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Sample records for aggressive clinical behaviour

  1. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  2. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  3. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  4. [Self aggressive-behaviours in prison].

    PubMed

    Ammar, Malek M; Borras, L; Eytan, A

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among prisoners is a relatively well documented public health issue. On the other hand, data about self-aggressive behaviours in prisons are scarce, despite the fact that this problem seems to be highly prevalent. We conducted a retrospective study over a fifteen months period in a remand prison situated in the French speaking area of Switzerland. During this time period, 161 self-aggressive behaviours were recorded, corresponding to 80 inmates. The most frequent acts were self-cuttings and self-mutilations, followed by strangulations. All these patients were male and their mean age was 25. Some of these behaviours (ingesting cutting objects and sewing of the lips) were specific to some ethno-cultural groups. Copycat behaviours play a significant role in closed communities such as prisons. These results underline the necessity of taking into account self-aggressive behaviours in penitentiary institutions. PMID:19024369

  5. Thermal Behaviour of Honeybees During Aggressive Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2007-09-17

    We report here on the interrelationship of aggressive behaviour and thermoregulation in honeybees. Body temperature measurements were carried out without behavioural disturbance by infrared thermography. Guard bees, foragers, drones, and queens involved in aggressive interactions were always endothermic, i.e. had their flight muscles activated. Guards made differential use of their endothermic capacity. Mean thorax temperature was 34.2-35.1°C during examination of bees but higher during fights with wasps (37°C) or attack of humans (38.6°C). They usually cooled down when examining bees whereas examinees often heated up during prolonged interceptions (maximum >47°C). Guards neither adjusted their thorax temperature (and thus flight muscle function and agility) to that of examined workers, nor to that of drones, which were 2-7°C warmer. Guards examined cool bees (<33°C) longer than warmer ones, supporting the hypothesis that heating of examinees facilitates odour identification by guards, probably because of vapour pressure increase of semiochemicals with temperature. Guards in the core of aggressive balls clinged to the attacked insects to fix them and kill them by heat (maximum 46.5°C). Bees in the outer cluster layers resembled normal guards behaviourally and thermally. They served as active core insulators by heating up to 43.9°C. While balled wasps were cooler (maximum 42.5°C) than clinging guards balled bees behaved like examinees with maximum temperatures of 46.6°C, which further supports the hypothesis that the examinees heat up to facilitate odour identification. PMID:22140291

  6. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour.

  7. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  8. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.

  9. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  10. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-08-03

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF.

  11. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  12. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    PubMed Central

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio; Nørstrud, Karoline Sletbak; Aalgaard, Marion; Braastad, Bjarne O.; Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36–40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive, and two out of 11 became socially dominant. Increased aggression in small OER individuals was accompanied by increased serotonin levels in the dorsomedial pallium (proposed amygdala homologue), but no changes in limbic dopamine neurochemistry were observed in OER-exposed individuals. The behavioural and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest. PMID:24759861

  13. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  14. [Aggressive and violent behaviour. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment].

    PubMed

    Steinert, T; Bergk, J

    2008-03-01

    Some mental disorders are associated with an increased illness-related risk of aggressive behaviour. Epidemiologically, substance abuse disorders are most frequently implicated, followed by psychotic disorders. Dealing with the problems of violence and coercion is the oldest problem of psychiatric institutions. Aggressive patient behaviour still represents a typical risk for staff in psychiatric institutions. Associations with patient characteristics such as diagnosis, gender, and age have not been consistently confirmed. Preventive aspects comprise interventions such as adapting institutional processes to patients' needs, patients participating in decisions, and systematic training for staff. Emergency medication and preventive pharmacotherapy are also important. As last resort coercive measures such as involuntary medication, seclusion, or mechanical restraint can be applied. The state of the art in these areas is presented. Ethical considerations and questions of adequateness have a significant effect.

  15. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  16. Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

    1998-09-01

    In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent.

  17. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

  18. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  19. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  20. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  1. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  2. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  3. Evidence of central cholinergic mechanisms in the appearance of affective aggressive behaviour: dissociation of aggression from autonomic and motor phenomena.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R

    1979-04-11

    Carbachol, muscarine, eserine and neostigmine injected into the cerebral ventricles of conscious cats evoked emotional behaviour with aggression, autonomic and motor phenomena as well as clonic-tonic convulsions. The main and the most impressive feature of the gross behavioural effects of intraventricular carbachol, muscarine, eserine and neostigmine in conscious cats was the affective type of aggression. However, neostigmine produced aggressive behaviour only in about one-quarter of the experiments. After intraventricular hemicholinium-3 and triethylcholine carbachol, muscarine, eserine and neostigmine elicited autonomic and motor phenomena. In these cats cholinomimetics and anticholinesterases evoked only slight hissing and snarling. Choline administered into the cerebral ventricles of hemicholinium-3 and triethylcholine-treated cats restored the emotional behaviour with aggression, autonomic and motor phenomena as well as clonic-tonic convulsions to intraventricular carbachol, muscarine, eserine and neostigmine. The restored gross behavioural changes to eserine were almost of the same intensity, while those to carbachol and muscarine were of lesser intensity than in control cats. From these experiments it is concluded that cholinergic neurones are involved in the appearance of the affective type of aggression resulting from intraventricular carbachol, muscarine, eserine and neostigmine. PMID:111280

  4. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870

  5. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P = 0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P = 0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = 0.003) and lower histological grades (P = 0.031). Patients

  6. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

  7. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour.

  8. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  9. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  10. Car driver attitudes, perceptions of social norms and aggressive driving behaviour towards cyclists.

    PubMed

    Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists.

  11. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  12. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  13. Lateralisation in agonistic encounters: do mirror tests reflect aggressive behaviour? A study on a West African cichlid.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Buck, M; Schuett, W

    2016-09-01

    In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected. PMID:27329496

  14. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  15. Managing aggression in a psychiatric hospital using a behaviour plan: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home. PMID:16965469

  16. Risk of aggression and criminal behaviour among adolescents living in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wahdan, I; El-Nimr, N; Kotb, R; Wahdan, A

    2014-04-01

    Adolescent risk-taking and aggressive behaviours are among the most visible forms of violence in society. A study was carried out to identify the prevalence and risk factors for aggression, violence and criminal behaviour among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. Using multistage, cluster sampling of families from all health districts in Alexandria, the mothers of 783 adolescents aged 11-19 years answered an Arabic version of the Mentor Research Institute screening questionnaire. Overall 26.9% of adolescents were assessed to be at high risk and 20.2% at extremely high risk of aggression and criminal behaviour. Living in urban/slum areas, male sex, low level of parents' education/occupation, exposure to violence within the family and changes in behaviour of any family member were associated with risk of aggression/violence. In multivariate analysis, the significant independent variables were adolescents' sex, presence of behavioural changes in the family, violence against brothers and sisters and substance abuse by any family member. PMID:24952124

  17. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  18. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-05-22

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.

  19. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  20. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  1. Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Uriarte, R

    1999-01-01

    Avoiding predators may conflict with territorial defence because a hiding territorial resident is unable to monitor its territory or defend it from conspecific intrusions. With persistent intruders, the presence of an intruder in the near past can indicate an increased probability of future intrusions. Therefore, following a conspecific-intrusion, territorial residents should minimize costs from future intrusions at the cost of higher predation risks. I conducted experiments with males of the territorial lizard Tropidurus hispidus recording approach distance (distance between predator and prey when the prey escapes) and time to re-emergence from a refuge after hiding. Past aggressive interactions affected anti-predator behaviour: lizards re-emerged sooner (compared to a control) when the predator attacked 5 min after an aggressive encounter. If the predator attacked while an aggressive encounter was ongoing, there was also a reduction in approach distance. The results are consistent with an economic hypothesis which predicts that T. hispidus incur greater predation risks to minimize future territorial intrusion; additionally they show that the effects of past and ongoing aggressive interactions are different, consistent with the minimization of present intrusion costs. These results are relevant for studies of the changes in aggressive behaviour due to changes in the social environment and for studies of the costs and (co) evolution of aggressive and anti-predator strategies. PMID:10693815

  2. Variation in aggressive behaviour in the poeciliid fish Brachyrhaphis episcopi: population and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Archard, Gabrielle A; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2011-01-01

    Aggression is often positively correlated with other behavioural traits such as boldness and activity levels. Comparisons across populations can help to determine factors that promote the evolution of such traits. We quantified these behaviours by testing the responses of wild-caught poeciliid fish, Brachyrhaphis episcopi, to mirror image stimuli. This species occurs in populations that experience either high or low levels of predation pressure. Previous studies have shown that B. episcopi from low predation environments are less bold than those that occur with many predators. We therefore predicted that fish from high predation populations would be more aggressive and more active than fish from low predation populations. However, we found the opposite - low predation fish approached a mirror and a novel object more frequently than high predation fish suggesting that 'boldness' and aggression were higher in low predation populations, and that population-level boldness measures may vary depending on context. When tested individually, low predation fish inspected their mirror image more frequently. Females, but not males, from low predation sites were also more aggressive towards their mirror image. Variation in female aggression may be driven by a trade-off between food availability and predation risk. This suggests that the relationship between aggression and boldness has been shaped by adaptation to environmental conditions, and not genetic constraints.

  3. Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

  4. Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

  5. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  6. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  7. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  8. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  9. Pre-School Children's Aggressive and Pro-Social Behaviours in Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsolnai, Aniko; Lesznyak, Marta; Kasik, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our research was to investigate social and emotional skills that determine pre-schoolers' aggressive and pro-social behaviours in stressful situations. The sample of the empirical study consisted of 119 (36-48, 49-60 and 61-72 months) Hungarian children from six pre-schools. Instruments that were used: Coping strategy self-report and…

  10. Self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour in children with severe intellectual disability: Prevalence, service need and service receipt in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ruddick, Loraine; Davies, Louise; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Children with severe intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of presenting with self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour. Severity of these behaviours is an important predictor of psychological and behavioural service use by people with intellectual disabilities. However, studies suggest that the needs of children with intellectual disabilities and their families are not being met. The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviours and subsequent support needs of children with severe intellectual disabilities attending special schools in one major city within the UK, (2) compare teacher and primary carer ratings of behaviour and service need and (3) explore the extent to which the needs of children with intellectual disabilities are being met in terms of contact with relevant specialist services. Questionnaires were completed by teachers and primary family carers of children with a severe intellectual disability. Results indicated that at least 5.3% and 4.1% of children showed at least one behaviour at a clinically significant frequency and management difficulty respectively. Primary carers identified more children with significant behaviour difficulties and support needs than teachers. The odds for children presenting with high levels of the behaviours of interest for having a service need for behavioural intervention were at least 13 times those for children not showing the behaviours, yet only doubled for contact with a specialist relevant health-care professional. These results quantify the magnitude of the substantial gap between level of need and relevant support received.

  11. Linking nutrition and behavioural dominance: carbohydrate scarcity limits aggression and activity in Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Grover, Crystal D; Kay, Adam D; Monson, Jessica A; Marsh, Thomas C; Holway, David A

    2007-12-01

    Predicting the outcome of competitive interactions is a fundamental goal in ecology. Ecological stoichiometry, which relates nutrient balance to ecological processes, provides a framework for identifying mechanistic links among macronutrient availability, nutritional physiology and competitive performance. Because carbohydrates serve as a principal metabolic fuel, carbohydrate scarcity may impinge upon behaviours affecting competitive dominance (e.g. aggression, activity) to a greater extent than deficiencies of protein or other nutrients used preferentially for growth. Here, we tested this prediction with a diet manipulation study involving laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), a widespread and aggressive invasive species. The availability of both sucrose and insect prey influenced brood production and worker survival after three months. However, colonies became less aggressive and less active only when deprived of sucrose (but not prey). Scarcity of sucrose (but not prey) was also associated with reduced fat mass in individual workers. These data provide the first experimental support that carbohydrate scarcity compromises aggression and activity in ants, and illustrate, in principle, how access to carbohydrate-rich resources (e.g. plant exudates, hemipteran honeydew) might influence behavioural investments that contribute to competitive performance. Such investments might be especially important for invasive ants, given their aggressiveness and tendency to interact with honeydew-producing Hemiptera.

  12. Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C) related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate), adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time) and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring) in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024), adrenal weight (p = 0.003) and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045). The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003). The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019) and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029). The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002), and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal weight (p = 0

  13. [Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Therapeutic Interventions on the Parental Couple Level].

    PubMed

    Lux, Ulrike; Hudecek, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Parents go to see child guidance counselling services for many different reasons. Behavioural problems or rather enraged or aggressive behaviour of children and adolescents towards their siblings or parents is a frequent issue in counselling practice. The current article takes a closer look at the range of problems around defiance, anger and aggression from a developmental and systemic point of view. The meaning of these negative affects within the family system is elaborated. Empirical studies show a clear connection between children's problem behaviour and frequent and destructive interparental conflict. So called spill-over-effects play a crucial role in explaining this connection. From a systemic perspective thus the child is seen as a symptom carrier, which shifts the focus of counselling on the interaction between parents as well. Consequently, family therapeutic sessions on the couple level are often indicated. Do parents succeed in constructively solving their conflicts, typically the aggressive behaviour of the children is reduced, too. On the basis of a compound single case such a process is illustrated.

  14. From sexual attraction to maternal aggression: when pheromones change their behavioural significance.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L; Ayala, Guillermo; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-Garcia, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". This paper reviews the role of chemosignals in the socio-sexual interactions of female mice, and reports two experiments testing the role of pup-derived chemosignals and the male sexual pheromone darcin in inducing and promoting maternal aggression. Female mice are attracted to urine-borne male pheromones. Volatile and non-volatile urine fractions have been proposed to contain olfactory and vomeronasal pheromones. In particular, the male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) MUP20, darcin, has been shown to be rewarding and attractive to females. Non-urinary male chemosignals, such as the lacrimal protein ESP1, promote lordosis in female mice, but its attractive properties are still to be tested. There is evidence indicating that ESP1 and MUPs are detected by vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2R). When a female mouse becomes pregnant, she undergoes dramatic changes in her physiology and behaviour. She builds a nest for her pups and takes care of them. Dams also defend the nest against conspecific intruders, attacking especially gonadally intact males. Maternal behaviour is dependent on a functional olfactory system, thus suggesting a role of chemosignals in the development of maternal behaviour. Our first experiment demonstrates, however, that pup chemosignals are not sufficient to induce maternal aggression in virgin females. In addition, it is known that vomeronasal stimuli are needed for maternal aggression. Since MUPs (and other molecules) are able to promote intermale aggression, in our second experiment we test if the attractive MUP darcin also promotes attacks on castrated male intruders by lactating dams. Our findings demonstrate that the same chemosignal, darcin, promotes attraction or aggression according to female reproductive state.

  15. Interpersonal violence, aggression, and antisocial behaviours in the adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H D

    1999-01-01

    Violence is a growing problem among adolescents all over the world. Exposure to violence can have lasting and pervasive effects on an adolescent's mental and physical health, general well-being, and ability to become a productive adult. Research on adolescent violence in India and Southeast Asia is limited; very little is written in clinical journals. Addressing adolescent violence is currently a low priority for medical practitioners because disease, poverty, and infant maternal health pose more immediate threats to morbidity and mortality in Asia. Physicians, especially in India, have a unique opportunity to take preventative actions now, to stem the tide of morbidity and mortality from gun violence that plagues the United States. Adolescents in Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes. Pediatricians who are proactive and educate their patients, families, and the community can help reduce or prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from violence in adolescents.

  16. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    PubMed

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.

  17. Screening and Brief Intervention for Substance Misuse: Does It Reduce Aggression and HIV-Related Risk Behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180

  18. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.

  19. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  20. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  1. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  2. Using Narrated Literacy-Based Behavioural Interventions to Decrease Episodes of Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…

  3. Aggressive and Antisocial Behaviours among Secondary School Students in Botswana. The Influence of Family and School Based Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malete, Leapetswe

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…

  4. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  5. Role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and cholecystokinin receptors in apomorphine-induced aggressive behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Lang, A; Harro, J; Soosaar, A; Kõks, S; Volke, V; Oreland, L; Bourin, M; Vasar, E; Bradwejn, J; Männistö, P T

    1995-04-01

    We studied the aggressive behaviour induced by repeated treatment with apomorphine, a dopamine agonist (0.5 mg/kg s.c. twice daily, 10 days), in rats. The first signs of defensive aggressiveness appeared on the third day of apomorphine treatment and were generally seen on the 7th day. Aggressiveness induced by a challenge dose of apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) on the 11th day was antagonized by haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg i.p.) and clozapine (10 mg/kg i.p.). An antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-gated channels, dizocilpine (MK-801), also blocked the aggressive behaviour at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg i.p. but caused ataxia. When dizocilpine (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) and apomorphine were coadministered for 10 days, aggressive behaviour did not develop. At 0.025 mg/kg i.p., dizocilpine even accelerated the appearance of apomorphine-induced aggressive behaviour, which manifested on the 3rd day in all rats. In a separate study, a 7-day treatment with dizocilpine (0.25-1 mg/kg i.p.) of rats, sensitized by a prior 10-day apomorphine treatment, did not reverse the established aggressive behaviour. The coadministration of apomorphine and cholecystokinin (CCK) -A or -B antagonists, devazepide or L-365,260 (0.01-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) respectively, neither affected development of apomorphine-induced aggressive behaviour nor intensity of aggressiveness in the sensitized rats. In binding studies neither density nor affinity of striatal dopamine D2 receptors was changed by acute or chronic apomorphine treatment. The number of [3H]pCCK-8 binding sites in the frontal cortex increased already after a single injection of apomorphine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Early psychosis and aggression: predictors and prevalence of violent behaviour amongst individuals with early onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Spidel, Alicia; Lecomte, Tania; Greaves, Caroline; Sahlstrom, Kimberly; Yuille, John C

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the area of psychosis and violence to date suggest that those who suffer from psychosis are at higher risk for perpetration of such aggressive behaviours. In fact, it has been suggested that variables such as substance use and personality may mediate this relationship. Other variables, such as childhood physical abuse, might also be implicated in the etiology. In the current study, a sample of one hundred and eighteen participants with a primary diagnosis of psychosis were interviewed and prevalence rates for aggressive experiences were as follows: history of trouble with the law (45%), history of emotional abuse (9.6%), physical abuse (38.8%), and sexual abuse (60.2%). With regard to perpetration, 69.6% reported verbal or physical aggression (69.6%), and further, 61% reported problems with substances. Logistic regression procedures were used with a number of the variables under study and relationships were evidenced between psychopathy scores, history of abuse, and regular drug use. History of child abuse was related to violence history, with those who were victims of child abuse being more likely to be violent in later life. In addition higher scores on the psychopathy measure were linked with violence history. This study was a first step towards identifying persons suffering from a mental illness who may be at risk for violence by identifying who, among first episode clients, may be more likely to perpetrate violent behaviours. Targeted interventions and strategies may be further refined so that individuals receiving mental health services may be better served.

  7. Mice lacking chromogranins exhibit increased aggressive and depression-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Daniel; Pardo, Marta R; Morales, Yezer; Dominguez, Natalia; Arnau, Maria Rosa; Borges, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Chromogranins are acidic proteins; both chromogranins A and B constitute the main protein component in the vesicular matrix of large dense core vesicles. Chromogranins are a natural source of peptides with different physiological activities that have been associated with vascular and neurological diseases. We have used three different genetic mutant models of mice lacking chromogranin A, chromogranin B and both all on the same C57BL/6J background, to characterize the physiological roles of these proteins using metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioural tests. In mice from 3 to 18 months of age, the lack of any chromogranin promoted age-dependent hypersensitivity to insulin, while the lack of both chromogranins provoked progressive lack of response to stress, as restriction did not promote tachycardia in old mice. Moreover, the lack of chromogranin B produced a depressive-like and aggressive phenotype, while the lack either or both chromogranins increased barbering behaviour. In addition, we observed no effects on light-dark box or RotaRod tests. Mice lacking chromogranin B exhibited lower exploratory activity. Based on this extensive phenotyping with more than 2800 mice, these findings support roles of chromogranins, or the peptides derived from them, in the control of aggressive behaviour along with changes in their metabolic profile beyond their previously described activities in the secretory pathway.

  8. Aggressive Behaviour Among Swazi Upper Primary and Junior Secondary Students: Implications For Ongoing Educational Reforms Concerning Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Swaziland is planning to introduce inclusive education as part of education for all. The innovation may benefit learners with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). A purposive teacher sample (N = 47) was used to generate and identify behavioural problems that are prevalent in Swazi schools. Aggression was one of the many conduct disorders…

  9. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  10. The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

  11. Mixed Adeno-neuroendocrine Carcinoma: An Aggressive Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite, Shayna; Rock, Jonathan; Yearsley, Martha M.; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Wei, Lai; Frankel, Wendy L.; Hays, John; Wu, Christina; Abdel-Misih, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare pathologic diagnosis recently defined by the World Health Organization in 2010. Due to poor understanding of MANEC as a clinical entity, there is significant variation in the management of these patients. The purpose of our study was to characterize MANEC to develop evidence-based treatment strategies. Methods The Ohio State University patient database was queried for the diagnosis of MANEC and 46 patients were identified. For comparison, the database also was queried for goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix, signet ring cell carcinoma, and carcinoid/neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix. Charts were then retrospectively reviewed for clinicopathologic characteristics, patient treatment, and survival data. Results The mean age of diagnosis of MANEC was 54 years. Eighty-seven percent of MANEC arose from the appendix, with 28 % of patients undergoing appendectomy and 35 % undergoing right hemicolectomy as their index operation. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for chromogranin (82 %), synaptophysin (97 %), and CD56 (67 %). Sixty-seven percent of patients presented with stage IV disease and 41 % had nodal metastases. Overall survival was 4.1 years, which was statistically significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) compared with carcinoid tumors (13.4 years), GCC (15.4 years), and signet ring carcinoma (2.2 years). Conclusions MANEC is a more aggressive clinical entity than both GCC of the appendix and carcinoid/neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix. Based on these findings, we recommend patients with MANEC tumors undergo aggressive multidisciplinary cancer management and close surveillance. PMID:26965701

  12. Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

    2014-10-01

    We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour.

  13. Aggression behaviour induced by oral administration of the Janus-kinase inhibitor tofacitinib, but not oclacitinib, under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tschernig, Thomas; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have recently been developed for allergic diseases. We focused on the 2 different JAK inhibitors, tofacitinib (selective for JAK3) and oclacitinib (selective for JAK1 and 2), to clarify the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-itching potency of these drugs. In the process of detecting anti-itching potency, we observed that tofacitinib treated mice showed aggression behaviour. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the aggressive behaviour induced by tofacitinib by using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis and the resident-intruder test. For the allergic dermatitis model, female BALB/c mice were sensitised and challenged topically with toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI). Vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib, was administered orally 30 min before TDI challenge. Scratching, aggression and standing behaviours were monitored in the 60 min period immediately following challenge of TDI. Another group of male BALB/c mice treated with vehicle, tofacitinib or oclacitinib was evaluated in the resident-intruder test and brains were obtained to determine blood brain barrier penetration. In the allergic dermatitis model, a significant increase in aggression and standing behaviour was only obvious in the tofacitinib treatment group. There was no effect in non-sensitised mice, but similar aggression was also induced by tofacitinib in male resident-intruder test. Penetration of blood-brain barrier was observed both in tofacitinib and oclacitinib treated mice. These results suggest that aggression was induced by tofacitinib under some kind of stressful environment. This study indicates a possible role of the JAK-STAT pathway in modulation of aggression behaviour.

  14. In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players

    PubMed Central

    Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-01-01

    Facial characteristics are an important basis for judgements about gender, emotion, personality, motivational states and behavioural dispositions. Based on a recent finding of a sexual dimorphism in facial metrics that is independent of body size, we conducted three studies to examine the extent to which individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were associated with trait dominance (using a questionnaire) and aggression during a behavioural task and in a naturalistic setting (varsity and professional ice hockey). In study 1, men had a larger facial width-to-height ratio, higher scores of trait dominance, and were more reactively aggressive compared with women. Individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio predicted reactive aggression in men, but not in women (predicted 15% of variance). In studies 2 (male varsity hockey players) and 3 (male professional hockey players), individual differences in the facial width-to-height ratio were positively related to aggressive behaviour as measured by the number of penalty minutes per game obtained over a season (predicted 29 and 9% of the variance, respectively). Together, these findings suggest that the sexually dimorphic facial width-to-height ratio may be an ‘honest signal’ of propensity for aggressive behaviour. PMID:18713717

  15. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  16. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  17. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  18. The nature and extent of aggressive behaviour amongst people with learning difficulties (mental handicap) in a single health district.

    PubMed

    Harris, P

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes the method and results of a survey of aggressive behaviour amongst people with learning difficulties. The study was confined to a single health district in the South Western Region of the UK with a general population of about 370,000. At the time of the survey, the Mental Handicap Register for the district recorded 1,362 people as having a learning difficulty. The overall prevalence of aggressive behaviour amongst people with learning difficulties for whom base population data was available was 17.6%. The lowest rate was identified amongst day facilities (9.7%) and the highest in hospitals within the district (38.2%). The prevalence rate amongst those attending schools for children with severe learning difficulties was 12.6%. Proportionately more males than females were reported to present problems of aggressive behaviour. The gender difference appeared to be largely accounted for by the disproportionate number of men identified within day facilities. There was no significant evidence of an association between the person's gender and the presence aggressive behaviour within schools or hospitals. The results indicated that, although physical and verbal aggression were the most frequently reported behaviours, many of the sample were also said to engage in other forms of challenging behaviour, particularly self-injurious, ritualistic, stereotypical and withdrawn behaviour. The risk of a serious or very serious injury to another person was very low; 0.7% or six people with learning difficulties from the district were reported to be currently presenting such a risk. Similarly, only 2% of the base population (n = 18) were reported to be extremely difficult to manage. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Patient Aggression: Is the Clinical Practice Setting Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 or so years, a number of studies have examined patient aggression toward healthcare professionals. While the majority of these studies has focused on healthcare professionals in the fields of emergency medicine, psychiatry, and primary care, available data extends beyond these three specialties. Studies have been done in the United States, other English-speaking countries, and elsewhere— all reporting surprisingly high rates of patient aggression. Results indicate that patient aggression toward healthcare professionals is common and worldwide. In addition, one study examined aggressive patient behaviors as reported by the patients themselves, and their self-report data reinforce the mainstream data. While these data do not enable us to determine if patient aggression is genuinely on the increase, we can safely say that these behaviors are rampant. PMID:25621187

  20. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  1. Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz

    2009-01-01

    With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808

  2. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  3. Cyproterone to treat aggressivity in dementia: a clinical case and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca M; Davies, Simon J C; Christmas, David M; Baxter, Hazel; Cullum, Sarah; Nutt, David J

    2011-01-01

    Aggressivity is a common problem in the management of elderly patients with dementia. Medications currently used to diminish aggressive behaviour in dementia can have problematic side effects. We present a case and systematic review of the current knowledge about the use of cyproterone acetate to treat aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality related behaviours) in dementia. An 82-year-old man required psychiatric inpatient admission due to agitation and aggressivity and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. After failed trials of atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine 100 mg/day and risperidone 1 mg/day), drugs for dementia (memantine 20 mg/day and rivastigmine 9 mg/day) and benzodiazepines (lorazepam 0.5-1 mg prn) he was started on cyproterone acetate titrated up to 50 mg twice daily. After two weeks he was calmer and did not express aggressivity. Two months later he was discharged to a community placement where he subsequently remained settled on cyproterone. We reviewed literature on the use of cyproterone in aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality) associated with dementia. We searched the main medical databases including articles in English, Spanish, French and Italian. Only one randomized double-blind trial was found, comparing cyproterone with haloperidol (n = 27). Cyproterone was more effective controlling aggressivity and had lower incidence of side effects. In the one uncontrolled naturalistic observational study identified (n = 19), cyproterone was associated with significant reductions in aggressivity without causing major side effects. Further literature was limited to theoretical discussions. Despite there being evidence to support our observations of a useful role for cyproterone in aggressivity in dementia, further studies are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic option.

  4. Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test.

    PubMed

    Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

    1996-02-01

    Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.

  5. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Julia B.

    2013-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the ‘focal interaction’ approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as ‘focal interactants’: the behavioural interaction between them was the ‘focal interaction’. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male—the ‘treatment male’. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359

  6. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  7. Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal.

  8. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  9. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.

  10. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  11. Are Adolescents with Internet Addiction Prone to Aggressive Behavior? The Mediating Effect of Clinical Comorbidities on the Predictability of Aggression in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners–Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  12. Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment.

    PubMed

    Poncin, P; Matondo, B Nzau; Termol, C; Kestemont, P; Philippart, J C

    2011-09-01

    In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay procedures. The results revealed that no significant differences were found between circulating testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in territorial and nonterritorial males. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found between circulating androgens, androgens and aggression, androgens and tubercles and breeding tubercles and aggression in common bream by male status. However, territorial fish displayed a significantly higher level of aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles than nonterritorial fish. In natural environments, the occurrence of breeding tubercles during the spawning season could contribute to identifying the behavioural status of common bream males.

  13. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

  14. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marlene M; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-12-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. 'Connect' is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents develop the competence necessary to identify, understand and respond to the needs of their teen in a manner that provides structure and safety while safeguarding the quality of the parent-teen relationship. In Study 1, twenty parents reported significant increases in perceived parenting satisfaction and efficacy and reductions in adolescents' aggression, antisocial behaviour and other mental health problems following completion of Connect as compared to a waitlist control period. These effects were sustained and additional small effects were noted in decreases in conduct problems, depression and anxiety at a 12-month follow-up. The program was then transported to 17 communities serving 309 parents through standardized training and supervision of group leaders. Study 2 summarizes significant pre- to post-treatment reductions in teen externalizing and internalizing problems; enhanced social functioning; and improvements in affect regulation. Parents also reported significant increases in parenting satisfaction and perceived efficacy and reductions in caregiver burden.

  15. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marlene M; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-12-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. 'Connect' is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents develop the competence necessary to identify, understand and respond to the needs of their teen in a manner that provides structure and safety while safeguarding the quality of the parent-teen relationship. In Study 1, twenty parents reported significant increases in perceived parenting satisfaction and efficacy and reductions in adolescents' aggression, antisocial behaviour and other mental health problems following completion of Connect as compared to a waitlist control period. These effects were sustained and additional small effects were noted in decreases in conduct problems, depression and anxiety at a 12-month follow-up. The program was then transported to 17 communities serving 309 parents through standardized training and supervision of group leaders. Study 2 summarizes significant pre- to post-treatment reductions in teen externalizing and internalizing problems; enhanced social functioning; and improvements in affect regulation. Parents also reported significant increases in parenting satisfaction and perceived efficacy and reductions in caregiver burden. PMID:19766302

  16. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports

    PubMed Central

    Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measures Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. Data sources Clinical study reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly’s website. Eligibility criteria for study selection Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any patient narratives or individual patient listings of harms. Data extraction and analysis Two researchers extracted data independently; the outcomes were meta-analysed by Peto’s exact method (fixed effect model). Results We included 70 trials (64 381 pages of clinical study reports) with 18 526 patients. These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary trial reports on Eli Lilly’s website, almost all deaths were noted, but all suicidal ideation events were missing, and the information on the remaining outcomes was

  17. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  18. Individual growth trajectories of sibling Brycon moorei raised in isolation since egg stage, and their relationship with aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baras, E; Lucas, M C

    2010-09-01

    The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression. PMID:20840625

  19. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita

    2015-01-30

    Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies. PMID:25480545

  20. Child behaviour checklist emotional dysregulation profiles in youth with disruptive behaviour disorders: clinical correlates and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Masi, Gabriele; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita

    2015-01-30

    Two Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) profiles were correlated to poor self-regulation, Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR) (elevation between 1 and 2 Standard Deviations (SD) in Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, Attention subscales), and Dysregulation Profile (DP) (elevation of 2 Standard Deviations or more). We explored youths with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) whether these profiles are associated with specific clinical features. The sample included 57 patients with DESR profile and 41 with DP profile, ages 9 to 15 years, all assigned to a non-pharmacological Multimodal Treatment Program. No differences resulted between groups in demographic features, diagnosis ratio, and comorbidities with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), and Anxiety Disorder. The DP group was associated with higher scores in Withdrawn, Social Problem, Thought, Rule Breaking, and Somatic CBCL subscales, and higher scores in Narcissism and Impulsivity (but not Callous-Unemotional (CU)), according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). After treatment, patients with DESR improved their personality traits (Narcissistic and Callous-Unemotional, but not Impulsivity), while changes in CBCL scales were modest. Patients with DP improved scales of Attention, Aggression, Anxiety-Depression, Rule Breaking, Withdrawal, Social Problem and Thought, while personality features did not change. These results suggest diagnostic implications of CBCL profiles, and indications for targeted treatment strategies.

  1. Serotonergic antidepressant effects on aggressive, self-injurious and destructive/disruptive behaviours in intellectually disabled adults: a retrospective, open-label, naturalistic trial.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Shetty, Mahesh; Barnhill, Jarrett; Elamir, Belal; Davis, John M

    2005-03-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that serotonergic antidepressants are useful in the treatment of maladaptive behaviours in the intellectually disabled. However, not all studies have shown positive results due to lack of efficacy, tolerance development, and troublesome side-effects. The current study consisted of a review of the treatment response to a variety of serotonergic antidepressants, consisting of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs ) (n = 36) and clomipramine (n = 2) in 38 institutionalized intellectually disabled adults (20 males, 18 females; mean age 45.6 yr, age range 18-74 yr). Those studied were treated for aggression, self-injurious behaviours, destructive/disruptive behaviours, depression/dysphoria, or a combination of these or other challenging behaviours. Most were receiving concurrent psychotropic and/or anticonvulsant medications. Effectiveness was determined by a retrospective review of the summaries of multidisciplinary Neuropsychiatric Behavioural Reviews (NBRs) in which global and specific maladaptive behaviours were rated on a 1- to 7-point scale, and by psychologists' ratings of target behaviours. Overall, statistically significant decreases in the ratings of global maladaptive behaviour and aggression, self-injurious behaviour, destruction/disruption and depression/dysphoria and in psychologists' ratings occurred in the subject group after the initiation of antidepressants. The results suggest that serotonergic antidepressants are useful in the treatment of challenging/maladaptive behaviours in the intellectually disabled. PMID:15482629

  2. Role of antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis: A review of clinical trials in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Annapurna; Baiju, C. S.; Ahuja, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is well-recognized fact that periodontal diseases are caused by multifactorial etiologies, in which microorganisms play an important role. An essential component of therapy is to eliminate or manage these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means by scaling and root planning which is ineffective in some of the aggressive periodontal diseases. These aggressive diseases involve particular groups of microorganisms which are not eliminated by mechanical means; and they require anti-infective therapy, which includes local and systemic antimicrobials. This approach of therapy is of interest to periodontist due to the aforementioned shortcomings of conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A manual and electronic search was made for human studies up to March 2011 that presented clinical and microbiological data for the efficacy of a systemic antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis along with scaling and root planning. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, quality assessment, and determination of outcome measures, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Results: Only three randomized controlled human trials qualified, and they concluded that both scaling and root planing (SRP) mono-therapy and SRP with antibiotics proves beneficial in improving clinical and microbiological parameters in aggressive periodontitis. Better results were seen in SRP with antibiotic groups as compared with SRP alone. Conclusion: Because of the insufficient quantity and heterogenecity of studies, no adequate evidence could be gathered to use the beneficial effects of these antibiotics along with SRP in aggressive periodontitis compared with SRP alone. PMID:23162322

  3. Aggression Replacement Training for Violent Young Men in a Forensic Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Muris, Peter; Zwets, Almar J; Kanters, Thijs

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) were explored in a group of Dutch violent young men aged 16 to 21 years, who were obliged by the court to follow a treatment program in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. To evaluate the training, patients completed a set of self-report questionnaires at three moments in time: at intake/before a waiting period, after the waiting period/before the training, and after the training. During the waiting period, the patients did not change on most measures, although they displayed a significant increase in anger. The patients who completed the therapy scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the patients who dropped out. The training produced significant decreases in physical aggression and social anxiety and showed trends toward a decline in self-reported hostility, general aggression, and anger. After the training, the patients scored comparably with a reference group on measures of hostility and aggressive behavior. Altogether, these results provide tentative support for the efficacy of the ART for violent young men referred to forensic psychiatric outpatient settings.

  4. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R≥0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst. A rare entity with aggressive biological behaviour. A case report.

    PubMed

    Jose, M; Rao, N N; Solomon, M C

    2000-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic cyst is an apparently rare jaw cyst characterised by typical histopathological features, propensity to reach large size and high rate of local recurrence, if not adequately treated. Identification of this cyst as a separate entity is important because of the difference in biological behaviour. We report a case of Glandular Odontogenic cyst occurring in maxilla.

  6. Somnambulistic-like behaviour in patients attending a lithium clinic.

    PubMed

    Landry, P; Warnes, H; Nielsen, T; Montplaisir, J

    1999-05-01

    The prevalence of somnambulistic-like behaviour related to treatment with lithium alone or in combination with other psychotropic medications was evaluated in patients attending a lithium clinic. A written questionnaire on somnambulistic-like behaviour was completed by 389 patients. Information was provided on the time of occurrence, frequency and severity of the episodes, the presence of childhood somnambulism, and the temporal relationship between psychiatric treatment and somnambulistic-like behaviour. Twenty-seven (27) patients (6.9%) presented sleepwalking behaviour related to the onset of treatment with lithium alone or in combination with other psychotropic drugs. Forty-five patients (11.6%) reported childhood somnambulism and 12 of them (27%) had their childhood somnambulism reactivated by the medication. Most patients had a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder but somnambulistic-like behaviour also occurred in patients with other axis 1 diagnosis. Sleep-related violence was seldomly reported. Therefore, lithium alone or in combination with other psychotropic drugs may induce somnambulistic-like behaviour. A history of childhood somnambulism may increase the risk of developing sleepwalking behaviour while under psychotropic drugs treatment. PMID:10435770

  7. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  8. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  9. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, KOJI; YAMASHITA, HIDEKI; NAGASHIMA, HIDEKI; TESHIMA, RYOTA

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were <5% in all of the patient’s tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  10. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PPD, PI, and depth of the defects during T0, T3 and T6 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the RL and distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla (P = 0.95). Furthermore, width of the defects demonstrated significant decrease up to T3 (P = 0.042) while no significant changes from 3 months to 6 months were noted (P = 0.59). Conclusion: The results showed that combined periodontal and orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  11. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  12. Oral malignant melanoma: An aggressive clinical entity - Report of a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shamimul; Jamdar, Sami Faisal; Jangra, Jogender; Al Beaiji, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageel

    2016-01-01

    Melanomais one of the most dreaded and aggressive neoplasms, being derived from epidermal melanocytes. The majority of melanomas are seen to involve the skin, and primary mucosal melanomas account for less than 1% of all melanomas. Oral malignant melanomas (OMM) are asymptomatic at the initial presentation, but later they become painful with growth and expansion. In the late stages, the patient may present with ulceration, bleeding, tooth mobility, paresthesia, ill-fitting prosthesis, and delayed healing of the extraction sockets. Diagnosis is often delayed due to asymptomatic clinical presentation, with silent progression of the lesion. OMM are associated with poor prognosis due to their invasive and metastasizing tendencies. The condition has poor survival rates, and metastatic melanomas show even worse prognosis. The 5-year survival rate for OMM ranges 4.5-29%, with 18.5 months being the mean survival rate. The tumor is best managed by wide surgical resection; however, consideration should also be made for adjunctive therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy. Recurrences may be seen even 10-15 years after the primary therapy. This paper aims to present an interesting report of aggressive OMM in a 50-year-old male patient and emphasizes the role of dental professionals in maintaining a high degree of vigilance for the pigmented lesions of the oral cavity. Pigmented lesions of uncertain origin should be routinely biopsied to rule out malignancy. Early diagnosis of this dreadful entity entails thorough history taking, physical examination, and radiographic features coupled with histopathology. PMID:27114959

  13. Oral malignant melanoma: An aggressive clinical entity - Report of a rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Shamimul; Jamdar, Sami Faisal; Jangra, Jogender; Al Beaiji, Sadun Mohammad Al Ageel

    2016-01-01

    Melanomais one of the most dreaded and aggressive neoplasms, being derived from epidermal melanocytes. The majority of melanomas are seen to involve the skin, and primary mucosal melanomas account for less than 1% of all melanomas. Oral malignant melanomas (OMM) are asymptomatic at the initial presentation, but later they become painful with growth and expansion. In the late stages, the patient may present with ulceration, bleeding, tooth mobility, paresthesia, ill-fitting prosthesis, and delayed healing of the extraction sockets. Diagnosis is often delayed due to asymptomatic clinical presentation, with silent progression of the lesion. OMM are associated with poor prognosis due to their invasive and metastasizing tendencies. The condition has poor survival rates, and metastatic melanomas show even worse prognosis. The 5-year survival rate for OMM ranges 4.5–29%, with 18.5 months being the mean survival rate. The tumor is best managed by wide surgical resection; however, consideration should also be made for adjunctive therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy. Recurrences may be seen even 10–15 years after the primary therapy. This paper aims to present an interesting report of aggressive OMM in a 50-year-old male patient and emphasizes the role of dental professionals in maintaining a high degree of vigilance for the pigmented lesions of the oral cavity. Pigmented lesions of uncertain origin should be routinely biopsied to rule out malignancy. Early diagnosis of this dreadful entity entails thorough history taking, physical examination, and radiographic features coupled with histopathology. PMID:27114959

  14. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  15. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  16. Clinical holding with children who display behaviours that challenge.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew; Gayson, Charlotte; Moss, Fiona; Mohammed, Needa; Smith, Claire; Vanes, Nicola

    Nurses hold children to administer treatment, prevent treatment interference and undertake clinical assessments, which can sometimes be invasive, as part of their regular duties. Clinical holding ensures this treatment or assessment is carried out safely, however, it has been reported that there is little training available in this area. This article explores the prevalent clinical holding techniques used by nursing staff when caring for children with behaviours that challenge. As an initial insight into what the researchers hope will become a more in-depth 2-year study, this investigation looks to explore current practice when holding children and the factors influencing this. It is hoped that this will inform the development of a training package offered to nurses when caring for these children. Thirteen semi-structured interviews took place with a small group of nurses, which were given thematic analysis. The overarching themes influencing holding practice were the nursing role itself along with intrinsic and external factors. PMID:26618680

  17. Sacrococcygeal chordoma in infancy showing an aggressive clinical course: an autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Yuichiro; Miura, Katsutoshi; Yajima, Shuhei; Tsutsui, Yoshihiro

    2003-07-01

    The autopsy case of a 3-year 6-month-old boy with chordoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region is presented. The primary lesion of the sacrococcygeal area was unresectable and lung metastasis was detected. He was treated with multi-agent systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the tumor was less responsive to these therapies. He died about one year after first admission. An autopsy revealed a massive sacrococcygeal mass and metastasis in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and also in the bilateral lungs and liver. Histologically, the tumor was composed of 'pink' cells and scattered 'physaliphorous' cells with a myxoid matrix. Sacrococcygeal chordoma in infancy is very rare. Our case showed a highly aggressive clinical course.

  18. A nonsurgical approach to treating aggressive inflammatory papillary hyperplasia: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Noah P; Taylor, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Preprosthetic interventions in patients with aggressive forms of inflammatory papillary hyperplasia have historically involved surgery. These procedures often involve significant postoperative discomfort and morbidity. Additionally, some patients who present with dental phobias, aversions to surgery, or underlying systemic disease may not be amenable to this type of surgical intervention. In this report, a patient with severe inflammatory papillary hyperplasia and phobias regarding the dentist and dental surgery was treated nonsurgically, following strict adherence to a clinical protocol. The methodology involved greater patient comfort during treatment, encouraged positive reinforcement to visiting the dentist for recall appointments, and effectively eliminated the underlying inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, allowing for the successful fabrication of the definitive removable prostheses. PMID:24360006

  19. Mother and father self-reports of corporal punishment and severe physical aggression toward clinic-referred youth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, A; Donnelly, W O; Lewis, T; Maynard, C

    2000-06-01

    Examined the extent to which 359 mothers and 140 fathers of clinic-referred youth (ages 2 to 17) reported using corporal punishment and severe physical aggression when asked directly via intake screening questionnaires at a community mental health center; higher prevalence rates emerged compared to families in the general population. Clinic-referred parents reported greater use of corporal punishment for younger relative to older youth, sons relative to daughters, and by single relative to married mothers. In cases with reports from both parents, mothers used corporal punishment more frequently than fathers. Demographic factors were not linked to severe physical aggression, except for mothers' treatment of sons versus daughters. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal and paternal reports of child externalizing behavior accounted for significant variance in their own and their partner's use of corporal punishment, and in mothers' use of severe physical aggression.

  20. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing

    PubMed Central

    Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators. Methods Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness. Results Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only. Conclusions This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. PMID:26603647

  1. Neuroendocrine aspects of pediatric aggression: Can hormone measures be clinically useful?

    PubMed

    Barzman, Drew H; Patel, Avni; Sonnier, Loretta; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric aggression is common in human societies, mainly presenting as impulsive aggression or predatory aggression. Numerous psychiatric disorders can contain aggression as a symptom, leading to difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on the biological systems that affect pediatric aggression. We review the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and the mechanisms by which these axes influence the body and mind of aggressive children and adolescents. Although this review focuses on the HPA and HPG axes, it is important to note that other biological systems have relationships with these two axes. Based on the results of the studies reviewed, elevated cortisol concentrations were associated with impulsive aggression, whereas, low levels of cortisol were associated with callous-unemotional traits similar to predatory aggression. Higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone were correlated with higher levels of aggression as were higher levels of testosterone. However, there have been discrepancies in the results between various studies, indicating the need for more research on hormonal levels and pediatric aggression. In the future, hormonal levels may be useful in determining what treatments will work best for certain pediatric patients.

  2. Teaching a Child with Challenging Behaviour to Use the Toilet: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Peace, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Learning to use the toilet is an important developmental step for a child's independence, health and dignity. It can be particularly difficult to teach continence skills to disabled children with aggressive or challenging behaviour. This study showed how Azrin & Foxx's (1971) basic toilet training procedure could be modified to teach a 13-year-old…

  3. Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2007-09-15

    Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as

  4. Schizophrenia and impulsive aggression: a heuristic inquiry with forensic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of a violent act committed by an offender with schizophrenia typically focuses on whether the act was due to distortions in thought or perception, i.e., delusions or hallucination. An important but less appreciated feature is the impulsivity of the act, which can have forensic and therapeutic implications. Here a modification of Barratt's classification of aggressive behavior is presented that includes premeditated (instrumental), medical (secondary), impulsive (expressive), and compulsive (instrumental and expressive) aggression. Violence due to a mental condition such as schizophrenia is considered medical, but even aggression motivated by delusions or hallucinations can also be characterized as impulsive, premeditated, or compulsive.Although research on aggression and schizophrenia is limited with regard to the impulsivity-premeditation dimension and difficult to compare, current evidence suggests this to be an important consideration in the assessment of aggression in individuals with schizophrenia, important both forensically and therapeutically. Future research on the impulsive-premeditated quality of aggressive acts by offenders with schizophrenia--research wherein aggressive behavior is defined, situational context is clarified, and diagnostic criteria are explicitly followed--should further refine our understanding of the nature of aggressive acts associated with schizophrenia. Findings from such research will undoubtedly inform assessment, treatment, and forensic relevance of schizophrenia-related physical aggression.

  5. New behavioural variant FTD criteria and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, F

    2013-10-01

    Since the first descriptions of circumscribed frontotemporal atrophies, and the first statement published by the Lund and Manchester groups, consensus clinical and pathological criteria for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have been increasingly refined. The last international behavioural variant FTD criteria (FTDC) (Rascovsky et al., 2011) are the most sensitive, operational and reliable, for the clinical syndrome. Previously exclusion features, like early and severe amnestic syndrome or spatial disorientation, which turn out to be not so rare, are taken into account, as well as imaging, and biomarkers suggestive of other pathologies like Alzheimer's disease. So far, clinical features do not seem very helpful in predicting the underlying histopathology, although there are some clues, mainly related to neurological features (e.g. motor neuron disease, extra-pyramidal symptoms or language disorders), or associated disorders (e.g. Paget disease of bone) or genetics. BvFTD remains a difficult diagnosis at very early stage, which accounts for the delay of diagnosis, especially in late onset, where the frontotemporal atrophy may not be striking. At very young onset, psychiatric diseases must be ruled out. More systematic assessment of social cognition could be helpful. Further biomarkers are expected. Systematic use of recent criteria, for BvFTD and other neurodegenerative diseases especially AD, will contribute to make early and correct diagnoses in excluding or suggesting alternative diagnoses. Post-mortem assessment, with detailed recording of clinical information, is essential to progress.

  6. Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Chew, Ivy; Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with undifferentiated components are uncommon neoplasms that are likely underdiagnosed. They are important to recognize as they have been shown to be clinically aggressive. We identified 32 carcinomas with undifferentiated components as defined by Silva and co-workers, 26 endometrial and 6 of ovarian origin. The patient age ranged from 21 to 76 years (median 55); 40% of patients were

  7. Capoeira as a Clinical Intervention: Addressing Adolescent Aggression with Brazilian Martial Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Butler, S. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in adolescents is harmful and emotionally devastating to youth and surrounding communities. This article integrates martial arts and therapeutic principles into a culturally sensitive model that cultivates change in the aggressive behaviors of disenfranchised adolescents. The art form of Capoeira is proposed for promoting positive…

  8. Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song. PMID:23433033

  9. Ethical Behaviours in Clinical Practice Among Mexican Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ‘dimensions of ethical practice’. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional–patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study’s participants would help to improve quality of care. PMID:18849364

  10. Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein -subunit G8.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2013-08-15

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. Gαoβ2γ8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas Gαi2β2γ2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. Gγ8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the Gγ8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. Gγ8(-/-) mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the Gγ8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for Gγ8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics.

  11. Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

    2014-01-01

    Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

  12. Infratentorial low-grade oligoastrocytoma with aggressive clinical behavior in an adult: a case report with genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sano, Keisho; Toda, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hikaru; Kitamura, Yohei; Mikami, Shuji; Hirato, Junko; Inoue, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2013-04-01

    Oligoastrocytoma preferentially arises in the cerebral hemisphere, and a cerebellar location is unusual. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with an aggressive cerebellar tumor histopathologically diagnosed as oligoastrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II. After partial removal of the tumor, she underwent concomitant temozolomide (TMZ) therapy with local irradiation followed by additional TMZ monotherapy. However, her symptoms gradually worsened, and chronological magnetic resonance imaging showed remarkable tumor enlargement. In accordance with the aggressive clinical course, unfavorable genetic characteristics such as the gain of the entire chromosome 7, loss of 9p, absence of 1p/19q codeletion, absence of methylation of the O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase promoter, and absence of the isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutation were observed. The present case illustrates that these molecular characteristics represent the biological features of gliomas more closely than the histopathological diagnosis and may also suggest that infratentorial gliomas arise through a distinct tumorigenic pathway from their supratentorial counterparts.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  14. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  15. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a

  16. Intermittent Feeding Schedules—Behavioural Consequences and Potential Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle; Mercer, Julian G.

    2014-01-01

    Food availability and associated sensory cues such as olfaction are known to trigger a range of hormonal and behavioural responses. When food availability is predictable these physiological and behavioural responses can become entrained to set times and occur in anticipation of food rather than being dependent on the food-related cues. Here we summarise the range of physiological and behavioural responses to food when the time of its availability is unpredictable, and consider the potential to manipulate feeding patterns for benefit in metabolic and mental health. PMID:24599157

  17. Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…

  18. An unusually large aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of maxilla involving the third molar: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Khandelwal, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor comprising only 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, encapsulated, noninvasive, nonaggressive, slowly growing odontogenic lesion associated with an impacted tooth. These lesions may go unnoticed for years. The usual treatment is enucleation and curettage, and the lesion does not recur. Here, we present a rare case of an unusually large aggressive AOT of maxilla associated with impacted third molar. The authors also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case. Subtotal maxillectomy with simultaneous reconstruction of the surgical defect with temporalis myofascial flap was planned and carried out. PMID:27095910

  19. Highly Aggressive HPV-related Oropharyngeal Cancer: Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kaka, Azeem S.; Kumar, Bhavna; Kumar, Pawan; Wakely, Paul E.; Kirsch, Claudia M.; Old, Matthew O.; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Carrau, Ricardo E.; Schuller, David E.; Siddiqui, Farzan; Teknos, Theodoros N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While the majority of HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas have a favorable prognosis, we search for markers of poor prognosis by carefully examining a subset of highly-aggressive cases. Study Design Seven patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer who presented with non-pulmonary distant metastasis or developed distant metastasis post-treatment were identified. Eight control cases were chosen which responded well to treatment. Pathology and radiological studies were reviewed and compared. Results Two cases displayed a small cell carcinoma (SmCC) component upon pathologic review. Biomarker analysis revealed lower expression of NOTCH1 in the aggressive cohort in comparison to controls (p=0.04). Cases showed a predominance of clustering of lymph nodes, extracapsular spread and central tumor necrosis. Conclusion While most HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers display a positive prognosis, it is evident that there is a subset, which behave more aggressively. This early investigation identifies pathologic and radiologic features that may help to predict this behavior. PMID:23770280

  20. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798

  1. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  2. The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of Alzheimer's disease: clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Perry, David C; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Scheltens, Nienke M E; Vogel, Jacob W; Kramer, Joel H; van der Vlies, Annelies E; La Joie, Renaud; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Grinberg, Lea T; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; Huang, Eric J; van Berckel, Bart N M; Miller, Bruce L; Barkhof, Frederik; Jagust, William J; Scheltens, Philip; Seeley, William W; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-09-01

    A 'frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease' has been described in patients with predominant behavioural or dysexecutive deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease pathology. The description of this rare Alzheimer's disease phenotype has been limited to case reports and small series, and many clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological characteristics are not well understood. In this retrospective study, we included 55 patients with Alzheimer's disease with a behavioural-predominant presentation (behavioural Alzheimer's disease) and a neuropathological diagnosis of high-likelihood Alzheimer's disease (n = 17) and/or biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's disease pathology (n = 44). In addition, we included 29 patients with autopsy/biomarker-defined Alzheimer's disease with a dysexecutive-predominant syndrome (dysexecutive Alzheimer's disease). We performed structured chart reviews to ascertain clinical features. First symptoms were more often cognitive (behavioural Alzheimer's disease: 53%; dysexecutive Alzheimer's disease: 83%) than behavioural (behavioural Alzheimer's disease: 25%; dysexecutive Alzheimer's disease: 3%). Apathy was the most common behavioural feature, while hyperorality and perseverative/compulsive behaviours were less prevalent. Fifty-two per cent of patients with behavioural Alzheimer's disease met diagnostic criteria for possible behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia. Overlap between behavioural and dysexecutive Alzheimer's disease was modest (9/75 patients). Sixty per cent of patients with behavioural Alzheimer's disease and 40% of those with the dysexecutive syndrome carried at least one APOE ε4 allele. We also compared neuropsychological test performance and brain atrophy (applying voxel-based morphometry) with matched autopsy/biomarker-defined typical (amnestic-predominant) Alzheimer's disease (typical Alzheimer's disease, n = 58), autopsy-confirmed/Alzheimer's disease biomarker-negative behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 59

  3. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  4. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D.; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines. We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK. Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%. Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants. In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  5. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-04-19

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma.Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines.We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK.Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%.Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression.Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants.In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  6. Clinical assessment and management of psychiatric patients' violent and aggressive behaviors in general hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Saladino, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    Patients with co-morbid psychiatric disorders exhibiting violent and aggressive behaviors can be a challenge for nurses in medical-surgical units. They can deliver effective, safe care by assessing risk and building a rapport with the patient during the admission process; utilizing crisis prevention strategies, including appropriate medication administration, environmental, psychobiological, counseling, and health teaching interventions; and employing conflict resolution technique. Utilizing the nursing process, the nurse can provide effective therapeutic interventions to promote safety for both the patient and the nurse. PMID:18072668

  7. The proliferation marker Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 is of clinical value in predicting the biological behaviour of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Staibano, Stefania; Mascolo, Massimo; Rocco, Alba; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Ilardi, Gennaro; Siano, Maria; Pannone, Giuseppe; Vecchione, Maria Luisa; Nugnes, Loredana; Califano, Luigi; Zamparese, Rosanna; Bufo, Pantaleo; De Rosa, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) constitute a diagnostically challenging group of neoplasms with frequently unpredictable clinical outcome. The proliferation rate facilitates the identification of aggressive SGT. The Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 (CAF-1) is a major epigenetic regulator of nuclear chromatin organization during DNA replication. It plays a critical function in human tumourigenesis and has been proposed as a new proliferation and prognostic marker for some malignancies. This study focused on the role of CAF-1/p60 protein as a marker of clinical value for SGT. The expression of CAF-1/p60 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on a retrospective series of 362 surgically excised benign and malignant SGT with different histogenesis and, when available, on fine-needle pre-surgical cytological biopsies. The resulting data were compared with traditional prognostic parameters, including the expression of the routine proliferation marker ki67/MIB1. CAF-1/p60 was detectable in all SGT, with highest degree of expression in metastasizing malignant tumours. Moreover, the cases of benign tumours which progressed to carcinoma during the follow-up, showed significantly higher CAF-1/p60 expression than non-progressing benign SGT, both on histological sections and cytological smears of the primary tumour. Cox's multiple regression analysis selected CAF-1/p60 expression as the best independent predictor of cancer development for benign SGT (p<0.0001), and the best independent predictor of metastasis onset for malignant tumours (p<0.0004). Overexpression of CAF-1/p60, on histological and/or cytological samples, characterizes malignant SGT with aggressive behaviour, irrespective of their specific histotype, and allows the early diagnosis of progression toward malignancy of morphologically benign tumours.

  8. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  9. Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-08-21

    Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content. PMID:25146837

  10. Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-08-21

    Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content.

  11. Clinical competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics: raising the bar.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Mick

    2014-01-01

    For our specialist paediatric workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended.

  12. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome. PMID:26607152

  13. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  14. CD4-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A variant with aggressive clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, Mohammad O; Kreisel, Friederike H; Hassan, Anjum; Nguyen, TuDung T; Frater, John L

    2016-01-01

    CD4 expression is rare in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with 4 previously reported cases. Its significance is uncertain. We report five patients with CD4+ DLBCL and one CD4+ primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Cases were identified by searching the electronic database of the department; each was reviewed. Average age was 56 years. Neoplastic cells expressed CD20 (5/6 tested cases). BCL2/BCL6 expression were seen in 3/3 tested cases, suggesting a germinal center origin. Additionally, expression of T-cell antigens CD2 and CD5 was noted in 2/2 and CD7 in 1/1 tested case. CD3 was negative in all. Lymph nodes were commonly involved (67%). Patients received chemotherapy +/- radiation (6/6) and bone marrow transplant (2/6). Average survival was 44.2 mo. CD4 expression in DLBCL raises questions of lineage commitment. CD4+ DLBCL is rare; care should be exercised not to diagnose these as T-cell lymphomas. A subset behaves aggressively. PMID:27679780

  15. CD4-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A variant with aggressive clinical potential.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Mohammad O; Kreisel, Friederike H; Hassan, Anjum; Nguyen, TuDung T; Frater, John L

    2016-09-26

    CD4 expression is rare in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with 4 previously reported cases. Its significance is uncertain. We report five patients with CD4(+) DLBCL and one CD4(+) primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Cases were identified by searching the electronic database of the department; each was reviewed. Average age was 56 years. Neoplastic cells expressed CD20 (5/6 tested cases). BCL2/BCL6 expression were seen in 3/3 tested cases, suggesting a germinal center origin. Additionally, expression of T-cell antigens CD2 and CD5 was noted in 2/2 and CD7 in 1/1 tested case. CD3 was negative in all. Lymph nodes were commonly involved (67%). Patients received chemotherapy +/- radiation (6/6) and bone marrow transplant (2/6). Average survival was 44.2 mo. CD4 expression in DLBCL raises questions of lineage commitment. CD4(+) DLBCL is rare; care should be exercised not to diagnose these as T-cell lymphomas. A subset behaves aggressively. PMID:27679780

  16. CD4-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A variant with aggressive clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, Mohammad O; Kreisel, Friederike H; Hassan, Anjum; Nguyen, TuDung T; Frater, John L

    2016-01-01

    CD4 expression is rare in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with 4 previously reported cases. Its significance is uncertain. We report five patients with CD4+ DLBCL and one CD4+ primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Cases were identified by searching the electronic database of the department; each was reviewed. Average age was 56 years. Neoplastic cells expressed CD20 (5/6 tested cases). BCL2/BCL6 expression were seen in 3/3 tested cases, suggesting a germinal center origin. Additionally, expression of T-cell antigens CD2 and CD5 was noted in 2/2 and CD7 in 1/1 tested case. CD3 was negative in all. Lymph nodes were commonly involved (67%). Patients received chemotherapy +/- radiation (6/6) and bone marrow transplant (2/6). Average survival was 44.2 mo. CD4 expression in DLBCL raises questions of lineage commitment. CD4+ DLBCL is rare; care should be exercised not to diagnose these as T-cell lymphomas. A subset behaves aggressively.

  17. Clinical governance: culture, leadership and power--the key to changing attitudes and behaviours in trusts.

    PubMed

    Hackett, M; Lilford, R; Jordan, J

    1999-01-01

    Clinical governance places for legal duty for quality on Trust chief executives. The article deals with how chief executives can overcome the cultural and behavioural obstacles to change which impede the journey to developing effective structures for clinical governance. To establish effective structures for clinical governance, chief executives will need to address these features of organisational life--culture, power and leadership. The article seeks to provide practical ways in which they can do this.

  18. Human REM sleep: influence on feeding behaviour, with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Horne, James A

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shares many underlying mechanisms with wakefulness, to a much greater extent than does non-REM, especially those relating to feeding behaviours, appetite, curiosity, exploratory (locomotor) activities, as well as aspects of emotions, particularly 'fear extinction'. REM is most evident in infancy, thereafter declining in what seems to be a dispensable manner that largely reciprocates increasing wakefulness. However, human adults retain more REM than do other mammals, where for us it is most abundant during our usual final REM period (fREMP) of the night, nearing wakefulness. The case is made that our REM is unusual, and that (i) fREMP retains this 'dispensability', acting as a proxy for wakefulness, able to be forfeited (without REM rebound) and substituted by physical activity (locomotion) when pressures of wakefulness increase; (ii) REM's atonia (inhibited motor output) may be a proxy for this locomotion; (iii) our nocturnal sleep typically develops into a physiological fast, especially during fREMP, which is also an appetite suppressant; (iv) REM may have 'anti-obesity' properties, and that the loss of fREMP may well enhance appetite and contribute to weight gain ('overeating') in habitually short sleepers; (v) as we also select foods for their hedonic (emotional) values, REM may be integral to developing food preferences and dislikes; and (vii) REM seems to have wider influences in regulating energy balance in terms of exercise 'substitution' and energy (body heat) retention. Avenues for further research are proposed, linking REM with feeding behaviours, including eating disorders, and effects of REM-suppressant medications.

  19. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  20. The added value of using mutational profiling in addition to cytology in diagnosing aggressive pancreaticobiliary disease: review of clinical cases at a single center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to better understand the supporting role that mutational profiling (MP) of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and supernatant specimens may play in the diagnosis of malignancy in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and biliary brushing specimens from patients with pancreaticobiliary masses. Methods Cytology results were examined in a total of 30 patients with associated surgical (10) or clinical (20) outcomes. MP of DNA from microdissected cytology slides and from discarded supernatant fluid was analyzed in 26 patients with atypical, negative or indeterminate cytology. Results Cytology correctly diagnosed aggressive disease in 4 patients. Cytological diagnoses for the remaining 26 were as follows: 16 negative (9 false negative), 9 atypical, 1 indeterminate. MP correctly determined aggressive disease in 1 false negative cytology case and confirmed a negative cytology diagnosis in 7 of 7 cases of non-aggressive disease. Of the 9 atypical cytology cases, MP correctly diagnosed 7 as positive and 1 as negative for aggressive disease. One specimen that was indeterminate by cytology was correctly diagnosed as non-aggressive by MP. When first line malignant (positive) cytology results were combined with positive second line MP results, 12/21 cases of aggressive disease were identified, compared to 4/21 cases identified by positive cytology alone. Conclusions When first line cytology results were uncertain (atypical), questionable (negative), or not possible (non-diagnostic/indeterminate), MP provided additional information regarding the presence of aggressive disease. When used in conjunction with first line cytology, MP increased detection of aggressive disease without compromising specificity in patients that were difficult to diagnose by cytology alone. PMID:25084836

  1. Clinically aggressive primary solid pseudopapillary tumor of the ovary in a 45-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Syriac, Susanna; Kesterson, Joshua; Izevbaye, Iyare; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Lele, Shashikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of primary solid pseudopapillary tumor of the ovary with aggressive behavior and fatal outcome in a 45-year-old woman. The patient presented with weight loss, decrease of appetite, and abdominal bloating for the last several weeks. Computed tomography scan revealed an ovarian mass, omental caking, complex ascites, and 2 hepatic lesions. The pancreas was unremarkable. Grossly, the ovarian mass showed severe capsular adhesion, and the cut surface was cystic and solid. On histologic examination, the tumor was composed of diffuse solid pseudopapillary and pseudocystic patterns. The neoplastic cells were uniform and round with very dispersed chromatin. The cytoplasm was faintly pink. There was mild atypia, but the mitotic rate was as high as 62 per 50 high-power field, and the Ki-67 was elevated at 20%. The tumor exhibited severe necrosis. Numerous foci of lymphovascular invasion were also seen. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (focal) and for β-catenin (cytoplasmic and nuclear patterns). They were negative for chromogranin, synaptophysin, thyroglobulin, calcitonin, hepatocyte-paraffin 1, epithelial membrane antigen, calretinin, and α-inhibin. Electron microscopic study revealed nests of tumor cells with oval nuclei. The cytoplasm contained numerous pleomorphic mitochondria interspersed among short strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The tumor involved the fallopian tube, omentum, cul-de-sac, and abdominal wall. The pelvic washing was also positive for tumor cells. Despite chemotherapy, the patient's condition had worsened, and she died of her disease 8 months after the initial diagnosis. We discuss the differential diagnosis of this tumor and the hypothesis of its origin. PMID:21778097

  2. Clinical significance of interleukin-4 and interleukin-18 levels in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Soydinc, H O; Guney, N; Basaran, M; Duranyildiz, D; Yasasever, V

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that tumor growth can be actively controlled by the immune system, and interleukins (ILs) are known to play an influential role in immune response regulation. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines are significantly involved in lymphoma pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate serum levels of IL-4 and IL-18 in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (A-NHL) patients and their relationship with prognostic parameters and therapy outcome. These serum factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 46 patients with pathologically verified A-NHL before and after chemotherapy, and in 20 healthy controls. No significant difference in serum IL-4 (P = 0.11) and IL-18 (P = 0.261) levels was observed between the A-NHL and controls groups. None of the prognostic parameters analyzed significantly correlated with serum IL-4 concentration, while only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements were associated with IL-18 values. Serum IL-18 was elevated in the patients with high LDH levels compared to those exhibiting normal values (P = 0.045). In addition, no correlation was found between the concentrations of serum IL-4 and IL-18 in A-NHL patients (r = 0.188, P = 0.187). While IL-18 values did not change, serum IL-4 levels decreased following chemotherapy, independently from treatment response (P = 0.002). Our study is the first to report the response of serum IL-4 levels to chemotherapy. In conclusion, although IL-4 serum concentration has no diagnostic role, it is sensitivite to standard chemotherapy in A-NHL. However, serum IL-18 measurements have no diagnostic or prognostic role in this disease. PMID:27525895

  3. Is aggressive gap arthroplasty essential in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis?-a prospective clinical study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Babu, Lokesh; Jain, Manoj Kumar; Ramesh, C; Vinayaka, N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this three-year, prospective, follow-up study was to evaluate whether aggressive gap arthroplasty is essential in the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients were treated by the creation of a minimal gap of 5-8mm and insertion of an interpositional gap arthroplasty using the temporalis fascia. Eleven patients had unilateral coronoidectomy and 4 bilateral coronoidectomy based on Kaban's protocol. Preoperative assessment included recording of history, clinical and radiological examinations, personal variables, the aetiology of the ankylosis, the side affected, and any other relevant findings. Patients were assessed postoperatively by a surgeon unaware of the treatment given for a minimum of 3 years, which included measurement of the maximal incisal opening, presence of facial nerve paralysis, recurrence, and any other relevant findings. Of the 15 patients (17 joints), 12 had unilateral and three had bilateral involvement, with trauma being the most common cause. The patients were aged between 7 and 29 years (mean (SD) age 20 (8) years). Preoperative maximal incisal opening was 0-2mm in 8 cases and 2-9mm in 9. Postoperatively adequate mouth opening of 30-40mm was achieved in all cases, with no recurrence or relevant malocclusion during 3-year follow up. However, patients will be followed up for 10 years. Aggressive gap arthroplasty is not essential in the management of ankylosis of the TMJ. Minimal gap interpositional arthroplasty with complete removal of the mediolateral ankylotic mass is a feasible and effective method of preventing recurrence. PMID:23219020

  4. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of intra-bony defects in localized aggressive periodontitis patients with platelet rich plasma/hydroxyapatite graft: A comparative controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Geeti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aggressive periodontitis is a characterized by rapid attachment loss, bone destruction and familial aggregation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed to promote regeneration of the lost periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of PRP combined with hydroxyapatite (HA) graft in the treatment of intra-bony defects in localized aggressive periodontitis (L-AgP) patients. Materials and Methods: Ten L-AgP patients having bilateral intra-bony defect ≥2 mm and probing depth (PD) ≥6 mm were randomly treated either with the PRP/HA graft or HA graft alone. The clinical (plaque control record, bleeding on probing index, PD, and relative attachment level [RAL]), and radiographic parameters (size of the bone defect) were recorded pre- and post-operatively at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: After 12 months, for both maxillary and mandibular arches, the mean PD decrease was significantly more (P < 0.05) for the test group than the control group (3.2 mm vs. 1.9 mm and 3.6 mm vs. 1.9 mm, respectively). Furthermore, the mean RAL decrease in both maxillary and mandibular arches was significantly more (P < 0.05) for the test group than the control group (3.0 mm vs. 1.2 mm and 3.1 mm vs. 1.4 mm, respectively). Radiographically, the test group showed significantly more defect fill as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both treatments provided significant improvements in clinical and radiographic parameters in a 12-month postoperative period. PRP/HA group presented superior results regarding PD reduction, clinical attachment gain and radiographic bone fill than HA group. PMID:25395757

  5. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, a rare but locally aggressive tumor on finger: clinical and aeromedical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kwo-Tsao; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chu, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, slow growing, locally infiltrative tumor of intermediate malignancy. It is mostly found on the trunk and head, rarely on hands. The course of evaluation and treatment of a young pilot with DFSP on left middle finger is reported. The clinical issues and aeromedical considerations of this rare tumor is discussed. PMID:27252960

  6. Clinical value of digital image analysis in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer, particularly in aggressive tumors: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, T; Monika Dulewicz, A; Borkowski, A; Piętka, D; Radziszewski, P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate the clinical value of a computer analysis of cytological specimen images obtained from urine and bladder washing samples. Three sample types (voided urine, catheterized urine and bladder washing) from 59 patients with primary or recurrent tumor were analyzed. All patients underwent cystoscopy and biopsy or resection. The histological results were compared with the results of the image analyzing computer system of collected urine samples. The consistency between the computer diagnosis and the clinical or histological diagnosis both in the presence and absence of cancer was as follows: 77% for voided urine samples, 72.5% for catheterized urine samples and 78% for bladder washing samples. The specificity of the method at the standard pathology level was 71%, and the sensitivity was 83%. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87.5% and 63% respectively. The sensitivity for G3 or CIS or T2 or T3 tumors reached nearly 100%. Computer analysis of urine provided correct diagnoses in cancer and control patients with the sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% and gave excellent results in aggressive tumors such as T2, T3, G3 and in CIS. PMID:27543866

  7. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  8. Psychopathy in women: a review of its clinical usefulness for assessing risk for aggression and criminality.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Ogloff, James R P; Brink, Johann; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    Despite a flurry of studies examining psychopathy in women, and the recent release of the second version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised manual, there is still little consensus whether the lateral extension of the current conceptualization of psychopathy to women is appropriate. In particular, very little agreement exists concerning the clinical utility of the Hare psychopathy measures to assess women's risk of future offending and violence. This article presents a comprehensive review of studies of the association between psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and violence, in diverse samples of women, and looks at similarities and differences between these constructs in males and females. Findings from inmates and offenders, civil and forensic psychiatric patients, substance abusers, and community samples indicate a consistently lower base rate of psychopathy among women than among men. With some exceptions, correlates of psychopathy in women relevant to risk assessments for crime and violence tend to be modest and significant, generally mirroring what we see in men. Clinicians and policy makers charged with the care and management of women at risk for criminal offending and violence are likely to find the PCL-R and PCL:SV have clinical utility; however, cautious application is called for and ongoing research is required. PMID:16333808

  9. Medication Development for Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer Disease: Review and Discussion of Recent Randomized Clinical Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Maria; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Ousset, Pierre Jean; Ballard, Clive; Robert, Philippe; Vellas, Bruno; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rosenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The management of disruptive neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) such as agitation and aggression (A/A) is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Few effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological options are available. Results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of drugs for A/A have been disappointing. This may result from the absence of biological efficacy for medications tested in treating A/A. It may also be related to methodological issues such as the choice of outcomes. The aim of this review was to highlight key methodological issues pertaining to RCTs of current and emerging medications for the treatment of A/A in AD. Methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs comparing medications with either placebo or other drugs in the treatment of A/A in AD, between January 2008 and December 2013. Results We identified a total of 18 RCTs; of these, 11 were completed and 7 ongoing. Of the ongoing RCTs, only one is in Phase III. Seven of 10 completed RCTs with reported results did not report greater benefit from drug than placebo. Each of the completed RCTs used a different definition of “clinically significant A/A”. There was considerable heterogeneity in study desin. The primary endpoints were largely proxy-based but a variety of scales were used. The definition of caregiver and scales used to assess caregiver outcomes were similarly heterogeneous. Placebo response was notable in all trials. Conclusions This review highlights a great heterogeneity in RCTs design of drugs for A/A in AD and some key methodological issues such as definition of A/A, choice of outcome measures and caregiver participation that could be addressed by an expert consensus to optimize future trials design. PMID:25226218

  10. Internalizing Symptoms and Affective Reactivity in Relation to the Severity of Aggression in Clinically Referred, Behavior-Disordered Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Brown, Elissa J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the affective correlates of aggression in children referred to a partial hospitalization program for the treatment of behavior disorders who did not have a mood or anxiety disorder. Parent and teacher ratings of the children's impulsivity, internalizing symptoms, affective reactivity, and aggression were examined for their…

  11. [Rare malignant tumors of the ovaries in adolescents--clinical aspects in deciding therapeutic aggressiveness].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Bau, O

    1990-01-01

    4 patients below the age of 20 years have been treated for a malignant tumor of the ovary during the period November 1, 1984 until April 30, 1988. Dysgerminoma was the diagnosis in two cases, as the third patient suffered from a bilateral malignant teratoma. Burkitt's Lymphoma involved both ovaries primarily in an 17-year-old girl. Retrospectively we analyzed diagnosis, therapy and clinical course of these young patients. Regarding the different histological types of the tumors that have been found we discuss critically current recommendations in therapeutic managements referring chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Defined conditions provided surgical treatment, that preserves fertility in early stages of malignant germ cell tumors of adolescent women, may be justified, especially for dysgerminomas. A real benefit relate to survival and quality of life by using chemotherapeutic agents can only be expected, if all prognostic factors are regarded.

  12. Healthcare professionals' intentions to use clinical guidelines: a survey using the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Finnish clinical guidelines are evolving toward integration of knowledge modules into the electronic health record in the Evidence-Based Medicine electronic Decision Support project. It therefore became important to study which factors affect professionals' intention to use clinical guidelines generally in their decision-making on patient care. A theory-based approach is a possible solution to explore determinants of professionals' behaviour. The study's aim was to produce baseline information for developers and implementers by using the theory of planned behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional internet-based survey was carried out in Finnish healthcare organisations within three hospital districts. The target population (n = 2,252) included physicians, nurses, and other professionals, of whom 806 participated. Indicators of the intention to use clinical guidelines were observed by using a theory-based questionnaire. The main data analysis was done by means of multiple linear regressions. Results The results indicated that all theory-based variables--the attitude toward the behaviour, the subjective norm, and the perceived behaviour control--were important factors associated with the professionals' intention to use clinical practice guidelines for their area of specialisation in the decisions they would make on the care of patients in the next three months. In addition, both the nurse and the physician factors had positive (p < 0.01) effects on this intention in comparison to other professionals. In the similar models for all professions, the strongest factor for the physicians was the perceived behaviour control, while the key factor for the nurses and the other professionals was the subjective norm. This means that context- and guideline-based factors either facilitate or hinder the intention to use clinical guidelines among physicians and, correspondingly, normative beliefs related to social pressures do so for nurses and other healthcare professionals

  13. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  14. Loss of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor J Expression Predicts an Aggressive Clinical Course in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongfeng; Li, Ming; Pu, Juan; Wang, Wanwei; Zhu, Weiguo; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-07-01

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor J (PTPRJ) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of PTPRJ in ESCC patients and its effects on biological behaviors of ESCC cells. PTPRJ expression, at mRNA and protein levels, were respectively detected by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, based on 106 newly diagnosed ESCC patients. The associations between PTPRJ expression and clinicopathological characteristics of ESCC patients were statistically analyzed. Then, the effects of PTPRJ in migration and invasion were determined by wound healing and transwell assays based on ESCC cell line transfected with siRNA or expression vector of PTPRJ. Expression of PTPRJ at mRNA and protein levels were both significantly lower in ESCC tissues than those in normal esophageal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry showed that PTPRJ protein was localized in the cytoplasm of cancer cells in ESCC tissues. In addition, PTPRJ downregulation was found to be closely correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.01) and poor differentiation (P = 0.03). Moreover, knockdown of PTPRJ in KYSE510 cells could significantly promote cell migration and invasion (both P < 0.05), which were reversed by the restoration of PTPRJ expression in vitro (both P < 0.05). Our data offer the convincing evidence that loss of PTPRJ expression may predict an aggressive clinical course in ESCC patients. PTPRJ may function as a tumor suppressor and play an important role in the regulation of ESCC cell motility, suggesting its potentials as a therapeutic agent for human ESCC.

  15. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e. g., communication training) and psychological coping (e. g., resilience enhancement).

  16. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B.; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Clark, Brenda; Karkhaneh, Mohammad; Hartling, Lisa; Tjosvold, Lisa; Vandermeer, Ben; Smith, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Background Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special education for non

  17. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  18. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  19. Staff reactions to challenging behaviour: an observation study.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Eeman, Lieve; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Staff reactions play an important role in the development and maintaining of clients' challenging behaviour. Because there is a paucity of research on staff reactions in naturalistic settings, this study examined sequential associations between challenging behaviour and staff reactions by means of a descriptive analysis. We analysed video recordings of the reactions of 10 staff members towards challenging behaviour of clients with severe or profound intellectual disabilities who displayed self-injurious behaviour, stereotyped behaviour and/or aggressive/destructive behaviour. As expected, the staff members used much verbal behaviours after challenging behaviour and often immediately tried to stop the challenging behaviour. Furthermore, staff often gave attention to challenging behaviour whereas offering or taking away material or tasks were less frequently observed reactions. Reactions to aggressive/destructive behaviour and self-injurious behaviour were quite similar. After stereotyped behaviour, not that many reactions occurred significantly more. Although this study has clinical implications and made a valuable contribution to research on staff reactions to challenging behaviour, more research is needed, more specifically, about the effectiveness of these staff reactions.

  20. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  1. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  2. Clinical significance of co-expression of MYC and BCL2 protein in aggressive B-cell lymphomas treated with a second line immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Masaru; Izu, Asami; Sugitani, Masahiko; Kurita, Daisuke; Sakagami, Masashi; Ohtake, Shimon; Uchino, Yoshihito; Hojo, Atsuko; Kodaira, Hitomi; Yagi, Mai; Kobayashi, Yujin; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Kiso, Satomi; Hirabayashi, Yukio; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takei, Masami

    2016-01-01

    The clinical significance of concurrent expression of MYC and BCL2 protein, known as "double-expressor lymphoma" (DEL), among patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas, remains unclear. A retrospective analysis was performed of 38 patients treated with a salvage treatment consisting of rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, cytarabine and dexamethasone followed by consolidative high-dose chemotherapies. A total of 17 cases (45%) were categorized as DEL using immunohistochemical assay with a cut-off value of positivity of 40% for MYC and 50% for BCL2, respectively. DEL was associated with a lower overall response rate (35% vs 71%, p = 0.0481), worse 2-year progression-free survival (9% vs 67%, p = 0.001) and overall survival (35% vs 71%, p = 0.037). This analysis suggests that DEL is common among patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas and that such patients require novel treatment strategies.

  3. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  4. Sensitivity of clinical and behavioural tests of spatial neglect after right hemisphere stroke

    PubMed Central

    Azouvi, P; Samuel, C; Louis-Dreyfus, A; Bernati, T; Bartolomeo, P; Beis, J; Chokron, S; Leclercq, M; Marchal, F; Martin, Y; de Montety, G; Olivier, S; Perennou, D; Pradat-Diehl, P; Prairial, C; Rode, G; Sieroff, E; Wiart, L; Rousseaux, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The lack of agreement regarding assessment methods is responsible for the variability in the reported rate of occurrence of spatial neglect after stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of different tests of neglect after right hemisphere stroke. Methods: Two hundred and six subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were given a test battery including a preliminary assessment of anosognosia and of visual extinction, a clinical assessment of gaze orientation and of personal neglect, and paper and pencil tests of spatial neglect in the peripersonal space. Patients were compared with a previously reported control group. A subgroup of patients (n=69) received a behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life situations. Results: The most sensitive paper and pencil measure was the starting point in the cancellation task. The whole battery was more sensitive than any single test alone. About 85% of patients presented some degree of neglect on at least one measure. An important finding was that behavioural assessment of neglect in daily life was more sensitive than any other single measure of neglect. Behavioural neglect was considered as moderate to severe in 36% of cases. A factorial analysis revealed that paper and pencil tests were related to two underlying factors. Dissociations were found between extrapersonal neglect, personal neglect, anosognosia, and extinction. Anatomical analyses showed that neglect was more common and severe when the posterior association cortex was damaged. Conclusions: The automatic rightward orientation bias is the most sensitive clinical measure of neglect. Behavioural assessment is more sensitive than any single paper and pencil test. The results also support the assumption that neglect is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:12122175

  5. Explosive, Oppositional, and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Autism Compared to Other Clinical Disorders and Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santoshkumar; Anderson, Robert; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ratings of explosiveness, opposition, and aggression were analyzed in 1609 children 6-16 years of age. Behavior problems were common in autism, ADHD-Combined type, and depression, whereas children with ADHD-Inattentive type, anxiety disorder, and acquired brain injury did not differ from typical controls. More than 40% of children with…

  6. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in rural Ethiopia: evidence from clinical vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Van de Poel, Ellen; Yilma, Zelalem; Abebaw, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five context-relevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting This study is set in 96 villages located in four main regions of Ethiopia. The participants of this study are 1632 rural households comprising 9455 individuals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Probability of seeking modern care for symptoms related to acute respiratory infections/pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, tetanus and tuberculosis. Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, where to seek care (health post, health centre, clinic and hospital). Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, when to seek care (seek care immediately, the next day, after 2 days, between 3 days to 1 week, a week or more). Results We find almost universal preference for modern care. Foregone care ranges from 0.6% for diarrhoea to 2.5% for tetanus. There is a systematic relationship between socioeconomic status and choice of providers mainly for adult-related conditions with households in higher consumption quintiles more likely to seek care in health centres, private/Non-Government Organization (NGO) clinics as opposed to health posts. Delays in care-seeking behaviour are apparent mainly for adult-related conditions and among poorer households. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the lack of healthcare utilisation is not driven by the inability to recognise health problems or due to a low perceived need for modern care. PMID:24525391

  7. The psychobiology of aggression and violence: bioethical implications.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and justifiable based on causes. Biological research and natural science theories are a basic ingredient for reflections, arguments and decisions on such matters. This study presents the problem of the causes of aggressive behaviour, the evolutionary understanding and definition of aggressive behaviour, the biological basis for this behaviour and the link between emotions and aggression. A growing body of evidence suggests that innate factors of behaviour (be they genetic or neurobiological) do not by themselves define behaviour and nor do acquired factors such as learning, cultural norms or worldviews. Both types of factor interact from the outset to shape a development process that mutually interacts to define beliefs or behaviour. PMID:21898943

  8. The psychobiology of aggression and violence: bioethical implications.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and justifiable based on causes. Biological research and natural science theories are a basic ingredient for reflections, arguments and decisions on such matters. This study presents the problem of the causes of aggressive behaviour, the evolutionary understanding and definition of aggressive behaviour, the biological basis for this behaviour and the link between emotions and aggression. A growing body of evidence suggests that innate factors of behaviour (be they genetic or neurobiological) do not by themselves define behaviour and nor do acquired factors such as learning, cultural norms or worldviews. Both types of factor interact from the outset to shape a development process that mutually interacts to define beliefs or behaviour.

  9. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vazales, Ryan; Constant, Dustin; Snyder, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa) is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC), marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended. PMID:27429279

  10. Dissemination of behavioural activation for depression to mental health nurses: training evaluation and benchmarked clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ekers, D M; Dawson, M S; Bailey, E

    2013-03-01

    Depression causes significant distress, disability and cost within the UK. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective single-strand psychological approach which may lend itself to brief training programmes for a wide range of clinical staff. No previous research has directly examined outcomes of such dissemination. A 5-day training course for 10 primary care mental health workers aiming to increase knowledge and clinical skills in BA was evaluated using the Training Acceptability Rating Scale. Depression symptom level data collected in a randomized controlled trial using trainees were then compared to results from meta-analysis of studies using experienced therapists. BA training was highly acceptable to trainees (94.4%, SD 6%). The combined effect size of BA was unchanged by the addition of the results of this evaluation to those of studies using specialist therapists. BA offers a promising psychological intervention for depression that appears suitable for delivery by mental health nurses following brief training.

  11. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in Down syndrome: Early indicators of clinical Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Dekker, Alain D; Strydom, André; Coppus, Antonia M W; Nizetic, Dean; Vermeiren, Yannick; Naudé, Petrus J W; Van Dam, Debby; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a core symptom of dementia and are associated with suffering, earlier institutionalization and accelerated cognitive decline for patients and increased caregiver burden. Despite the extremely high risk for Down syndrome (DS) individuals to develop dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), BPSD have not been comprehensively assessed in the DS population. Due to the great variety of DS cohorts, diagnostic methodologies, sub-optimal scales, covariates and outcome measures, it is questionable whether BPSD have always been accurately assessed. However, accurate recognition of BPSD may increase awareness and understanding of these behavioural aberrations, thus enabling adaptive caregiving and, importantly, allowing for therapeutic interventions. Particular BPSD can be observed (long) before the clinical dementia diagnosis and could therefore serve as early indicators of those at risk, and provide a new, non-invasive way to monitor, or at least give an indication of, the complex progression to dementia in DS. Therefore, this review summarizes and evaluates the rather limited knowledge on BPSD in DS and highlights its importance and potential for daily clinical practice.

  12. Diabetes self-care behaviours and clinical outcomes among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Haas, Catherine F; Weinger, Katie

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influences of patients' background characteristics on the frequency of performing five diabetes self-care behaviours that 185 Taiwanese outpatients reported. All patients had type 2 diabetes diagnosed for more than a year and attended an outpatient clinic at a large university hospital where they had received at least one dietitian-led individual nutrition education session and one nurse-led diabetes education session during the course of their care. Seventy nine percent of the patients regularly (defined as responses often or always on the questionnaire) took their medications and over half followed recommended meal plans and exercised, but fewer performed foot care (38%) or checked their blood glucose levels (20%) regularly. The associations between patients' demographics and disease-related characteristics and their performance of self-care behaviours were assessed with logistic regression. Although checking blood glucose levels and performing diabetes foot care were unrelated to any clinical outcome examined, patients who took their diabetes medications had lower hemoglobin A1c levels and fewer chronic complications than those who did not. Furthermore, patients who followed a diabetes meal plan also had lower hemoglobin A1c levels, and those who exercised regularly had healthier body mass indices (BMI) than those who did not. PMID:26420184

  13. Influence of the isolation method on the 10-year clinical behaviour of posterior resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Raskin, A; Setcos, J C; Vreven, J; Wilson, N H

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this prospective randomised clinical study were to clinically evaluate a radiopaque, highly filled, hybrid, light-activated resin-based composite for posterior teeth (Occlusin, ICI Dental, Macclesfield, UK and GC Dental, Tokyo, Japan) and compare the performance of restorations placed using rubber dam or cotton roll isolation. One clinician placed 100 (42 Class I and 58 Class II) restorations of the material under investigation. The isolation mode for each restoration was determined randomly: 52 preparations were protected from contamination with cotton rolls and aspiration, and 48 preparations were isolated under rubber dam. At baseline and periodically thereafter (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 years), each composite was evaluated by two practitioners using a modified (USPHS) rating system. After 10 years, 37 restorations were reviewed. The results showed satisfactory clinical performance with and without rubber dam after 10 years. A concern was the number of failures at 10 years due to unsatisfactory proximal contact. The evaluations for the surviving restorations were acceptable but with a large reduction in the percentage with ideal occlusal and proximal anatomy. The 10-year comparison of isolation modes showed no statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test) for each of the evaluation criteria. Furthermore, survival analysis showed no significant difference between the groups (Mantel-Haenszel method). It was concluded that the 10-year clinical behaviour of the restorations of a posterior composite placed under well-controlled, effective isolation with cotton rolls and aspiration, was not significantly different from the behaviour of restorations placed using rubber dam isolation.

  14. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  15. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  16. Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Symptoms of Severe Agitation and Aggression: Consensus Statement on Treatment Options, Clinical Trials Methodology, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Salzman, C; Jeste, D; Meyer, RE; Cohen-Mansfield, J; Cummings, J; Grossberg, G; Jarvik, L; Kraemer, H; Lebowitz, B; Maslow, K; Pollock, B; Raskind, M; Schultz, S; Wang, P; Zito, JM; Zubenko, GS

    2009-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been used off-label in clinical practice for treatment of serious dementia-associated agitation and aggression. Following reports of cerebrovascular adverse events associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic in elderly patients with dementia, the FDA issued black box warnings for several atypical antipsychotics, titled “Cerebrovascular Adverse Events, including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia.” Subsequently, the FDA initiated a meta-analysis of safety data from 17 registration trials across six antipsychotic drugs (five atypical antipsychotics and haloperidol). In 2005, the Agency issued a black box warning regarding increased risk of mortality associated with the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in this patient population. Geriatric mental health experts participating in a 2006 consensus conference reviewed evidence on the safety and efficacy of antipsychotics, as well as nonpharmacologic approaches, in treating dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression. They concluded that, while problems in clinical trials design may have been one of the contributors to the failure to find a signal of drug efficacy, the findings related to drug safety should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of treatment in a frail population, and in advising families about treatment. Information provided to patients and family members should be documented in the patient’s chart. Drugs should be used only when non-pharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control behavioral disruption. Participants also agreed that that there is a need for an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of severe, persistent or recurrent dementia-related symptoms of agitation and aggression (even in the absence of psychosis), that are unresponsive to nonpharmacologic intervention. The authors have outlined methodological enhancements to better evaluate treatment approaches in future

  17. Behavioural dynamics of a clinical trial of sunscreens for reducing solar keratoses in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, J; Thompson, S C; Marks, R; Jolley, D; Schofield, P; Hill, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the behaviour of participants based on perception of treatment group in a randomised trial contributed to clinical outcome. DESIGN: A double blind randomised controlled trial of the effect of daily application of SPF 17 broad spectrum sunscreen cream (or placebo) on solar keratoses. SETTING: A rural city in Victoria, Australia. Residents aged 40 years or over were invited by letter to attend for a skin cancer screening check. Of these, 588 people with between one and 30 solar keratoses enrolled in the trial and 431 completed the trial, which extended over a six month period that included summer. Participants' perceptions of their treatment allocation, adherence with the treatment regimen, adoption of other sun protection behaviours, side effects, and perceptions of change in condition were measured at two monthly intervals. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between those who completed the study and those that did not for sex, age, treatment group, skin type, number of solar keratoses or correct perception of treatment group. Thirty per cent of those completing the study correctly guessed their treatment allocation, and people were just as likely to be right as to be wrong when they stated their opinion about their treatment allocation (z = 1.04; p = 0.15). Study group, skin type, amount of time spent outdoors, presence of side effects, perceptions of change in skin condition did not significantly predict correct perception of treatment allocation. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that adoption of other sun protection and adherence with cream use were not significantly affected by actual treatment allocation, correct perception of treatment allocation nor by their interaction. Poisson regression analysis showed a significantly lower difference ratio of solar keratoses in the sunscreen group compared with the placebo base cream group (OR 0.55; CI = 0.46, 0.64), and for women compared with men (OR = 0.76; CI = 0

  18. The development of the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders

    PubMed Central

    First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M; Hyman, Steven E; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization is in the process of preparing the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), scheduled for presentation to the World Health Assembly for approval in 2017. The International Advisory Group for the Revision of the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders made improvement in clinical utility an organizing priority for the revision. The uneven nature of the diagnostic information included in the ICD-10 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG), especially with respect to differential diagnosis, is a major shortcoming in terms of its usefulness to clinicians. Consequently, ICD-11 Working Groups were asked to collate diagnostic information about the disorders under their purview using a standardized template (referred to as a “Content Form”). Using the information provided in the Content Forms as source material, the ICD-11 CDDG are being developed with a uniform structure. The effectiveness of this format in producing more consistent clinical judgments in ICD-11 as compared to ICD-10 is currently being tested in a series of Internet-based field studies using standardized case material, and will also be tested in clinical settings. PMID:25655162

  19. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  20. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  1. Urothelial bladder cancer in young adults: Diagnosis, treatment and clinical behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gunlusoy, Bülent; Ceylan, Yasin; Degirmenci, Tansu; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Yonguc, Tarık; Bozkurt, Halil; Aydogdu, Ozgü; Sen, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to reveal pathologic characteristics and clinical behaviour of patients 40 years old or younger diagnosed with and treated for urothelial bladder carcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathologic data of 91 patients, initially diagnosed and treated at our institution from May 1996 to December 2014. Cancer recurrence was defined as new occurrence of bladder cancer at the same or different sites of the bladder. Cancer progression was defined as an increase in stage or grade in any of the recurrences. Results: The mean age was 33.8 (range: 17–40) years. The pathological examination after transurethral resection revealed 83 (91.2%) patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer, and 8 (8.8%) patients with muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. According to the distribution of grade, there were 75, 4 and 12 patients with grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 diseases, respectively. Initial cancer staging was: pTa with 40 patients (43.9%), pT1 with 43 patients (47.2%), pT2 with 7 patients (7.6%), and pT3 with 1 patient (1.2%). While 17 (18.6%) patients recurred in the follow-up, 10 (10.9%) patients had progression. There were no differences in recurrence and progression rates in the Ta and T1 stages between groups (p = 0.233, p = 0.511, respectively). Conclusion: The risk of progression increased as the number of relapses increased. The clinical behaviour of high-stage and high-grade disease in younger patients is similar to the older group. PMID:26664508

  2. The 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome: clinical and behavioural phenotype

    PubMed Central

    van Bon, Bregje WM; Koolen, David A; Brueton, Louise; McMullan, Dominic; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; Adès, Lesley C; Peters, Gregory; Gibson, Kate; Novara, Francesca; Pramparo, Tiziano; Bernardina, Bernardo Dalla; Zoccante, Leonardo; Balottin, Umberto; Piazza, Fausta; Pecile, Vanna; Gasparini, Paolo; Guerci, Veronica; Kets, Marleen; Pfundt, Rolph; de Brouwer, Arjan P; Veltman, Joris A; de Leeuw, Nicole; Wilson, Meredith; Antony, Jayne; Reitano, Santina; Luciano, Daniela; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Brunner, Han G; Zuffardi, Orsetta; de Vries, Bert BA

    2010-01-01

    Six submicroscopic deletions comprising chromosome band 2q23.1 in patients with severe mental retardation (MR), short stature, microcephaly and epilepsy have been reported, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the 2q23.1 region might be responsible for the common phenotypic features in these patients. In this study, we report the molecular and clinical characterisation of nine new 2q23.1 deletion patients and a clinical update on two previously reported patients. All patients were mentally retarded with pronounced speech delay and additional abnormalities including short stature, seizures, microcephaly and coarse facies. The majority of cases presented with stereotypic repetitive behaviour, a disturbed sleep pattern and a broad-based gait. These features led to the initial clinical impression of Angelman, Rett or Smith–Magenis syndromes in several patients. The overlapping 2q23.1 deletion region in all 15 patients comprises only one gene, namely, MBD5. Interestingly, MBD5 is a member of the methyl CpG-binding domain protein family, which also comprises MECP2, mutated in Rett's syndrome. Another gene in the 2q23.1 region, EPC2, was deleted in 12 patients who had a broader phenotype than those with a deletion of MBD5 only. EPC2 is a member of the polycomb protein family, involved in heterochromatin formation and might be involved in causing MR. Patients with a 2q23.1 microdeletion present with a variable phenotype and the diagnosis should be considered in mentally retarded children with coarse facies, seizures, disturbed sleeping patterns and additional specific behavioural problems. PMID:19809484

  3. The 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome: clinical and behavioural phenotype.

    PubMed

    van Bon, Bregje W M; Koolen, David A; Brueton, Louise; McMullan, Dominic; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; Adès, Lesley C; Peters, Gregory; Gibson, Kate; Moloney, Susan; Novara, Francesca; Pramparo, Tiziano; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Zoccante, Leonardo; Balottin, Umberto; Piazza, Fausta; Pecile, Vanna; Gasparini, Paolo; Guerci, Veronica; Kets, Marleen; Pfundt, Rolph; de Brouwer, Arjan P; Veltman, Joris A; de Leeuw, Nicole; Wilson, Meredith; Antony, Jayne; Reitano, Santina; Luciano, Daniela; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Brunner, Han G; Zuffardi, Orsetta; de Vries, Bert B A

    2010-02-01

    Six submicroscopic deletions comprising chromosome band 2q23.1 in patients with severe mental retardation (MR), short stature, microcephaly and epilepsy have been reported, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the 2q23.1 region might be responsible for the common phenotypic features in these patients. In this study, we report the molecular and clinical characterisation of nine new 2q23.1 deletion patients and a clinical update on two previously reported patients. All patients were mentally retarded with pronounced speech delay and additional abnormalities including short stature, seizures, microcephaly and coarse facies. The majority of cases presented with stereotypic repetitive behaviour, a disturbed sleep pattern and a broad-based gait. These features led to the initial clinical impression of Angelman, Rett or Smith-Magenis syndromes in several patients. The overlapping 2q23.1 deletion region in all 15 patients comprises only one gene, namely, MBD5. Interestingly, MBD5 is a member of the methyl CpG-binding domain protein family, which also comprises MECP2, mutated in Rett's syndrome. Another gene in the 2q23.1 region, EPC2, was deleted in 12 patients who had a broader phenotype than those with a deletion of MBD5 only. EPC2 is a member of the polycomb protein family, involved in heterochromatin formation and might be involved in causing MR. Patients with a 2q23.1 microdeletion present with a variable phenotype and the diagnosis should be considered in mentally retarded children with coarse facies, seizures, disturbed sleeping patterns and additional specific behavioural problems.

  4. [Clinical and preventive intervention in eating behaviour: a dialogue between psychology and nutritional sciences].

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.

  5. Self-reported changes in clinical behaviour by undergraduate dental students after video-based teaching in paediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kalwitzki, M

    2005-08-01

    Four cohorts of undergraduate students (n = 113) were filmed on video tapes whilst performing paediatric treatments. Selected parts of these tapes were shown the day after. Thus, within one term each student was able to view his performance on a videotape as well as those of fellow students. After completion of the clinical course in paediatric dentistry students were asked by means of a questionnaire about behavioural changes in their clinical work regarding different topics. Considerable changes in behaviour were reported for various topics. Most of the students emphasised the viable role of the video for changing their behaviour. This was especially true for aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication where mainly female students benefited. Moreover, video was thought to have been useful for improving capacities to deal with patients in fear or pain and for ergonomics. About two-thirds of the students (64.6%) thought that watching the video had made it easier for them to put theoretical knowledge into action. Video does not seem to play an important role for confirmation and maintenance of behaviour patterns. In conclusion however, it can be stated that video has a high impact on the modification of behaviour patterns of undergraduate students for many aspects of clinical work. The use of video can thus attribute to dental education in an effective way. PMID:15982380

  6. Self-reported changes in clinical behaviour by undergraduate dental students after video-based teaching in paediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kalwitzki, M

    2005-08-01

    Four cohorts of undergraduate students (n = 113) were filmed on video tapes whilst performing paediatric treatments. Selected parts of these tapes were shown the day after. Thus, within one term each student was able to view his performance on a videotape as well as those of fellow students. After completion of the clinical course in paediatric dentistry students were asked by means of a questionnaire about behavioural changes in their clinical work regarding different topics. Considerable changes in behaviour were reported for various topics. Most of the students emphasised the viable role of the video for changing their behaviour. This was especially true for aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication where mainly female students benefited. Moreover, video was thought to have been useful for improving capacities to deal with patients in fear or pain and for ergonomics. About two-thirds of the students (64.6%) thought that watching the video had made it easier for them to put theoretical knowledge into action. Video does not seem to play an important role for confirmation and maintenance of behaviour patterns. In conclusion however, it can be stated that video has a high impact on the modification of behaviour patterns of undergraduate students for many aspects of clinical work. The use of video can thus attribute to dental education in an effective way.

  7. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  8. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  9. Understanding managerial behaviour during initial steps of a clinical information system adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the study of the information technology (IT) implementation process and its outcomes has received considerable attention, the examination of pre-adoption and pre-implementation stages of configurable IT uptake appear largely under-investigated. This paper explores managerial behaviour during the periods prior the effective implementation of a clinical information system (CIS) by two Canadian university multi-hospital centers. Methods Adopting a structurationist theoretical stance and a case study research design, the processes by which CIS managers' patterns of discourse contribute to the configuration of the new technology in their respective organizational contexts were longitudinally examined over 33 months. Results Although managers seemed to be aware of the risks and organizational impact of the adoption of a new clinical information system, their decisions and actions over the periods examined appeared rather to be driven by financial constraints and power struggles between different groups involved in the process. Furthermore, they largely emphasized technological aspects of the implementation, with organizational dimensions being put aside. In view of these results, the notion of 'rhetorical ambivalence' is proposed. Results are further discussed in relation to the significance of initial decisions and actions for the subsequent implementation phases of the technology being configured. Conclusions Theoretical and empirically grounded, the paper contributes to the underdeveloped body of literature on information system pre-implementation processes by revealing the crucial role played by managers during the initial phases of a CIS adoption. PMID:21682885

  10. CYP2D6 variation, behaviour and psychopathology: implications for pharmacogenomics-guided clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Peñas-LLedó, Eva M; LLerena, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Individual and population differences in polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzyme function have been known for decades. The biological significance of these differences has now been deciphered with regard to drug metabolism, action and toxicity as well as disposition of endogenous substrates, including neuroactive compounds. While the cytochrome P450 enzymes occur abundantly in the liver, they are expressed in most tissues of the body, albeit in varying amounts, including the brain. The latter location of cytochrome P450s is highly pertinent for susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases, not to mention local drug metabolism at the site of psychotropic drug action in the brain. In the current era of personality medicine with companion theranostics (i.e. the fusion of therapeutics with diagnostics), this article underscores that such versatile biological roles of cytochrome P450s offer multiple points of entry for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. We focus our discussion on CYP2D6, one of the most intensively researched drug and endogenous compound metabolism pathways, with a view to relevance for, and optimization of, pharmacogenomic-guided clinical trials. Working on the premise that CYP2D6 is related to human behaviour and certain personality traits such as serotonin and dopamine system function, we further suggest that the motivation of healthy volunteers to participate in clinical trials may in part be influenced by an under-or over-representation of certain CYP2D6 metabolic groups. PMID:24033670

  11. Lateralized loss of biting attack-patterned reflexes following induction of contralateral sensory neglect in the cat: a possible role for the striatum in centrally elicited aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bandler, R; Halliday, R

    1982-06-17

    A syndrome of "contralateral sensory neglect' was induced by hypothalamic knife cuts in 6 of 10 cats in which quiet biting attack behaviour could be elicited by lateral hypothalamic stimulation. The contralateral sensory neglect in the 6 affected cats was accompanied by a loss on the "neglected' side of the body of the patterned reflexes which mediate positioning of the head to bite and the jaw-opening component of biting. As a result, when these cats were stimulated in the lateral hypothalamus, although they continued to approach and even make tactile contact with the rat, they generally failed to bite it. Analysis of the histological and behavioural data suggested that damage to the nigrostriatal and/or striato/pallidonigral fibre systems provided the likely basis for both the induction of the contralateral sensory neglect and the lateralized patterned reflex loss. It was suggested, with respect to these specific patterned reflex components of the attack, that an important contribution may be made by the striatum.

  12. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  13. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  14. Aggressive dogs: assessment and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2008-05-01

    The question of what to do with an aggressive dog involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This first column on the subject addresses the clinical aspects from the standpoint of the general veterinarian. PMID:18581290

  15. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  16. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  17. [Aggressive clients in Dutch veterinary practice].

    PubMed

    Barbonis, T S A E; Endenburg, N

    2007-05-15

    Aggressive clients seem to be becoming more common. This article describes a study in which questionnaires on client behaviour were sent to veterinary assistants and veterinarians in randomly selected practices in the Netherlands. Results showed that 26.4% of the veterinarians and 29.3% of the assistants had experienced aggressive clients in the last year. Age, experience, and sex of the veterinarian or assistant did not influence the frequency with which aggressive clients were encountered. The same was true for the type of veterinary practice (companion animals, farm animals, horses, etc). The risk of encountering aggressive clients was higher among practices in large towns and in practices with a small turnover Of the veterinarians who had encountered aggressive clients at least once in their career, 31% has taken some kind of action after the aggressive encounter Nearly a quarter (24.9%) of veterinary practices have adopted a Risk Inventarization and Evaluation (RI&E) approach to preventing client aggression and 26.6% of practices have adopted another approach. While veterinarians tend not to consider aggression a big problem, they are often open to the suggestion that more attention should be paid to aggression in veterinary practice. PMID:17578228

  18. Transdiagnostic Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy in Canada: An open trial comparing results of a specialized online clinic and nonspecialized community clinics.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, H D; Nugent, M M; Alberts, N M; Staples, L; Dear, B F; Titov, N

    2016-08-01

    Effects of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for anxiety and depression are not well understood when delivered in non-specialized as compared to specialized clinic settings. This open trial (n=458 patients) examined the benefits of transdiagnostic-ICBT when delivered in Canada by therapists (registered providers or graduate students) working in either a specialized online clinic or one of eight nonspecialized community clinics. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Completion rates and satisfaction were high. Significant and large reductions (effect sizes 1.17-1.31) were found on symptom measures. Completion rates, satisfaction levels and outcomes did not differ whether ICBT was delivered by therapists working in a specialized online clinic or nonspecialized community clinics. Differences were also not found between registered providers and graduate students, or therapists trained in psychology or another discipline. The findings support the public health potential of ICBT.

  19. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  20. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  1. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  2. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  3. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases. PMID:24142292

  4. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD.

  5. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD. PMID:26271310

  6. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  7. Cortisol in the morning and dimensions of anxiety, depression, and aggression in children from a general population and clinic-referred cohort: An integrated analysis. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Andrea; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verhulst, Frank C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2013-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive problems have often been related to higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (basal morning cortisol levels and cortisol awakening response [CAR]) and externalizing problems to lower HPA-axis activity. However, associations appear weaker and more inconsistent than initially assumed. Previous studies from the Tracking Adolescents Individual Lives Study (TRAILS) suggested sex-differences in these relationships and differential associations with specific dimensions of depressive problems in a general population sample of children (10-12 years). Using the TRAILS population sample (n=1604), we tested hypotheses on the association between single day cortisol (basal morning levels and CAR) and specifically constructed dimensions of anxiety (cognitive versus somatic), depressive (cognitive-affective versus somatic), and externalizing problems (reactive versus proactive aggression), and explored the modifying role of sex. Moreover, we repeated analyses in an independent same-aged clinic-referred sample (n=357). Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the association between cortisol and higher- and lower-order (thus, broad and specific) problem dimensions based on self-reports in an integrated model. Overall, findings were consistent across the population and clinic-referred samples, as well as with the existing literature. Most support was found for higher cortisol (mainly CAR) in relation to depressive problems. However, in general, associations were weak in both samples. Therefore, the present results shed doubt on the relevance of single day cortisol measurements for problem behaviors in the milder range. Associations may be stronger in more severe or persistent psychopathology. PMID:23237815

  8. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  9. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression.

  10. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  11. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  12. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  13. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  14. Reduction of hypoglycaemic events with a behavioural intervention: a randomized clinical trial for paediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gee, B. T.; Nansel, T. R.; Liu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine if a low-intensity, clinic-integrated behavioural intervention reduced the incidence of hypoglycaemic events in children with Type 1 diabetes. Methods A total of 390 families with children with Type 1 diabetes were enrolled in a 2-year, randomized clinical trial of a behavioural intervention. The intervention was designed to improve diabetes management practices by targeting the family’s diabetes problem-solving skills. Hypoglycaemic events were categorized in two groups: those treated by oral ingestion and those treated by parenteral therapy. Events were self-reported by participants at each clinic visit, which occurred approximately every 3–4 months. Analyses included two-sample t-tests, the mean cumulative function test, and the Cox proportional hazards model for recurrent events to compare the incidence between groups. Results Across the entire 2-year study period, the incidence of hypoglycaemic events treated by oral ingestion of glucose-rich foods and events requiring parenteral therapy did not significantly differ between study conditions; however, during the second year of participant enrolment, the incidence of events treated by oral ingestion in the intervention group was 13.6 per 100 person-years compared with 27.3 per 100 patient-years in the control group (P = 0.02). The hazard ratio of these events during the second year was 0.49 (95% CI 0.27–0.90; P = 0.02). Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for a long-term (> 1 year) focus on the implementation of interventions targeting diabetes management in young people. Behavioural interventions targeting problem-solving skills could be considered as practical, non-pharmacological strategies to reduce hypoglycaemia in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25763988

  15. Proactive and reactive aggression in referred children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Cunningham, Julie A; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2004-04-01

    Investigating different types of aggression is important to facilitate a better understanding of excessive maladaptive aggression in referred youth. Using regression analysis, the authors investigated demographic, historical, diagnostic, and treatment correlates of proactive aggression and reactive aggression in a heterogeneous population (N = 323) of psychiatrically referred youths. Ratings of proactive and reactive aggression significantly correlated with more established measures of aggression. Results suggest the importance of hyperactive/impulsive behavior, disruptive behavior disorders, and self-reported hostility in youths with both reactive and proactive aggression. Substance use disorders, a family history of substance abuse, and family violence were specifically associated with proactive aggression. Younger age and a history of abuse were correlated with reactive aggression. Implications for clinical interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:15113242

  16. Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression.

  17. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  18. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  19. AVAPROMISE: A randomized clinical trial for increasing adherence through behavioural modification in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hamet, Pavel; Campbell, Norman; Curnew, Greg; Eastwood, Clive; Pradhan, Ashish

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertension often do not adhere to their medications. OBJECTIVE: To improve medication adherence in patients with essential hypertension by modifying their behaviours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From general practice settings, 4864 patients with essential hypertension were recruited and randomly assigned to receive the angiotensin receptor blocker irbesartan (Avapro) with (intervention group) or without (nonintervention group) a behavioural modification program (Avapromise) based on a model of change. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Patients were subgrouped based on their stage of change in the behavioural change continuum, and the intervention was tailored to address the needs of the particular subgroup. The primary efficacy measure was rate and time to discontinuation with irbesartan. RESULTS: At the end of the study, there was no significant difference in the discontinuation rates between the intervention (25.4%, 95% CI 23.7 to 27.2) and nonintervention (25.5%, 95% CI 23.8 to 27.3) groups (P=0.94). The time to discontinuation (P=0.87) and the extrapolated rate of discontinuation estimated from the Kaplan-Meir curve (intervention 23.1%, 95% CI 21.3 to 24.8; nonintervention 23.5%, 95% CI 21.8 to 25.3) were not different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This behavioural modification intervention based on a model of change was not efficacious at increasing rates of adherence in patients with essential hypertension in this setting. More individualized interventions may be required to increase adherence in this population. PMID:19644587

  20. The impact of clinical indications on visual search behaviour in skeletal radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A.; McEntee, M. F.; Rainford, L.; O'Grady, M.; McCarthy, K.; Butler, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    The hazards associated with ionizing radiation have been documented in the literature and therefore justifying the need for X-ray examinations has come to the forefront of the radiation safety debate in recent years1. International legislation states that the referrer is responsible for the provision of sufficient clinical information to enable the justification of the medical exposure. Clinical indications are a set of systematically developed statements to assist in accurate diagnosis and appropriate patient management2. In this study, the impact of clinical indications upon fracture detection for musculoskeletal radiographs is analyzed. A group of radiographers (n=6) interpreted musculoskeletal radiology cases (n=33) with and without clinical indications. Radiographic images were selected to represent common trauma presentations of extremities and pelvis. Detection of the fracture was measured using ROC methodology. An eyetracking device was employed to record radiographers search behavior by analysing distinct fixation points and search patterns, resulting in a greater level of insight and understanding into the influence of clinical indications on observers' interpretation of radiographs. The influence of clinical information on fracture detection and search patterns was assessed. Findings of this study demonstrate that the inclusion of clinical indications result in impressionable search behavior. Differences in eye tracking parameters were also noted. This study also attempts to uncover fundamental observer search strategies and behavior with and without clinical indications, thus providing a greater understanding and insight into the image interpretation process. Results of this study suggest that availability of adequate clinical data should be emphasized for interpreting trauma radiographs.

  1. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  2. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  3. Bullying among Girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An Examination of the Frustration-Aggression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…

  4. Contingent reinforcement or defending the self? A review of evolving models of aggression in people with mild learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, A; Trower, P; Pert, C; Finn, D

    2001-09-01

    This paper examines the changing approaches to working with people with a moderate to mild learning disability, who are frequently aggressive. Long-held assumptions about the lack of inter-personal understanding and impulsiveness continue to play a central role in clinical assessment and intervention for this group. Yet, there is a lack of controlled studies indicating the influence of such factors in frequent aggression. The dominant behavioural tradition has long encouraged such assumptions, but has focused on people with more severe disabilities where such assumptions are arguably more appropriate. The current review of the literature shows a clear evolution away from a strict behavioural approach towards cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches that take account of the heterogeneous psychosocial causes of aggression. We find support for CBT in the child-development literature, which examines inter-personal difficulties from an information-processing perspective. Finally, we argue that much of the literature implicitly utilizes the concept of self, and we suggest that this should be made explicit in a reformulated theory of the 'person', incorporating the self concept and embedding individual cognitive processes and behaviour in a social context.

  5. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  6. Molecular Profiling of Aggressive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Gazzola, Anna; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Pileri, Stefano A.; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, several studies of molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas were performed. In particular, it was shown that DLBCL can be distinguished in two different entities according to GEP. Specifically, ABC and GCB subtypes were characterized by having different pathogenetic and clinical features. In addition, it was demonstrated that DLBCLs are distinct from BL. Indeed, the latter is a unique molecular entity. However, relevant pathological differences emerged among the clinical subtypes. More recently, microRNA profiling provided further information concerning BL-DLBCL distinction as well as for their subclassification. In this paper, the authors based on their own experience and the most updated literature review, the main concept on molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:22190944

  7. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

  8. Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

  9. Effects of audiovisual distraction on children’s behaviour during dental treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khotani, Amal; Bello, Lanre A'aziz; Christidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Dental anxiety leads to undesirable distresses such as avoidance of dental treatment and increase stress among caregivers that consequently affect the treatment quality. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of viewing videotaped cartoons using an eyeglass system (i-theatre™) as an audiovisual (AV) distraction technique on behaviour and anxiety in children receiving dental restorative treatment. Methods: Fifty-six consecutive children patients who presented for treatment and met inclusion criteria were included and randomly divided into two groups; a control group without distraction (CTR-group) and a distraction-group (AV-group). Three dental treatment visits were provided for each patient. Anxiety and cooperative behaviour were assessed with the Facial Image Scale (FIS) and the Modified Venham’s clinical ratings of anxiety and cooperative behaviour scale (MVARS). The vital signs, blood pressure and pulse were also taken. Results: The AV-group showed significantly lower MVARS scores than the CTR-group (p = 0.029), and the scores decreased significantly during treatment in the AV-group (p = 0.04). Further, the pulse rate was significantly increased in the CTR-group during injection with local anaesthesia (p = 0.02), but not in the AV-group. Conclusion: AV distraction seems to be an effective method in reducing fear and anxiety in children during dental treatment. Further, children who used eyeglass goggle display as a distraction tool during dental treatment reported not only less anxiety than control groups but also showed more positive responses after injection with local anaesthesia. Hence, AV-distraction seems to be a useful tool to decrease the distress and dental anxiety during dental treatment. PMID:27409593

  10. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  11. Predicting short-term institutional aggression in forensic patients: a multi-trait method for understanding subtypes of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Van Rybroek, Gregory J; Rogstad, Jill E; Yahr, Laura E; Tomony, James D; Saewert, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Accurately predicting inpatient aggression is an important endeavor. The current study investigated inpatient aggression over a six-month time period in a sample of 152 male forensic patients. We assessed constructs of psychopathy, anger, and active symptoms of mental illness and tested their ability to predict reactive and instrumental aggression. Across all levels of analyses, anger and active symptoms of mental illness predicted reactive aggression. Traits of psychopathy, which demonstrated no relationship to reactive aggression, were a robust predictor of instrumental aggression. This study (a) reestablishes psychopathy as a clinically useful construct in predicting inpatient instrumental aggression, (b) provides some validation for the reactive/instrumental aggression paradigm in forensic inpatients, and (c) makes recommendations for integrating risk assessment results into treatment interventions.

  12. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  13. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  14. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats (Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  15. Sexual and testing behaviour associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a cohort study in an STI clinic in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Veličko, Inga; Ploner, Alexander; Sparén, Pär; Marions, Lena; Herrmann, Björn; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia infection (chlamydia) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Sweden. To guide prevention needs, we aimed to investigate factors associated with chlamydia. Methods A cohort of visitors aged 20–40 years at an urban STI clinic in Sweden was recruited. Behavioural data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Self-sampled specimens were tested for chlamydia by a DNA amplification assay. Statistically significant (p<0.05) and epidemiologically relevant covariates were entered in a multivariate Poisson model adjusted for potential confounders (age and gender). Backward stepwise elimination produced a final model. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing values. Results Out of 2814 respondents, 1436 were men with a chlamydia positivity rate of 12.6% vs 8.9% in women. Lifetime testing for chlamydia and HIV was high (82% and 60%, respectively). Factors significantly associated with chlamydia were: 20–24 years old (adjusted risk ratio (ARR)=2.10, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.65); testing reason: contact with a chlamydia case (ARR=6.55, 95% CI 4.77 to 8.98) and having symptoms (ARR=2.19, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.24); 6–10 sexual partners (ARR=1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21); last sexual activity ‘vaginal sex and oral sex and anal sex and petting’ (ARR=1.84, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.10); alcohol use before sex (ARR=1.98, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.57); men with symptoms (ARR=2.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.18); tested for chlamydia (ARR=0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94). Conclusions Risk factors associated with chlamydia were consistent with previous reports in similar settings and suggest no major changes over time. Increased risk for chlamydia infection associated with high-risk behaviour (eg, alcohol use, increased number of sexual partners) supports the need for behavioural interventions in this population such as promotion of safer sex behaviour (condom use) and testing. PMID:27566631

  16. Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Papale, Alessandro; Morella, Ilaria Maria; Indrigo, Marzia Tina; Eugene Bernardi, Rick; Marrone, Livia; Marchisella, Francesca; Brancale, Andrea; Spanagel, Rainer; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:27557444

  17. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  18. Impairment of cocaine-mediated behaviours in mice by clinically relevant Ras-ERK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Alessandro; Morella, Ilaria Maria; Indrigo, Marzia Tina; Bernardi, Rick Eugene; Marrone, Livia; Marchisella, Francesca; Brancale, Andrea; Spanagel, Rainer; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Ras-ERK signalling in the brain plays a central role in drug addiction. However, to date, no clinically relevant inhibitor of this cascade has been tested in experimental models of addiction, a necessary step toward clinical trials. We designed two new cell-penetrating peptides - RB1 and RB3 - that penetrate the brain and, in the micromolar range, inhibit phosphorylation of ERK, histone H3 and S6 ribosomal protein in striatal slices. Furthermore, a screening of small therapeutics currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy revealed PD325901 as a brain-penetrating drug that blocks ERK signalling in the nanomolar range. All three compounds have an inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced ERK activation and reward in mice. In particular, PD325901 persistently blocks cocaine-induced place preference and accelerates extinction following cocaine self-administration. Thus, clinically relevant, systemically administered drugs that attenuate Ras-ERK signalling in the brain may be valuable tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17111.001 PMID:27557444

  19. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  20. Comparing image search behaviour in the ARRS GoldMiner search engine and a clinical PACS/RIS.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Do, Bao; Rubin, Daniel; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    underrepresented, therefore RadLex was considered to be the best option for this task. The results show a surprising similarity between the usage behaviour in the two systems, but several subtle differences can also be noted. The average number of terms per query is 2.21 for GoldMiner and 2.07 for radTF, the used axes of RadLex (anatomy, pathology, findings, …) have almost the same distribution with clinical findings being the most frequent and the anatomical entity the second; also, combinations of RadLex axes are extremely similar between the two systems. Differences include a longer length of the sessions in radTF than in GoldMiner (3.4 and 1.9 queries per session on average). Several frequent search terms overlap but some strong differences exist in the details. In radTF the term "normal" is frequent, whereas in GoldMiner it is not. This makes intuitive sense, as in the literature normal cases are rarely described whereas in clinical work the comparison with normal cases is often a first step. The general similarity in many points is likely due to the fact that users of the two systems are influenced by their daily behaviour in using standard web search engines and follow this behaviour in their professional search. This means that many results and insights gained from standard web search can likely be transferred to more specialized search systems. Still, specialized log files can be used to find out more on reformulations and detailed strategies of users to find the right content.

  1. Comparing image search behaviour in the ARRS GoldMiner search engine and a clinical PACS/RIS.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Do, Bao; Rubin, Daniel; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    underrepresented, therefore RadLex was considered to be the best option for this task. The results show a surprising similarity between the usage behaviour in the two systems, but several subtle differences can also be noted. The average number of terms per query is 2.21 for GoldMiner and 2.07 for radTF, the used axes of RadLex (anatomy, pathology, findings, …) have almost the same distribution with clinical findings being the most frequent and the anatomical entity the second; also, combinations of RadLex axes are extremely similar between the two systems. Differences include a longer length of the sessions in radTF than in GoldMiner (3.4 and 1.9 queries per session on average). Several frequent search terms overlap but some strong differences exist in the details. In radTF the term "normal" is frequent, whereas in GoldMiner it is not. This makes intuitive sense, as in the literature normal cases are rarely described whereas in clinical work the comparison with normal cases is often a first step. The general similarity in many points is likely due to the fact that users of the two systems are influenced by their daily behaviour in using standard web search engines and follow this behaviour in their professional search. This means that many results and insights gained from standard web search can likely be transferred to more specialized search systems. Still, specialized log files can be used to find out more on reformulations and detailed strategies of users to find the right content. PMID:26002820

  2. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    PubMed

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  3. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  4. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sam A; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Daniel J; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L; Russo, Scott J

    2016-06-30

    Maladaptive aggressive behaviour is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and is thought to result partly from the inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus, extended amygdala and limbic circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behaviour. Here we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors develop a CPP, whereas non-aggressors develop a conditioned place aversion to the intruder-paired context. Furthermore, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of aggressors with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of non-aggressors with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Finally, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behaviour. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit has a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behaviour and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing. PMID:27357796

  6. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sam A; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Daniel J; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L; Russo, Scott J

    2016-06-30

    Maladaptive aggressive behaviour is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and is thought to result partly from the inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus, extended amygdala and limbic circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behaviour. Here we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors develop a CPP, whereas non-aggressors develop a conditioned place aversion to the intruder-paired context. Furthermore, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of aggressors with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of non-aggressors with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Finally, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behaviour. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit has a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behaviour and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing.

  7. ZEB1 turns into a transcriptional activator by interacting with YAP1 in aggressive cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Waltraut; Mossmann, Dirk; Kleemann, Julia; Mock, Kerstin; Meisinger, Chris; Brummer, Tilman; Herr, Ricarda; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Early dissemination, metastasis and therapy resistance are central hallmarks of aggressive cancer types and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. The EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 is a crucial stimulator of these processes, particularly by coupling the activation of cellular motility with stemness and survival properties. ZEB1 expression is associated with aggressive behaviour in many tumour types, but the potent effects cannot be solely explained by its proven function as a transcriptional repressor of epithelial genes. Here we describe a direct interaction of ZEB1 with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, but notably not with its paralogue TAZ. In consequence, ZEB1 switches its function to a transcriptional co-activator of a ‘common ZEB1/YAP target gene set', thereby linking two pathways with similar cancer promoting effects. This gene set is a predictor of poor survival, therapy resistance and increased metastatic risk in breast cancer, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:26876920

  8. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  9. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  10. Aggressive and impulsive behavior in Alzheimer’s disease and progression of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola; Pąchalska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are numerous, including worsening of mood, psychotic symptoms, aggressive and impulsive behaviours, and many others. It is generally assumed that there exists a relationship between the severity of dementia and aggressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aggressive and impulsive behaviours and cognitive function disorders in AD patients. Material/Methods Forty-eight AD patients living in a nursing home were included in the research group on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The subjects underwent two years of naturalistic observation. The intensity of agitation and aggressive behaviours was assessed on the basis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cog (ADAS-cog) was used to assess cognitive function. Pharmacotherapy administered during the observation period was also taken into account. Results Thirty-one patients completed the two year long observation. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficiencies demonstrated a greater intensity of aggressive and impulsive behaviours, as assessed using the CMAI scale. Aggression escalated together with the development of dementia disorders. The intensity of dementia disorders was most significantly connected with physical agitation and verbal aggression. The use of neuroleptics and mood stabilisers decreased the progression of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Conclusions There is a relationship between cognitive functioning disorders and the intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. More severe forms of dementia are connected with greater intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours as the disease progresses. Periodical administration of pharmacotherapy may reduce the development of aggressive behaviours. PMID:22367129

  11. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  12. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  13. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  14. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes.

  15. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  16. Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2008-08-12

    This paper reviews existing psychophysiological studies of aggression and violent behaviour including research employing autonomic, electrocortical and neuroimaging measures. Robust physiological correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour evident in this literature include low baseline heart rate, enhanced autonomic reactivity to stressful or aversive stimuli, enhanced EEG slow wave activity, reduced P300 brain potential response and indications from structural and functional neuroimaging studies of dysfunction in frontocortical and limbic brain regions that mediate emotional processing and regulation. The findings are interpreted within a conceptual framework that draws on two integrative models in the literature. The first is a recently developed hierarchical model of impulse control (externalizing) problems, in which various disinhibitory syndromes including aggressive and addictive behaviours of different kinds are seen as arising from common as well as distinctive aetiologic factors. This model represents an approach to organizing these various interrelated phenotypes and investigating their common and distinctive aetiologic substrates. The other is a neurobiological model that posits impairments in affective regulatory circuits in the brain as a key mechanism for impulsive aggressive behaviour. This model provides a perspective for integrating findings from studies employing different measures that have implicated varying brain structures and physiological systems in violent and aggressive behaviour. PMID:18434285

  17. Information Seeking Behaviour of Parents of Paediatric Patients for Clinical Decision Making: The Central Role of Information Literacy in a Participatory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Georgantzi, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the information seeking behaviour and needs of parents of paediatric patients and their motives for seeking Internet-based information. Method: A questionnaire survey of 121 parents was conducted in a paediatric clinic of a Greek university hospital. Analysis: The data were analysed using SPSS; descriptive…

  18. Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. An update.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Wright, J E

    1996-12-01

    Endogenous testosterone levels have been linked to aggressive behaviour in both animals and humans. Studies administering moderate doses of exogenous testosterone for contraceptive and clinical purposes reveal essentially no adverse effects on male sexual and aggressive behaviour. However, investigations and case reports of athletes, usually involving higher doses, demonstrate an association between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and affective and psychotic syndromes and psychological dependence. Efforts to study the psychological and behavioural effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids are complicated by a variety of methodological limitations. Only 3 prospective, blinded studies demonstrating aggression or adverse overt behaviour resulting from anabolic-androgenic steroid use have been reported. With estimates of over 1 million past or current users in the US, an extremely small percentage of individuals using anabolic-androgenic steroids appear to experience mental disturbances severe enough to result in clinical treatment and medical case reports. Even among those so affected, the roles of previous psychiatric history, genetic susceptibility to addictions or mental disorders, environmental and peer influences, and individual expectations remain unclear.

  19. Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor Expression Is Associated with NOTCH1 Mutation, Trisomy 12 and Aggressive Clinical Course in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Maura, Francesco; Mosca, Laura; Fabris, Sonia; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Barbieri, Marzia; D’Anca, Marianna; Manzoni, Martina; Colombo, Monica; Massucco, Carlotta; Reverberi, Daniele; Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Musolino, Caterina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Morabito, Fortunato; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540). High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM) status (p<0.0001), high CD38 expression (p<0.0001), trisomy 12 (p<0.0001), and del(11)(q23) (p=0.014). Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002) characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT), identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation. PMID:25786252

  20. Expectations and realities of student nurses' experiences of negative behaviour and bullying in clinical placement and the influences of socialization processes.

    PubMed

    Hoel, H; Giga, S I; Davidson, M J

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores nursing students' experiences and perceptions of negative behaviour and bullying in clinical placement measured against expectations at the start of their education. It explores their understanding and how they make sense of their circumstances and their experiences of negative behaviour, emphasizing socialization processes and factors which may prevent or reproduce negative behaviour and bullying. To this end, a focus group study was conducted, and this revealed that many students felt exploited, ignored or were made to feel unwelcome, although few reported personal experience of bullying. These frequent but less severe negative experiences appear to play a key role in institutionalizing an unwelcoming culture within which bullying could easily be triggered or take hold. Students' coping mechanisms may also contribute to reproducing such negative behaviour. The paper concludes that while the vulnerable position of student nurses might offer some protection against outright bullying, it is unable to shield them from unfriendly and negative behaviour, with implications for their learning and professional socialization. If student nurses respond to their experiences by suppressing their feelings and developing a hard front, such responses may themselves contribute to a reproduction of such behaviour with implications for personal wellbeing and retention rates.

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and aggression in OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Angkaw, Abigail C; Ross, Bridgett S; Pittman, James O E; Kelada, Alexandra Mary Y; Valencerina, Maria Anna M; Baker, Dewleen G

    2013-10-01

    Aggression is a problem among some combat veterans. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with physical aggression in veterans, and co-occurring depression increases the risk of committing aggressive acts. Few studies have examined the impact of PTSD on various forms of aggression. While using a standardized multidimensional measure of aggression, this study examines the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between PTSD and various forms of aggression in Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. Depressive symptoms are hypothesized to mediate the relationship between PTSD and four types of aggression: (1) physical aggression toward others, (2) physical aggression toward objects, (3) physical aggression toward self, and (4) verbal aggression. Seventy-two OEF/OIF veterans completed assessment batteries and clinical interviews upon enrollment into a postdeployment mental health clinic. Study results partially supported the study hypotheses; depressive symptoms indirectly mediated the relationship between PTSD and two forms of aggression: verbal aggression and physical aggression toward self. In contrast to some prior studies of intimate partner violence in veterans with PTSD, no mediation relationship between depression and physical aggression toward others was found. Study results have implications for the development of interventions to treat aggressive behaviors in OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD and depression.

  2. PF-04691502, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor has potent pre-clinical activity by inducing apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deyu; Mao, Chaoming; Zhou, Yuepeng; Su, Yuting; Liu, Shenzha; Qi, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in a variety of human tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Targeting this pathway has been validated in solid and hematological tumors. In the present study, we demonstrated that PF-04691502, a novel PI3K/mTOR inhibitor has potent activity in a panel of aggressive B-NHL cell lines including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). MTS analysis showed that PF-04691502 effectively inhibited cell proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 0.12 to 0.55 µM. Cells treated with PF-04691502 exhibited decreased phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein confirming the mechanism of action of a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with PF-04691502 induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, PF-04691502 significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 which contributed to suppression of cell proliferation. Finally, rituximab enhanced apoptosis induced by PF-04691502. Taken together, our findings provide for the first time that PF-04691502 inhibits the constitutively activated PI3K/mTOR pathway in aggressive B-cell NHL cell lines associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. These findings suggest that PF-04691502 is a novel therapeutic strategy in aggressive B-cell NHL and warrants early phase clinical trial evaluation with and without rituximab. PMID:26549638

  3. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  4. Influence of an alloy addition on the physical and clinical behaviour of glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abour, Mohamed Abour Bashir

    These in vitro studies compared the various properties of an experimental high powder liquid content glass ionomer cement (EXPT) with those of a metal addition GIC (Hi-Dense) and disperse phase amalgam (Dispersalloy). Bi-axial, four point flexural and compressive tests were used to evaluate strength. Six groups of ten specimens were constructed for each test for each material and allowed to set in an oven at 37°C for 60 minutes. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C until testing at one day, one week, one, three, six months and year. It was found that the strength of Hi-Dense increased and then maintained over extended time, whereas the strength of EXPT showed a declined at 3 months. The bond strengths of the materials to both enamel and dentine were also evaluated. Ten groups of ten teeth, five for each surface for each glass ionomer materials, were prepared. Teeth were aligned leaving the enamel and dentine surfaces exposed. The mixed material was condensed into a cylinder placed on the appropriate surface. These specimens were also stored in distilled water at 37°C. It was found that Hi-Dense had a higher bond strength to enamel that increased with time. The bond strength to dentine was maintained over the test period. The erosion rate of the materials was evaluated using the lactic acid erosion test. Three groups of six specimens for each material were constructed and tested after one hour, one day and at six months. Each specimen was subjected to an impinging jet of lactic acid solution. The erosion rate was determined by weight loss and dimensional change. It was found that Hi-Dense had a high erosion resistance which was slightly better than the experimental material. The microleakage, around restorations prepared, using the glass ionomer materials, was evaluated after cyclical loading the restoration-tooth complex. It was found that there was less leakage around Hi-Dense than EXPT at both the cervical and occlusal margins. In a clinical

  5. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts.

  6. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  7. Driving aggression in forensic and non-forensic populations: relationships to self-reported levels of aggression, anger and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch; Ward, Nic

    2006-08-01

    A series of four questionnaires - the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and a Driving Violence Inventory (DVI) - were administered to a sample of 473 British drivers consisting of undergraduates (N=185), members of the public (N=106) and offenders (N=182) serving sentences in closed prisons in England (violent=82, non-violent=100). Offenders consistently rated acts of driving aggression as less severe compared with other drivers. Offender attributions of driving violence differed to other drivers in that they were equally likely to perceive obscene gesturing as high or low intensity responses; they also viewed assault as a high intensity response whereas members of the public rated it more severely. Trait levels of anger and aggression were the predictors of driving violence in all groups but previous aggressive behaviour was only a predictor for the offenders. Gender and age were found to be predictors of aggressive driving in non-offenders. Even with the effects of age controlled, offenders (and violent offenders in particular) scored higher on measures of driving anger and aggression. These data suggest that offenders differ in their perceptions of aggressive behaviours experienced in everyday driving and as a consequence are more likely to commit acts that other drivers perceive as violent. As offenders are known to display similar perceptual biases in other domains, identified as precursors to their aggressive behaviour, it seems likely that experience effects (as reflected in the trait measures) underpin differences in driving aggression between offenders and non-offenders.

  8. Are American College of Rheumatology 50% response criteria superior to 20% criteria in distinguishing active aggressive treatment in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials reported since 1997? A meta‐analysis of discriminant capacities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, C P; Thompson, J L; Koch, G G; Amara, I; Strand, V; Pincus, T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To carry out a meta‐analysis designed to compare the discriminant capacities of American College of Rheumatology 50% (ACR50) with 20% (ACR20) responses in clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported after 1997 and to analyse whether ACR50 can be as informative as ACR20 in distinguishing active from control treatments in more recent trials. Methods Clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported since 1997 were identified, which included aggressive combinations of disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, as well as powerful new agents—leflunomide, etanercept, infliximab, anakinra, adalimumab, abatacept, tacrolimus and rituximab. A meta‐analysis of ACR20 compared with ACR50 responses for 21 clinical trials was carried out on differences in proportions of responders for active and control treatments and corresponding odds ratios (ORs). Results In all but one clinical trial on rheumatoid arthritis published since 1997 with data available on ACR20 and ACR50, more than 50% of patients who were ACR20 responders among those randomised to active treatment were also ACR50 responders. This phenomenon was seen for control groups in 38% of trials, many of which included treatment with methotrexate. A meta‐analysis of the clinical trials indicated a slight advantage to ACR50 for quantifying treatment comparisons, not significant for differences in proportions but significant for ORs. Conclusion ACR20 and ACR50 seem to be similar in distinguishing active from control treatments in clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported since 1997. As ACR50 represents a considerably stronger clinical response, ACR50 may be a preferred end point for contemporary clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:16504992

  9. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  10. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  11. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  12. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  13. Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of

  14. A cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma with an IGL-CCND2 translocation that relapsed with blastoid morphology and aggressive clinical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Kengo; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Hojo, Atsuko; Uchino, Yoshihito; Sakagami, Masashi; Ohtake, Shimon; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Miura, Katsuhiro; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Sugitani, Masahiko; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Koichi; Takei, Masami

    2016-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B cell neoplasm characterized by cyclin D1 overexpression; its prognosis is poor, especially when it exhibits a blastoid morphology. Cyclin D1-negative MCL is rare, and its pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Herein, we describe a cyclin D1-negative, cyclin D2-positive MCL with a CCND2 and immunoglobulin lambda light chain (IGL) translocation. The patient was initially diagnosed with cyclin D1-negative MCL and achieved complete remission via combination chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. After relapsing, he was diagnosed with a blastoid variant of MCL that showed lymphoid cells with dispersed chromatin and more mitotic figures and higher p53 expression compared with the initial MCL. Despite salvage therapies, the disease became refractory, and the patient died 28 months after initiating chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that blastoid morphology in cyclin D1-negative MCL with IGL-CCND2 translocation indicates progression to a more aggressive neoplasm, similar to cyclin D1-positive MCL.

  15. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk. PMID:27598908

  16. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk. PMID:27598908

  17. An investigation of general predictors for cognitive–behavioural therapy outcome for anxiety disorders in a routine clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Vangkilde, Signe; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective for treating anxiety disorders and is offered in most mental health services around the world. However, a relatively large number of patients with anxiety disorders do not benefit from CBT, experience relapses or drop out. Reliable predictors of treatment effects are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of emotion regulation and attentional control for CBT outcome in a routine setting. Methods and analysis In this prospective and practice-based study, 112 patients with anxiety disorders referred for manual-based group CBT at two psychiatric outpatient clinics will be recruited. Emotion regulation, severity of anxiety and attentional control will be assessed with self-report measures and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task at baseline, post-treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Emotion regulation will be measured with Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, severity of anxiety will be assessed with Beck Anxiety Inventory and attentional control will be measured with the self-report questionnaire, Attention Control Scale, and with an experimental computer-based attentional control task based on theory of visual attention. Data will be analysed using multilevel mixed-effects modelling. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Danish National Ethical Board, the Department of Psychology Ethical Board, University of Copenhagen and by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publications and conference presentations. The Danish Committee System on Health Research Ethics has been notified about the project. Trial registration number NCT02638363. PMID:27016248

  18. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  19. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  20. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  1. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  2. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  3. Mothers' and Teachers' Perceptions of Relational and Physical Aggression in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Heather Doescher; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 221 mothers and 48 teachers of pre-school children completed a survey in which they rated the degree of hurtfulness and importance of intervening for relationally or physically aggressive behaviours. Respondents also reacted to two short vignettes depicting aggressive peer conflicts (one physical, one relational) by indicating how an…

  4. Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

  5. What Makes Children Behave Aggressively? The Inner Logic of Dutch Children in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Marieke; Singer, Elly; van Geert, Paul L. C.; Kunnen, Saskia E.

    2009-01-01

    The ambiguous results of existing intervention programmes show the need for new ways in research on aggression among children. The present study focuses on the children's own perspective on their aggressive behaviour. Based on a constructivist approach, the inner logic of narratives about peer conflicts of 64 children in Dutch special education…

  6. Selective action of an atypical neuroleptic on the mechanisms related to the development of cocaine addiction: a pre-clinical behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Eduardo A V; Oliveira-Lima, Alexandre J; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Santos, Renan; Baldaia, Marilia A; Hollais, André W; Longo, Beatriz M; Berro, Laís F; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    An increased function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system has been extensively associated with the rewarding effects of both natural stimuli and drugs of abuse. Thus, dopamine receptor blockers, such as neuroleptic drugs, can be proposed as candidates for potential therapeutic approaches to treat drug dependence. Notwithstanding, this therapeutic potential of neuroleptics critically depends on a selective action on the specific mechanisms related to the development of addiction. We compared the effects of different doses of haloperidol, ziprasidone and aripiprazole (first-, second- and third-generation neuroleptics, respectively) on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment, hyperlocomotion induced by acute cocaine administration and cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Whereas high doses of haloperidol abolished the three behavioural paradigms without selectivity, low doses of ziprasidone selectively abolished the development of the behavioural sensitization phenomenon. Finally, low doses of aripiprazole inhibited acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioural sensitization without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. Thus, aripiprazole at lower doses was the most selective antipsychotic drug concerning the inhibition of the development of behavioural sensitization to cocaine. Because locomotor sensitization in rodents has been proposed to share plastic mechanisms with drug addiction in humans, our data provide relevant suggestions to the clinical practice.

  7. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  8. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  9. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  10. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  11. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  12. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  13. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  14. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  15. Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Non-Clinical Children: Relationships with Self-Report and Performance-Based Measures of Attention and Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; van der Pennen, Els; Sigmond, Rianne; Mayer, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between the regulative trait of effortful control, and in particular attention control, and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of 207 non-clinical children aged 8-12 years. For this purpose, children completed self-report scales for measuring regulative traits and various types of psychopathological…

  16. Deformed wing virus is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rortais, Agnès; Tentcheva, Diana; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Gauthier, Laurent; Arnold, Gérard; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

    2006-01-01

    Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed. PMID:16942620

  17. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  18. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  19. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  20. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  1. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  2. Data calibration and reduction allows to visualize behavioural profiles of psychosocial influences in mice towards clinical domains.

    PubMed

    Badowska, Dorota M; Brzózka, Magdalena M; Chowdhury, Ananya; Malzahn, Dörthe; Rossner, Moritz J

    2015-09-01

    Psychosocial stress-particularly in combination with genetic vulnerability-is a critical environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases in humans. Isolation rearing (IR) and social defeat (SD) paradigms model psychosocial risk factors in rodents, while enriched environment (EE) protects them from behavioural deficits. Studying the influence of various environmental conditions, e.g., on genetic mouse models can help to dissect the complex gene-environment relationships underlying human psychiatric diseases. Such studies may require analysing multiple mouse cohorts; however, the comparability of behavioural experiments is challenging and often compromised by practical limitations such as group sizes and influences of handling. Therefore, protocol standardization as well as appropriate statistical normalization is necessary to compare different experiments. In this study, we analysed two independent cohorts to compare the behavioural profiles of wild-type male mice subjected to IR and SD. In both cases, EE conditions served as a reference. Multivariate statistics was applied to merge the data from individual measures into broader categories (such as curiosity, anxiety and fear memory) by estimating their calibrated joint effect within a category. Plotting and overlaying these calibrated effect sizes in a single graph allowed intuitive comparison of IR and SD behavioural profiles. This approach allows analysing multiple behavioural tests at once, which is more relevant to psychiatric syndromes than focusing on single behavioural measures. Our method revealed that motivation and fear memory are impaired by both conditions, whereas ambulation and pain sensitivity are affected only by IR and curiosity is mainly diminished upon SD. Thus, IR could be a paradigm of choice in studies focusing on positive symptoms, while SD might be more relevant for negative and cognitive symptoms. PMID:25236183

  3. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  4. Alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression: A multiple mediation model.

    PubMed

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Petrocchi, Chiara; Cavallo, Francesca; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2016-03-30

    There is a need to better understand the antecedent of aggressive behaviors in order to tailor treatments and reduce the associated damage to the others and the self. Possible mechanisms underlying aggression are poor emotional awareness and emotion dysregulation, as well as impulsivity. Here, we examined the relationships among alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression, comparing a mixed psychiatric sample (N=257) and a community sample (N=617). The clinical sample reported greater levels of alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity and aggression, than the community sample. Furthermore, in the community sample, emotion dysregulation and impulsivity mediated the relationship (i.e., accounted for the shared variance) between alexithymia and aggression. In the clinical sample, only emotion dysregulation explained the alexithymia-aggression link. In particular, specific dimensions of the emotion dysregulation (i.e., Negative Urgency) and impulsivity constructs (i.e., cognitive and motor impulsivity) played a unique role in explaining these associations. Finally, controlling for depressive symptoms reduced some of the findings involving impulsivity to nonsignificant results. Overall, our findings add to the extant literature attesting to the relevance of alexithymia and emotion dysregulation for understanding aggression, and providing concrete recommendation for the treatment and prevention of aggressive tendencies.

  5. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J; Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2016-07-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  6. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. PMID:27138835

  7. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  8. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  9. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  10. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases.

  11. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs. PMID:27387554

  12. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs.

  13. Does integrated training in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the general practice (GP) specialty training improve EBM behaviour in daily clinical practice? A cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kortekaas, M F; Bartelink, M E L; Zuithoff, N P A; van der Heijden, G J M G; de Wit, N J; Hoes, A W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an important element in the general practice (GP) specialty training. Studies show that integrating EBM training into clinical practice brings larger benefits than stand-alone modules. However, these studies have neither been performed in GP nor assessed EBM behaviour of former trainees in daily clinical practice. Setting GP specialty training in the Netherlands. Participants All 82 third year GP trainees who started their final third year in 2011 were approached for inclusion, of whom 79 (96%) participated: 39 in the intervention group and 40 in the control group. Intervention Integrated EBM training, in which EBM is embedded closely within the clinical context by joint assignments for the trainee and supervisor in daily practice, and teaching sessions based on dilemmas from actual patient consultations. Comparison Stand-alone EBM training at the institute only. Primary and secondary outcomes Our primary outcome was EBM behaviour, assessed by measuring guideline adherence (incorporating rational, motivated deviation) and information-seeking behaviour. Our secondary outcomes were EBM attitude and EBM knowledge. Data were acquired using logbooks and questionnaires, respectively. Analyses were performed using mixed models. Results Logbook data were available from 76 (96%) of the participating trainees at baseline (7614 consultations), 60 (76%) at the end of the third year (T1, 4973 consultations) and 53 (67%) 1 year after graduation (T2, 3307 consultations). We found no significant differences in outcomes between the 2 groups, with relative risks for guideline adherence varying between 0.96 and 0.99 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.11) at T1, and 0.99 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.25) at T2, and for information-seeking behaviour between 0.97 and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.91) and 0.90 and 1.10 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.32), respectively. Conclusions Integrated EBM training compared with stand-alone EBM training does not improve EBM behaviour, attitude

  14. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  15. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  16. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process.

  17. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours—linalool and 2-phenylethanol—have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  18. Aggressive experience affects the sensitivity of neurons towards pharmacological treatment in the hypothalamic attack area.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Abrahám, I; Zelena, D; Juhász, G; Makara, G B; Kruk, M R

    1998-09-01

    Early investigators of brain stimulation-evoked complex behaviours (attack, escape, feeding, self-grooming, sexual behaviour) reported that experience may affect the behavioural outcome of brain stimulation. This intriguing example of functional neuronal plasticity was later totally neglected. The present experiment investigated the behavioural outcome of in vivo microdialysis perfusion of the glutamate agonist kainate and/or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline into the hypothalamic attack area (HAA) of (1) animals naive to dyadic encounters; (2) animals with a recent aggressive experience (the probe being implanted 6-24 h after the last of a series of dyadic encounters); and (3) animals with an earlier aggressive experience (probe being implanted 2 weeks after the last aggressive experience). On the experimental day, rats received two 5-min infusions during a dyadic encounter lasting 35 min with an unknown opponent. Flow rate was 1.5-2 microliters/min, drug concentrations were 1.8 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-5) M for kainate and bicuculline, respectively. Behaviour was analysed before, during and after perfusions. Only the combined kainate + bicuculline treatment had significant effects on behaviour at the doses studied. A significant increase in aggressive behaviour was elicited only in animals with a recent aggressive experience, while naive animals and with an earlier experience responded to the treatments by grooming. These results appear to support early observations indicating that one important aspect of brain stimulation effects is previous experience. PMID:9832932

  19. Closing the gap between clinic and cage: sensori-motor and cognitive behavioural testing regimens in neurotoxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Lu, Bingwei; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Animal models that make use of chemical toxins to adversely affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of rodents and primates have contributed significantly towards the development of symptomatic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although their use in developing neuro-therapeutic and -regenerative compounds remains to be ascertained, toxin-based mammalian and a range of non-mammalian models of PD are important tools in the identification and validation of candidate biomarkers for earlier diagnosis, as well as in the development of novel treatments that are currently working their way into the clinic. Toxin models of PD have and continue to be important models to use for understanding the consequences of nigrostriatal dopamine cell loss. Functional assessment of these models is also a critical component for eventual translational success. Sensitive behavioural testing regimens for assessing the extent of dysfunction exhibited in the toxin models, the degree of protection or improvement afforded by potential treatment modalities, and the correlation of these findings with what is observed clinically in PD patients, ultimately determines whether a potential treatment moves to clinical trials. Here, we review existing published work that describes the use of such behavioural outcome measures associated with toxin models of parkinsonism. In particular, we focus on tests assessing sensorimotor and cognitive function, both of which are significantly and progressively impaired in PD. PMID:22910679

  20. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  1. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  2. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Development of item bank to measure deliberate self-harm behaviours: facilitating tailored scales and computer adaptive testing for specific research and clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Shane; Meade, Tanya; Tennant, Alan

    2014-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of item banking to questionnaire items intended to measure Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH) behaviours. The Rasch measurement model was used to evaluate behavioural items extracted from seven published DSH scales administered to 568 Australians aged 18-30 years (62% university students, 21% mental health patients, and 17% community members). Ninety four items were calibrated in the item bank (including 12 items with differential item functioning for gender and age). Tailored scale construction was demonstrated by extracting scales covering different combinations of DSH methods but with the same raw score for each person location on the latent DSH construct. A simulated computer adaptive test (starting with common self-harm methods to minimise presentation of extreme behaviours) demonstrated that 11 items (on average) were needed to achieve a standard error of measurement of 0.387 (corresponding to a Cronbach׳s Alpha of 0.85). This study lays the groundwork for advancing DSH measurement to an item bank approach with the flexibility to measure a specific definitional orientation (e.g., non-suicidal self-injury) or a broad continuum of self-harmful acts, as appropriate to a particular research/clinical purpose.

  4. The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.

    PubMed

    Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

  5. Apathy: a pathology of goal-directed behaviour: a new concept of the clinic and pathophysiology of apathy.

    PubMed

    Levy, R

    2012-01-01

    We propose to defined apathy as a quantitative reduction of goal-directed behaviour. As such, the neural bases of apathy rely on lesions or dysfunctions of the brain structures that generate and control goal-directed behaviour: the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia and the frontal-basal ganglia circuits. Lesions or dysfunctions of the limbic territories of the frontal lobes (the orbital-mesial prefrontal cortex) and the basal ganglia (e.g., the ventral striatum) lead to apathy through difficulties to provide the affective value of a given behavioural context. We also suggest that lesions or dysfunctions of the associative ("cognitive") territories of the frontal lobes (the dorsal prefrontal cortex) and the basal ganglia (e.g., the dorsal caudate) contribute to apathy via a "cognitive inertia" - an inability to generate or activate strategies required to successfully complete a given program of actions. The most severe forms of apathy ("auto-activation deficit" syndrome), due to bilateral lesions in the prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits can be explained either by the addition of lesions in the cognitive and limbic territories or by a more general and elementary impairment that mirrored the presumed normal functions of the prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits, that is to selectively amplified the behaviour that one considers as the most adapted to one's personal needs or environmental demands. These lesions may limit the selective amplification of the signal that represents relevant thoughts and actions, leading to difficulties to disambiguate decision-making at the level of the prefrontal cortex. PMID:22921248

  6. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  7. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals.

  8. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

  9. High Prevalence of HIV, HCV and Tuberculosis and Associated Risk Behaviours among New Entrants of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinics in Guangdong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been available in Guangdong province, China since 2006. This study aims to estimate the prevalence levels of HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV), Tuberculosis (TB) and their co-infections and associated demographic and risk behaviours among MMT entrants. Method A total of 2296 drug users at the time of their MMT enrolment were recruited from four clinics during 2006-2011. Participants’ demographic characteristics, infection status and self-reported high-risk drug-use and sexual behaviours were surveyed. Log-linear contingency analysis was employed to investigate the demographic and behavioural differences between gender and drug-user type, while multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors of HIV, HCV and TB infections. Results Female drug users demonstrate significantly higher frequency of daily drug consumption (Log-linear contingency analysis, G2=10.86, p=0.013) and higher proportion of having had sex in the past three months (G2=30.22, p<0.001) than their male counterparts. Among injecting drug users, females also inject (χ2=16.15, p=0.001) and share syringes (χ2=13.24, p=0.004) more frequently than males. Prevalence of HIV, HCV and TB among MMT entrants are 6.3%, 78.7% and 4.4% respectively. Co-infections of HIV/HCV, HIV/TB, HCV/TB and HIV/HCV/TB reportedly infect 5.6%, 0.5%, 3.8% and 0.3% of study participants. Infection risks of HIV, HCV and TB are consistently associated with increasing length of drug use, injecting drugs, financial dependence and reduced sexual activities. Conclusion Injecting drug use is the major contributing factor in prevalence levels of HIV, HCV and TB among MMT entrants. Female drug users are more disadvantaged in their social status and risk-taking in their drug use behaviours than males. PMID:24116185

  10. Clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein and nitric oxide with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and their relationship with immunoglobulins and Th1-to-Th2 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Meziane, Warda; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Mesli, Naima; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-BCD) and nitric oxide (NO) with immunoglobulins (Igs) and T helper (Th)1/Th2 ratio in patients with newly diagnosed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods Thirty-two newly diagnosed patients with aggressive B-cell NHL and 25 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched healthy controls were randomly selected for a cross-sectional case–control study conducted at the Hematology Department of Tlemcen Medical Centre University (northwest of Algeria). Results Circulating levels of LDL-BCD and NO and those of IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The levels of Th1/Th2 ratio and plasma total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in patients compared with controls, while malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly higher in patients. B-cell NHL was significantly associated with high levels of LDL-BCD from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: relative risk [RR] =2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–3.59, P=0.014; 50th percentile: RR =2.84, 95% CI 1.72–4.68, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =5.43, 95% CI 2.58–11.42, P<0.001). Similarly, the disease was significantly associated with high levels of NO production from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: RR =2.07, 95% CI 1.25–3.44, P=0.024; 50th percentile: RR =2.78, 95% CI 1.63–4.72, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =4.68, 95% CI 2.21–9.91, P<0.001). Moreover, LDL-BCD levels were positively and significantly correlated with interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas NO levels were inversely and significantly correlated with IFN-γ and Th1/Th2 ratio. Conclusion LDL-BCD and NO production seem to be associated with aggressive B-cell NHL and alteration of Th1/Th2 ratio. Our results have to be examined using ex vivo mechanistic studies leading to further investigations of these parameters, with an interest in the

  11. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK1 receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Dudley, Julia A; Tsai, Yuan-Chen; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mice with functional ablation of substance P-preferring neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R−/− mice) display behavioural abnormalities resembling those in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the ADHD treatment, guanfacine, alleviated the hyperactivity and impulsivity/inattention displayed by NK1R−/− mice in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-choice serial reaction–time task (5-CSRTT), respectively. Following reports of co-morbid anxiety in ADHD, we also investigated effects of guanfacine on anxiety-like behaviour displayed by NK1R−/− and wild-type (WT) mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Experimental Approach Mice were treated with guanfacine (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), vehicle or no injection and tested in the 5-CSRTT or the LDEB. Only the lowest dose of guanfacine was used in the EPM assays. Key Results In the 5-CSRTT, a low dose of guanfacine (0.1 mg·kg−1) increased attention in NK1R−/− mice, but not in WT mice. This dose did not affect the total number of trials completed, latencies to respond or locomotor activity in the LDEB. Impulsivity was decreased by the high dose (1.0 mg·kg−1) of guanfacine, but this was evident in both genotypes and is likely to be secondary to a generalized blunting of behaviour. Although the NK1R−/− mice displayed marked anxiety-like behaviour, guanfacine did not affect the behaviour of either genotype in the EPM. Conclusions and Implications This evidence that guanfacine improves attention at a dose that did not affect arousal or emotionality supports our proposal that NK1R−/− mice express an attention deficit resembling that of ADHD patients. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:25074741

  12. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  13. Developmental Perspectives on Prosocial and Aggressive Motives in Preschoolers' Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Gun E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' prosocial and aggressive behaviours were explored longitudinally, with a focus on the inferred underlying motives of these behaviours. Forty-four children (initially 22-40 months of age) were observed in naturalistic interactions with peers, during a 2-month period, for each of three consecutive years. Three categories of prosocial…

  14. Adolescents as perpetrators of aggression within the family.

    PubMed

    Kuay, Hue San; Lee, Sarah; Centifanti, Luna C M; Parnis, Abigail C; Mrozik, Jennifer H; Tiffin, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Although family violence perpetrated by juveniles has been acknowledged as a potentially serious form of violence for over 30years, scientific studies have been limited to examining the incidence and form of home violence. The present study examined the prevalence of family aggression as perpetrated by youths; we examined groups drawn from clinic-referred and forensic samples. Two audits of case files were conducted to systematically document aggression perpetrated by referred youths toward their family members. The purpose of the first audit was fourfold: i) to identify the incidence of the perpetration of family aggression among clinical and forensic samples; ii) to identify whether there were any reports of weapon use during aggressive episodes; iii) to identify the target of family aggression (parents or siblings); and iv) to identify the form of aggression perpetrated (verbal or physical). The second audit aimed to replicate the findings and to show that the results were not due to differences in multiple deprivation indices, clinical diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders, and placement into alternative care. A sampling strategy was designed to audit the case notes of 25 recent forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) cases and 25 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the first audit; and 35 forensic cases and 35 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the second audit. Using ordinal chi-square, the forensic sample (audit 1=64%; audit 2=82.9%) had greater instances of family violence than the clinical sample (audit 1=32%; audit 2=28.6%). They were more likely to use a weapon (audit 1=69%; audit 2=65.5%) compared to the clinical sample (audit 1 and 2=0%). Examining only the aggressive groups, there was more perpetration of aggression toward parents (audit 1, forensic=92%, clinical=75%; audit 2, forensic=55.17%, clinical=40%) than toward siblings (audit 1, forensic=43%, clinical=50%; audit 2, forensic=27

  15. Adolescents as perpetrators of aggression within the family.

    PubMed

    Kuay, Hue San; Lee, Sarah; Centifanti, Luna C M; Parnis, Abigail C; Mrozik, Jennifer H; Tiffin, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Although family violence perpetrated by juveniles has been acknowledged as a potentially serious form of violence for over 30years, scientific studies have been limited to examining the incidence and form of home violence. The present study examined the prevalence of family aggression as perpetrated by youths; we examined groups drawn from clinic-referred and forensic samples. Two audits of case files were conducted to systematically document aggression perpetrated by referred youths toward their family members. The purpose of the first audit was fourfold: i) to identify the incidence of the perpetration of family aggression among clinical and forensic samples; ii) to identify whether there were any reports of weapon use during aggressive episodes; iii) to identify the target of family aggression (parents or siblings); and iv) to identify the form of aggression perpetrated (verbal or physical). The second audit aimed to replicate the findings and to show that the results were not due to differences in multiple deprivation indices, clinical diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders, and placement into alternative care. A sampling strategy was designed to audit the case notes of 25 recent forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) cases and 25 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the first audit; and 35 forensic cases and 35 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the second audit. Using ordinal chi-square, the forensic sample (audit 1=64%; audit 2=82.9%) had greater instances of family violence than the clinical sample (audit 1=32%; audit 2=28.6%). They were more likely to use a weapon (audit 1=69%; audit 2=65.5%) compared to the clinical sample (audit 1 and 2=0%). Examining only the aggressive groups, there was more perpetration of aggression toward parents (audit 1, forensic=92%, clinical=75%; audit 2, forensic=55.17%, clinical=40%) than toward siblings (audit 1, forensic=43%, clinical=50%; audit 2, forensic=27

  16. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  17. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  18. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence.

  19. Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies

    PubMed Central

    Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P.; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S.; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal selection pressures in host–parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies. PMID:22809720

  20. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  1. Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Priori, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Morality is among the most sophisticated features of human judgement, behaviour and, ultimately, mind. An individual who behaves immorally may violate ethical rules and civil rights, and may threaten others' individual liberty, sometimes becoming violent and aggressive. In recent years, neuroscience has shown a growing interest in human morality, and has advanced our understanding of the cognitive and emotional processes involved in moral decisions, their anatomical substrates and the neurology of abnormal moral behaviour. In this article, we review research findings that have provided a key insight into the functional and clinical neuroanatomy of the brain areas involved in normal and abnormal moral behaviour. The 'moral brain' consists of a large functional network including both cortical and subcortical anatomical structures. Because morality is a complex process, some of these brain structures share their neural circuits with those controlling other behavioural processes, such as emotions and theory of mind. Among the anatomical structures implicated in morality are the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. The prefrontal cortex regulates activity in subcortical emotional centres, planning and supervising moral decisions, and when its functionality is altered may lead to impulsive aggression. The temporal lobe is involved in theory of mind and its dysfunction is often implicated in violent psychopathy. The cingulate cortex mediates the conflict between the emotional and the rational components of moral reasoning. Other important structures contributing to moral behaviour include the subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala, hippocampus and basal ganglia. Brain areas participating in moral processing can be influenced also by genetic, endocrine and environmental factors. Hormones can modulate moral behaviour through their effects on the brain. Finally, genetic polymorphisms can predispose to aggressivity and violence, arguing for a genetic

  2. Effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV Vaccine Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leah M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Strumpf, Erin C.; Lévesque, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Methods: Using Ontario’s administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario’s grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non–HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10–12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. Results: The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls −0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] −10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls −0.25 (95% CI −4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. Interpretation: We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. PMID:25487660

  3. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  4. Clinical Impact of a Humanized CCR4 Antibody (Mogamulizumab) in 14 Patients with Aggressive Adult T-cell Leukemia-lymphoma Treated at a Single Institution During a Three-year Period (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Kawano, Noriaki; Kuriyama, Takuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Yoshida, Shuro; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Ochiai, Hidenobu; Shimoda, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Ueda, Akira; Kikuchi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective We elucidated the effectiveness of a humanized CCR4 antibody (mogamulizumab) on adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), which typically has a poor outcome. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 14 patients with aggressive ATL who had been treated at our institution with weekly cycles of mogamulizumab for eight weeks from 2012-2014. Results The patients (median age: 63 years old) were classified as having acute- (n=10) or lymphoma-type (n=4) ATL. The prior treatment regimens consisted of CHOP, VCAP-AMP-VECP, DeVIC and CHASE, with an average of two courses (range: 1-4). The prior disease responses were partial remission (n=3) and progressive disease (n=11). The treatment was administered in the primary refractory setting (n=8), for relapse (n=2), or as bridging therapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=4). The overall response rates were 64% and 43% after four and eight cycles (or after the final cycles), respectively. The median overall survival (OS), OS rate at six months and OS rate at 12 months were 66 days, 41.7% and 20.8%, respectively. All of the patients with acute-type ATL who showed a response to treatment had an early response. Notably, six of the 14 ATL patients showed somewhat prolonged survival (>100 days). However, relapse or disease progression in the peripheral blood, central nervous system, lymph nodes, skin, and/or bone occurred within a relatively short period after treatment. The adverse effects were tolerable, and included lymphopenia, cytomegalovirus infection and skin rash. Conclusion Mogamulizumab therapy resulted in an early and high remission rate and somewhat prolonged survival in patients with refractory ATL. However, the duration of remission was short, and there was early relapse and disease progression. This study may show the current impact of mogamulizumab in clinical practice. PMID:27250049

  5. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  6. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  7. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  8. English soccer teams' aggressive behavior when playing away from home.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Smith, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Speculation about key factors affecting home advantage still exists. The present study investigated aggressive behavior amongst English Football Premiership (soccer) players and its relation to home advantage. The frequency of aggressive behaviour, identified by the award of a penalty or disciplinary card (yellow for caution or red for dismissal) was analysed over 2000-2003. Chi-square analyses assessed whether a greater frequency of aggressive behavior was performed by teams away from home. In decided matches, teams playing away received significantly more cautions (yellow cards) than home teams. A further analysis of tied matches indicated that away teams received significantly more cautions (yellow cards) than home teams. No significant differences between home and away teams were found for dismissals and penalties awarded. Reasons for these findings are considered.

  9. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  10. The relation between poor sleep, impulsivity and aggression in forensic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Spreen, Marinus; Lancel, Marike

    2014-01-17

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with disturbed sleep. Poor sleep can attenuate emotional control, including the regulation of aggression, and thus, may increase the risk of impulsive, aggressive acts. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of sleep problems to subjective and objective aggressiveness and impulsivity in a forensic psychiatric population. Questionnaires on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), chronic severe insomnia (Sleep Diagnosis List), aggressiveness (Aggression Questionnaire) and impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) were completed by 96 forensic psychiatric inpatients, admitted to two forensic facilities in the Netherlands. To obtain more objective measurements of aggression and impulsivity, observational scores on a professional instrument to assess the risk of future aggression (Historical Clinical Future-30) and reported aggressive incidents were collected from files. Results showed that a worse sleep quality and higher insomnia scores were significantly associated with self-reported aggression and impulsivity, clinician-rated hostility and involvement in aggressive incidents within the facility. Whether a participant was professionally judged as impulsive could not be predicted by sleep quality or the insomnia score. To a large extent the results of this study support the hypothesis that poor sleep is related to impulsive, aggressive behavior in forensic psychiatric patients. It is worthwhile to examine the protective effect of treatment of sleep difficulties on aggressive reactivity in (forensic) psychiatric populations. PMID:24184508

  11. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  12. The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

  13. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  14. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  15. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  16. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  17. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  18. A behavioural Bayes approach to the determination of sample size for clinical trials considering efficacy and safety: imbalanced sample size in treatment groups.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Gittins, John

    2011-08-01

    The behavioural Bayes approach to sample size determination for clinical trials assumes that the number of subsequent patients switching to a new drug from the current drug depends on the strength of the evidence for efficacy and safety that was observed in the clinical trials. The optimal sample size is the one which maximises the expected net benefit of the trial. The approach has been developed in a series of papers by Pezeshk and the present authors (Gittins JC, Pezeshk H. A behavioral Bayes method for determining the size of a clinical trial. Drug Information Journal 2000; 34: 355-63; Gittins JC, Pezeshk H. How Large should a clinical trial be? The Statistician 2000; 49(2): 177-87; Gittins JC, Pezeshk H. A decision theoretic approach to sample size determination in clinical trials. Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics 2002; 12(4): 535-51; Gittins JC, Pezeshk H. A fully Bayesian approach to calculating sample sizes for clinical trials with binary responses. Drug Information Journal 2002; 36: 143-50; Kikuchi T, Pezeshk H, Gittins J. A Bayesian cost-benefit approach to the determination of sample size in clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27(1): 68-82; Kikuchi T, Gittins J. A behavioral Bayes method to determine the sample size of a clinical trial considering efficacy and safety. Statistics in Medicine 2009; 28(18): 2293-306; Kikuchi T, Gittins J. A Bayesian procedure for cost-benefit evaluation of a new drug in multi-national clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine 2009 (Submitted)). The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for experimental designs which allocate more patients to the new treatment than to the control group. The model uses a logistic weight function, including an interaction term linking efficacy and safety, which determines the number of patients choosing the new drug, and hence the resulting benefit. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed for the calculation. Having a larger group of patients on the new drug in general

  19. Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis. PMID:20226098

  20. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption.

  1. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption. PMID:24482210

  2. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  3. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study

    PubMed Central

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  4. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. Methods We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p<0.001) and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2), p = 0.002), but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1), p = 0.574). Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only. Conclusions A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs’ abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students. PMID:25894559

  5. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  6. Violated expectancies: Cause and function of exploration, fear, and aggression.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Hendrik S

    2015-08-01

    To be able to reproduce, animals need to survive and interact with an ever changing environment. Therefore, they create a cognitive representation of that environment, from which they derive expectancies regarding current and future events. These expected events are compared continuously with information gathered through exploration, to guide behaviour and update the existing representation. When a moderate discrepancy between perceived and expected events is detected, exploration is employed to update the internal representation so as to alter the expectancy and make it match the perceived event. When the discrepancy is relatively large, exploration is inhibited, and animals will try to alter the perceived event utilizing aggression or fear. The largest discrepancies are associated with a tendency to flee. When an exploratory, fear, or aggressive behaviour pattern proofs to be the optimal solution for a particular discrepancy, the response will become conditioned to events that previously preceded the occurrence of that discrepancy. When primary needs are relatively low, animals will actively look for or create moderately violated expectancies in order to learn about objects, behaviour patterns, and the environment. In those situations, exploratory tendencies will summate with ongoing behaviour and, when all primary needs are satiated, may even be performed exclusively. This results in behavioural variability, play, and active information-seeking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of HIV Prevalence, HIV Service Uptake, and HIV-Related Risk Behaviour among Patients Attending a Mental Health Clinic in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Lommerse, Kinke; Stewart, Robert C.; Chilimba, Queen; van den Akker, Thomas; Lund, Crick

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mental illness are interlinked health problems; mental illness may pose a risk for contracting HIV and HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk of mental illness. However, in countries with high HIV prevalence, the main focus of HIV-related health programmes is usually on prevention and treatment of somatic complications of HIV, and mental illness is not given high priority. We examined HIV prevalence, uptake of HIV services, and HIV-related risk behaviour among people attending a mental health clinic in rural Malawi. Methodology Semi-structured interviews were performed with patients capable to consent (94%), and with those accompanied by a capable caregiver who consented. HIV counselling and testing was offered to participants. Findings Among 174 participants, we collected 162 HIV test results (91%). HIV prevalence was 14.8%. Women were three times as likely to be HIV-positive compared to men. Two-thirds of participants reported having been tested for HIV prior to this study. The uptake of HIV-services among HIV-positive patients was low: 35% did not use recommended prophylactic therapy and 44% of patients not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) had never been assessed for ART eligibility. The reported rate of sexual activity was 61%, and 9% of sexually active participants had multiple partners. Inconsistent condom use with stable (89%) and occasional (79%) sexual partners, and absence of knowledge of the HIV status of those partners (53%, 63%) indicate high levels of sexual risk behaviour. Conclusions HIV-prevalence among persons attending the clinic, particularly men, was lower than among the general population in a population survey. The rate of HIV testing was high, but there was low uptake of preventive measures and ART. This illustrates that HIV-positive individuals with mental illness or epilepsy constitute a vulnerable population. HIV programmes should include those with neuropsychiatric illness

  8. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  9. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Megan R.; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A.; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment. PMID:25924113

  11. MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Antisocial aggression is a widespread and expensive social problem. Although aggressive behaviors and temperament are highly heritable, clinical and trait associations for the most promising candidate gene for aggression, MAOA, have been largely inconsistent. We suggest that limitations inherent to that approach might be overcome by using multimodal neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of genetic risk. Herein, we detail functional, structural and connectivity findings implicating the low-expressing allele of the MAOA u-VNTR (MAOA-L) in adversely prejudicing information processing within a corticolimbic circuit composed of amygdala, rostral cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. We propose that the MAOA-L, by causing an ontogenic excess of 5-hydroxytryptamine, labilizes critical neural circuitry for social evaluation and emotion regulation (the 'socioaffective scaffold'), thereby amplifying the effects of adverse early-life experience and creating deleterious sociocognitive biases. Our construct provides a neurobiologically consistent model for gene-environment interactions in impulsive aggression.

  12. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. PMID:21994828

  13. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes.

  14. Are there long-term benefits of experiential, interprofessional education for non-specialists on clinical behaviours and outcomes in diabetes care? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Daniel; Forte, Denise; Aitchison, Elizabeth; Earle, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess the impact of an educational initiative for non-specialist, healthcare professionals in the community on the process and quality measures of diabetes care delivered, and changes in their learning experiences and clinical management behaviour in the short and long term. Setting Single locality of 26 primary care practices associated with one secondary centre. Participants General practitioners and practice nurses managing 4167 patients with diabetes. Intervention A rolling 10-week, experiential, interprofessional education programme delivered to 57 practitioners and observations in practice. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were changes in the proportion of patients receiving foot care, urine albumin:creatinine ratio assessments and achieving National Quality Outcome Framework targets for blood pressure (<145/80 mm Hg), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; >86 mmol/mol (10%) and <57.4 mmol/mol (7.4%)) and total cholesterol (<5 mmol/L) thresholds. Secondary outcomes were evidence of sustained learning and changes in the number of patients referred to secondary care. Results Evaluation of care processes and quality outcomes took place 15 months after the programme was initiated. The proportion of patients with a HbA1c of <57.4 mmol/mol (7.4%) and >85 mmol/mol (10%) was significantly higher (44% vs 53% p=0.0001) and lower (12.5% vs 10%; p=0.002) respectively. There was an increase in the proportion (95% CI) of patients receiving foot care reviews (+26.0% (24.0% to 28.1%)), microalbuminuria screening (+29.8% (27.7% to 31.9%)) and who achieved targets for blood pressure (+9.6% (7.5% to 11.6%)) and total cholesterol (+14.4% (12.3% to 16.5%); p<0.001). 241 fewer patients were referred to secondary care. Increases in the healthcare professional's confidence and collaborative clinical behaviour were evident 3 years after completing the programme. Conclusions An experiential, interprofessional intervention can

  15. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  16. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  17. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  18. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered.

  19. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

  20. Treatment of human aggression with major tranquilizers, antidepressants, and newer psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Wadud, A

    1975-02-01

    Most of the drugs used in the treatment of aggressive syndromes have originally been developed for other clinical applications. Despite significant differences in the pathogenesis of various aggressive disorders, the frequently used "antiaggression" drugs are the major tranquilizers (neuroleptics). If the aggresstion is associated with psychosis, chlorpromazine or haloperidol are the drugs of choice. Aggressive disorders within the acute and chronic brain syndromes are best treated with pericyazine, thioridazine, and thiothixene. In aggressive symptoms of mentally retarded patients, particularly with epileptic syndromes, a new benzazepine (SCH12,679)was found to be very effective. Aggression associated with alcoholism or narcotic addiction showed best response to chlorpormazine and haloperidol. As a general rule, in aggressive patients with clinically known epilepsy, or with abnormal electroencephalographic findings, the major tranquilizers with potent sedative properties should be given with great caution.

  1. The role of violence exposure and negative affect in understanding child and adolescent aggression.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eunha; Young, John

    2014-12-01

    Aggressive behaviors in youth tend to be relatively stable across the lifespan and are associated with maladaptive functioning later in life. Researchers have recently identified that both violence exposure and negative affective experiences are related to the development of aggressive behaviors. Children exposed to violence also often experience negative affect (NA) in the form of anxiety and depression. Bringing these findings together, the current study used a clinical sample of youth (N = 199; ages 7-17 years) referred to a psychiatric residential treatment facility to examine the specific contributions of NA and exposure to violence on the development of aggressive behaviors in youth. Using structural equation modeling, both NA and recent exposure to violence significantly predicted aggressive behaviors. More importantly, negative affect partially mediated the relationship between exposure to violence and aggression. Implications of these findings from a clinical perspective and future directions for research on aggression are discussed.

  2. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  3. Psychopathy and aggression: when paralimbic dysfunction leads to violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models, which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  4. Psychopathy & Aggression: When Paralimbic Dysfunction Leads to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  5. Behavioural effects of histamine and its antagonists: a review.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Rumbold, G R

    1988-01-01

    This review focuses on the behavioural effects of histamine and drugs which affect histaminergic function, particularly the H1- and H2-receptors antagonists. Research in this area has assumed considerable importance with increasing interest in the role of brain histamine, the clinical use of both H1 and H2 antagonists and evidence of nonmedical use of H1 antagonists. Results from a number of studies show that H1 and H2 antagonists have clear, but distinct subjective effects and that H1 antagonists have discriminative effects in animals. While H1 antagonists are reinforcers in certain conditions, histamine itself is a punisher. Moderate doses of H1 antagonists affect psychomotor performance in some situations, but the results are variable. The exceptions are terfenadine and astemizole, which do not seem to penetrate the blood-brain barrier readily. In studies of schedule-controlled behaviour, marked changes in response rate have been observed following administration of H1 antagonists, with the magnitude and direction dependent on the dose and the baseline behaviour. Histamine reduces avoidance responding, an effect mediated via H1-receptors. Changes in drinking and aggressive behaviour have also been observed following histamine administration and distinct roles for H1- and H2-receptors have been delineated. Separate H1- and H2-receptor mechanisms have also been suggested to account for changes in activity level. While the H2 antagonists do not always have strong behavioural effects when administered peripherally, there is evidence that cimetidine has a depressant effect on sexual function. These and other findings reveal an important role for histaminergic systems in a wide range of behaviour. PMID:3133686

  6. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples.

  7. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples. PMID:26213380

  8. Predicting functional decline in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Weigand, Stephen D; Senjem, Matthew L; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2011-02-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by a change in comportment. It is associated with considerable functional decline over the course of the illness albeit with sometimes dramatic variability among patients. It is unknown whether any baseline features, or combination of features, could predict rate of functional decline in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different baseline clinical, neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, genetic and anatomic predictors on the rate of functional decline as measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes scale. We identified 86 subjects with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia that had multiple serial Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes assessments (mean 4, range 2-18). Atlas-based parcellation was used to generate volumes for specific regions of interest at baseline. Volumes were utilized to classify subjects into different anatomical subtypes using the advanced statistical technique of cluster analysis and were assessed as predictor variables. Composite scores were generated for the neuropsychological domains of executive, language, memory and visuospatial function. Behaviours from the brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were assessed. Linear mixed-effects regression modelling was used to determine which baseline features predict rate of future functional decline. Rates of functional decline differed across the anatomical subtypes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, with faster rates observed in the frontal dominant and frontotemporal subtypes. In addition, subjects with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of executive, language and visuospatial function, less disinhibition, agitation/aggression and night-time behaviours at presentation, and smaller medial, lateral and orbital frontal lobe volumes showed faster rates of decline. In many instances, the effect of the predictor

  9. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  10. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  11. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  12. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  13. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  14. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  15. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  16. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  17. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  18. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    PubMed

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  20. Psychological and behavioural aspects of patients with Turner syndrome from childhood to adulthood: a review of the clinical literature.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, P; Deligeoroglou, E; Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Creatsas, G

    2008-03-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, which occurs in approximately one of every 2500 female births. Short stature, infertility, additional physical abnormalities, skeletal and medical problems may be present. Genetic, hormonal, and medical problems associated with TS are likely to affect psychosexual development of female adolescent patients, and thus influence their psychological functioning, behavior patterns, social interactions and learning ability. Although TS constitutes a chronic medical condition, with possible physical, social and psychological complications in a woman's life, hormonal and estrogen replacement therapy and assisted reproduction, are treatments that can be helpful for TS patients and improve their quality of life. Authors report on a review of the research literature clinical aspects of the syndrome as well as the beneficial effect of hormonal therapy in such patients.

  1. Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

  2. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

  3. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus supportive therapy for persistent positive symptoms in psychotic disorders: The POSITIVE Study, a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has a moderate effect on symptom reduction and on general well being of patients suffering from psychosis. However, questions regarding the specific efficacy of CBT, the treatment safety, the cost-effectiveness, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects are still a major issue. The major objective of this trial is to investigate whether CBT is specifically efficacious in reducing positive symptoms when compared with non-specific supportive therapy (ST) which does not implement CBT-techniques but provides comparable therapeutic attention. Methods/Design The POSITIVE study is a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, parallel group, randomised clinical trial, comparing CBT and ST with respect to the efficacy in reducing positive symptoms in psychotic disorders. CBT as well as ST consist of 20 sessions altogether, 165 participants receiving CBT and 165 participants receiving ST. Major methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance (e.g. on-site monitoring with source data verification, regular query process), advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment, checks of adherence and competence of therapists. Research relating the psychotherapy process with outcome, neurobiological research addressing basic questions of delusion formation using fMRI and neuropsychological assessment and treatment research investigating adaptations of CBT for adolescents is combined in this network. Problems of transfer into routine clinical care will be identified and addressed by a project focusing on cost efficiency. Discussion This clinical trial is part of efforts to intensify psychotherapy research in the field of psychosis in Germany, to contribute to the international discussion

  4. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  6. A Comparison of Passive Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) has historically played an important role in clinical theorizing and was diagnosable prior to the DSM-IV, in which the construct was relabeled ‘negativistic’, expanded to include negative affective symptoms, and appendicized. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the expansion of PAPD to include content related to negative moods and non-specific personality pathology compromised its discriminant validity. In an undergraduate sample (N = 1215), a self-report measure of PAPD was only moderately related to NEGPD and showed less diagnostic overlap with other PDs than NEGPD. Furthermore, a conjoint factor analysis yielded a strong first factor (moodiness) which appeared less specific to passive aggressive behavior than three other factors (irresponsibility, inadequacy and contempt). We conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the DSM. PMID:22329420

  7. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  8. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  9. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  10. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  11. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  12. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  13. Clinical effects of buprenorphine on open field behaviour and gait symmetry in healthy and lame weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ellen; van Nes, Arie; Back, Willem; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-12-01

    Lameness in pigs decreases animal welfare and economic profit for the farmer. An important reason for impaired welfare in lame animals is pain due to lameness. No direct measurement of pain is possible in animals, and methods to indirectly detect and quantify the amount of pain an animal is experiencing are urgently needed. In this study, two methods to assess pain associated with lameness in pigs were evaluated to determine if they were sensitive enough to detect a lameness reduction as an effect of an experimental analgesic medication. Asymmetry associated with lameness was objectively quantified using pressure mat kinetic parameters: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Locomotor activity was assessed in an open field test. A dose of 0.04 mg/kg buprenorphine, a strong analgesic, was used to treat 10 lame pigs, while eight other lame pigs, treated with physiological saline solution, served as controls. Buprenorphine decreased lameness-associated asymmetry for pressure mat LR (P = 0.002), VI (P = 0.003) and PVP (P = 0.001) and increased activity of the lame pigs in the open field (P = 0.023), while saline-treated animals did not show any changes in asymmetry and became less active in the open field (P <0.001). It was concluded that measurement of gait asymmetry by pressure mat analysis and locomotor activity in an open field test are both sensitive enough to detect the analgesic effects of buprenorphine when used to treat moderate to severe clinical pain in a relatively small group of affected pigs. The methods used in this study may also provide promising additional tools for future research into early pain recognition and lameness treatment in pigs.

  14. Emotion-relevant impulsivity predicts sustained anger and aggression after remission in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anger and aggression are of concern even during remission for persons with bipolar I disorder, although there is substantial variability in the degree of anger and aggression across individuals. Little research is available to examine psychological models of anger and aggression for those with remitted bipolar disorder, and that was the goal of this study. Participants were 58 persons diagnosed with bipolar I disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, who were followed with monthly symptom severity interviews until they achieved remission, and then assessed using the Aggression-Short Form. We examined traditional predictors of clinical parameters and trauma exposure, and then considered three trait domains that have been shown to be elevated in bipolar disorder and have also been linked to aggression outside of bipolar disorder: emotion-relevant impulsivity, approach motivation, and dominance-related constructs. Emotion-relevant impulsivity was related to anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression, even after controlling for clinical variables. Findings extend the importance of emotion-relevant impulsivity to another important clinical outcome and suggest the promise of using psychological models to understand the factors driving aggression and anger problems that persist into remission among persons with bipolar disorder. PMID:26437231

  15. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70)…

  16. Emotion-relevant impulsivity predicts sustained anger and aggression after remission in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anger and aggression are of concern even during remission for persons with bipolar I disorder, although there is substantial variability in the degree of anger and aggression across individuals. Little research is available to examine psychological models of anger and aggression for those with remitted bipolar disorder, and that was the goal of this study. Participants were 58 persons diagnosed with bipolar I disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, who were followed with monthly symptom severity interviews until they achieved remission, and then assessed using the Aggression-Short Form. We examined traditional predictors of clinical parameters and trauma exposure, and then considered three trait domains that have been shown to be elevated in bipolar disorder and have also been linked to aggression outside of bipolar disorder: emotion-relevant impulsivity, approach motivation, and dominance-related constructs. Emotion-relevant impulsivity was related to anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression, even after controlling for clinical variables. Findings extend the importance of emotion-relevant impulsivity to another important clinical outcome and suggest the promise of using psychological models to understand the factors driving aggression and anger problems that persist into remission among persons with bipolar disorder.

  17. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  18. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma of the skin--biological behaviour of the tumor and a review of the most important molecular predictors of disease progression in pathological practice].

    PubMed

    Bartos, V; Adamicová, K; Kullová, M; Péc, M

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is currently the most frequent malignancy in human population. Basal cell carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of tumors with a variable clinical and morphological picture. Based on its biological behaviour, we generally differentiate between indolent (superficial and nodular) and aggressive type (infiltrative, micronodular, and metatypical) of basal cell carcinoma. Because of the different biological characteristics of these tumors, it is questionable whether they are a part of a continuous spectrum of carcinogenesis, starting with indolent and ending with aggressive forms, or they represent separate developmental lines. In the current clinical practice, there is an increasing demand for identification of tumors that are prognostically more adverse and their impact on the overall health status of patients is more serious. Recent advances in pathology and molecular medicine allow identification of various biomarkers from tumor tissue that are significantly involved in the mechanisms of malignant cell transformation. Detection of these biomarkers is of great importance in predicting further clinical behaviour of the cancer. The authors of the paper present basic information about biological behaviour of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and provide an overview of the most important biomarkers that influence the clinical outcome and disease progression and are detectable through a routine biopsy tissue examination. It is now necessary to search for novel histological and molecular parameters that, in the future, could have a prognostic value in diagnostic and therapeutic process of this disorder. PMID:21542271

  20. Long-term efficacy and downstream mechanism of anti-annexinA2 monoclonal antibody (anti-ANX A2 mAb) in a pre-clinical model of aggressive human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mahesh C; Tuszynski, George P; Blackman, Marc R; Sharma, Meena

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable direct evidence that calcium binding protein ANX A2 is a potential target for treating aggressive breast cancer. The most compelling data are based on the finding of ANX A2 overexpression in aggressive triple negative human breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and in human breast cancer tissues. Previously, we and others reported a unique role of ANX A2 in cancer invasion, including breast cancer. Moreover, we demonstrated that anti-ANX A2 mAb-mediated immunoneutralization of ANX A2 inhibited invasive human breast cancer growth in a xenograft model. We further evaluated the long-term effects of multiple treatments with anti-ANX A2 mAb and its mechanism of inhibition on human breast tumor growth. We now demonstrate that three treatments with anti-ANX A2 mAb led to significant inhibition of breast tumor growth in immunodeficient mice, and that the anti-tumor response was demonstrable from day 94. After treatment, we followed tumor growth for 172 days and demonstrated 67% inhibition of tumor growth without detectable adverse effects. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that anti-ANX A2 mAb treatment caused significant inhibition of conversion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the tumor microenvironment. This led to disruption of plasmin generation that consequently inhibited activation of MMP-9 and MMP-2. These results suggest that ANX A2 plays an important role in aggressive breast tumor growth by regulating proteolytic pathways in the tumor microenvironment. ANX A2 may represent a new target for the development of therapeutics for treatment of aggressive breast cancer.

  1. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

  2. Early Language Impairment and Young Adult Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E.B.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Escobar, Michael; Young, Arlene; Atkinson, Leslie; Johnson, Carla; Wilson, Beth; Douglas, Lori

    2004-01-01

    Clinic and forensic studies have reported high rates of language impairments in conduct- disordered and incarcerated youth. In community samples followed to early adolescence, speech and language impairments have been linked to attention deficits and internalizing problems, rather than conduct problems, delinquency, or aggression. This study…

  3. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  4. Gene expression and variation in social aggression by queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    PubMed

    Helmkampf, Martin; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Kang, Yun; Fewell, Jennifer; Gadau, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A key requirement for social cooperation is the mitigation and/or social regulation of aggression towards other group members. Populations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus show the alternate social phenotypes of queens founding nests alone (haplometrosis) or in groups of unrelated yet cooperative individuals (pleometrosis). Pleometrotic queens display an associated reduction in aggression. To understand the proximate drivers behind this variation, we placed foundresses of the two populations into social environments with queens from the same or the alternate population, and measured their behaviour and head gene expression profiles. A proportion of queens from both populations behaved aggressively, but haplometrotic queens were significantly more likely to perform aggressive acts, and conflict escalated more frequently in pairs of haplometrotic queens. Whole-head RNA sequencing revealed variation in gene expression patterns, with the two populations showing moderate differentiation in overall transcriptional profile, suggesting that genetic differences underlie the two founding strategies. The largest detected difference, however, was associated with aggression, regardless of queen founding type. Several modules of coregulated genes, involved in metabolism, immune system and neuronal function, were found to be upregulated in highly aggressive queens. Conversely, nonaggressive queens exhibited a striking pattern of upregulation in chemosensory genes. Our results highlight that the social phenotypes of cooperative vs. solitary nest founding tap into a set of gene regulatory networks that seem to govern aggression level. We also present a number of highly connected hub genes associated with aggression, providing opportunity to further study the genetic underpinnings of social conflict and tolerance.

  5. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS.

  6. Significant clinical, neuropathological and behavioural recovery from acute spinal cord trauma by transplantation of a well-defined somatic stem cell from human umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Schira, Jessica; Gasis, Marcia; Estrada, Veronica; Hendricks, Marion; Schmitz, Christine; Trapp, Thorsten; Kruse, Fabian; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-02-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types have been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal trauma. Due to inconsistent results, it is still an important and clinically relevant question which stem cell type will prove to be therapeutically effective. Thus far, stem cells of human sources grafted into spinal cord mostly included barely defined heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell populations derived from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood. Here, we have transplanted a well-defined unrestricted somatic stem cell isolated from human umbilical cord blood into an acute traumatic spinal cord injury of adult immune suppressed rat. Grafting of unrestricted somatic stem cells into the vicinity of a dorsal hemisection injury at thoracic level eight resulted in hepatocyte growth factor-directed migration and accumulation within the lesion area, reduction in lesion size and augmented tissue sparing, enhanced axon regrowth and significant functional locomotor improvement as revealed by three behavioural tasks (open field Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor score, horizontal ladder walking test and CatWalk gait analysis). To accomplish the beneficial effects, neither neural differentiation nor long-lasting persistence of the grafted human stem cells appears to be required. The secretion of neurite outgrowth-promoting factors in vitro further suggests a paracrine function of unrestricted somatic stem cells in spinal cord injury. Given the highly supportive functional characteristics in spinal cord injury, production in virtually unlimited quantities at GMP grade and lack of ethical concerns, unrestricted somatic stem cells appear to be a highly suitable human stem cell source for clinical application in central nervous system injuries. PMID:21903726

  7. Protocol investigating the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy delivered remotely for unscheduled care users with health anxiety: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shireen; Malins, Sam; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Kai, Joe; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Rowley, Emma; Simpson, Jayne; Smart, David; Stubley, Michelle; Tyrer, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Health anxiety and medically unexplained symptoms cost the National Health Service (NHS) an estimated £3 billion per year in unnecessary costs with little evidence of patient benefit. Effective treatment is rarely taken up due to issues such as stigma or previous negative experiences with mental health services. An approach to overcome this might be to offer remotely delivered psychological therapy, which can be just as effective as face-to-face therapy and may be more accessible and suitable. Aims To investigate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of remotely delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) to people with high health anxiety repeatedly accessing unscheduled care (trial registration: NCT02298036). Method A multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be undertaken in primary and secondary care providers of unscheduled care across the East Midlands. One hundred and forty-four eligible participants will be equally randomised to receive either remote CBT (6–12 sessions) or treatment as usual (TAU). Two doctoral research studies will investigate the barriers and facilitators to delivering the intervention and the factors contributing to the optimisation of therapeutic outcome. Results This trial will be the first to test the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of remotely delivered CBT for the treatment of high health anxiety. Conclusions The findings will enable an understanding as to how this intervention might fit into a wider care pathway to enhance patient experience of care. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703758

  8. Cluster B personality pathology in incarcerated girls: structure, comorbidity, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; South, Susan C; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have linked Cluster B personality pathology to aggression in clinical and community samples. However, the structure of Cluster B traits, and association to aggression and psychopathology, has yet to be investigated among young female offenders. In order to better inform treatments for female aggression, we studied 121 incarcerated girls, aged 13 to 19 years, who completed a series of self-report inventories that measured overt and relational aggression, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Personality was assessed through a structured interview. Factor analysis of Cluster B traits revealed a three factor solution, with each factor demonstrating a unique pattern of association to relational and overt aggression and psychopathology. The implications with regard to treatment of personality pathology and aggression in the juvenile justice setting are discussed.

  9. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Y.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing and both relational and physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11–18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt physical aggression, and relational aggression were assessed via multiple informants and methods. Approximately 4.5 years later, these girls participated in follow-up assessments during which they completed a commonly-used vignette procedure to assess social information processing; overt and relational aggression were again assessed through multiple informants. Correlations between (a) overt and relational aggression and (b) maladaptive social information processing were modest in this female adolescent sample. However, relationships between aggression and social information processing were stronger for the comparison girls than for the girls with ADHD. The relevance of social information processing models for adolescent girls and clinical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21399756

  10. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  11. Analysis of Behavioural Responding across Multiple Instructional Conditions for a Child with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of multiple instructional conditions on self-injury/aggression and on-task behaviours were assessed with a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder. Behavioural responses were assessed as part of an educational evaluation to determine the occurrence of target behaviours in relation to varying degrees of…

  12. Maternal rank influences the outcome of aggressive interactions between immature chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A. Catherine; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    For many long-lived mammalian species, extended maternal investment has a profound effect on offspring integration in complex social environments. One component of this investment may be aiding young in aggressive interactions, which can set the stage for offspring social position later in life. Here we examined maternal effects on dyadic aggressive interactions between immature (<12 years) chimpanzees. Specifically, we tested whether relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning an aggressive interaction. We also examined maternal responses to aggressive interactions to determine whether maternal interventions explain interaction outcomes. Using a 12-year behavioural data set (2000–2011) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, we found that relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning aggressive interactions in male–male and male–female aggressive interactions: offspring were more likely to win if their mother outranked their opponent’s mother. Female–female aggressive interactions occurred infrequently (two interactions), so could not be analysed. The probability of winning was also higher for relatively older individuals in male–male interactions, and for males in male–female interactions. Maternal interventions were rare (7.3% of 137 interactions), suggesting that direct involvement does not explain the outcome for the vast majority of aggressive interactions. These findings provide important insight into the ontogeny of aggressive behaviour and early dominance relationships in wild apes and highlight a potential social advantage for offspring of higher-ranking mothers. This advantage may be particularly pronounced for sons, given male philopatry in chimpanzees and the potential for social status early in life to translate more directly to adult rank. PMID:25624528

  13. Examining the role of testosterone in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social stimuli in a lizard.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Jo; While, Geoffrey M; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hormones have been suggested as a key proximate mechanism that organize and maintain consistent individual differences in behavioural traits such as aggression. The steroid hormone testosterone in particular has an important activational role in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social and environmental stimuli within many vertebrate systems. We conducted two complementary experiments designed to investigate the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii, a social lizard species. First, we investigated whether a conspecific aggressive challenge induced a testosterone response and second, we artificially manipulated testosterone concentrations to examine whether this changed aggression levels. We found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge. However, there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations, with individuals not receiving an aggression challenge maintaining consistency in their circulating testosterone concentrations, while those individuals that received a challenge did not. Manipulating circulating testosterone concentrations had no influence on either mean-level or individual-level aggression. Combined with our previous work, our study adds increasing evidence that the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward, and promotes the investigation of alternative hormonal pathways and differences in neuro-synthesis and neuroendocrine pathways to account for species variable testosterone - aggression links.

  14. Examining the Role of Testosterone in Mediating Short-Term Aggressive Responses to Social Stimuli in a Lizard

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Jo; While, Geoffrey M.; Jones, Susan M.; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hormones have been suggested as a key proximate mechanism that organize and maintain consistent individual differences in behavioural traits such as aggression. The steroid hormone testosterone in particular has an important activational role in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social and environmental stimuli within many vertebrate systems. We conducted two complementary experiments designed to investigate the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii, a social lizard species. First, we investigated whether a conspecific aggressive challenge induced a testosterone response and second, we artificially manipulated testosterone concentrations to examine whether this changed aggression levels. We found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge. However, there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations, with individuals not receiving an aggression challenge maintaining consistency in their circulating testosterone concentrations, while those individuals that received a challenge did not. Manipulating circulating testosterone concentrations had no influence on either mean-level or individual-level aggression. Combined with our previous work, our study adds increasing evidence that the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward, and promotes the investigation of alternative hormonal pathways and differences in neuro-synthesis and neuroendocrine pathways to account for species variable testosterone - aggression links. PMID:25906149

  15. Sildenafil counteracts the inhibitory effect of social subordination on competitive aggression and sexual motivation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Volpi, Riccardo; Ferrari, Massimiliano; Vignali, Alessandro; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chronic intra-peritoneal administration of 10 mg/kg (t.i.w., for 5 weeks) of sildenafil on competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain was tested in CD1 subordinate male mice in two experimental contexts: 1) "low levels of aggression", i.e. housing in dyads of siblings 2) "high levels of aggression", i.e. exposure to a model of chronic psychosocial stress with an unfamiliar mice. Subordinate mice in both experimental contexts were injected with sildenafil or saline. After 2 weeks of sildenafil administration, a subgroup of subordinates exposed to "high levels of aggression" began to counterattack their dominant counterparts at higher rates than saline-injected subordinates. This effect was essentially similar but faster in subordinates subjected to "low levels of aggression". As far as sexual behaviour is concerned, in both experimental contexts, sildenafil-injected subordinated mice showed significant lower latencies to mount a proceptive female when compared to saline-injected subjects. Furthermore, in the "high levels of aggression" context, Sildenafil reduced stress-induced body weight gain. Sildenafil showed no effects in individually housed males serving as controls. In conclusion, chronic Sildenafil treatment counteracts the inhibitory effects of social subordination on male competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain. Overall our data suggests that sildenafil could be acting in the central nervous system to modulate sexual and agonistic motivation.

  16. Proximate perspectives on the evolution of female aggression: good for the gander, good for the goose?

    PubMed Central

    Rosvall, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Female–female aggression often functions in competition over reproductive or social benefits, but the proximate mechanisms of this apparently adaptive behaviour are not well understood. The sex steroid hormone testosterone (T) and its metabolites are well-established mediators of male–male aggression, and several lines of evidence suggest that T-mediated mechanisms may apply to females as well. However, a key question is whether mechanisms of female aggression primarily reflect correlated evolutionary responses to selection acting on males, or whether direct selection acting on females has made modifications to these mechanisms that are adaptive in light of female life history. Here, I examine the degree to which female aggression is mediated at the level of T production, target tissue sensitivity to T, or downstream genomic responses in order to test the hypothesis that selection favours mechanisms that facilitate female aggression while minimizing the costs of systemically elevated T. I draw heavily from avian systems, including the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), as well as other organisms in which these mechanisms have been well studied from an evolutionary/ecological perspective in both sexes. Findings reveal that the sexes share many behavioural and hormonal mechanisms, though several patterns also suggest sex-specific adaptation. I argue that greater attention to multiple levels of analysis—from hormone to receptor to gene network, including analyses of individual variation that represents the raw material of evolutionary change—will be a fruitful path for understanding mechanisms of behavioural regulation and intersexual coevolution. PMID:24167313

  17. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris

    PubMed Central

    Déaux, Éloïse C.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs’ aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs’ bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as ‘equivalent’ or ‘enhancing’ as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal’s function. PMID:26571266

  18. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function. PMID:26571266

  19. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

  1. The case for more aggressive screening and treatment of mild thyroid failure.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Alejandro R; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-04-01

    "Subclinical" (mild) thyroid failure is not benign: it tends to progress to overt thyroid failure and it has adverse clinical effects. We believe it should be screened for more aggressively in the general population, and treated with levothyroxine.

  2. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  3. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  4. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  5. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  6. Two Susceptibility Loci Identified for Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Alavanja, Michael C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Amundadottir, Laufey; Andriole, Gerald; Freeman, Laura Beane; Campa, Daniele; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Cussenot, Olivier; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hutchinson, Amy; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Koutros, Stella; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fred; Siddiq, Afshan; Stanford, Janet L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wilkund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S. Lilly; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Han; Sampson, Joshua; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Kevin; Hoover, Robert N; Tucker, Margaret; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will experience indolent disease; hence discovering genetic variants that distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancer is of critical clinical importance for disease prevention and treatment. In a multistage, case-only genome-wide association study of 12,518 prostate cancer cases, we identify two loci associated with Gleason score, a pathological measure of disease aggressiveness: rs35148638 at 5q14.3 (RASA1, P=6.49×10-9) and rs78943174 at 3q26.31 (NAALADL2, P=4.18×10-8). In a stratified case-control analysis, the SNP at 5q14.3 appears specific for aggressive prostate cancer (P=8.85×10-5) with no association for non-aggressive prostate cancer compared to controls (P=0.57). The proximity of these loci to genes involved in vascular disease suggests potential biological mechanisms worthy of further investigation. PMID:25939597

  7. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  8. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.

  9. Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynahan, Luke

    2003-01-01

    An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

  10. Understanding and Working with Non-Compliant and Aggressive Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…

  11. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  12. Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome Evaluation of 11 Norwegian Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Knut; Svartdal, Frode

    2006-01-01

    Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational…

  13. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-01-01

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness. PMID:24871758

  14. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological treatments have been successful in treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the effect sizes are still modest and there is room for improvement. A way to progress is by enhancing treatment adherence and self-management using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a trial investigating the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for CLBP using or not ICTs. A secondary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the influence of relevant variables on treatment response. Possible barriers in the implementation of CBT with and without ICT will also be investigated. Methods A randomised controlled trial with 180 CLBP patients recruited from specialised care will be conducted. Participants will be randomly assigned to three conditions: Control group (CG), CBT, and CBT supported by ICTs (CBT + ICT). Participants belonging to the three conditions will receive a conventional rehabilitation program (back school). The CBT group program will last six sessions. The CBT + ICT group will use the internet and SMS to practice the therapeutic strategies between sessions and in the follow-ups at their homes. Primary outcome variables will be self-reported disability and pain intensity. Assessment will be carried out by blinded assessors in five moments: pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. The influence of catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety and depression in response to treatment in the primary outcomes will also be analysed. Discussion This study will show data of the possible benefits of using ICTs in the improvement of CBT for treating CLBP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01802671 PMID:23607895

  15. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  16. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  17. [Trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude in the background of Attila József's suicide].

    PubMed

    Zsédel, Krisztina; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although recently many studies have indicated close connection between aggressive behaviour and suicide, and we can infer at Attila Jozsef's high trait-aggression from several cases, there is no research so far that would analyse the topic of the poet's aggression. We examine in this study the high trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude of Attila Jozsef and put the question how could those two contribute to his suicide. Recollections of Attila Jozsef's contemporaries reveal that the poet's life was accompanied along with auto- and heteroaggression. By analysing his Rorschach-test, we can also conclude on the weakness of his aggression-control. During his psychoanalytic treatment from 1931 on, some difficult memories and unacceptable desires became revoked, and his aggressive outbreaks became unmanageable, first of all against some females in his life. His free-association works from this period are full of rude, incestuous, aggressive expressions. In spite of these, there is no trace of aggression in his poems - he masks his aggression in them by keeping precisely to formal criteria. We suppose that behind the masking there are unconscious processes, such as a very strong desire to get attached and fear of solitude that led to his aspiration to consciously form "the myth of the good poet". Art's healing power could not prevail as the spontaneous creative process has been turned into a conscious one. His impulses that came to light in the analytic process and were only partly sublime may have returned thus and became urgent and pressing again. We suppose that his high trait-aggression and his conscious poetic attitude together contributed to his life's tragic ending. PMID:26202624

  18. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  19. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals. PMID:24862880

  20. Prolonged perinatal AZT administration and early maternal separation: effects on social and emotional behaviour of periadolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Venerosi, Aldina; Cirulli, Francesca; Capone, Francesca; Alleva, Enrico

    2003-02-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is an effective treatment in preventing perinatal transmission of HIV-1; however, a continuous re-evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of human exposure to this drug is suggested by both clinical and animal studies. The objective of this study was to assess the medium and long-term effects of pre-postnatal AZT treatment on mouse social and emotional behaviour and the possible interactions between AZT exposure and disruptions in the mother-infant relationship. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered per os with AZT (160 mg/kg) from pregnancy day 10, throughout delivery, to lactation day 10. In half of the litters, the offspring was separated from the mother for 3 h from postnatal days 2 (PND2) to PND14. On PND35, a 30-min social interaction test was performed and corticosterone levels were measured at the end of the session. On PND80, long-term effects of AZT on emotionality were assess by means of an elevated plus-maze. Results indicate that, on PND35, previous AZT exposure affected social behaviour of the experimental subjects, reducing aggressive interactions in males, while decreasing investigative behaviours in females. At adulthood, AZT inhibited exploratory behaviour in the plus-maze while increasing the frequency of risk-assessment postures in male mice. As for maternal deprivation, this early manipulation exerted a pro-aggressive effect in adolescent male mice, deprived subjects being overall characterised by higher activity levels and a deficit in habituation, an effect also observed in the plus-maze. A significant interaction between AZT and maternal deprivation was found for affiliative behaviours. As for corticosterone levels, no AZT effect was found, while maternal deprivation tended to reduce elevations of this hormone in response to stressful stimuli. Overall results from this study indicate that both AZT exposure and maternal deprivation induced gender-dependent changes in social and emotional behaviour both during adolescence and at

  1. Disentangling proactive and reactive aggression in children using self-report

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Broekhof, Evelien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Faber, Judith; Tsutsui, Makoto M.; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The distinction between proactive and reactive functions of aggression is one of the most common divisions when investigating aggression among children and adolescents. To date, self-report is the least used measurement, despite existing literature supporting the view that the best informant regarding internal processes and motives are children themselves. The main aim of this study was to examine the construct and concurrent validity of a new self-report questionnaire, which aims to disentangle acts of reactive vs. proactive aggression that are most common within the daily lives of children. We examined the self-report measure among 578 children (313 girls, 265 boys, mean age 11 years, range 9–13 years). Most children (90% boys; 85% girls) reported at least one act of aggression over the last four weeks. Furthermore, the outcomes support the two-factor structure (reactive and proactive aggression) and the questionnaire showed good concurrent and discriminant validity with measures for emotional and social functioning. This study validates the use of the self-report instrument for reactive and proactive aggression and demonstrates that children can successfully distinguish between their own motives for reactive and proactive forms of aggressive behaviours. PMID:27398084

  2. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  3. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals.

  4. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  5. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  6. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  7. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  8. The Problem Behaviour Checklist: short scale to assess challenging behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Jessica; Evans, Rosie; Oliver, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Liedtka, Natalie; Tarabi, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Background Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. Aims To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL). The scale was subsequently used in a randomised controlled trial and tested for interrater reliability. Scores were also compared with a standard scale, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Results Seven identified factors – personal violence, violence against property, self-harm, sexually inappropriate, contrary, demanding and disappearing behaviour – were scored on a 5-point scale. A subsequent factor analysis with the second population showed demanding, violent and contrary behaviour to account for most of the variance. Interrater reliability using weighted kappa showed good agreement (0.91; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). Good agreement was also shown with scores on the MOAS and a score of 1 on the PBCL showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (85%) for a threshold MOASscore of 4. Conclusions The PBCL appears to be a suitable and practical scale for assessing all aspects of challenging behaviour. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703753

  9. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  10. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  11. Auto-aggressive metallic mercury injection around the knee joint: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accidental or intentional subcutaneous and/or intramuscular injection of metallic mercury is an uncommon form of poisoning. Although it does not carry the same risk as mercury vapour inhalation, it may cause destructive early and late reactions. Case Presentation Herein we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who developed an obsessive-compulsive disorder causing auto-aggressive behaviour with injection of elemental mercury and several other foreign bodies into the soft tissues around the left knee about 15 years before initial presentation. For clinical examination X-rays and a CT-scan of the affected area were performed. Furthermore, blood was taken to determine the mercury concentration in the blood, which showed a concentration 17-fold higher than recommended. As a consequence, the mercury depots and several foreign bodies were resected marginally. Conclusion Blood levels of mercury will decrease rapidly following surgery, especially in combination with chelating therapy. In case of subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of metallic mercury we recommend marginal or wide excision of all contaminated tissue to prevent migration of mercury and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, prolonged clinical and biochemical monitoring should be performed for several years to screen for chronic intoxication. PMID:22093686

  12. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  13. Aggressive Cunninghamella pneumonia in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Alpin D; Wahid, Fazal N; Rao, Bhaskar N; Sandoval, John A

    2014-10-01

    Children with hematologic malignancies may be challenged with life-threatening, invasive fungal infections by organisms that would otherwise have a low potential for virulence in healthy hosts. Presented is a case of a 15-year-old adolescent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving steroids and chemotherapy. He developed cough associated with left chest pain with suspicion for fungal pneumonia. He began systemic antifungal therapy, underwent computed tomography of the chest demonstrating a large cavitary lesion (reversed halo sign) in the left lung. Over a 48-hour period the patient clinically deteriorated with worsening pneumonia and required left thoracotomy with nonanatomic pulmonary resection. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of Cunninghamella pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, and the multidisciplinary approach required to have the greatest possible outcome. PMID:25089609

  14. Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma.

    PubMed

    Görgün, Ömer; Salduz, Ahmet; Kebudi, Rejin; Özger, Harzem; Bilgiç, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation. PMID:27499324

  15. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  16. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  17. Effect of hunger level and time of day on boldness and aggression in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Ariyomo, T O; Watt, P J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two environmental variables, hunger level (fed or not fed before behavioural assays) and time of day (morning or afternoon), on the boldness and aggressiveness of male and female zebrafish Danio rerio, was tested. The results showed that neither hunger level nor time of testing influenced boldness in males and females, but hunger level significantly affected aggression in females when compared with males.

  18. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  19. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  20. Neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic.