = 0.012) and more STI symptoms (P = 0.019). There was no difference in terms of HIV testing and recreational drug use. The HIV and syphilis seroprevalence rates from our study are similar to previous reports conducted in high-risk MSM. In contrast to other settings, RDS did not work well among MSM in Singapore. The public health implications of our study highlight the challenges in obtaining data for HIV surveillance in assessing prevalence and risk behaviours among MSM.
Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Lund, Jørgen Damkjaer
The prevalence of behaviour problems is reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC). In total, 4359 dog owners were included in the analyses. With logistic regression, we analysed four behaviour problems: dominance towards the owner, interdog dominance aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had increased odds of interdog dominance aggression as compared to dogs living in other parts of Denmark. Dogs belonging to owners with limited knowledge of the breed before acquiring the dog had higher odds of interdog dominance aggression. Dogs attending obedience training classes had reduced odds of shooting phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems.
Stephen, Scott; Bailey, Clare
The age at which individuals are most physically aggressive is 22 months. However, some children fail to inhibit this normal aggression and by the time they are three or four are showing signs of oppositional defiant disorder. In older children persistent antisocial behaviour is classified as conduct disorder. At any age, antisocial behaviour is on a continuum, and while the most severe 5% or so will meet diagnostic criteria, those falling short are often described as having conduct problems. Epidemiological follow-up surveys show that the risk of poor outcomes in antisocial children is very high. The causes are multiple but two sets of factors stand out. First, genetic predisposition. Even children adopted away from violent or criminal parents have three or four times the rate of antisocial behaviour and second, poor parenting. Watching and waiting is a reasonable strategy if the antisocial behaviour is not very severe. It is important to be vigilant for severe tantrums or aggression occurring almost every day, harsh, rough, or inconsistent parenting and coexistent ADHD. If severity is moderate, referral to an evidence-based parenting group would be a good first move. If this fails to make things better, or if the child or parent has a comorbid condition, referral to CAMHS is indicated. For older children, aged 10 to 17, there are effective interventions such as anger management CBT and parenting groups for adolescents.
Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle
Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function.
Déaux, Éloïse C.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle
Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs’ aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs’ bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as ‘equivalent’ or ‘enhancing’ as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal’s function. PMID:26571266
Gerra, G; Di Petta, G; D'Amore, A; Iannotta, P; Bardicchia, F; Falorni, F; Coacci, A; Strepparola, G; Campione, G; Lucchini, A; Vedda, G; Serio, G; Manzato, E; Antonioni, M; Bertacca, S; Moi, G; Zaimovic, A
This study compared the anti-aggressiveness effects of the atypical anti-psychotic olanzapine with that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and benzodiazepines (BZD) among patients with heroin dependence submitted to opioid-agonists substitution treatment. Sixty-seven (67) patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for heroin dependence and showed aggressive personality traits, not affected by comorbid schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, accepted to participate in a 12-week prospective, observational trial. Patients were included into two subgroups in relationship with treatment, for the evaluation of the endpoints at week 12: group 1: substitution treatment in combination with OLA (32 patients); group 2: substitution treatment in combination with fluoxetine/paroxetine and clonazepam (35 patients). Efficacy measures were Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Symptoms Check List-90 (SCL 90) anger--hostility scores, incidence rates of aggressive incidents and attacks. The rates of patients who remained in treatment at week 12 in group 1, treated with OLA, and group 2, treated with SSRI and BDZ, were not significantly different (17 = 53.1% vs 16 = 45.7%). BDHI total, direct aggressiveness, verbal aggressiveness scores, SCL 90 aggressiveness scores and aggressive incidents rates showed a significantly more consistent decrease from baseline in group 1 than in group 2 subjects, in the patients who completed the treatment (p < 0.001; p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.01; p < 0.001). Among the completers, 69.3% achieved early full substance abuse remission, while 30.7% achieved partial substance abuse remission, with no significant difference between 1 and 2 treatment subgroups. Although obtained by an observational--open clinical study, with multiple limitations, our findings suggest that OLA may be useful as an adjunctive agent in reducing aggressive/hostile behaviour in heroin addicted individuals during maintenance substitution treatment. Otherwise, atypical anti
Heterogeneity in the presentation, antecedents, prognosis and treatment response of antisocial behaviour has long provided a challenge to developmental psychopathology researchers. As illustrated in the incisive Frick and colleagues' Annual Research Review, there is growing evidence that the presence of high callous-unemotional (CU) traits identifies a subgroup of antisocial young people with a particularly aggressive and pervasive form of disorder. Frick and colleagues extend their developmental psychopathology approach to CU traits by linking in theories of conscience development and considering evidence on the stability of CU traits. This commentary addresses these themes and the area more generally, considering (1) comparison of a CU specifier to alternative approaches to antisocial heterogeneity (2) high CU traits in the absence of antisocial behaviour and (3) aspects of the measurement of CU traits.
Gill, Sharon A; Alfson, Elizabeth D; Hau, Michaela
Testosterone promotes aggressive behaviour in male vertebrates during the breeding season, but the importance of testosterone in female aggression remains unclear. Testosterone has both beneficial and detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology, prompting the hypothesis that selection favours an association between aggression and testosterone only in certain contexts in which intense or persistent aggression may be beneficial. We tested this hypothesis in a year-round territorial female buff-breasted wrens (Thryothorus leucotis), by exposing free-living females to experimental intrusions in different social (either single female or male, or paired decoys) and seasonal (pre-breeding or breeding) contexts. Females responded more aggressively to intrusions by females and pairs than to males. However, female intrusions elicited stronger responses during pre-breeding, whereas responses to pair intrusions were more intense during breeding. Territorial females had elevated testosterone levels after female intrusions and intermediate levels after pair intrusions during pre-breeding, but the levels of testosterone remained low after these intrusions during breeding. These results demonstrate seasonal differences in circulating testosterone following territorial aggression in female buff-breasted wrens and are suggestive of differences according to social context as well. Context-dependent elevation of testosterone implies that selection acts directly on female vertebrates to shape patterns of testosterone secretion.
Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham
Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S
Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.
Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455
Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick
Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n = 72) and patient (n = 98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research.
Smeets, K C; Oostermeijer, S; Lappenschaar, M; Cohn, M; van der Meer, J M J; Popma, A; Jansen, L M C; Rommelse, N N J; Scheepers, F E; Buitelaar, J K
This study was designed to examine whether proactive and reactive aggression are meaningful distinctions at the variable- and person-based level, and to determine their associated behavioral profiles. Data from 587 adolescents (mean age 15.6; 71.6 % male) from clinical samples of four different sites with differing levels of aggression problems were analyzed. A multi-level Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify classes of individuals (person-based) with similar aggression profiles based on factor scores (variable-based) of the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) scored by self-report. Associations were examined between aggression factors and classes, and externalizing and internalizing problem behavior scales by parent report (CBCL) and self-report (YSR). Factor-analyses yielded a three factor solution: 1) proactive aggression, 2) reactive aggression due to internal frustration, and 3) reactive aggression due to external provocation. All three factors showed moderate to high correlations. Four classes were detected that mainly differed quantitatively (no 'proactive-only' class present), yet also qualitatively when age was taken into account, with reactive aggression becoming more severe with age in the highest affected class yet diminishing with age in the other classes. Findings were robust across the four samples. Multiple regression analyses showed that 'reactive aggression due to internal frustration' was the strongest predictor of YSR and CBCL internalizing problems. However, results showed moderate to high overlap between all three factors. Aggressive behavior can be distinguished psychometrically into three factors in a clinical sample, with some differential associations. However, the clinical relevance of these findings is challenged by the person-based analysis showing proactive and reactive aggression are mainly driven by aggression severity.
Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal
The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.
Koposov, Roman; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode
The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32), their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups.…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…
Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Giriboni, Julia; Lacuesta, Lorena; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Santiago-Moreno, Julián
Aggressiveness is directly related to testosterone concentration, which varies with seasons and in response to female stimulation. The aim was to determine if the frequency and pattern of agonistic interactions between bucks varies seasonally and in response to oestrous female stimulation. In the first study we characterized the pattern of agonistic interactions during feeding throughout a whole year in groups of Iberian ibex bucks; and in the second study, we determined the influence of oestrous does on the frequencies of agonistic behaviours between Gabon bucks in different seasons. In Iberian ibex bucks, the frequency of agonistic behaviours was maximum in summer and testosterone concentration in late autumn. In Gabon bucks, total agonistic interactions increased in bucks stimulated by females in late summer and autumn. In late autumn there were more interactions without physical contact in stimulated than in isolated bucks. Aggressiveness in bucks varied along the year, but the seasonal pattern was related to the context in which behaviours were recorded. Stimulation with oestrous females induced an increase of aggressiveness during the breeding season. At least in the conditions of these studies, testosterone concentrations seemed not to be the main influence on the frequency in which aggressive behaviour was displayed.
Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo
The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…
Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression…
Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran
Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.
Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…
Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert
Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…
Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.
Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…
Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye
Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…
Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A
What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.
Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W
Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.
Stevenson, M F; Poole, T B
The behavioural repertoire of four captive breeding pairs of Callithrix jacchus jacchus is described. Social communication took the form of postures, facial expressions, vocalizations and piloerection displays. Detailed analyses were made of piloerection displays, adult play, copulatory, aggressive, and prey-catching behaviour. Aggressive behaviour was uncommon in adult mated pairs. Play between adults showed a degree of temporal of temporal organization. Vocalizations were the main methods of intragroup communication whilst piloerection displays were directed towards members of other groups and also to unfamiliar objects. The behavioural repertoire of C. jacchus jacchus is compared with that of other Primates.
Schwartz, Orli S; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B; Yap, Marie B H; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B
Two mechanisms have been proposed regarding relations between parental responses to adolescent affective behaviours and the development of depression: the elicitation of parental negativity and the suppression of parental aggression. This study aimed to investigate the boundary conditions under which these two mechanisms operate in relation to the prospective prediction of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) onset in adolescence. A community sample of 159 adolescents (aged 11-13 years) with no history of MDD completed a family interaction assessment with their mothers, and were followed-up with a diagnostic interview 2-3 years later. Results showed that onset of MDD was prospectively predicted by the elicitation of maternal aggression in response to adolescent aggression (in girls only) and maternal dysphoria in response to adolescent aggression, as well as the suppression of maternal aggression and dysphoria in response to adolescent dysphoria. Thus, support was obtained for both the elicitation of negativity mechanism in relation to maternal responses to adolescents' aggressive behaviours, and the suppression of aggression mechanisms in relation to maternal responses to adolescents' dysphoric behaviours. Mothers' responses to adolescents' aggressive and dysphoric behaviours may differentially influence the risk of MDD onset for adolescents over time.
... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...
Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian
The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.
Rosado, B; García-Belenguer, S; León, M; Chacón, G; Villegas, A; Palacio, J
Canine aggression directed towards people is the most frequent reason for referral to behaviour practices. The serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are believed to play an important role in controlling aggression. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is the most commonly used drug in canine aggression. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a 30-day-long fluoxetine treatment on the peripheral serotonergic system and the HPA axis in canine aggression. To this end, the concentrations of serum serotonin (5-HT) and plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were analysed in a group of aggressive (n = 22) and nonaggressive dogs (n = 9) during pre- (day 0) and posttreatment (day 30) conditions. Treatment caused a significant decrease in 5-HT concentrations (46% in the aggressive group and 32% in the control group). There was a trend towards a rise of DHEA/cortisol ratio values after treatment both in the aggressive and the control group. The determination of blood 5-HT and the DHEA/cortisol ratio could have important clinical applications in the future for deciding which animals might benefit from a given treatment as well as for monitoring the response. Further large-scale studies with this aim should be carried out to obtain sound conclusions.
Rieffe, Carolien; Broekhof, Evelien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Faber, Judith; Tsutsui, Makoto M.; Güroğlu, Berna
Abstract The distinction between proactive and reactive functions of aggression is one of the most common divisions when investigating aggression among children and adolescents. To date, self-report is the least used measurement, despite existing literature supporting the view that the best informant regarding internal processes and motives are children themselves. The main aim of this study was to examine the construct and concurrent validity of a new self-report questionnaire, which aims to disentangle acts of reactive vs. proactive aggression that are most common within the daily lives of children. We examined the self-report measure among 578 children (313 girls, 265 boys, mean age 11 years, range 9–13 years). Most children (90% boys; 85% girls) reported at least one act of aggression over the last four weeks. Furthermore, the outcomes support the two-factor structure (reactive and proactive aggression) and the questionnaire showed good concurrent and discriminant validity with measures for emotional and social functioning. This study validates the use of the self-report instrument for reactive and proactive aggression and demonstrates that children can successfully distinguish between their own motives for reactive and proactive forms of aggressive behaviours. PMID:27398084
Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K
Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals.
Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K
Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384
Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María
A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.
Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María
A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios. PMID:26473875
Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E
Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.
Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.
Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…
Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…
Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.
A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…
Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky
Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…
Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J
We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities.
Tolisano, Peter; Sondik, Tracey M; Dike, Charles C
Aggression toward self and others by complex patients admitted to forensic psychiatric settings is a relatively common yet extremely difficult behavior to treat. Traditional interventions in forensic inpatient settings have historically emphasized control and management over treatment. Research over the past several years has demonstrated the value of behavioral and psychosocial treatment interventions to reduce aggression and to increase prosocial skill development in inpatient forensic population. Positive behavioral support (PBS) offers a comprehensive approach that incorporates the science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in support of patients with challenging behaviors, including aggression and violence. In this article, we describe a PBS model to treat aggression in forensic settings. PBS includes a comprehensive functional assessment, along with four basic elements: ecological strategies, positive programming, focused support strategies, and reactive strategies. Other key components are described, including data collection, staff training, fidelity checks to ensure correct implementation of the plan, and ongoing monitoring and revision of PBS strategies, according to treatment outcomes. Finally, a behavioral consultation team approach within the inpatient forensic setting is recommended, led by an assigned doctoral-level psychologist with specialized knowledge and training in behavioral methods. The behavioral consultation team works directly with the unit treatment team and the identified patient to develop, implement, and track a plan that may extend over several weeks to several months including transition into the community. PBS can offer a positive systemic impact in forensic inpatient settings, such as providing a nonpharmacologic means to address aggression, reducing the incidences of restraint and seclusion, enhancing staff proficiency in managing challenging patient presentations, and reducing recidivism when used as part of the bridge to
Bellani, M; Garzitto, M; Brambilla, P
Aggressive or antisocial behaviours with violations of social rules are the main features of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which are developmental diseases and include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. In the last decade, several efforts have been made to shed light on the biological underpinnings of DBDs. In this context, the main findings of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in DBD are reported here. There are indications of neural dysfunctions in response to affective stimuli, especially regarding medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex and connected subcortical structures.
Ariyomo, T O; Watt, P J
The effect of two environmental variables, hunger level (fed or not fed before behavioural assays) and time of day (morning or afternoon), on the boldness and aggressiveness of male and female zebrafish Danio rerio, was tested. The results showed that neither hunger level nor time of testing influenced boldness in males and females, but hunger level significantly affected aggression in females when compared with males.
Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.
Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia
Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.
Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia
Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659
Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350
Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.
In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846
Dodge, Kenneth A.
A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401
The proposal of Every Child Matters: The Green Paper (2003), to locate the protection and support of children, with an emphasis on those who may be the most vulnerable, in a strengthened universal service, has provided the impetus for a radical and transformational response at both national and local levels. Local education authorities have been…
Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J
Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.
Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…
Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike
Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.
Geuens, Nina; Leemans, Annemie; Bogaerts, Annick; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik
Organisational and work-related challenges faced by midwives make them vulnerable to burnout, but individual factors, such as interpersonal behaviour, can also contribute. A study in eight hospitals in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium investigated the prevalence of burnout among Flemish midwives, assessed their interpersonal behaviour, and explored the relationship between interpersonal behaviour, burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave. This article describes the study and reports the findings.
Sterkenburg, P. S.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Schuengel, C.
Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour. Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were treated. Challenging behaviour was recorded…
Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.
Itil, T M
In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.
Goergen, Philip; Kasagiannis, Anna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Williams, Michael J
All multicellular organisms require the ability to regulate bodily processes in order to maintain a stable condition, which necessitates fluctuations in internal metabolics, as well as modifications of outward behaviour. Understanding the genetics behind this modulation is important as a general model for the metabolic modification of behaviour. This study demonstrates that the activity of the small GTPase Rac2 is required in Drosophila for the proper regulation of lipid storage and feeding behaviour, as well as aggression and mating behaviours. Rac2 mutant males and females are susceptible to starvation and contain considerably less lipids than controls. Furthermore, Rac2 mutants also have disrupted feeding behaviour, eating fewer but larger meals than controls. Intriguingly, Rac2 mutant males rarely initiate aggressive behaviour and display significantly increased levels of courtship behaviour towards other males and mated females. From these results we conclude that Rac2 has a central role in regulating the Drosophila homeostatic system.
Owens, Ian P F
Since the 1990s, behavioural ecologists have largely abandoned some traditional areas of interest, such as optimal foraging, but many long-standing challenges remain. Moreover, the core strengths of behavioural ecology, including the use of simple adaptive models to investigate complex biological phenomena, have now been applied to new puzzles outside behaviour. But this strategy comes at a cost. Replication across studies is rare and there have been few tests of the underlying genetic assumptions of adaptive models. Here, I attempt to identify the key outstanding questions in behavioural ecology and suggest that researchers must make greater use of model organisms and evolutionary genetics in order to make substantial progress on these topics.
Bortolato, Marco; Pivac, Nela; Seler, Dorotea Muck; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Pessia, Mauro; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe
Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the mulifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and find new effective therapies for these conditions. PMID:23333677
Bortolato, M; Pivac, N; Muck Seler, D; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Pessia, M; Di Giovanni, G
Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) neurochemistry have been implicated in the aetiology of all major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety-spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the multifaceted implications of 5-HT-ergic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of aggressive and suicidal behaviours. After a brief overview of the anatomical distribution of the 5-HT-ergic system in the key brain areas that govern aggression and suicidal behaviours, the implication of 5-HT markers (5-HT receptors, transporter as well as synthetic and metabolic enzymes) in these conditions is discussed. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the integration of pharmacological and genetic evidence from animal studies with the findings of human experimental and genetic association studies. Traditional views postulated an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression and suicidal behaviours; however, ample evidence has shown that this perspective may be overly simplistic, and that such pathological manifestations may reflect alterations in 5-HT homoeostasis due to the interaction of genetic, environmental and gender-related factors, particularly during early critical developmental stages. The development of animal models that may capture the complexity of such interactions promises to afford a powerful tool to elucidate the pathophysiology of impulsive aggression and suicidability, and identify new effective therapies for these conditions.
Parsonson, Barry S.
This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…
van Meer, Peter; Raber, Jacob
Molecular techniques allowing in vivo modulation of gene expression have provided unique opportunities and challenges for behavioural studies aimed at understanding the function of particular genes or biological systems under physiological or pathological conditions. Although various animal models are available, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has unique features and is therefore a preferred animal model. The mouse shares a remarkable genetic resemblance and aspects of behaviour with humans. In this review, first we describe common mouse models for behavioural analyses. As both genetic and environmental factors influence behavioural performance and need to be carefully evaluated in behavioural experiments, considerations for designing and interpretations of these experiments are subsequently discussed. Finally, common behavioural tests used to assess brain function are reviewed, and it is illustrated how behavioural tests are used to increase our understanding of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in brain function. PMID:16035954
Hare, Andrew Francis
It is surprising to students to learn that a natural combination of simple functions, the function sin(1/x), exhibits behaviour that is a great challenge to visualize. When x is large the function is relatively easy to draw; as x gets smaller the function begins to behave in an increasingly wild manner. The sin(1/x) function can serve as one of…
Cant, Michael A; Young, Andrew J
Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression.
Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.
Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression. PMID:24167306
Brower, M; Price, B
OBJECTIVES—To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature. METHODS—Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Reference lists were then searched for additional articles. RESULTS—High rates of neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported in persons with violent and criminal behaviour suggest an association between aggressive dyscontrol and brain injury, especially involving the frontal lobes. The studies reviewed support an association between frontal lobe dysfunction and increased aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Focal orbitofrontal injury is specifically associated with increased aggression. Deficits in frontal executive function may increase the likelihood of future aggression, but no study has reliably demonstrated a characteristic pattern of frontal network dysfunction predictive of violent crime. CONCLUSIONS—Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour. PMID:11723190
Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio
Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553
Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.
Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Kolanowski, A M; Garr, M
Aggressive physical behaviour (APB) is common in persons with dementia and often leads to negative consequences such as use of restraints and staff member burnout. For the past several years, a group of nurse researchers has collaborated to develop a model that views dementia behaviors as need-driven but dementia-compromised. The model posits that background variables of the demented person interact with proximal (or current situational) variables to produce APB. The purpose of this study was to test a part of that model by addressing the question: Which premorbid factors predict APB in a sample of 84 demented institutionalized elders? This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that obtained measures of the following characteristics of residents: (1) aggressive behavior as assessed by nursing home staff members using the Ryden Aggression Scale, (2) premorbid personality traits as assessed by a member of the resident's family using the NEO Five Factor Inventory and (3) history of psychosocial stress as assessed by a member of the residents' family using the modified Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Of the sample of 84 residents, 44% exhibited physical aggression. Background factors in the model were not predictive of aggressive behavior in late-stage dementia, although the relation between premorbid neuroticism and physical aggression was in the predicted direction.
Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren
Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ≥1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI−: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI−: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136
De Laet, Sophie; Lenoir, Alain; Passera, Luc; Aron, Serge
In social insects, the evolutionary stability of cooperation depends on the privileged relationships between individuals of the social group, which is facilitated by the recognition of relatives. Nestmate recognition is based on genetically determined cues and/or environmentally derived chemical components present on the cuticle of individuals. Here, we studied nestmate recognition in the ant Pheidole pallidula, a species where both single-queen (monogyne) and multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies co-occur in the same population. We combined geographical, genetic and chemical analyses to disentangle the factors influencing the level of intraspecific aggressiveness. We show that encounters between workers from neighbouring colonies (i.e., nests less than 5 m away) are on average less aggressive than those between workers from more distant colonies. Aggressive behaviour is associated with the level of genetic difference: workers from monogyne colonies are more aggressive than workers from polygyne colonies, and the intensity of aggressiveness is positively associated with the genetic distance between colonies. Since the genetic distance is correlated with the spatial distance between pairs of colonies, the lower level of aggression toward neighbours may result from their higher relatedness. In contrast, the analysis of overall cuticular hydrocarbon profiles shows that aggressive behaviour is associated neither with the chemical diversity of colonies, nor with the chemical distances between them. When considering methyl-branched alkanes only, however, chemical distances differed between monogyne and polygyne colonies and were significantly associated with aggressiveness. Altogether, these results show that the social structure of colonies and the genetic distances between colonies are two major factors influencing the intensity of agonistic behaviours in the ant P. pallidula. PMID:27243627