Schumacher, Julie A; Slep, Amy M Smith
This study examined the association between attitudes about dating aggression and select dating aggressive behaviors (verbal aggression and jealous behavior) in high school students. Our hypothesis, derived from cognitive dissonance theory, was that discrepancies between self-reported attitudes and aggressive behavior at Time 1 (i.e., putative cognitive dissonance) would predict decreases in aggression between Time 1 and Time 2 beyond what would be predicted by change in attitudes over the same period. Results indicated that cognitive dissonance (as indexed by the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior) was generally a significant predictor of behavior change, providing significant improvement in prediction of behavior over attitude change alone. We discuss the implications of these findings for prevention efforts and directions for future research in this area.
Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Ratcliffe, Katie
We examined the relationship between self-reported sexual aggression and implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape in a sample of 86 male heterosexual university students. Large, significant group differences were found between the most sexually aggressive participants and the nonaggressive participants, with the most sexually aggressive group showing less negative implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape (Cohen's d=0.76-1.20). Implicit and explicit attitudes provided complementary information such that together they were more strongly associated with sexual aggression than on their own. The current findings suggest that implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape are associated with sexual aggression. In addition to the broader set of cognitions that appear to be assessed by most self-report measures, the narrower construct of attitudes towards rape may be a fruitful avenue of further exploration for research, assessment, and treatment of sexual aggression.
Friedman, Philip H.; And Others
This experiment investigated the effects of an aggressive habit and emtional arousal, measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report, on two types of attitude change. Psychological arousal was positively related to degree of influence by the reflaxation communication. (DB)
Rule, Brendan Gail; Ferguson, Tamara J.
Identifies mediating factors between the viewing of violent media and aggressive behavior. Discusses the role of cognitive and emotional arousal processes, and the interplay among these factors and attitudes toward aggression. Describes the effects of media exposure on arousal, emotional desensitization, and the excitement of the observer's…
Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine
The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.
JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.
We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823
Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F
This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.
Lynch, Paul J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Olson, Abbie A.; van Brederode, Tara M.
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America. A growing body of research links violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. This study tested the predictions that exposure to violent video game content is: (1) positively correlated with hostile attribution bias; (2) positively…
Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T
The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T
The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit
In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.
Slife, Brent D.; And Others
This study tests the hypothesis that children who viewed videotaped aggression would imitate aggressive behaviors more frequently than would children who were not exposed to aggressive displays. A cognitive factor, reinforcement value, was also hypothesized to be a significant variable in the behavior of the children. Prior to treatment, subjects…
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja
This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935
Kennedy, Elizabeth; Perry, David G.
The goal of this study was to investigate the social-cognitive functioning of aggressive and victimized elementary school children. A total of 149 fourth- through seventh-graders responded to a peer nomination inventory designed to assess children's tendencies toward aggression and victimization. Self-report questionnaires were then administered…
Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt
Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.
Houston, Jessica; Grych, John
The present study examined the relative and cumulative predictive power of parent-child, interparental, and community aggression on youths' perceptions of the acceptability of aggression between peers and siblings. The potential for mother-child attachment to buffer the effects of violence on aggressive attitudes was tested, as well as the link between aggressive attitudes and aggressive behaviors. A diverse sample of 148 children (ages 9-14) completed measures of interparental, parent-child, and community aggression; a measure of mother-child attachment quality; and a measure of aggressive behaviors. Participants also rated the acceptability of aggressive interactions between two peers and two siblings in written vignettes. Mothers completed a measure of their child's aggressive behaviors. Youths' violence exposure was related to perceptions of aggression as more acceptable, with parent-child aggression having the only unique association. Maternal attachment buffered the relation between exposure to community violence and perceived acceptability of aggression, which predicted decreased aggression. When exposed to high levels of community violence, youths with more secure maternal attachment perceived aggression as less acceptable than youths with less secure attachment and, in turn, displayed fewer aggressive behaviors. Interventions that focus on strengthening the caregiver-child relationship in children exposed to violence may reduce aggressive behaviors by interrupting the development of aggressive attitudes.
Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng
This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…
Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona
The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists.
Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Badırgalı Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime
The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures.
Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha
Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…
van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M
At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes.
van Giesen, Roxanne I.
At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876
Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter
Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…
Faith, Melissa A.; Fiala, Samuel E.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Hughes, Jan N.
This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring…
Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay
This follow-up study with 1,167 primarily White adolescents (aged 13.45 years at T1, 613 females) examined the impact of self-efficacy for aggression, moral disengagement, and collective efficacy beliefs on peer aggression in schools. Students completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the school year (8 months apart). High aggression efficacy and moral disengagement scores predicted higher frequency of peer aggression over time. Low collective efficacy beliefs regarding the ability of students and teachers to collaboratively act to inhibit peer aggression were also associated with more frequent aggression, although this association was stronger at higher levels of moral disengagement. The findings of this study highlight the need to consider collective efficacy beliefs in conjunction with individual social cognitive processes when seeking to explain aggressive behavior.
Gordon, Gina M.
This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…
Brennan, Iain R; Moore, Simon C; Shepherd, Jonathan P
The use of weapons in violence increases both the severity of harm to victims and the severity of legal consequences for offenders, but little is known of the characteristics of violent offenders who choose to use weapons. Levels of anger, attitude to risk, time discounting, and antisocial history among a sample of weapon-using violent offenders (n=15) were compared to violent offenders who had not used a weapon (n=10) and nonviolent offenders (n=15). Results showed that weapon-using violent offenders displayed greater trait aggression and were more risk seeking than other offender types. In addition, weapon-using violent offenders were first convicted at an earlier age and truanted from school more frequently compared to other offender types. The results indicate that weapon users are more aggressive and more risk taking, but no more present focused than other violent and nonviolent offenders. Further research into the cognitive and social factors that influence weapon use is required if this dangerous behavior is to be reduced.
Datta, Pooja; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis
Separate lines of research find that proaggressive attitudes promote peer aggression and that bystanders play a pivotal role in deterring or facilitating bullying behavior. The current study hypothesized that proaggressive attitudes in middle school would deter students from standing up to bullying and encourage them to reinforce bullying…
This study examines the effects of exposure to online videogame violence on Chinese adolescents' attitudes toward violence, empathy, and aggressive behavior. Results of bivariate analyses show that playing violent videogames on the Internet was associated with greater tolerance of violence, a lower emphatic attitude, and more aggressive behavior. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed sustained relationships between exposure and pro-violent attitudes and empathy when exposure was examined simultaneously with gender, computer use, and Internet use. However, the linkage between exposure and aggression became non-significant, suggesting that the effects of playing violent videogames were greater for attitudinal outcomes than on overt behavior. Gender differences in playing videogames and in effects were also found.
Barrett, P M; Rapee, R M; Dadds, M M; Ryan, S M
Previous research has shown that anxious adults provide more threat interpretations of ambiguous stimuli than other clinic and nonclinic persons. We were interested in investigating if the same bias occurs in anxious children and how family processes impact on these children's interpretations of ambiguity. Anxious, oppositional, and nonclinical children and their parents were asked separately to interpret and provide plans of action to ambiguous scenarios. Afterwards, each family was asked to discuss two of these situations as a family and for the child to provide a final response. The results showed that anxious and oppositional children were both more likely to interpret ambiguous scenarios in a threatening manner. However, the two clinic groups differed in that the anxious children predominantly chose avoidant solutions whereas the oppositional children chose aggressive solutions. After family discussions, both the anxious children's avoidant plans of action and the oppositional children's aggressive plans increased. Thus, this study provides the first evidence of family enhancement of avoidant and aggressive responses in children. These results support a model of anxiety that emphasizes the development of an anxious cognitive style in the context of anxiety-supporting family processes.
Brady, Sonya S
Links between media violence exposure and favorable attitudes toward interpersonal violence are well established, but few studies have examined whether associations extend to include favorable attitudes toward institutional forms of aggression. Studies on this topic have not assessed multiple forms of media use and statistically controlled for individual characteristics likely to influence attitudes beyond sociodemographic information. In this study, undergraduate students (N=319) aged 18-20 years (56% male) completed a survey assessing media use (number of hours per week spent playing videogames, watching movies/TV shows, watching TV sports) and attitudes toward interpersonal violence, punitive criminal justice policies, and different types of military activities (preparedness/defense and aggressive intervention). Greater number of hours spent watching TV contact sports was associated with more favorable attitudes toward military preparedness/defense, aggressive military intervention, and punitive criminal justice policies among men independently of parental education, lifetime violence exposure within the home and community, aggressive personality, and constrained problem solving style. Greater number of hours spent watching violent movies/TV was associated with more favorable attitudes toward military preparedness/defense among men and with more favorable attitudes toward interpersonal violence and punitive criminal justice policies among women, but these associations became non-significant when adjusting for covariates.
Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.
Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…
North, Alice S.; Noyes, J. M.
This study considers whether technophobia is a transitory phenomenon by assessing computer attitudes and cognition of 11- and 12-year-old children in an English secondary school via self-reporting questionnaires. Results showed a low prevalence of technophobia and that gender did not significantly influence attitudes or cognition towards…
Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A
Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.
Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel
This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…
Vasquez, Eduardo A; Howard-Field, Joanna
Inhibitory information can be expected to reduce triggered displaced aggression by signaling the potential for negative consequences as a result of acting aggressively. We examined how cognitive load might interfere with these aggression-reducing effects of inhibitory cues. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to a condition in a 2 (cognitive load: high/low) × 2 (inhibiting cues: yes/no) between-subjects design. Following procedures in the TDA paradigm, participants received an initial provocation from the experimenter and a subsequent triggering annoyance from another individual. In the inhibitory cue condition, participants were told, before they had the opportunity to aggress, that others would learn of their aggressive responses. In the high cognitive load condition, participants rehearsed a 10-digit number while aggressing. Those in the low cognitive load condition rehearsed a three digit number. We found significant main effects of cognitive load and inhibitory cue, which were qualified by the expected load × inhibitory cue interaction. Thus, inhibitory cues reduced displaced aggression under low-cognitive load. However, when participants in the inhibitory cue condition were under cognitive load, aggression increased, suggesting that mental busyness interfered with the full use of inhibitory information. Aggr. Behav. 42:598-604, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…
San Miguel, Christopher L.; Millham, Jim
Attitudes toward homosexuality, perceived similarity to the target homosexual, and type of prior contact with the target homosexual were found to interact in influencing such aggressiveness. The implication of these findings to the "personal threat" and "scapegoating" hypotheses of aggression toward homosexuals is discussed.…
Ent, Michael R; Gerend, Mary A
Two studies suggest that cognitive dissonance can lead people to adopt negative attitudes toward beneficial-yet unpleasant-medical screenings. People who thought that they were candidates for an unpleasant medical screening reported less favorable attitudes toward the screening than people who thought that they were ineligible (Study 1). The unpleasantness of a medical screening affected candidates' attitudes toward the screening to a greater extent than non-candidate's attitudes (Study 2). Limitations, including ambiguity regarding the extent to which participants' attitudes were affected specifically by dissonance, are discussed. This preliminary research suggests people attempt to reduce dissonance associated with their anticipated behavior.
van Veen, Vincent; Krug, Marie K; Schooler, Jonathan W; Carter, Cameron S
When our actions conflict with our prior attitudes, we often change our attitudes to be more consistent with our actions. This phenomenon, known as cognitive dissonance, is considered to be one of the most influential theories in psychology. However, the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Using a Solomon four-group design, we scanned participants with functional MRI while they argued that the uncomfortable scanner environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. We found that cognitive dissonance engaged the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula; furthermore, we found that the activation of these regions tightly predicted participants' subsequent attitude change. These effects were not observed in a control group. Our findings elucidate the neural representation of cognitive dissonance, and support the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in detecting cognitive conflict and the neural prediction of attitude change.
Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German
Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression.
Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German
Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression. PMID:24039343
Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T
This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed.
Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.
Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…
Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Trampush, Joey; McKay, Kathleen E.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Objective: To explore the relationships of family and cognitive factors to aggression as reported by parents and teachers. Method: Data regarding different types of aggressive behavior were collected from parents and teachers of 165 school-age (7-11 years old) children referred to a study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive…
Henry, David B; Farrell, Albert D; Schoeny, Michael E; Tolan, Patrick H; Dymnicki, Allison B
This study sought to understand school-level influences on aggressive behavior and related social cognitive variables. Participants were 5106 middle school students participating in a violence prevention project. Predictors were school-level norms opposing aggression and favoring nonviolence, interpersonal climate (positive student-teacher relationships and positive student-student relationships), and school responsiveness to violence (awareness and reporting of violence and school safety problems). Outcomes were individual-level physical aggression, beliefs supporting aggression, and self-efficacy for nonviolent responses. School norms and both interpersonal climate variables had effects on all three outcomes in theorized directions. Only one of the responsiveness measures, awareness and reporting of violence, had theoretically consistent effects on all outcomes. The other, school safety problems, affected self-efficacy later in middle school. Evidence of gender moderation was generally consistent with greater influence of school-level factors on female adolescents. Discussion focuses on implications in light of previous research and intervention possibilities.
Austin, Gina; Bondü, Rebecca; Elsner, Birgit
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs. proactive) into account. In addition, the direction of effect remains unclear because longitudinal studies examining the mutual influences of both constructs are rare. Because research on ToM has focused on the preschool years, little is known about its development in middle childhood. Therefore, the present study examined the bi-directional developmental links of cognitive and affective ToM with reactive and proactive aggression in a longitudinal study in N = 232, 6- to 9-year-olds. Two points of measurement with a delay of about 1 year were conducted, and data were analyzed via cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), controlling for age, gender, and information processing. In general, early ToM predicted later functions of aggression, but not vice versa. Cognitive and affective ToM were inversely related to later reactive aggression, but only affective but not cognitive ToM was inversely related to later proactive aggression. These findings emphasize the importance of ToM for the occurrence of aggression and of taking the bi-dimensionality of both constructs into account when investigating their developmental links across childhood.
Card, Noel A.
The traditional psychological approach of studying aggression among schoolchildren in terms of individual differences in aggression and in victimization has been valuable in identifying prevalence rates, risk, and consequences of involvement in aggression. However, it is argued that a focus on aggressor-victim relationships is warranted based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Such a shift in focus requires modification and integration of existing theories of aggression, and this paper integrates social cognitive theory and interdependence theory to suggest a new, interdependent social cognitive theory of aggression. Specifically, this paper identifies points of overlap and different foci between these theories, and it illustrates their integration through a proposed model of the emergence of aggressor-victim interactions and relationships. The paper concludes that expanding consideration to include aggressor-victim relationships among schoolchildren offers considerable theoretical, empirical, and intervention opportunities. PMID:26985397
The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140) were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007). PMID:27247687
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…
Salakhova, Valentina B.; Oschepkov, Aleksey A.; Lipatova, Nadezda V.; Popov, Pavel V.; Mkrtumova, Irina V.
The relevance of the study is due to the growth of social symptoms of aggression directed forwards the Self, which is especially visible in environment of young people. The presented article is aimed at research relations between value orientations and social attitudes among youths and adolescents prone to auto-aggressive behavior. The…
Heinz, Adrienne J; Beck, Anne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp; Heinz, Andreas
Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact with genetic variations in serotonin-related genes that affect serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. This leads to increased amygdala activity and impaired prefrontal function that, together, predispose to both increased alcohol intake and impulsive aggression. In addition, acute and chronic alcohol intake can further impair executive control and thereby facilitate aggressive behaviour.
Eckhardt, Christopher I; Crane, Cory A
In the current study, 20 dating violent and 27 non-violent college males provided verbal articulations and self-report data regarding cognitive biases, change in affect, and aggressive reactions following anger induction through the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm. Violent, relative to non-violent, males articulated more cognitive biases and verbally aggressive statements during provocation. These same relationships did not hold for a retrospective self-report measure. Greater cognitive biases and aggressive articulations reliably distinguished between violent and non-violent males in the current study. Results suggest that assessing cognitive and affective content "in the heat of the moment" may be a more sensitive indicator of dating violence than retrospective self-reports.
Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Crane, Cory A.
In the current study, 20 dating violent and 27 non-violent college males provided verbal articulations and self-report data regarding cognitive biases, change in affect, and aggressive reactions following anger induction through the articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm. Violent, relative to non-violent, males articulated more cognitive biases and verbally aggressive statements during provocation. These same relationships did not hold for a retrospective self-report measure. Greater cognitive biases and aggressive articulations reliably distinguished between violent and non-violent males in the current study. Results suggest that assessing cognitive and affective content “in the heat of the moment” may be a more sensitive indicator of dating violence than retrospective self-reports. PMID:25023727
Winter, Korina; Spengler, Stephanie; Bermpohl, Felix; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp
Aggressive, violent behaviour is a major burden and challenge for society. It has been linked to deficits in social understanding, but the evidence is inconsistent and the specifics of such deficits are unclear. Here, we investigated affective (empathy) and cognitive (Theory of Mind) routes to understanding other people in aggressive individuals. Twenty-nine men with a history of legally relevant aggressive behaviour (i.e. serious assault) and 32 control participants were tested using a social video task (EmpaToM) that differentiates empathy and Theory of Mind and completed questionnaires on aggression and alexithymia. Aggressive participants showed reduced empathic responses to emotional videos of others' suffering, which correlated with aggression severity. Theory of Mind performance, in contrast, was intact. A mediation analysis revealed that reduced empathy in aggressive men was mediated by alexithymia. These findings stress the importance of distinguishing between socio-affective and socio-cognitive deficits for understanding aggressive behaviour and thereby contribute to the development of more efficient treatments.
Camodeca, Marina; Goossens, Frits A.
Background: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they select, how they evaluate their responses and…
Beck, Anne; Heinz, Adrienne J; Heinz, Andreas
Alcohol-related violence, a longstanding, serious, and pervasive social problem, has provided researchers from diverse disciplines with a model to study individual differences in aggressive and violent behavior. Of course, not all alcohol consumers will become aggressive after drinking and similarly, not all individuals with alcohol use disorders will exhibit such untoward behavior. Rather, the relationship is best conceptualized as complex and indirect and is influenced by a constellation of social, cognitive, and biological factors that differ greatly from one person to the next. Animal experiments and human studies have elucidated how these mechanisms and processes explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between acute and chronic alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior. Further, the rich body of literature on alcohol-related aggression has allowed for identification of several potential high-yield targets for clinical intervention, e.g., cognitive training for executive dysfunction; psychopharmacology targeting affect and threat perception, which may also generalize to other psychiatric conditions characterized by aggressive behavior. Here we aim to integrate pertinent findings, derived from different methodological approaches and theoretical models, which explain heterogeneity in aggressive responses to alcohol. A translational platform is provided, highlighting common factors linking alcohol and aggression that warrant further, interdisciplinary study in order to reduce the devastating social impact of this phenomenon.
Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M.
Spatial relations of our environment are represented in cognitive maps. These cognitive maps are prone to various distortions (e.g., alignment and hierarchical effects) caused by basic cognitive factors (such as perceptual and conceptual reorganization) but also by affectively loaded and attitudinal influences. Here we show that even differences in attitude towards a single person representing a foreign country (here Barack Obama and the USA) can be related to drastic differences in the cognitive representation of distances concerning that country. Europeans who had a positive attitude towards Obama’s first presidential program estimated distances between US and European cities as being much smaller than did people who were skeptical or negative towards Obama’s ideas. On the basis of this result and existing literature, arguments on the non-unitary and flexible nature of cognitive maps are discussed. PMID:24155860
Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M
Spatial relations of our environment are represented in cognitive maps. These cognitive maps are prone to various distortions (e.g., alignment and hierarchical effects) caused by basic cognitive factors (such as perceptual and conceptual reorganization) but also by affectively loaded and attitudinal influences. Here we show that even differences in attitude towards a single person representing a foreign country (here Barack Obama and the USA) can be related to drastic differences in the cognitive representation of distances concerning that country. Europeans who had a positive attitude towards Obama's first presidential program estimated distances between US and European cities as being much smaller than did people who were skeptical or negative towards Obama's ideas. On the basis of this result and existing literature, arguments on the non-unitary and flexible nature of cognitive maps are discussed.
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Halpert, Jane A.; Petropoulos, Lara A. N.
Past research has shown that exposure to violence leads to aggressive behavior, but few community-based studies have examined theoretical models illustrating the mediating social cognitive processes that explain this relation with youth exposed to high rates of violence. This study examines the impact of community violence on behavior through…
Proposes a cognitive-neoassociationistic model to account for the effects of negative affect on the development of angry feelings and the display of emotional aggression. Summarizes psychological studies that indicate that attention to one's negative feelings can lead to a regulation of the overt effects of the negative affect. (FMW)
Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Oosterveld, Paul; Huskens, Bibi; Stockmann, Lex
The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which affective and cognitive empathy were associated with reactive and proactive aggression, and whether these associations differed between children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 133 children (67 ASD, 66 TD, M age = 139…
McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema
We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Turner, Polly; Ireland, Jane L
The present study aims to assess whether global and context specific attitudes influence the ability to correctly identify the motivation for aggression and selection of appropriate intervention strategies. A sample of 105 prison officers completed a measure assessing global attitudes towards prisoners, one assessing context specific attitudes towards aggression, and also a case vignette. Officers were asked to consider the motivation for aggression and to select an appropriate intervention. It was predicted that sex, age and level of experience would impact on global and context specific attitudes. Officers expressing positive global attitudes and non-aggressive context specific attitudes were expected to be more able to identify the motivation for aggression and more likely to adopt a rehabilitative approach. There was evidence to indicate sex differences in global and context specific attitudes but no impact of age. Level of experience of aggression impacted both on global and context specific attitudes. Global or context specific attitudes did not influence the ability to interpret aggression, but aggression type did. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Arzon, Margaret; Freitas, Derek; Malcolm, Shandey; Prado, Guillermo
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine ecodevelopmental risk factors associated with alcohol uses, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors among Hispanic delinquent adolescents. Specifically, this study tests the effect of attitudes, family, peer, and school bonding on alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors in Hispanic delinquent youth. Methods A sample of 235 heterogeneous Hispanic delinquent adolescents was recruited through referrals from the Miami-Dade County’s Department of Juvenile Services and from the Miami-Dade County Public School system. Logistic regression methods were utilized to examine the independent effect of each risk factor (attitudes, family, peer, school) and to determine the extent to which these factors are associated with alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. Results Family functioning was inversely and significantly related to past 90-day alcohol use in univariate regression (β = −.24, p = .035) but was not significant in multiple regression (β = −0.09, p = .556). Peer alcohol use (β = 2.02, p<0.001) and poor alcohol attitudes (β =0.59, p=0.006) were positively and significantly related to past 90-day alcohol use in the final model. Poor alcohol attitudes, family functioning, peer alcohol use, and school bonding were all significantly related to both rule breaking and aggressive behaviors in the final model. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of identifying risk factors at multiple levels to prevent/reduce alcohol use, rule breaking and aggressive behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth. PMID:22473467
Banjo, Opeyemi C.; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B.
The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between
Banjo, Opeyemi C; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B
The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between
Corprew, Charles S., III.; Mitchell, Avery D.
This study examines correlates that contribute to sexually aggressive attitudes toward women. Using a sample that includes 217 college males from 3 southern universities, the study evaluates the relationship between college men's hypermasculine and sexually aggressive attitudes, as well as how fraternity membership and disinhibition moderate this…
Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W
Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.
Greenwald, A G; Banaji, M R
Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion--that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation--extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures--which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.
Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs
Holland, Karla M.
Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…
Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Borman, Patricia D.; Dunlap, Lauren; Segal, Zindel V.; Kidner, Cindy L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.
Dysfunctional attitudes can foreshadow depressive relapse/recurrence. Priming mood, through induction paradigms, is hypothesized to activate dysfunctional attitudes. Cognitive reactivity (CR) refers to mood-linked increases in dysfunctional attitudes after priming. Here we explored the extent to which CR as well as residual, unprimed, dysfunctional attitudes predicted depressive relapse/recurrence among depressed patients who responded to acute phase cognitive therapy (CT). Consenting adults, aged 18–70, with recurrent major depressive disorder (n = 523) participated in a two-site randomized controlled trial examining the durability of continuation phase treatments. Patients received 16–20 sessions of CT. Among the 245 incompletely remitted responders, 213 agreed to undergo a mood induction paradigm. After 8 months of continuation phase treatments, participants were followed an additional 24 months. Although the mood induction significantly lowered mood in 80% of responders, the expected CR was not evident. By contrast, higher unprimed dysfunctional attitudes following CT did predict relapse/recurrence over 20 and 32 months post randomization. The findings of this large longitudinal study of incompletely remitted CT responders challenge the notion that it is necessary to prime mood in order to maximize dysfunctional attitudes’ prediction of relapse and/or recurrence. While findings cannot be generalized beyond CT responders, they emphasize the clinical importance of reducing dysfunctional attitudes in preventing depression. PMID:22445946
Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R
Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.
Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R.
Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work. PMID:21643471
Thomas, Sally A.
A study was conducted to investigate the impact certain cognitive styles or structures have in mediating the influence of aggressive television on young boys. Ss were 143 white middle class boys: 36 were 5 1/2-year-old kindergarteners; 30 were 6 1/2-year-old first graders; 36 were 7 1/2-year-old second graders; and 41 were 8 1/2-year-old third…
Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer
The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest…
Bushman, B J; Geen, R G
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that observation of media violence elicits thoughts and emotional responses related to aggression. In Experiment 1, highly violent videotapes elicited more aggressive cognitions than did a less violent tape. This effect was moderated by the trait of stimulus screening. In Experiment 2, aggressive cognitions increased with the level of violence in the videotape, and physical assaultiveness influenced this effect. Hostility and systolic blood pressure were higher in response to the most violent video than in response to the other two. Hostility was influenced by emotional susceptibility and dissipation-rumination, and systolic blood pressure was influenced by emotional susceptibility and assaultiveness.
Schelle, Kimberly J.; Faulmüller, Nadira; Caviola, Lucius; Hewstone, Miles
A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is “pharmacological cognitive enhancement” (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place on that topic, several empirical studies have been conducted to assess the attitudes toward PCE in the public, i.e., in groups outside of the academic debate. In this review, we provide an overview of the 40 empirical studies published so far, reporting both their methodology and results. Overall, we find that several concerns about the use of PCE are prevalent in the public. These concerns largely match those discussed in the normative academic debate. We present our findings structured around the three most common concerns: medical safety, coercion, and fairness. Fairness is divided into three subthemes: equality of opportunity, honesty, and authenticity. Attitudes regarding some concerns are coherent across studies (e.g., coercion), whereas for others we find mixed results (e.g., authenticity). Moreover, we find differences in how specific groups—such as users, nonusers, students, parents, and health care providers—perceive PCE: a coherent finding is that nonusers display more concerns regarding medical safety and fairness than users. We discuss potential psychological explanations for these differences. PMID:24860438
Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J
In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.
Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping
This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.
Maier, Larissa J.; Liakoni, Evangelia; Schildmann, Jan; Schaub, Michael P.; Liechti, Matthias E.
Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students’ attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used prescription drugs (12%) or recreational substances including alcohol (14%) at least once for PCE. The use of prescription drugs or recreational substances including alcohol prior to the last exam was reported by 16%. Users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers were more likely to consider PCE fair (24%) compared with nonusers (11%). Only a minority of the participants agreed with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs by fellow students when assuming weak (7%) or hypothetically strong efficacy and availability to everyone (14%). Two-thirds (68%) considered performance that is obtained with PCE less worthy of recognition. Additionally, 80% disagreed that PCE is acceptable in a competitive environment. More than half (64%) agreed that PCE in academia is similar to doping in sports. Nearly half (48%) claimed that unregulated access to pharmacological cognitive enhancers increases the pressure to engage in PCE and educational inequality (55%). In conclusion, Swiss students’ main concerns regarding PCE were related to coercion and fairness. As expected, these concerns were more prevalent among nonusers than among users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers. More balanced information on PCE should be shared with students, and future monitoring of PCE is recommended. PMID:26657300
Lakkaraju, Kiran; Speed, Ann Elizabeth
Attitudes play a significant role in determining how individuals process information and behave. In this paper we have developed a new computational model of population wide attitude change that captures the social level: how individuals interact and communicate information, and the cognitive level: how attitudes and concept interact with each other. The model captures the cognitive aspect by representing each individuals as a parallel constraint satisfaction network. The dynamics of this model are explored through a simple attitude change experiment where we vary the social network and distribution of attitudes in a population.
Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F
Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.
Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.
Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N=311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881
Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J
Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.
Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.
Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.
Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Riley, Philip
Previous studies have shown that teachers' aggressive classroom management impacts negatively on students. The authors compared student reaction to teachers' use of aggressive management techniques in Australia, China, and Israel. Reactions included distraction negativity toward teachers and perceptions that teachers' responses were unjustified,…
Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo
This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.
Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.
Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…
Huesmann, L R; Eron, L D; Klein, R; Brice, P; Fischer, P
A sample of 169 first- and third-grade children, selected because of their high exposure to television violence, was randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. Over the course of 2 years, the experimental subjects were exposed to two treatments designed to reduce the likelihood of their imitating the aggressive behaviors they observed on TV. The control group received comparable neutral treatments. By the end of the second year, the experimental subjects were rated as significantly less aggressive by their peers, and the relation between violence viewing and aggressiveness was diminished in the experimental group.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James
Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…
Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…
Gumpel, Thomas P.; Wiesenthal, Vered; Söderberg, Patrik
This study had three primary goals: to explore the relationship between narcissism, participant roles, and aggression; to examine the role of gender as a moderating influence on narcissism-based aggression; and to examine how these variables work together to influence aggressive outcomes in a sample of aggressive middle and high school students.…
Pedlow, C Teal; Niemeier, Heather M
Sociotropic cognition is a mindset characterized by a strong need for social approval and fear of interpersonal rejection. Sociotropic cognition has been associated with depression and health risk behavior in women, but few studies have specifically addressed eating disordered attitudes and behaviors, and studies including men are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of sociotropic cognition on eating-related attitudes and behaviors in men and women. Participants were N=362 undergraduate students (51% female; mean age=19.2±1.43) who completed measures of sociotropic cognition, depressed mood, eating disordered attitudes and behaviors, body shape satisfaction, and physical activity. Using hierarchical regression, the results demonstrated that sociotropic cognition was associated with greater dietary restraint, body shape, eating, and weight concerns, emotional eating, and global eating disordered score. Body shape dissatisfaction and emotional eating were found to mediate the relationship between sociotropic cognition and eating disordered behaviors. Sociotropic cognition appears to be an important predictor of body shape dissatisfaction and eating disordered behaviors in a non-clinical sample. Individuals high in sociotropic cognition may engage in eating disordered behavior in response to fears of social evaluation. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies are suggested to reduce sociotropic cognition and its influence on eating disordered behavior.
Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.
Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…
Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.
Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was
Arampatzi, Athina; Mouratidou, Katerina; Evaggelinou, Christina; Koidou, Eirini; Barkoukis, Vassilis
The aim of the present study was to examine whether gender and inclusion settings are associated with elementary school pupils' aspects of social development such as aggression, social insecurity and attitudes toward disability. The sample consisted of 658 pupils (M[subscript age]=11[plus or minus]1 years) of 15 primary schools (306 boys and 352…
Walters, Glenn D
This study tested a core postulate of social cognitive theory: i.e., that perception precedes cognition in the development of behavior. Using data from four of the first five waves of the 1725-member (918 males, 807 females) National Youth Survey (NYS), youth perception of parental attitude toward deviance and youth attitude toward deviance at Waves 2 and 3 were tested as possible mediators of the relationship between Wave 1 parental attitude toward deviance and self-reported delinquency at Wave 5. The target chain was both significant and significantly stronger than the reverse chain and there was no evidence that age, race, or sex moderated this mediated relationship. These results support the presence of a chaining process in which proximal social, perceptual, and cognitive events link to distal behavioral outcomes like delinquency.
This study explores how science education could contribute to the amelioration of violent behaviors towards humans and non-human species, specifically in a Colombian school with a population of socio-economically disadvantaged students who demonstrate high levels of violence. Until now science education has not sought to change attitudes or to…
Mulendema, Peter; Ndhlovu, Zanzini; Mulenga, H.
The purpose of the study was to establish perceptions and attitudes of student teachers and their cognitive-metacognitive awareness in mathematics in colleges of education in Zambia. Although there has been abundant research into perceptions, attitudes and cognitive-metacognitive awareness in teacher education, relatively little research has…
Mitchell, Ojmarrh; MacKenzie, Doris L.; Perez, Deanna M.
This research addresses the question: Does the military atmosphere of a treatment-oriented boot camp lead to greater reductions in antisocial attitudes and cognitions than a standard correctional facility that is also treatment-oriented? A self-report measure of antisocial attitudes and cognitions was collected from 118 inmates randomly assigned…
Wang, Mo; Chen, Yiwei
This study examined the influences of cognitive resources and motivation on how young and older adults process different quantities of persuasive arguments. In the first experiment session, both young and older adults rated their attitudes toward marijuana legalization and capital punishment. After a week, they read either 3 or 9 similar-quality arguments supporting marijuana legalization and capital punishment. Half of participants were assigned to the high-involvement condition (i.e., told that they were going to discuss the arguments later with the experimenter) and the other half were assigned to the low-involvement condition (i.e., given no instructions). After reading the arguments, participants rated their attitudes toward those 2 social issues again. Highly involved young adults changed their attitudes regardless of the quantity of arguments, whereas lowly involved young adults' attitude change was influenced by the argument quantity. Older adults in both high-involvement and low-involvement conditions changed their attitudes according to the argument quantity. Working memory was found to mediate the age effects on attitude change. This finding demonstrated the importance of a cognitive mechanism in accounting for age differences in attitude change.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Garbarino, James
There is increased awareness that exposure to violence in the community can influence students' aggressive behavior at school; however, less is known about the mechanisms that mediate this process. Having an enhanced understanding of how community violence exposure relates to students' aggressive behavior at school may inform the use of preventive…
Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay
Despite wide recognition of the important role of student bystanders in influencing peer aggression in schools, little is currently known about what influences students to intervene in defense of peer aggression victims. This longitudinal study involving 1,167 primarily white adolescents (aged 12-15 years, 613 females) investigated the role of…
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:25897180
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
Gallagher, James J.
The study identified what influence university laboratory attandance had upon cognitive and attitudinal dimensions of gifted secondary school students (IQ's above 125). Tests from the Guilford battery, a self concept scale, and an adaptation of the Coleman Attitude Scale were administered to both the laboratory and the secondary school populations…
Cepni, Salih; Tas, Erol; Kose, Sacit
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction Material (CAIM) related to "photosynthesis" topic on student cognitive development, misconceptions and attitudes. The study conducted in 2002-2003 academic year and was carried out in two different classes taught by the same teacher, in which…
Wolff, Jennifer C.; Frazier, Elisabeth A.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Becker, Sara J.; Burke, Taylor A.; Cataldo, Andrea; Spirito, Anthony
Despite the well-documented association between aggression and NSSI among adolescents, relatively little research has been conducted on the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential socio-cognitive mechanisms through which aggression and NSSI are related. Participants were 186 adolescents (ages 13–18) recruited from a psychiatric inpatient facility in the northeastern United States. According to teen report, 57.5% of the sample endorsed NSSI in the previous year. Mediation was tested using the modern bootstrapping technique described by Hayes, using 5,000 re-samples with replacement, including sex and depression diagnosis as covariates. Results demonstrated that greater negative self-talk, a more negative cognitive style, and lower perceived family support were all significant mediators of the relationship between aggression and greater frequency of NSSI, whereas perceived social support from friends was not a significant mediator. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research directions of the current research are discussed. PMID:24793396
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.
Objective The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children’s development. This study investigated how women’s attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment, and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Study design Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by UNICEF. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85,999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Results Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children, and, in turn, were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers’ attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Conclusions Pediatricians can address parents’ psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents’ attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. PMID:24412139
Aydin, Carolyn E.
This study was designed to investigate the relative importance of social information cues and individual traits in predicting acceptance and effective use of a hospital medical information system. Respondents were nurses in similar units who performed the same MIS tasks but were exposed to different social information cues regarding the MIS. Social information was defined as the respondents' perceptions of the attitudes of workplace friends, co-workers, and managers toward the MIS. Individual traits included cognitive style and age. Results showed social information cues to be highly predictive of respondent attitudes. There was no relationship between attitudes and self-reported MIS use. Cognitive style was the only predictor of computer use. An audit of MIS use showed that nurses giving more IVs charted a lower percentage of those IVs on the computer. A replication study is being conducted in a different setting with a larger sample of nurses.
Lorber, Colleen M; Hughes, Tammy L; Miller, Jeffrey A; Crothers, Laura M; Martin, Erin
Psychopathic traits are associated with violent, aggressive behaviors and recidivism in adulthood. To increase positive treatment outcomes, it is arguably beneficial to identify and treat psychopathy as early as possible. Furthermore, because research shows that the effectiveness of behavior modification is likely to be affected by the social information-processing patterns of aggressive children, it is important to understand the relationship between conduct-disordered traits and social cognitions. The results of this study showed that callous/unemotional traits in a community-based sample of behavior-disordered youth (57 male, 19 female; 10-19 years of age; 63% African American) significantly predicted values in obtaining a tangible reward and getting into trouble or being punished. However, callous/unemotional traits, impulsivity/conduct problems, and narcissism failed to predict positive expectations regarding receiving a tangible reward, reducing aversive treatment, and demonstration of dominance. Implications for these results are presented.
Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni
A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288
Becker, Lee B.; Towers, Wayne M.
The political scandals known as Watergate provided an unusual opportunity to study the importance of attitudinal and cognitive variables in media research. In order to assess the impact of Watergate during the months preceding the 1974 Congressional elections, 339 personal interviews were conducted during October with a probability sample of…
Albanese, Emiliano; Matthews, Karen A.; Zhang, Julia; Jacobs, David R.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Yaffe, Kristine; Sidney, Stephen
Objective: We studied the relation of early-life (mean age 25 years) and mid-life (mean age 50 years) cognitive function to early measures of hostile attitudes and effortful coping. Methods: In 3,126 black and white men and women (born in 1955–1968) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), we used linear regression to examine the association of hostile attitudes (Cook-Medley questionnaire) and effortful coping assessed at baseline (1985–1986) to cognitive ability measured in 1987 and to a composite cognitive Z score of tests of verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and executive function ascertained in midlife (2010–2011). Results: Baseline hostility and effortful coping were prospectively associated with lower cognitive function 25 years later, controlling for age, sex, race, education, long-term exposure to depression, discrimination, negative life events, and baseline cognitive ability. Compared to the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of hostility performed 0.21 SD units lower (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.39, −0.02). Those in the highest quartile of effortful coping performed 0.30 SD units lower (95% CI −0.48, −0.12) compared to those in the lowest quartile. Further adjustment for cumulative exposure to cardiovascular risk factors attenuated the association with the cognitive composite Z score for hostility. Conclusions: Worse cognition in midlife was independently associated with 2 psychological characteristics measured in young adulthood. This suggests that interventions that promote positive social interactions may have a role in reducing risk of late-age cognitive impairment. PMID:26935891
Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara
The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Vincken, Manon; Eijkelenboom, Anneke
This study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design was used in which one group of children first received…
Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J.
It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the…
Schare, B L; Dunn, S C; Clark, H M; Soled, S W; Gilman, B R
The purpose of this experimentally designed study was to determine the effects of an interactive videodisc program, entitled "Diabetic Health Assessment," versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of baccalaureate nursing students. It was hypothesized that: 1) there would be no significant difference in the cognitive achievement scores between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program (experimental group) compared to those students taught by a traditional lecture method (control group), and 2) there would be a statistically significant difference in student attitude toward learning between those students taught by an interactive videodisc program compared to students taught by a traditional lecture method. Eighty-three third-year baccalaureate nursing students at a major urban university served as subjects and were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 41) or an experimental group (n = 42). The multivariate analysis of covariance with two criteria and the pretest as the covariate was significant (p = .000, df = 4, 140) indicating that the adjusted posttest scores on the two measures were significantly different for the experimental group compared to the control group. The univariate F for the cognitive measure was nonsignificant (p = .283, df = 2, 72) indicating that students' achievement under interactive video is not significantly different than under traditional lecture. The univariate F for the affective measure was significant (p = .000, df = 2, 72) indicating that the students learning by interactive video possessed a more positive attitude toward learning than those learning by traditional lecture method of instruction.
Hughes, Jan N.; Webster-Stratton, Barbara T.; Cavell, Timothy A.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social?Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive…
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Baker, Dale R.; Piburn, Michael
This is a report of the effects of a scientific literacy course on the skills, cognitive ability, and attitude of students in the first year of high school. Specifically, the research examines (1) whether it is possible to teach scientific skills, (2) whether a literacy curriculum affects attitude and cognitive ability, and (3) whether incoming student characteristics affect the development of attitude and cognitive abilities. Two hundred and fifty (126 male and 124 female) ninth grade students were enrolled in a specially designed literacy course which met for 3 hours and 20 minutes each week for 39 weeks. Students were pretested for logical, spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability, as well as for attitude toward self and science, and psychological type. The course was successful in teaching skills. In addition, there were significant increases in spatial, verbal, and quantitative ability. Increases in cognitive ability were predicted by logical ability, measurement skills, and academic self-concept. Attitudes declined as a result of participation in the course. Self concept and mastery were related to cognitive variables and motivation, mastery, and control were related to psychological type.
Stacy, Lauri L.
This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…
Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne
The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (<30 kcal kgFFM(-1)d(-1)) and 38% were in negative energy balance. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d(-1) compared to 145 (206) kcal d(-1), P < 0.01, and 35 (7) kcal d(-1) compared to 41 (10) kcal d(-1) of fat free mass, P = 0.005). Additionally, in females, disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint negatively correlated with energy availability (rs = -0.37, P = 0.02 and rs = -0.51, P < 0.01 respectively). There were no differences in outcomes between nutrition and non-nutrition students. The current study suggests that those students with disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint may be controlling their energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake.
Boone, Sherle Leon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Language Agression Hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that measurable high language proficiency is associated with low observable aggression and low language proficiency is associated with high observable aggression. Consideration was also given to qualitative differences in aggressive behaviors…
Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J
It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the Rosenzweig instrument. The resulting responses were rated by trained scorers. Chi-square calculations revealed that batterers in the first quarter of treatment manifested Rosenzweig responses indicative of extra-aggressiveness, whereas in the fourth quarter, batterers manifested Rosenzweig responses indicative of im-aggression. The data are discussed relative to implications for domestic violence treatment and the use of the Rosenzweig instrument as an index of treatment progress.
Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.
Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…
Krendl, Anne C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
In the current study we examine how individual differences in older adults’ global cognitive function impacts the extent to which their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals are malleable. Because prior research has elucidated the neural processes that are involved in evaluating stigmatized individuals who are responsible or not responsible for their condition, a cognitive neuroscience approach may be well-suited to answer this question. In the current study, 36 older and 17 young adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating images of homeless people who were described as being responsible or not responsible for their condition. They also indicated how much pity they felt for each of the individuals in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes were malleable (e.g., more pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible individuals). Participants’ cognitive function and baseline measure of their attitudes toward stigmatized individuals (including homeless individuals) were assessed. Results revealed that although older adults’ attitudes were malleable, the extent to which this was true varied due to individual differences in their global cognitive function. Specifically, the difference in the magnitude of older adults’ self-reported pity for not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was predicted by their global cognitive function. Moreover, the difference in pity that older adults expressed toward not-responsible as compared to responsible homeless individuals was related to activity in the left insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (regions implicated in empathy). These results suggest that attitude malleability is affected by individual differences in global cognitive function. PMID:27074046
The study examines emotional and cognitive processes associated with a response to provocation, using the "stream of consciousness" technique, as well as mood and attitude questionnaires. Physiological processes (heart rate, electrodermal responses, and blood pressure) and sex differences in a display of aggressive behavior are also…
Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…
Gitter, Seth A; Ewell, Patrick J; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stillman, Tyler F; Baumeister, Roy F
Previous work has shown that playing violent video games can stimulate aggression toward others. The current research has identified a potential exception. Participants who played a violent game in which the violence had an explicitly prosocial motive (i.e., protecting a friend and furthering his nonviolent goals) were found to show lower short-term aggression (Study 1) and show higher levels of prosocial cognition (Study 2) than individuals who played a violent game in which the violence was motivated by more morally ambiguous motives. Thus, violent video games that are framed in an explicitly prosocial context may evoke more prosocial sentiments and thereby mitigate some of the short-term effects on aggression observed in previous research. While these findings are promising regarding the potential aggression-reducing effects of prosocial context, caution is still warranted as a small effect size difference (d = .2-.3), although nonsignificant, was still observed between those who played the explicitly prosocial violent game and those who played a nonviolent game; indicating that aggressive behavior was not completely eliminated by the inclusion of a prosocial context for the violence.
KOHLBERG, LAWRENCE; ZIGLER, EDWARD
A SERIES OF STUDIES WAS CONDUCTED TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE IN PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION AND TO ASSESS A COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF IQ-PERSONALITY CORRELATIONS. THE SPECIFIC FOCUS OF THE STUDY WAS THE RELATIONSHIP OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX-ROLE ATTITUDES. AGE-DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN SEX-ROLE…
Leonhardt, Teresa Martin
Using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance as a model, this study attempted to change the attitude and behavior of children toward well liked toys. The results offer only limited support for the theory. The subjects in the three groups did play a significantly different amount of time in the two play periods. The t-tests indicated it was the…
Beard, Courtney; Weisberg, Risa B.; Primack, Jennifer
Objectives Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel treatment for anxiety disorders that utilizes computerized tasks to train attention and interpretation biases away from threat. To date, attitudes toward and acceptability of CBM have not been systematically examined. Method We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 anxious primary care patients to examine attitudes toward and initial impressions of CBM. Interviews explored general impressions, as well as reactions to the treatment rationale and two computer programs, one targeting attention bias and one targeting interpretation bias. Three clinical psychologists independently coded transcripts and collaboratively developed categories and themes guided by grounded theory. Results A number of facilitators and barriers emerged related to engaging in treatment in general, computerized treatment, and CBM specifically. Participants stated that the written rationale for CBM seemed relevant and helpful. However, after interacting with the attention modification program, participants frequently expressed a lack of understanding about how the program would help with anxiety. Participants reported greater understanding and engagement with the interpretation modification program. Conclusions Participants reported a number of positive characteristics of CBM, but it may need improvements regarding its treatment rationale and credibility. Future qualitative studies with individuals who complete a CBM treatment are warranted. Implications for future CBM development and dissemination are discussed. PMID:22127022
This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.
This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.
Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R.; Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.; Shear, M. Katherine; Barlow, David H.
Background Previous research suggests that patients with panic disorder exhibit higher levels of aggression than patients with other anxiety disorders. This aggression is associated with more severe symptomatology and interpersonal problems. However, few studies have examined whether higher levels of aggression are associated with a worse treatment response in this population. Methods The present study sought to examine the association of aggression with panic disorder symptom severity in a sample of 379 patients who participated in a trial examining long-term strategies for the treatment of panic disorder. Results We found that aggression was significantly associated with higher baseline levels of panic disorder symptoms, anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. Further, we found that patients higher in aggression did not achieve the same level of improvement in general anxiety symptoms during treatment compared to patients lower in aggression, even when controlling for baseline anxiety symptom severity. Conclusion These results suggest that more research is needed concerning patients with anxiety disorders with higher aggression, as they may be a group in need of additional treatment considerations. PMID:25987198
Collado-Castillo, Carmen J.
It has been established in the literature that aggressive behaviors in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) represents a high percentage of referrals to mental health services (Davidson, Cain, Sloane-Reeves, Speybroech, Segel, et al., 1994). The results of several studies conducted with children with ID and aggressive behaviors indicate…
Cameron, C Daryl; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Payne, B Keith
In a comprehensive meta-analysis of 167 studies, the authors found that sequential priming tasks were significantly associated with behavioral measures (r = .28) and with explicit attitude measures (r = .20). Priming tasks continued to predict behavior after controlling for the effects of explicit attitudes. These results generalized across a variety of study domains and methodological variations. Within-study moderator analyses revealed that priming tasks have good specificity, only predicting behavior and explicit measures under theoretically expected conditions. Together, these results indicate that sequential priming-one of the earliest methods of investigating implicit social cognition--continues to be a valid tool for the psychological scientist.
Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H
Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.
Muñoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Borges, Adilson
The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel
This study was designed to test the assumption that intergroup contact will lead to changes in attitudes. The objectives were to assess the attitudes and perceptions held by Israelis regarding Eqypt and Eqyptians, and to evaluate the pattern of change occurring in these attitudes and perceptions following an intervention program and subsequent…
Kazdin, Alan E.; Marciano, Paul L.; Whitley, Moira K.
The authors examined the therapeutic alliance in evidence-based treatment for children (N = 185, 47 girls, 138 boys; ages 3-14 years) referred clinically for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Different alliances (child-therapist, parent-therapist) were assessed from each participant's perspective at 2 points over the course of…
Background Primary care physicians are gate keepers to the medical system having a key role in giving information and prescribing drugs to their patients. In this respect they are involved in claims of patients/clients for pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement (CE). Therefore, we studied the knowledge of primary care physicians about CE and their attitudes toward prescribing CE drugs to healthy subjects. Methods A self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire and case vignettes describing a hypothetical CE drug were sent out to all 2,753 registered primary care physicians in Rhineland Palatine, Germany. 832, i.e. 30.2% filled in the questionnaire anonymously. Results 96.0% of all participating physicians had already heard about CE. However, only 5.3% stated to be very familiar with this subject and 43.5% judged themselves as being not familiar with CE. 7.0% had been asked by their clients to prescribe a drug for CE during the last week, 19.0% during the last month, and 40.8% during the last year. The comfort level to prescribe CE drugs was very low and significantly lower than to prescribe sildenafil (Viagra®). Comfort level was mainly affected by the age of the client asking for prescription of CE drugs, followed by the availability of non-pharmacological alternatives, fear of misuse of the prescribed drug by the client and the missing indication of prescribing a drug. Conclusions Although a relatively high proportion of primary care physicians have been asked by their clients to prescribe CE drugs, only a small proportion are well informed about the possibilities of CE. Since physicians are gate keepers to the medical system and have a key role regarding a drugs’ prescription, objective information should be made available to physicians about biological, ethical and social consequences of CE use. PMID:24397728
Milner, Rachel E
The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach.
Levin, James; Seymour Fowler, H.
The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on sexual differences in secondary school students' attitudes towards science. Attitudinal differences were also analyzed for the independent variables of science programs and grade levels. Data were collected from 988 students using a modified version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales to represent attitudes toward science. Reliabilities of the modified science subscales were all high ( > 0.83). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data for the main and interaction effects of the independent variables of sex (male, female), grade level (10th, 11th, 12th), and science program (advanced placement, academic, general, terminal). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were indicated for all main effects (sex, grade, science program). Interaction effects were not found. Mean separations for the various levels of sex, grade, and science program were performed for all attitudinal subscales. Females evidenced a significantly more positive attitude (p 0.01) than males on three subscales: Attitude Toward Success in Science Scale, Science as a Male Domain Scale, and Teacher Scale. Although not significant, males evidenced more positive attitudes on all the remaining five subscales. Eleventh graders evidenced significantly more positive attitudes than tenth graders on all but the Effectance Motivation Scale. Students in 11th grade had more positive attitudes than 12th-grade students on all scales but Science as a Male Domain Scale; however, these differences were not significant. Tenth graders differed significantly from 12th graders on three subscales; Science Usefulness Scale, Confidence in Learning Science Scale, and Teacher Scale. Positive attitudes decreased from advanced placement to terminal programs. Academic students did not differ significantly from general students except on the Father Scale; however, they were significantly different (more positive) from the terminal
Valliant, Paul M; Clark, Lisa M
This study evaluated male adolescents who were convicted of offenses. Test scores of 12 nonassaultive, 14 assaultive, and 13 sexual offenders were compared prior to sentencing. A battery of psychometric tests evaluating cognition, scholastic ability, personality, aggression, and criminal sentiments were administered. Significant differences were noted for the subtest Block Design of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant personality measures were also noted for Social Introversion and Addiction Acknowledgement of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent Form, and the Inhibited, Sexual Discomfort, Peer Insecurity, Substance Abuse Proneness, and Anxious Feelings of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. There were significant differences noted for the State Anger, Feel Like Expressing Anger Verbally, Feel Like Expressing Anger Physically, Trait Anger, Angry Temperament, Angry Reaction, Anger Expression-Out, and Anger Expression Index of the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Discriminant analyses showed the three groups could be separated by stepwise procedure.
Risør, Bettina Wulff; Casper, Sven Dalgas; Andersen, Lars Louis; Sørensen, Jan
This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient-handling equipment. In addition, a lower proportion of nursing staff in the intervention group had experienced physically aggressive episodes. No significant change was observed in general health status, musculoskeletal problems, days of absence or work-related accidents. The intervention resulted in more positive attitudes and behaviours for safe patient-handling and less physically aggressive episodes. However, this did not translate into improved health of the staff during the 12-month study period.
Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Peer contagion of adolescent males' aggressive/health risk behaviors was examined using a computerized "chat room" experimental paradigm. Forty-three 11th-grade White adolescents (16-17 years old) were led to believe that they were interacting with other students (i.e., "e-confederates"), who endorsed aggressive/health risk behaviors and whose…
Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A
Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model.
Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan
This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.
Soled, Suzanne Wegener; And Others
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of interactive video versus traditional lecture on cognitive learning and affective behaviors of undergraduate nursing students. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in the cognitive achievement scores of students taught by an interactive videodisk…
Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.
Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying "I love you," holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Baker, Dale R.
This article examines the factors of attitude toward science, spatial ability, mathematical ability, and the scientific personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, in a sample of middle school students. Males and females with science grades of A and B were found to have several characteristics of the scientific personality, good grades in mathematics, but negative attitudes toward science. Males and females with science grades of C and D had a more positive attitude toward science, but poor mathematical and spatial abilities and few characteristics of the scientific personality. There were no sex differences except on the Thinking/Feeling (TF) scale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. As expected females portrayed themselves as preferring the (F) scale, the use of personal values when making decisions and males portrayed themselves as preferring the (T) scale, the use of logical analysis when making decisions.
Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil
Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.
Crone, Travis S.; Portillo, Mary C.
Jigsaw classroom research has primarily explored racial relationships at the primary and secondary educational levels. The present study explored whether the jigsaw classroom would have an effect on students' attitudes about their own academic abilities and practices at the university level. The present study also sought to illuminate the…
Schoon, Ingrid; Cheng, Helen; Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.
We examined the prospective associations between family socio-economic background, childhood intelligence ("g") at age 11, educational and occupational attainment, and social attitudes at age 33 in a large (N = 8804), representative sample of the British population born in 1958. Structural equation Modeling identified a latent trait of…
Borhani, Fariba; Vatanparast, Mahboubeh; Zadeh, Abbas Abbas; Ranjbar, Hadi; Pour, Reza Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Along with emersion of the Internet, virtual education increasingly has been growing. Many studies discussed this method and its impact on learning. Present study investigated students’ attitude towards virtual education as well as its effect on learning. METHODS: This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study. The nursing students, who had selected fluids and electrolyte disorders course, were randomly divided into two virtual and conventional education groups. The knowledge of students was assessed through a written exam and students’ attitude towards virtual education assessed by a researcher-made questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean scores of students in pretest were 0.8 (0.3) and 1.1 (0.59) in virtual and conventional group respectively [mean (SD)]. At the end of the semester their scores were 15.9 (0.58) and 16.51 (0.89) respectively. Mean attitude scores at baseline were 3.19 (0.48) and 3.21 (0.33) followed by 3.55 (0.45) and 3.21 (0.46) at the end of the semester in virtual and conventional groups respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the scores of conventional group at the end of the course were higher than virtual group, both methods acted similarly in terms of increasing the knowledge. Passing a virtual education course may improve the attitude of the nurses towards it. PMID:23450257
Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…
The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teacher's cognitive load types (intrinsic load-IL, extraneous load-EL, and germane load-GL), academic achievements, and affective characteristics (attitude and self-efficacy) at two stages of experimental learning processes. The first and the second groups used explanatory instructional…
Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Tseng, Ju-Shih
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of English proficiency (low vs. high) and material presentation mode (single channel vs. dual channel) on English listening comprehension, cognitive load and learning attitude in a ubiquitous learning environment. An experimental learning activity was implemented using PDA as a learning…
Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Aggression in Children and Adolescents: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial Within the National Institute for Mental Health Research Domain Criteria Construct of Frustrative Non-Reward
Wyk, Brent C. Vander; Eilbott, Jeffrey A.; McCauley, Spencer A.; Ibrahim, Karim; Crowley, Michael J.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Abstract Objective: We present the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for aggression in children and adolescents, which is conducted in response to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach initiative. Specifically, the study is focused on the brain-behavior associations within the RDoC construct of frustrative non-reward. On the behavioral level, this construct is defined by reactions elicited in response to withdrawal or prevention of reward, most notably reactive aggression. This study is designed to test the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and electrophysiological (EEG) correlates of aggression and its reduction after CBT. Methods: Eighty children and adolescents with high levels of aggression across multiple traditional diagnostic categories, ages 8–16, will be randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of CBT or 12 sessions of supportive psychotherapy. Clinical outcomes will be measured by the ratings of aggressive behavior collected at baseline, midpoint, and endpoint evaluations, and by the Improvement Score of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale assigned by an independent evaluator (blinded rater). Subjects will also perform a frustration-induction Go-NoGo task and a task of emotional face perception during fMRI scanning and EEG recording at baseline and endpoint. Results: Consistent with the NIMH strategic research priorities, if functional neuroimaging and EEG variables can identify subjects who respond to CBT for aggression, this can provide a neuroscience-based classification scheme that will improve treatment outcomes for children and adolescents with aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Demonstrating that a change in the key nodes of the emotion regulation circuitry is associated with a reduction of reactive aggression will provide evidence to support the validity of the frustrative non-reward construct. PMID:26784537
Falade, Bankole A; Bauer, Martin W
This study, of modern common sense in Nigeria, combines questionnaires and interviews to examine the compatibility and incompatibility of religion and science. Nigeria is a large country with a complex diversity of religious, ethnic and cultural practices that condition the reception and elaboration of science in everyday life. We find evaluative attitudes to science structured as 'progress', 'fear' and 'mythical image'. Scientific knowledge and religiosity have a direct bearing on expectations of progress and feeling of fear and worry about science; mythical image is independent of this. Nigerians trust both scientific and religious authorities in contrast to other social actors. Many of the results are consistent with the hypothesis of cognitive polyphasia of scientific and religious knowing manifesting as a 'hierarchy', when one form is elevated over the other; 'parallelity', when both serve separate functions; and 'empowerment', where one enhances the other.
Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sook Young; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Jong Eun; Ko, Yu Kyung
The purpose of this study was to find out about the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral program for nursing student's career attitude maturity, decision making style, and self-esteem in Korea. The ultimate goal of this paper is to prepare career strategies so that they can improve career maturity development, on the basis of better understanding of one's self. The subjects were 40 nursing students from one college located in Gyeonggi Province; following the informed consent procedure, twenty participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group, and 20 were assigned to a control group. The cognitive-behavioral therapy consisted of 8-sessions and was implemented for 60 min during an 8 week period. Data were collected from May to June 2004, and analyzed χ(2)-test, Fisher's exact test and t-test were used in the analysis of the data. After treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy, the experimental group significantly increased in the mean score for career attitude maturity, self-esteem compared to the control group, especially for confidence and independence. In conclusion, cognitive-behavioral therapy had a positive effect for increasing the career attitude maturity and self-esteem for nursing students in Korea. Therefore, cognitive-behavioral therapy for nursing student is recommended as a group counseling program on career maturity inventory.
Misiti, Frank L., Jr.; Shrigley, Robert L.
Based on the tenets of Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, five preconditions for dissonance arousal were operationalized in a counterattitudinal essay writing task. The five preconditions were: perceived choice, irrevocable commitment, minimum incentive, perceived responsibility for consequences, and foreseeability of negative…
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...
van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T
From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.
Tatum, Jerry L.; Foubert, John D.
Male perpetrated sexual aggression has long been recognized as a serious problem on college campuses. The purpose of this multiple regression correlation study was to assess the relationship between levels of moral development (measured by the Defining Issues Test) and the degree to which first-year college men (N = 161) ascribed to rape…
Serrano, Cecilia M; Allegri, Ricardo F; Caramelli, Paulo; Taragano, Fernando E; Camera, Luis
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to persons who are slightly cognitively impaired for age but do not meet the criteria for dementia. MCI has been related to a pre-dementia stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, other possible diagnoses such as cerebro-vascular disease, frontotemporal dementia or normal aging have been considered. Diagnosis, etiology and conversion to dementia are a source of ambiguity in MCI. The aim was to evaluate the opinion of experts on dementia and of general practitioners concerning MCI. A total of 24 experts from Argentina and Brazil (16 neurologists and 8 psychiatrists) and 30 general practitioners agreed to reply to a questionnaire on MCI (adapted from Dubois inventory, 2003). Of these, 92% of experts considered MCI as an ambiguous entity, not necessarily as a "pre-dementia" stage; 63% confirmed a tendency to worsen over the time and 83% of experts decided to initiate treatment using cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and vitamin E. The opinion on MCI was that a priori it is not only an Alzheimer disease pre-dementia stage, but most of them consider the treatment against AD. MCI is a heterogeneous entity that should be classified as an open category and making it necessary to standardize definitions and design diagnosis guides to better understand Alzheimer disease pre-dementia stage.
Blair, Robert J R
This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.
Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707
Milic, Natasa M.; Masic, Srdjan; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena; Trajkovic, Goran; Bukumiric, Zoran; Savic, Marko; Milic, Nikola V.; Cirkovic, Andja; Gajic, Milan; Kostic, Mirjana; Ilic, Aleksandra; Stanisavljevic, Dejana
Background The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students’ attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students. Methods A validated Serbian Survey of Attitudes Towards Statistics (SATS-36) questionnaire was administered to medical students attending obligatory introductory courses in biostatistics from three medical universities in the Western Balkans. A systematic review of peer-reviewed publications was performed through searches of Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Medline, and APA databases through 1994. A meta-analysis was performed for the correlation coefficients between SATS component scores and statistics achievement. Pooled estimates were calculated using random effects models. Results SATS-36 was completed by 461 medical students. Most of the students held positive attitudes towards statistics. Ability in mathematics and grade point average were associated in a multivariate regression model with the Cognitive Competence score, after adjusting for age, gender and computer ability. The results of 90 paired data showed that Affect, Cognitive Competence, and Effort scores demonstrated significant positive changes. The Cognitive Competence score showed the largest increase (M = 0.48, SD = 0.95). The positive correlation found between the Cognitive Competence score and students’ achievement (r = 0.41; p<0.001), was also shown in the meta-analysis (r = 0.37; 95% CI 0.32–0.41). Conclusion Students' subjective attitudes regarding Cognitive Competence at the beginning of the
Evans, Garret D.; Reader, Steven; Liss, Heidi J.; Wiens, Brenda A.; Roy, Antara
School districts are increasingly initiating random drug-testing (RDT) programs in an effort to curb substance-use rates among students, yet little is known about student attitudes toward RDT and potential obstacles to program acceptance and effectiveness. The authors surveyed 1011 9th through 11th grade students in 2 rural high schools in North…
Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J
The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.
Wehby, Joseph H.
This review describes four major hypotheses related to aggressive behavior and reviews current means for assessment. Hypotheses suggest that aggressive behavior is the result of a social skills deficit, positive or negative reinforcement, environmental deficits, or deficits in the cognitive processing of social stimuli. Changes in assessment…
Ferguson, Christopher J; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica; Ramos, Raul; Galindo, Mariza
The United States Supreme Court's recent decision relating to violent video games revealed divisions within the scientific community about the potential for negative effects of such games as well as the need for more, higher quality research. Scholars also have debated the potential for violent games to have positive effects such as on visuospatial cognition or math ability. The current study sought to extend previous literature by using well-validated clinical outcome measures for relevant constructs, which have generally been lacking in past research. Cross-section data on aggression, visuospatial cognition, and math achievement were available for a sample of 333 (51.7 % female) mostly Hispanic youth (mean age = 12.76). Prospective 1-year data on aggression and school GPA were available for 143 (46.2 % female) of those youth. Results from both sets of analysis revealed that exposure to violent game had neither short-term nor long-term predictive influences on either positive or negative outcomes. A developmental analysis of the cross-sectional data revealed that results did not differ across age categories of older children, preadolescents or adolescents. Analysis of effect sizes largely ruled out Type II error as a possible explanation for null results. Suggestions for new directions in the field of video game research are proffered.
Controlled randomized clinical trial of spirituality integrated psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication intervention on depressive symptoms and dysfunctional attitudes in patients with dysthymic disorder
Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Neshatdoost, Hamid Taher; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Asadollahi, Ghorban Ali; Nasiri, Hamid
Background: Due to the controversy over efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic depression, recently, there has been an increasingly tendency toward therapeutic methods based on the cultural and spiritual approaches. The aim of this research was to compare efficacy of spiritual integrated psychotherapy (SIPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on the intensity of depression symptoms and dysfunctional attitudes of patients with dysthymic disorder. Materials and Methods: This study had a mixed qualitative and quantitative design. In the first phase, SIPT model was prepared and, in the second phase, a double-blind random clinical trial was performed. Sixty-two patients with dysthymic disorder were selected from several centers include Nour and Alzahra Medical Center, Counseling Centers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Goldis in Isfahan. The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group. The first group received 8 sessions treatment of SIPT, second groups also had 8 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy, which was specific to dysthymic disorder and third group were under antidepressant treatment. Beck depression inventory and dysfunctional attitudes scale were used to evaluate all the participants in four measurement stages. The data were analyzed using MANCOVA repeated measure method. Results: The results revealed that SIPT had more efficacy than medication based on both scales (P < 0.01); however, it was not different from CBT. SIPT was more effective on the modification of dysfunctional attitudes compared with CBT and medication (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings supported the efficacy of psychotherapy enriched with cultural capacities and religious teachings. PMID:24516853
Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha
This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…
Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G
This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.
Pedersen, William C; Bushman, Brad J; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Miller, Norman
Sometimes aggression is displaced onto a target who is not totally innocent but emits a mildly irritating behavior called a triggering event. In three experiments, the authors examine stable personal attributes of targets that can impact such triggered displaced aggression (TDA). Lower levels of TDA were directed to targets whose attitudes were similar as compared to dissimilar to those of the actor (Experiment 1) and to targets who were ingroup as compared to out-group members (Experiment 2). Conceptually replicating the findings of Experiments 1 and 2, the manipulated valence of the target (viz., liked, neutral, and disliked) functioned in a similar manner, with positive valence serving a buffering function against a triggering action that followed an initial provocation (Experiment 3). The results from all three experiments are consistent with cognitive neoassociationist theory.
Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R
Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.
Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J
Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Searson, Robert Francis
This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.
Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M
Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Koralus, Philipp Elias
The dissertation presents a theory of semantics and pragmatics for both language and vision. I focus on sentences including proper names, descriptions, and attitude report verbs, and on the Necker cube. I propose the Open Instruction Theory (OIT), according to which the linguistic meaning of a sentence and the semantic contribution of visual…
In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts
Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.
Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…
Podubinski, Tegan; Lee, Stuart; Hollander, Yitzchak; Daffern, Michael
Aggression in mental health units is a significant and pervasive problem. However, the characteristics of patients associated with increased aggression propensity remain unclear and there are few attempts to expand understanding of these characteristics by drawing upon contemporary aggression theory. This study assessed the influence of interpersonal (hostile-dominance) and personality (psychopathy), General Aggression Model-specified (aggressive script rehearsal, attitudes towards violence, and trait anger), and clinical (psychiatric symptoms) factors on aggression during psychiatric hospitalization in 200 inpatients (132 men and 68 women; 19-64 years, M=38.32 years, S.D.=11.13 years). Patient characteristics were assessed on admission using structured interviews and self-report psychological tests. Patients' files were reviewed and nurses were interviewed after patients were discharged to establish whether patients were aggressive during their hospital stay. Results of univariate analyses showed that higher levels of interpersonal hostile-dominance, psychopathy and aggressive script rehearsal, positive attitudes towards violence, trait anger, and disorganized and excited type psychiatric symptoms all predicted aggression. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, only hostile-dominance remained as a significant predictor of aggressive behavior. This important personality characteristic should be considered in violence risk assessments and aggression prevention strategies.
LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick
Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.
Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.
In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce
Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia
Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.
Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A
Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.
HESS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS
THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES MEASURES USED IN "THE COGNITIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF URBAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN" PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. THE SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY CONSISTED OF 163 NEGRO MOTHER-CHILD PAIRS SELECTED FROM 3 SOCIOECONOMIC CLASSES BASED ON THE FATHER'S OCCUPATION AND THE PARENTS' EDUCATION. A FOURTH GROUP INCLUDED FATHER-ABSENT…
Dye, M L; Eckhardt, C I
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether perpetrators of dating violence could be differentiated from their nonviolent counterparts on measures of anger and cognitive distortion, specifically Ellis's (1994) irrational beliefs and Beck's (1976) dysfunctional attitudes. Of the 95 male and 152 female undergraduates surveyed, 27% (24 males and 43 females) reported using some form of physical aggression against their current dating partner in the past year. On a self-report measure of anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), violent individuals reported higher levels of Anger Out and lower levels of Anger Control compared to nonviolent participants. While there were no differences between violent and nonviolent participants' levels of Trait Anger, the results suggest that violent individuals have difficulty controlling angry feelings when they arise, which may increase the likelihood of externally directed forms of anger expression. No significant group differences emerged on questionnaire measures of irrational beliefs and dysfunctional attitudes. Within the violent sample, there was no differential pattern of correlations between measures of anger and cognition relative to the nonviolent sample. The present data suggest that while trait-based measures of cognitive distortion explain little variance in self-reported acts of dating violence, future research should investigate whether (a) cognitive distortions are present during affect-inducing partner conflict situations, or (b) vary with violence severity.
Batrinos, Menelaos L
Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine
López-Pérez, Belén; Hanoch, Yaniv; Holt, Kayleigh; Gummerum, Michaela
Bullying extracts a heavy toll on offenders and prison staff alike. Studying what factors may affect bullying is extremely important as this may help to minimize bullying in prison. Although there is research on the relationship between lack of empathy and positive attitude toward bullying, previous research has overlooked that age may influence this relationship. In fact, previous research has shown that there are changes in empathy across the life span. Therefore, we examined whether having a positive attitude toward bullying in offenders was predicted by age, mediated by cognitive/affective empathy. Another important factor in the prediction of positive attitudes toward bullying may be the belief in a just world, as having a weak belief is related to more aggressive outbursts. Given that there is scarce research in the topic, we examined the relationship between having a positive attitude toward bullying and personal belief in a just world. To that aim, 123 sentenced adult male prisoners, selected from a Category C prison in the United Kingdom completed different questionnaires to assess their levels of cognitive and affective empathy, positive attitude toward bullying, and personal belief in a just world. As expected, age predicted a positive attitude toward bullying, mediated by affective empathy. However, we did not find a positive relationship between a positive attitude toward bullying and a personal belief in a just world. The results are discussed in terms of their application in possible intervention programs.
Mrevlje, Gorazd V
Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.
Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J
Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes.
Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M
Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.
Boxer, Paul; Tisak, Marie S.
Examined causal attributions about aggression made by early, middle, and late adolescents. Analyses of the attribution questionnaire supported the hypothesized model of causal beliefs. The strength of endorsements of internally oriented causal factors increased with age. Findings are discussed with regard to socio-cognitive development and…
Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
Anderson, Craig A; Anderson, Kathryn B
Two studies examined the effects of individual differences identified by the Confluence Model of aggression against women [Malamuth Linz, Hevey et al., 1995] and the General Aggression Model [GAM: Anderson and Carnagey, 2004] as predictors of male-on-female aggression. Study 1, a correlational study, found that hostile masculinity predicts self-reported sexual aggression independently of nonsexual aggression against women, and is itself predicted by proneness to general hostility, masculine gender role stress, and violent attitudes toward women. Furthermore, hostility toward women independently predicted sexual and nonsexual aggression against women, above the effects of general attitudes toward violence and general levels of hostility and aggression. Study 2, an experimental study, found that under high provocation, high hostility toward women predicted increases in male nonsexual aggression against women and slight decreases in male aggression against men. This effect remained significant even after controlling for general attitudes toward violence and for general levels of hostility and aggression, indicating that males who are highly hostile toward women specifically target women and that their aggression toward women generalizes beyond sexual aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of a model that integrates the Confluence Model with GAM.
Monroe, Brian M.; Read, Stephen J.
A localist, parallel constraint satisfaction, artificial neural network model is presented that accounts for a broad collection of attitude and attitude-change phenomena. The network represents the attitude object and cognitions and beliefs related to the attitude, as well as how to integrate a persuasive message into this network. Short-term…
Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.
Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony
Changes in 70 teachers' confidence, attitudes and science understanding were tested before and after a major in-service programme. Attitudes were assessed using a 49-item Likert-scale test that probed attitudes to practical science teaching and in-service training. Multi-choice and open-ended questions measured understanding of electricity;…
Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Werner, Nicole E.
Research indicates that relationally aggressive media exposure is positively associated with relational aggression in children. Theories of media effects suggest that these associations may be mediated by aggressive cognitions. Although parental mediation can attenuate the effects of violent media, it is unknown whether there are similar benefits…
Ramírez-Bermudez, J; Perez-Neri, I; Montes, S; Ramirez-Abascal, M; Nente, F; Abundes-Corona, A; Soto-Hernandez, J L; Rios, C
The neurochemical basis of aggressive behavior in humans is not fully understood. In this study we explored the relationship between aggressiveness (as measured by the Overt Aggression Scale), cognitive performance (as measured by the Mini Mental State Examination), and biochemical markers of dopamine neurotransmission (homovanillic acid, HVA) and nitric oxide synthesis (nitrite plus nitrate, NO(x)) in cerebrospinal fluid from 70 patients with acute brain disorders, mainly brain infections. Aggressive behavior and cognitive performance showed an inverse correlation. NO(x)/HVA ratio was inversely correlated to aggressive behavior, and positively correlated to cognitive performance. A subanalysis with antipsychotic-naïve patients confirmed those results. The balance between nitric oxide and dopamine could be related to the cognitive control of aggressive impulse.
Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.
Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J
The current investigation evaluated whether cognitive processes characteristic of the Social Information Processing model predicted parent-child aggression (PCA) risk independent of personal vulnerabilities and resiliencies. This study utilized a multimethod approach, including analog tasks, with a diverse sample of 203 primiparous expectant mothers and 151 of their partners. Factors considered in this study included PCA approval attitudes, empathy, reactivity, negative child attributions, compliance expectations, and knowledge of non-physical discipline alternatives; additionally, vulnerabilities included psychopathology symptoms, domestic violence victimization, and substance use, whereas resiliencies included perceived social support, partner relationship satisfaction, and coping efficacy. For both mothers and fathers, findings supported the role of greater approval of PCA attitudes, lower empathy, more overreactivity, more negative attributions, and higher compliance expectations in relation to elevated risk of PCA. Moreover, personal vulnerabilities and resiliencies related to PCA risk for mothers; however, fathers and mothers differed on the nature of these relationships with respect to vulnerabilities as well as aspects of empathy and PCA approval attitudes. Findings provide evidence for commonalities in many of the factors investigated between mothers and fathers with some notable distinctions. Results are discussed in terms of how findings could inform prevention programs.
Garfield, Sol L., Ed.
Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.
Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…
Underwood, Marion K.
Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…
Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard
Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570
Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others
Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…
Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others
Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…
Loeber, R; Hay, D
Different manifestations of aggression from childhood to early adulthood are reviewed to establish how early manifestations are related to later manifestations. Similarities and differences in manifestations of aggression between the two genders are noted. Developmental sequences and pathways from minor aggression to violence are highlighted. Long-term escalation is contrasted with short-term escalation at older ages. Although studies have emphasized high stability of aggression over time, data show that a substantial proportion of aggressive youth desist over time. Temperamental, emotional, and cognitive aspects of aggression are reviewed, either as precursors or co-occurring conditions to aggression. Selected processes in the realms of the family, peers, and neighborhoods are highlighted that are known to be associated with juvenile aggression. Cumulative, long-term causes are contrasted with short-term causes, and causes associated with desistance in aggression are reviewed.
Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June
The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.
The effect of experience in counseling cancer patients and their families on third-year medical students' attitudes toward cancer was studied at the Medical College of Pennsylvania. Using the Cancer Attitude Scale, assessment included attitudes toward patients' inner resources, attitudes about early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, and…
Burton, Robert W
Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.
Roberto, Anthony J.; Meyer, Gary; Boster, Franklin J.; Roberto, Heather L.
Examines the ability of the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict adolescents' verbal (i.e., insulting) and physical (i.e., fighting) aggression, as well as behaviors that encourage aggression such as watching a fight or telling others about a fight that is going to happen. Reveals that attitudes and subjective norms predicted…
Riley, Philip; Lewis, Ramon; Wang, Bingxin
Student misbehaviour can provoke aggressive teacher management (e.g. yelling in anger), adversely effecting students' learning and attitudes toward school. To investigate this phenomenon, data were obtained from 75 Chinese (typically Eastern) and 192 Victorian (typically Western) secondary teachers who self-reported aggressive management. Results:…
Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries
A study examined the validity of the SCARE program; an anger management program developed with high school students. Adolescents (n=207) exposed to the SCARE program had significantly lower levels of anger and aggression, slightly higher anger control, and lower scores on aggressive and violent attitudes a year after exposure. (Contains…
Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.
Thompson, Martie P.; Koss, Mary P.; Kingree, J. B.; Goree, Jennifer; Rice, John
Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the authors examined prospective associations of attitudes, norms, and control with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration 1 year later among male college students. Data were collected from 652 males via confidential, self-report surveys at the end of their 1st and 2nd years in college. Results…
Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph
This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…
Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Perez, Sergio Murgui; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Ruiz, David Moreno
The present study examined the influence of family and classroom environments on the development of particular individual characteristics, including level of empathy, attitude to institutional authority and perceived social reputation, and the role these characteristics may in turn play in school aggression. Participants were 1319 adolescents aged…
Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…
Kay, Robin H.
Describes study conducted at the University of Toronto that assessed the attitudes of student teachers toward computers by using a multicomponent model, the Computer Attitude Measure (CAM). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral attitudes are examined, and correlations of computer literacy, experience, and internal locus of control are discussed.…
Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…
Kerestes, Gordana; Milanović, Anita
Croatian elementary school children in grades 4 to 6 (N= 151) reported on direct and indirect aggressive behaviors of their classmates. Acceptance and rejection by classmates were also assessed, employing the sociometric nomination technique. Correlational analyses revealed that both forms of aggression were related to peer rejection, but unrelated to peer acceptance. Girls' aggression was more strongly related to peer rejection than boys' aggression, independent of the type of aggression. Aggressive children of both genders tended to be more rejected by their same-gender classmates than by classmates of the opposite gender. Results were discussed in terms of children's attitudes towards aggression, and gender stereotyped perception of appropriateness of aggressive behavior. A need to examine developmental changes and cultural differences in relationships between aggression and peer status was emphasized.
Gentile, Douglas A; Lynch, Paul J; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David A
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The second goal was to examine associations among violent video game exposure, hostility, arguments with teachers, school grades, and physical fights. In addition, path analyses were conducted to test mediational pathways from video game habits to outcomes. Six hundred and seven 8th- and 9th-grade students from four schools participated. Adolescents who expose themselves to greater amounts of video game violence were more hostile, reported getting into arguments with teachers more frequently, were more likely to be involved in physical fights, and performed more poorly in school. Mediational pathways were found such that hostility mediated the relationship between violent video game exposure and outcomes. Results are interpreted within and support the framework of the General Aggression Model.
This study evaluated the impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on social-cognitive factors associated with aggression and nonviolent behavior in early adolescence. The effects of the universal intervention were evaluated within the context of a design in which two cohorts of students at 37 schools from four sites (N = 5,581) were randomized to four conditions: (a) a universal intervention that involved implementing a student curriculum and teacher training with sixth grade students and teachers; (b) a selective intervention in which a family intervention was implemented with a subset of sixth grade students exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence; (c) a combined intervention condition; and (d) a no-intervention control condition. Short-term and long-term (i.e., 2-year post-intervention) universal intervention effects on social-cognitive factors targeted by the intervention varied as a function of students' pre-intervention level of risk. High-risk students benefited from the intervention in terms of decreases in beliefs and attitudes supporting aggression, and increases in self-efficacy, beliefs and attitudes supporting nonviolent behavior. Effects on low-risk students were in the opposite direction. The differential pattern of intervention effects for low- and high-risk students may account for the absence of main effects in many previous evaluations of universal interventions for middle school youth. These findings have important research and policy implications for efforts to develop effective violence prevention programs.
Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen
Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires.
usually devoted to identifying and modifying the dysfunctional attitudes which give rise to the stressful cognitions. The basic behavioral stress response falls in line with the expectations of the fight or flight response, and a stressed individual will typically display a pattern of either aggressive or avoidance behavior (as shown in the "Type A Behavioral Pattern"). The relation between stress and behavior is bidirectional: some behaviors occur in response to stress, whereas others produce stress. Assertive training is often a component of stress management programs as it is accepted that behaving in an assertive manner (i.e. a non passive and non aggressive manner) results in an increased feeling of well-being.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.
This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…
Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm
This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666
Clarkson, Joshua J; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D
Past research suggests that cognitive and affective attitudes are more open to change toward cognitive and affective (i.e., matched) persuasive attacks, respectively. The present research investigates how attitude certainty influences this openness. Although an extensive literature suggests that certainty generally reduces an attitude's openness to change, the authors explore the possibility that certainty might increase an attitude's openness to change in the context of affective or cognitive appeals. Based on the recently proposed amplification hypothesis, the authors posit that high (vs. low) attitude certainty will boost the resistance of attitudes to mismatched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by cognitive messages) but boost the openness of attitudes to matched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by affective messages). Two experiments provide support for this hypothesis. Implications for increasing the openness of attitudes to both matched and mismatched attacks are discussed.
Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Petrocchi, Chiara; Cavallo, Francesca; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
There is a need to better understand the antecedent of aggressive behaviors in order to tailor treatments and reduce the associated damage to the others and the self. Possible mechanisms underlying aggression are poor emotional awareness and emotion dysregulation, as well as impulsivity. Here, we examined the relationships among alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression, comparing a mixed psychiatric sample (N=257) and a community sample (N=617). The clinical sample reported greater levels of alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity and aggression, than the community sample. Furthermore, in the community sample, emotion dysregulation and impulsivity mediated the relationship (i.e., accounted for the shared variance) between alexithymia and aggression. In the clinical sample, only emotion dysregulation explained the alexithymia-aggression link. In particular, specific dimensions of the emotion dysregulation (i.e., Negative Urgency) and impulsivity constructs (i.e., cognitive and motor impulsivity) played a unique role in explaining these associations. Finally, controlling for depressive symptoms reduced some of the findings involving impulsivity to nonsignificant results. Overall, our findings add to the extant literature attesting to the relevance of alexithymia and emotion dysregulation for understanding aggression, and providing concrete recommendation for the treatment and prevention of aggressive tendencies.
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias
Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model.
Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara
The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression.
Chu, Chi Meng; Hoo, Eric; Daffern, Michael; Tan, Jolie
Aggressive behavior in incarcerated youth presents a significant problem for staff, co-residents and the functioning of the institution. This study aimed to examine the predictive validity of an empirically validated measure, designed to appraise the risk of imminent aggression within institutionalized adult psychiatric patients (Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression; DASA), in adolescent male and female offenders. The supervising staff members on the residential units rated the DASA daily for 49 youth (29 males and 20 females) over two months. The results showed that DASA total scores significantly predicted institutional aggression in the following 24 and 48 hrs; however, the predictive validity of the DASA for institutional aggression was, at best, modest. Further analyses on male and female subsamples revealed that the DASA total scores only predicted imminent institutional aggression in the male subsample. Item analyses showed that negative attitudes, anger when requests are denied, and unwillingness to follow instructions predicted institutional aggression more strongly as compared with other behavioral manifestations of an irritable and unstable mental state as assessed by the DASA. PMID:25999797
Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A
This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.
Pornari, Chrisa D; Wood, Jane
This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying.
Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell
As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…
Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling
This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…
Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick
Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…
Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.
"Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…
Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian
Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…
Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K
The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…
Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla
This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer; Ota, Carrie; Jenkins, Charlene
Rough and tumble play has been found to be positive for physical, social and cognitive development; it is often erroneously misinterpreted as aggression and generally stopped by preschool teachers. The current study sought to examine the relationship between teacher training and education and judgements about aggression in children. Ninety-four…
Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen
Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…
Deming, Annie M.; Lochman, John E.
This study attempted to discover how anger, locus of control, and impulsivity are related to aggression. Two pathways to aggression were examined: a cognitive/schema pathway and an emotion/impulsivity pathway. The sample included 242 fourth- and fifth-grade boys. Using data from several questionnaires, teachers reported on levels of reactive and…
Pedersen, William C; Denson, Thomas F; Goss, R Justin; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Kelley, Nicholas J; Miller, Norman
Although rumination following a provocation can increase aggression, no research has examined the processes responsible for this phenomenon. With predictions derived from the General Aggression Model, three experiments explored the impact of two types of post-provocation rumination on the processes whereby rumination augments aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to distraction, self-focused rumination uniquely increased the accessibility of arousal cognition, whereas provocation-focused rumination uniquely amplified the accessibility of aggressive action cognition. In Experiment 2, provocation-focused rumination uniquely increased systolic blood pressure. In Experiment 3, both types of rumination increased aggressive behaviour relative to a distraction condition. Angry affect partially mediated the effects of both provocation- and self-focused rumination on aggression. Self-critical negative affect partially mediated the effect of self-focused rumination but not provocation-focused rumination. These findings suggest that provocation-focused rumination influences angry affect, aggressive action cognition, and cardiovascular arousal, whereas self-focused rumination increases self-critical negative affect, angry affect, and arousal cognition. These studies enhance our understanding of why two types of post-provocation rumination increase aggressive behaviour.
Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.
Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…
Frey, Karin S.; Higheagle Strong, Zoe; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.
Theory and research using a social-information processing framework indicate that reward-focused (proactive) aggression has different social consequences than defense-focused (reactive) aggression. Students use norms that identify expected and socially approved behaviors as guides to their own actions. Differences in social-cognitive processing…
Goodman, Joan F.; Kitzmiller, Erika
School anti-violence programs are united in their radical condemnation of aggression, generally equated with violence. The programs advocate its elimination by priming children's emotional and cognitive controls. What goes unrecognized is the embeddedness of aggression in human beings, as well as its positive psychological and moral functions. In…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; McFaul, Adrienne
The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults' romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Barongan, Christy; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama
Results from 54 college men who heard misogynous or neutral rap music and then selected neutral, sexual-violent, or assaultive film vignettes to show a female companion suggest that misogynous music facilitates sexually aggressive behavior and support a relationship between cognitive distortions concerning women and sexual aggression. (SLD)
Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G
Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin
Stephens, Richard; Allsop, Claire
Swearing produces a pain lessening (hypoalgesic) effect for many people; an emotional response may be the underlying mechanism. In this paper, the role of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance and pain perception is assessed. In a repeated-measures design, pain outcomes were assessed in participants asked to play for 10 minutes a first-person shooter video game vs a golf video game. Sex differences were explored. After playing the first-person shooter video game, aggressive cognitions, aggressive affect, heart rate, and cold pressor latency were increased, and pain perception was decreased. These data indicate that people become more pain tolerant with raised state aggression and support our theory that raised pain tolerance from swearing occurs via an emotional response.
Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...
Zhan, Jun; Ren, Jun; Fan, Jin; Luo, Jing
A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for “cognition free” self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing “cognition free” regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger and aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger and aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1) and by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2). Then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and viewed sad, fear-inducing, or neutral materials to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results showed that participants displayed a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was later induced and a higher level of anger when fear was later induced. These results provide evidence that supports the hypothesis of mutual promotion and counteraction relationships among these types of emotions and imply a “cognition free” approach to regulating anger and aggressive behavior. PMID:26124725
Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke
Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220
Godlaski, Aaron J; Giancola, Peter R
The purpose of this investigation was to examine (a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and (b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior.
Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry
Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
Research supports a high comorbidity between compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) and SUDs, which are both classified by increased impulsivity. Literature has also indicated that increased impulsivity and substance use are associated with aggression. However, no known research has examined the relationship between CSBs and aggression among a substance dependent population. The purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship. Participants included 349 male patients in treatment for SUDs. Results indicated that after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and age, CSBs were significantly associated with total aggression, aggressive attitudes, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. This is the first known study to examine this relationship, thus continued research is needed to extend and replicate these findings. PMID:27445453
Poteat, V. Paul; Kimmel, Michael S.; Wilchins, Riki
In 2 studies, beliefs supporting the use of violence moderated the association between normative masculine activities and aggressive behavior (Study 1) and normative masculine attitudes and aggressive and homophobic behavior (Study 2) among adolescent boys. These beliefs also moderated the association between normative masculine activities and…
Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick
Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n = 72) and patient (n = 98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research.
Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel
Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…
Al Otaibi, Khaled Nahes
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the attitude towards the use of the Internet and its cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. To achieve the objective of the study, the researcher used the scale of the attitude towards the Internet of a random sample of students (n = 216) at Teachers College at…
Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student's attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA indicated…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm. PMID:21479161
Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L; Bakeman, Roger
OBJECTIVE: Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. METHOD: Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18-30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. RESULTS: Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm.
Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Hong, Jon-Chao; Cheng, Hao-Yueh; Peng, Yu-Chi; Wu, Nien-Chen
Do girls have more competition anxiety and exogenous cognitive load than equally able boys during the playing of stressful competitive on-line games? This question led to the adoption of a technology acceptance model to compare the influence factors of competitors in sequential and synchronous games. Confirmatory factor analysis of the data on 220…
Instructional planning is an essential professional activity often used by teachers. However, some characteristics of existing university-based teacher education programs may hamper pre-service teachers' learning of instructional planning. Thus, this study adopts the cognitive apprenticeship as a theoretical foundation to construct a web-based…
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others
Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…
Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon
Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians’ ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed. PMID:24072946
Kerlinger, Fred N.
The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…
Levin, Tamar; Gordon, Claire
Describes study of Israeli secondary school students that was conducted to determine the extent to which gender and prior computer exposure affect students' attitudes toward computers prior to computer instruction in school. An attitude questionnaire designed to measure affective and cognitive attitudes toward computers is described, and results…
Coccaro, Emil F.; Solis, Oscar; Fanning, Jennifer; Lee, Royce
Emotional Intelligence (EI) relates to one's ability to recognize and understand emotional information and then, to use it for planning and self-management. Given evidence of abnormalities of emotional processing in impulsively aggressive individuals, we hypothesized that EI would be reduced in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 43) compared with healthy (n = 44) and psychiatric (n = 44) controls. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess both Experiential EI and Strategic EI. Strategic, but not Experiential, EI was lower in IED compared with control subjects. These differences were not accounted for demographic characteristics, cognitive intelligence, or the presence of clinical syndromes or personality disorder. In contrast, the relationship between IED and Strategic EI was fully accounted for by a dimension of hostile cognition defined by hostile attribution and hostile automatic thoughts. Interventions targeted at improving Strategic EI and reducing hostile cognition will be key to reducing aggressive behavior in individuals with IED. PMID:25477263
Coccaro, Emil F; Solis, Oscar; Fanning, Jennifer; Lee, Royce
Emotional intelligence (EI) relates to one's ability to recognize and understand emotional information and then, to use it for planning and self-management. Given evidence of abnormalities of emotional processing in impulsively aggressive individuals, we hypothesized that EI would be reduced in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 43) compared with healthy (n = 44) and psychiatric (n = 44) controls. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess both Experiential EI and Strategic EI. Strategic, but not Experiential, EI was lower in IED compared with control subjects. These differences were not accounted for demographic characteristics, cognitive intelligence, or the presence of clinical syndromes or personality disorder. In contrast, the relationship between IED and Strategic EI was fully accounted for by a dimension of hostile cognition defined by hostile attribution and hostile automatic thoughts. Interventions targeted at improving Strategic EI and reducing hostile cognition will be key to reducing aggressive behavior in individuals with IED.
Lederer, Katharina; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J; Uhlmann, Anne
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) use can lead to white matter (WM) changes and increased levels of aggression. While previous studies have examined WM abnormalities relating to cognitive impairment, associations between WM integrity and aggression in MA dependence remain unclear. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate WM changes in 40 individuals with MA dependence and 40 matched healthy controls. A region of interest (ROI) approach using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) in FSL was performed. We compared fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), parallel diffusivity (λ║) and perpendicular diffusivity (λ┴) in WM tracts of the frontal brain. A relationship of WM with aggression scores from the Buss & Perry Questionnaire was investigated. Mean scores for anger (p < 0.001), physical aggression (p = 0.032) and total aggression (p = 0.021) were significantly higher in the MA group relative to controls. ROI analysis showed increased MD (U = 439.5, p = 0.001) and λ┴ (U = 561.5, p = 0.021) values in the genu of the corpus callosum, and increased MD (U = 541.5, p = 0.012) values in the right cingulum in MA dependence. None of the WM changes were significantly associated with aggression scores. This study provides evidence of frontal WM changes and increased levels of aggression in individuals with MA dependence. The lack of significant associations between WM and aggressive behaviour may reflect methodological issues in measuring such behaviour, or may indicate that the neurobiology of aggression is not simply correlated with WM damage but is more complex.
Alpert, J E; Spillmann, M K
Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral strategies and a broad range of group, family, couples, and milieu treatment approaches have been developed for the psychotherapy of aggressive and violent patients. These methods have been carried out in diverse settings ranging from hospitals and prisons to individual outpatient practices and have been applied across diverse populations including adults with mental retardation, dementia, and brain injury; children with attention deficit and conduct disorders and autism; recurrent violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder; and individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, mood disorders, or medical illnesses such as hypertension. Bridging these different strategies are the underlying principles of psychotherapy with aggressive and violent patients. These include ensuring the safety of clinician, patient, and potential victims as the foremost concern; developing a finely detailed assessment of aggressive and violent acts and of the antecedents, assumptions, and consequences that are attached to them; formulating well-defined goals and striving for clear communication to achieve consistency in the pursuit of these goals between therapist and patient, and among therapist and other clinicians, staff, and relevant family members or agencies; specifying ahead of time well-considered outcome measures to be used to gauge the effectiveness of treatment; and maintaining a healthy vigilance for countertransferential and similar reactions and a willingness to use consultation as an integral part of treatment.
Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz
With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808
Adair, Charles H.; Allen, Rodney F.
This is an individually administered rating scale designed to evaluate teacher trainee attitudes toward an information retrieval system. A major goal of the scale is to seek responses that measure students' reactions to the cognitive interest and motivational nature of the information retrieval system through the use of Likert-type items. The…
Adair, Charles H.; Allen, Rodney F.
This is an individually administered rating scale designed to evaluate teacher trainee attitudes toward a social simulation game of didactic teaching entitled "Explanation." A major goal of the scale is to seek responses that measure students' reactions to the cognitive interest and motivational nature of the learning game through the use of…
Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint
Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.
Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Walker, Kate; Bowen, Erica; Lila, Marisol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a ubiquitous and serious problem, the prevalence of which varies greatly around the world. Previous research shows that cultural factors interact with personality and that this interaction influences cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors that are related to personal and individual styles of resolving conflicts. In relation to this, the present study has three aims: comparing the self-reported IPV (physical, psychological and sexual) of English and Spanish offenders, comparing the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (MCMI-III) scores of the two groups, and examining the association between country of origin, psychopathology, and IPV. The sample consists of 147 IPV offenders (80 English and 67 Spanish). The measures used were the MCMI-III and the Conflict Tactics Scale 2. The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the English and Spanish sample, and independent logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between personality patterns, psychopathology and culture, and IPV. Higher frequencies of physical and psychological aggression were found in the English group compared with the Spanish group as well as several differences in personality patterns and psychopathology between the groups. Some MCMI-III subscales also interact with nationality and predict physical and psychological aggression. The relevance of these results for intervention is discussed.
Darmedru, C; Demily, C; Franck, N
A significant correlation exists between violence and schizophrenia (SCZ). Recent studies matched some cognitive deficits like strong risk factors for violence with interesting applications in terms of treatment. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of cognitive remediation (CR) and social cognitive training (SCT) in the management of violent and aggressive behaviors in SCZ.
Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês
A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.
Walters, Glenn D
The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.
Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.
Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955
Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.
Harris, M B
For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.
Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana
Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477
Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B
Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.
Cummings, E. Mark; El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.
Exposure to marital psychological and physical abuse has been established as a risk factor for children's socio-emotional, behavioral, and cognitive problems. Understanding the processes by which children develop symptoms of psychopathology and deficits in cognitive functioning in the context of marital aggression is imperative for developing…
Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berkowitz, Alan; Boggis, Jesse; Oesterle, Daniel
Current efforts to reduce sexual violence in college campuses underscore the role of engaging men in prosocial bystander behavior. The current study implemented an online survey to explore associations between engaging in heavy drinking and attitudes toward bystander intervention among a sample of college men (N = 242). Correlates of sexual aggression were also explored as mediators of the hypothesized relationship between engaging in heavy drinking and attitudes toward bystander intervention. Data indicated that men who engaged in two or more episodes of heavy drinking over the past month reported lower prosocial bystander attitudes compared with men who did not engage in such behavior. The association between engaging in heavy drinking and lower prosocial bystander attitudes was mediated by men's perception of their peers' approval for sexual aggression, their own comfort with sexism, and engagement in coercive sexual behavior. Implications for sexual assault prevention are discussed.
McQuade, Julia D
This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression.
Hepworth, Willie; Towler, Annette
This study examined the effects of individual differences variables (trait anger, self-control, negative affectivity, attitudes toward revenge, and attributional style) and charismatic leadership on incidents of workplace aggression in a sample of 213 employees from a wide range of organizations. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that the individual differences variables accounted for 27% of the variance in workplace aggression and that charismatic leadership accounted for an additional 3% after controlling for individual differences. In addition, psychological empowerment partially mediated the relationship between charismatic leadership and workplace aggression.
Yukawa, S; Endo, K; Yoshida, F
This study investigated the effects of anger evoked by earlier provocation on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior after being exposed to media violence. Sixty male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Before viewing one of three videos (either highly violent, violent with high entertainment, or nonviolent), half of the subjects were provoked by a confederate posing as another subject. Subjects' heart rates and eyeblink rates were recorded while viewing the video. After viewing the video, subjects described their thoughts that occurred while watching the video and rated their affective reactions toward the video. Finally, subjects' aggressive behavior toward the confederate was measured. Results of covariance structure analysis suggested that (a) anger evoked by provocation and high level of violence in videos additively elicited negative cognition and affect, which further facilitated aggressive behavior, and (b) high level of entertainment in videos elicited positive cognition and affect, which alleviated negative cognition and affect.
Yu, Yizhen; Shi, Junxia; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jun
In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist " parents' form" (Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.
Nawata, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki
This study examines an effect of collective victimhood in intergroup relations. Collective victimhood is the belief that an ingroup has been harmed by an outgroup. Previous studies focusing on collective victimhood have shown that collective victimhood escalates intergroup conflict. We predicted that the effect of collective victimhood on intergroup aggression would involve two different emotional processes: anger and fear. To test this hypothesis, Japanese attitudes toward the Chinese were examined in the context of Japan-China relations. The results of structural equation modeling showed that collective victimhood enhanced both anger and fear. However, intergroup emotions had converse effects on intergroup aggression. While anger promoted intergroup aggression, fear inhibited it. Nationalism promoted collective victimhood. These findings suggest that, in intergroup conflict, collective victimhood affects intergroup aggression through two emotional processes, which have inverse effects on the aggression.
Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…
Berger, Christian; Batanova, Milena; Cance, Jessica Duncan
The present study tests whether aggression and prosocial behavior can coexist as part of a socially functional and adaptive profile among early adolescents. Using a person-centered approach, the study examined early adolescents' likelihood of being classified into profiles involving aggressive and prosocial behavior, social status (popular, liked, cool), machiavellianism, and both affective and cognitive components of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively). Participants were 1170 early adolescents (10-12 years of age; 52% male) from four schools in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Through latent profile analysis, three profiles emerged (normative-low aggressive, high prosocial-low aggressive, and high aggressive-high popular status). Both empathic concern and perspective taking were higher in the high prosocial-low aggressive profile, whereas the high aggressive-high popular status profile had the lowest scores on both empathy components as well as machiavellianism. No profile emerged where aggressive and prosocial behaviors were found to co-exist, or to be significantly above the mean. The results underscore that aggressive behavior is highly contextual and likely culturally specific, and that the study of behavioral profiles should consider social status as well as socio-emotional adjustment indicators. These complex associations should be taken into consideration when planning prevention and intervention efforts to reduce aggression or school bullying and to promote positive peer relationships.
Davis, Kelly Cue
An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their postincident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol's influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work.
McCloskey, Michael S.; New, Antonia S.; Siever, Larry J.; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Flory, Janine D.; Coccaro, Emil F.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is marked by aggression and impulsive, often self-destructive behavior. Despite the severe risks associated with BPD, relatively little is known about the disorder’s etiology. Identification of genetic correlates (endophenotypes) of BPD would improve the prospects of targeted interventions for more homogeneous subsets of borderline patients characterized by specific genetic vulnerabilities. The current study evaluated behavioral measures of aggression and impulsivity as potential endophenotypes for BPD. Subjects with BPD (N = 127), a non cluster B personality disorder (OPD N = 122), or healthy volunteers (HV N = 112) completed self report and behavioral measures of aggression, motor impulsivity and cognitive impulsivity. Results showed that BPD subjects demonstrated more aggression and motor impulsivity than HV (but not OPD) subjects on behavioral tasks. In contrast, BPD subjects self-reported more impulsivity and aggression than either comparison group. Subsequent analyses showed that among BPD subjects behavioral aggression was associated with self-reported aggression, while behavioral and self-report impulsivity measures were more modestly associated. Overall, the results provide partial support for the use of behavioral measures of aggression and motor impulsivity as endophenotypes for BPD, with stronger support for behavioral aggression measures as an endophenotype for aggression within BPD samples. PMID:19232640
Wu, Qi; Liu, Wang; Li, Chen; Li, Xiongfeng; Zhou, Ping
From evolutionary reasoning, we derived a novel hypothesis that ingroup derogation is an adaptation to a special ecological condition in which the greater threat of aggression is incurred by ingroup members. This hypothesis was tested and supported across five studies. Specifically, the computational modeling found that ingroup derogation could easily evolve if the chance of death incurred by intragroup conflicts was no less than 10%. Further behavioral experiments on Chinese participants showed that the ingroup derogation mechanism responded to heuristic social category cues and it responded more strongly when participants subjectively felt more vulnerable to interpersonal aggression, or when there were contextual cues of aggression in the immediate environment. Additional results showed that Chinese participants responded more strongly to aggression cues originating from ingroup members and that they endorsed more ingroup derogation attitudes even when the ingroup and outgroup members were both displaying cues of aggression. In addition, the results also revealed that the Chinese participants perceived more intentions of aggression from ingroup members than from outgroup members even in the absence of any clear signs of those intentions, and such a bias was positively correlated with ingroup derogation attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that ingroup derogation is related to the evolved response of intragroup aggression management system. PMID:27713725
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link.
Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula
Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)
Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…
Landau, Mark J.; Meier, Brian P.; Keefer, Lucas A.
Social cognition is the scientific study of the cognitive events underlying social thought and attitudes. Currently, the field's prevailing theoretical perspectives are the traditional schema view and embodied cognition theories. Despite important differences, these perspectives share the seemingly uncontroversial notion that people interpret and…
Chang, Chih-Hung; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping
Through Structural Equation Modeling, this study aimed to revise and examine the Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model in explaining the psychosocial process of betel quid use among Southern Taiwan college students. A representative sample of 3,741 college students were recruited from 14 colleges through stratified and random cluster sampling, yielding 3,162 valid participants. Results showed that the revised ASE model accounted for 26.5% of the variance in betel quid use and had a better model-fit evaluation than the original model. Intention to chew affected the use of betel quid, while both social influence and refusal self-efficacy had a direct impact on intention and use as well as an indirect effect on use through intention. Additionally, both positive and negative outcome expectancies predicted intention and betel quid use via refusal self-efficacy. Our results supported the revised ASE model for explaining the psychosocial processes of betel quid use, suggesting that more attention should be given towards the development of school-based preventive programs on diminishing social influence and promoting refusal self-efficacy in betel quid use.
Lange, James E
Identification of ambiguous behaviors may be affected by alcohol first by the activation of associated mental representations and second by an increase in the imbiber's motivation of need for closure (NFC; A. Kruglanski, 1989), because cognitive effort is increased for epistemic activities. Combined, these effects should increase correspondence between mental representations of alcohol and the identification of others' behaviors. Three studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. The results were consistent with this hypothesis: Participants who associated alcohol with amiable concepts perceived less aggressive intent when blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were high versus low. Alternatively, those who associated alcohol with aggressive concepts perceived the same or more aggressive intent when BACs were high versus low. Priming alcohol concepts and trait-level NFC were also sufficient to replicate these effects.
Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T
Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.
van Dijk, Teun A.
A cognitive theory about the representation and processing of ethnic attitudes is presented, and strategies people use to express ethnic attitudes in conversations are discussed. Recent developments in cognitive and social psychology and in microsociology have shown that ethnic prejudices or attitudes are both cognitive and social results of…
Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)
Gunenc, Cevher; O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L
Despite evidence about the negative effects of verbal aggression in mental health wards there is little research about its prevalence or about the factors that predict the behaviour among inpatients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service, and to examine the relationship of verbal aggression with risk factors for aggression in the risk assessment tool HCR-20 in order to establish whether, and with which factors, the behaviour can be predicted. Verbal aggression was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) over a 3-month period across a heterogeneous patient group (n = 613). Over half the patients (n = 341, 56%) engaged in 1594 incidents of verbal aggression. The HCR-20 total, clinical, and risk management subscale scores predicted verbal aggression, though effect sizes were not large. Item-outcome analysis revealed that impulsivity, negative attitudes, and non-compliance with medication were the best predictors of verbal aggression and, therefore, should be targeted for intervention. There are key synergies between factors predicting verbal aggression and the core mental health nursing role. Nurses, therefore, are in a prime position to develop and implement interventions that may reduce verbal aggression in mental health inpatients.
Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel
The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448
Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.
Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.
Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.
Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners. PMID:21170125
Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko
Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794
McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W
Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.
Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin
Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.
Burgess, Gerald H.
Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory…
Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bédard, Annick
Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use
Martin, Matthew M.; Dunleavy, Katie Neary; Kennedy-Lightsey, Carrie
How instructors communicate with their students impacts their students' instructional attitudes, motivations, and behaviors. Verbal aggression in the classroom often leads to negative instructional and relational outcomes (Infante, 1995; Myers, 2001; Myers & Knox, 2000; Myers & Rocca, 2001). This study investigated whether verbally aggressive…
Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; French, Doran
The market-oriented economic reform in China over the past two decades has resulted in considerable changes in social attitudes regarding youth's behaviors. This study examined the relations of shyness and aggression to adjustment in Chinese adolescents at different historical times. Participants came from two cohorts (1994 and 2008) of…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina K.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying…
Weierstall, Roland; Haer, Roos; Banholzer, Lilli; Elbert, Thomas
Appetitive aggression--a rewarding perception of the perpetration of violence--seems to be an adaptation common to adverse conditions. Children raised within armed groups may develop attitudes and values that favour harming others when socialized within a combat force. Combatants who joined an armed force early in their lives should, therefore,…
Smith, Stephanie D.; McCauley, Spencer A.; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B.
Abstract Objective: Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. Results: PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. Conclusions: PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation. PMID:26745682
Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J
A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression.
Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia
Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use were measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey, and a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force were assessed. One hundred participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623
Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F
Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.
Ferris, Craig F
Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.
This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.
Arsenio, William F; Adams, Erin; Gold, Jason
Connections between adolescents' social information processing (SIP), moral reasoning, and emotion attributions and their reactive and proactive aggressive tendencies were assessed. One hundred mostly African American and Latino 13- to 18-year-olds from a low-socioeconomic-status (SES) urban community and their high school teachers participated. Reactive aggression was uniquely related to expected ease in enacting aggression, lower verbal abilities, and hostile attributional biases, and most of these connections were mediated by adolescents' attention problems. In contrast, proactive aggression was uniquely related to higher verbal abilities and expectations of more positive emotional and material outcomes resulting from aggression. Discussion focused on the utility of assessing both moral and SIP-related cognitions, and on the potential influence of low-SES, high-risk environments on these findings.
Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Adkins, Angela D; Wahler, Robert G; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy
Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training; no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4 years of follow-up in the community.
This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.
Feddersen-Petersen, D U
The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.
Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.
Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146
Björklund, Gunilla M
A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.
Blair Irvine, A.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Billow, Molly; Seeley, John R.
Objectives Evaluate Internet training to help Nurse Aides decrease resident aggression. Design Randomized treatment and control design; pre-post assessment. Setting The study was conducted entirely on the Internet. Participants Nurse Aides; N=62 Intervention Internet based interactive training using video modeling and mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment participants. Results MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.001) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with large effect sizes; it was well received by the users. Conclusions Interactive training is an effective approach to shaping appropriate staff reactions to aggressive resident behaviors. The training can effectively be delivered on the Internet. In this research, it was both valued and well received by study participants. PMID:17931576
Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.
Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041
Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai-chu; Lam, Bess Yin Hung
While persuasive evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years documenting an association between schizophrenia and violence, there are 3 unresolved issues. First, does a downward extension of this relationship exist at the nonclinical level with respect to schizotypal personality and aggression in children? Second, is aggression more associated with impulsive reactive aggression or with more planned proactive aggression. Third and importantly, does peer victimization mediate the relationship between schizotypy and aggression? A further aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the utility of a new child self-report measure of schizotypal personality. These issues were examined in a sample of 3804 schoolchildren assessed on schizotypy using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Child (SPQ-C), reactive-proactive aggression, and peer victimization. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 3-factor structure (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) of the SPQ-C. Schizotypy was positively associated with total aggression and reactive aggression but not with proactive aggression. Peer victimization was found to significantly mediate the schizotypy-aggression relationship, accounting for 58.9% of the association. Results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that schizotypal features elicit victimization from other children, which in turn predisposes to reactive retaliatory aggression. Findings are to the authors’ knowledge the first to document any mediator of the schizotypy-aggression relationship and have potential treatment implications for violence reduction in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. This study also provides initial evidence for the factorial and discriminant validity of a brief and simple measure of schizotypal personality in children as young as 8 years. PMID:21795613
Fishbein, Diana; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Ferguson, Pamela L; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth
Extensive interviews of correctional inmates in South Carolina (2009-2010) were conducted under a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant. We evaluated the extent to which early traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent illicit drug abuse may conjointly influence development of aggression, controlling for alcohol use, and whether cognitive or emotional dysregulation mediated this relationship. Early TBI predicted greater severity and earlier onset of drug use, and an earlier age at first use predicted greater aggression regardless of the age of TBI. Emotional dysregulation mediated effects of TBI on aggression. The potential to design more targeted treatments for this susceptible population are discussed.
Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit
Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…
Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica
The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.
Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression.
DeWall, C. Nathan; Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Webster, Gregory D.
Most people avoid the “big, drunk guy” in bars because they don’t want to get assaulted. Is this stereotype supported by empirical evidence? Unfortunately, no scientific work has investigated this topic. Based on the recalibrational theory of anger and embodied cognition theory, we predicted that heavier men would behave the most aggressively when intoxicated. In two independent experiments (Ns= 553 and 327, respectively), participants consumed either alcohol or placebo beverages and then completed an aggression task in which they could administer painful electric shocks to a fictitious opponent. Both experiments showed that weight interacted with alcohol and gender to predict the highest amount of aggression among intoxicated heavy men. The results suggest that an embodied cognition approach is useful in understanding intoxicated aggression. Apparently there is a kernel of truth in the stereotype of the “big, drunk, aggressive guy.” PMID:20526451
Fulk, Janet; And Others
Proposes that social constructivist theories of communication technology in organizations that interact with social agents influence technology-related cognition and behavior. Finds that individuals' cognitions of their combined network partners' attitudes and behaviors in using electronic mail predicted the individuals' own attitudes and…
Hartman, Dean DeVere
This study was undertaken to determine the applicability of the Fishbein model of attitudes in ascertaining the attitudes toward science held by high school students. The model proposed assumed that attitudes involve both cognitive and affective components. Acceptability of the psychometric properties of an instrument developed in this…
van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel
Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…
Mawson, Anthony R.
Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance. PMID:23762766
Corne, Shawn; And Others
Tested hypothesis that women's attitudes and fantasies about rape arise partially from their socialization to accept sexual aggression as normative. Female participants answered questions on childhood exposure to pornography, sex fantasies, and rape attitudes. Early exposure to pornography correlated to "rape fantasies" and attitudes…
Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Eisler, Richard M; Franchina, Joseph J
The present study assessed the effects of aversive female partner behavior on cognitive attributions and physiological reactivity in verbally aggressive and non-aggressive college males (N = 39). Participants were presented four audiotaped vignettes which depicted hypothetical dating situations in which the female's behavior was relationship aversive or non-relationship aversive. Participants' physiological reactivity (i.e., systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was obtained before and after hearing each vignette. Attributional responses were obtained following the presentation of all vignettes. Relationship aversive partner behavior was expected to produce greater increases in attributional and physiological reactivity than non-relationship aversive partner behavior. Additionally, verbally aggressive males were expected to demonstrate greater negative intent and responsibility attributions and evidence greater physiological reactivity for situations involving relationship aversive partner behavior than were non-aggressive males.As hypothesized, results showed that relationship aversive partner behavior produced greater increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than did non-relationship aversive partner behavior. Results also showed that verbally aggressive males evidenced significantly greater negative attributions to relationship aversive partner behavior than did non-aggressive males. The potential interaction between physiological reactivity and attributions in explaining males' verbally aggressive behavior toward their female partners is discussed.
Stickle, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Neil M; Brush, Lauren N
This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research, results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted for unique variance in aggression above and beyond effects of more established risk factors of early onset of antisocial behavior, social information processing, and impulsivity. These findings add to recent research showing that callous-unemotional traits are a unique risk factor associated with aggression and criminal offending and suggest that targeting both affective and cognitive vulnerabilities may enhance clinical intervention with antisocial youth.
The majority of aggressive children exhibit symptoms of anxiety, yet none of our developmental models of aggression incorporate the role of anxiety, and our treatments ignore this comorbidity. This article outlines a novel theoretical model that specifies three hypotheses about comorbid anxious and aggressive children: (a) unpredictable parenting induces anxiety in children that in turn triggers aggressive behavior; (b) prolonged periods of anxiety deplete children's capacity to inhibit impulses and trigger bouts of aggression, and aggression in turn functions to regulate levels of anxiety; and (c) minor daily stressors give rise to anxiety while cognitive perseveration maintains anxious moods, increasingly disposing children to aggress. Little or no research has directly tested these hypotheses. Extant research and theory consistent with these claims are herein reviewed, and future research designs that can test them specifically are suggested. The clinical implications most relevant to the hypotheses are discussed, and to improve the efficacy of treatments for childhood aggression, it is proposed that anxiety may need to be the primary target of treatment.
Hoptman, Matthew J.
Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I will discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors, but more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy. PMID:25900066
Bluemke, Matthias; Friedrich, Monika; Zumbach, Joerg
We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal-as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance-were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social-cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures.
Hoptman, Matthew J
Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often, multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors; however, more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy.
McKee, Gregory; Duffield, Stacy K.
The authors examined the effect a curriculum about cooperative businesses had on high school student attitudes toward these businesses. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions were measured before and after participating in the curriculum. Older high school students increased their attitudes toward cooperatives more than did younger…
Hershcovis, M Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Haley, Harold B.; And Others
Considered were attitudes toward (1) the patient's inner resources to cope with a serious illness such as cancer, (2) the value of early diagnosis, and (3) the value of aggressive treatment, as well as the belief in immortality and preparation for and acceptance of death. Changes occurred throughout medical school, especially during the clinical…
Weissman, Arlene N.; Beck, Aaron T.
The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was developed to measure pervasive negative attitudes of a depressed person towards self, outside world, and future. The DAS follows Beck's construct of cognitive dysfunction. Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of the DAS and the relationship between cognition and affect in 300 normal…
Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S
Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.
Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick
Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455
Burkhart, Kimberly; Knox, Michele; Hunter, Kimberly
Twenty-two pediatric residents and 31 medical students viewed the Play Nicely program. The Play Nicely program is a multimedia program that teaches health care professionals how to counsel parents to use positive parenting and disciplining strategies in response to early childhood aggression. Health care professionals completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires to assess changes in comfort with counseling, parenting knowledge, and attitudes toward spanking. Results indicated at posttraining that health care professionals were significantly more comfortable with counseling parents, had increased parenting knowledge, and decreased positive attitudes toward spanking. Findings suggest that this program holds promise for educating health care professionals on how to counsel parents on positive parenting strategies and positively change attitudes toward spanking.
Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie
The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed.
Aims of science education are concerned not only with students' cognition but also with students' affect, an umbrella term for emotions, feelings, moods, and attitudes. Many studies have been conducted on student attitudes toward learning science in general; however, studies concerning attitudes toward chemistry are limited in number. The purpose…
Pihl, Robert O; Sutton, Rachel
Intoxicated aggression is both a dangerous and a costly problem for society, with alcohol being involved in over 50% of violent crimes, and the cost of alcohol-consumption-related crime being estimated at $205 billion in the United States alone. First, the authors reviewed the substantial evidence for the connection between alcohol consumption and aggression, and then they examined the risk factors for this problem. These included societal/cultural factors, such as availability and alcohol expectancies, and individual factors, such as demographic characteristics, personality, comorbid disorders, individual differences in response to alcohol, and cognitive functioning. Finally, interventions were suggested focusing on policy, alcohol sellers, treatments for alcohol abuse and dependency, anger management, pharmacology, and low executive functioning. Further efforts are still needed to target interventions to specific risk factors.
Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran
Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.
Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…
Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert
Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…
Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.
Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…
Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye
Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…
Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A
What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.
Feldman, Robert S.; Lobato-Barrera, Debra
In the first of two experiments, positive and negative expectations about a teacher were induced in a student who was about to be taught by that teacher, and both verbal and nonverbal measurements were taken. Results showed that subjects responded quite directly to the experimental manipulation. In the second experiment, a student simulated some…
Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…
Anderson, Robert; Waayers, Robyn; Knight, Andrew
Simple Summary Orca behaviors interacting with humans within apparent friendship bonds are reviewed, and some impediments to the human evaluation of delphinid intelligence are discussed. The subsequent involvement of these orcas and their offspring in aggressive incidents with humans is also documented and examined. This is particularly relevant given that the highest recorded rates of aggressive incidents have occurred among orcas who had previously established unstructured human friendship bonds prior to their inclusion within oceanaria performances. It is concluded that the confinement of orcas within aquaria, and their use in entertainment programs, is morally indefensible, given their high intelligence, complex behaviors, and the apparent adverse effects on orcas of such confinement and use. Abstract Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors. Our observations were consistent with those of a former Seaworld trainer, and provide important insights into orca cognition, communication, and social intelligence. However, after being trained as performers within Seaworld’s commercial entertainment program, a number of orcas began to exhibit aggressive behaviors. The orcas who previously established apparent friendships with humans were most affected, although significant aggression also occurred in some of their descendants, and among the orcas they lived
Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A
The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.
Fincham, Frank D; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the obtained three-factor structure (Abuse, Control, Violence) is tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and it is shown to be concurrently related to assault in romantic relationships and to predict psychological aggression 14 weeks later. The findings are discussed in the context of how understanding and modifying attitudes assessed by the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised may improve interventions aimed at reducing intimate partner violence.
... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...
Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian
The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.
Larkin, Peter; Jahoda, Andrew; MacMahon, Ken
Background: There is an established evidence base concerning the use of anger management interventions with violent offenders who have intellectual disabilities. However, there has been limited research investigating the role of social cognitive factors underpinning problems of aggression. Psychosocial sources of aggression in the non-disabled…
Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood. Methods: Participants were a clinically referred sample of 85 individuals diagnosed with ADHD, initially recruited in the…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.
An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…
Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan
Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…
Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony
A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…
Hall, William J.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…
Su, Xiaoli; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie G.
Interparental aggression has long been implicated as a cause of child and adolescent antisocial behavior. Four theoretical explanations (viz., an aggressogenic cognition model, general strain theory, an emotional security model, and a spillover model) have been proposed to account for this deleterious effect. To gain a better understanding of the…
Knorth, Erik J.; Klomp, Martin; Van den Bergh, Peter M.; Noom, Marc J.
This article presents a selective inventory of treatment methods of aggressive behavior. Special attention is paid to types of intervention that, according to research, are frequently used in Dutch residential youth care. These methods are based on (1) principles of (cognitive) behavior management and control, (2) the social competence model, and…
Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.
Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720
Rodkin, Philip C; Roisman, Glenn I
This study identified correlates and developmental antecedents that distinguish popular-aggressive elementary school children from other youth. Drawing on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1022), popular-aggressive children were identified through teacher ratings over Grades 3-6. Potential correlates included social competence as rated by observers, mothers, and teachers. Potential developmental antecedents included cognitive functioning, maternal sensitivity, and participation in child care through age 4.5. Multinomial regressions allowed for the determination of group differences net of covariates such as gender, ethnicity, maternal education, and income-to-needs. Results showed that popular-aggressive elementary school children were distinguished from other youth as having had an extensive child-care history. Discussion focuses on developmental associations between child-care quantity and aggression.
Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E
Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.
Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.
Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…
Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim
Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one's emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n = 48), placebo (n = 48), or no alcohol (n = 48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no-alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no-alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions for dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim
Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n=48), placebo (n=48), or no alcohol (n=48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed alcohol or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions to prevent dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. PMID:23586449
Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.
A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…
Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky
Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…
Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C J
High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associated with risk for the development of aggressive behavior problems in elementary school (aggressive-disruptive behaviors at home, attention problems, and social cognitions) in a sample of 755 first-grade children in four demographically diverse American communities. Two school characteristics associated with student aggressive-disruptive behavior problems (low-quality classroom context, school poverty levels) were also assessed. Linear and multilevel analyses showed that both child and school characteristics made independent and cumulative contributions to the development of student aggressive-disruptive behavior at school. Although rates of student aggressive-disruptive behavior varied by gender and race, the predictive model generalized across all groups of children in the study.
Taylor, J L
Rates of aggression amongst people with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be high in studies conducted on several continents across a number of service settings. Aggression is the primary reason for people with ID to be admitted or re-admitted to institutional settings, and it is also the main reason for individuals in this client group to be prescribed behaviour-control drugs. Anger is a significant activator of aggression, but little is known about the emotional aspects of the lives of people with ID. There are many reasons for this, but a lack of reliable and validated assessment measures is chief among them. The present review found that very little work has been conducted to date concerning the development of robust tools for assessing anger and aggression in this population. A narrative review of interventions for reducing aggression and anger in people with ID showed that there is virtually no evidence to support the use of psychotropic medications. Research has shown that behavioural interventions can be effective; however, they are intrusive and have not been tested in naturalistic settings with higher-functioning clients and low-frequency aggression. More recently, cognitive-behavioural interventions have shown promise, but the mechanisms for effective change have yet to be delineated. Priority research questions relating to assessment, treatment and therapeutic skills in working with anger and aggression problems are offered by the present review.
Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M
Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.
Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge
This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.
Newbill, Phyllis Leary
Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted
Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350
McLemore, Monica R
The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.
Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Küpper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Tausch, Nicole
Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well-established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross-section of the general population of eight European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the UK; N = 7,042), examined this hypothesis in the context of aggressive action tendencies towards immigrants. Study 2, using longitudinal data obtained from a general population sample in Northern Ireland, considered effects on aggressive action tendencies between ethno-religious groups in conflict. Both studies confirmed our predictions, showing that while perceived threat was associated with greater intergroup aggressive tendencies, positive intergroup contact was indirectly associated with reduced aggressive action tendencies, via reduced intergroup threat. Findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical contributions of this research for understanding the relationship between intergroup contact and intergroup aggression.
Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.
In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846
Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J
Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.
Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike
Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.
Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.
Itil, T M
In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.
Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.
Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773
Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A
The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).
Felthous, A R; Kellert, S R
An association between childhood cruelty to animals and dangerous aggression against people at a later age could have important implications regarding early detection and treatment, preventive psychiatry, and a social ethic that encourages positive attitudes toward living creatures in general. Research reports in the literature are inconsistent and inconclusive regarding a possible relationship between animal cruelty and aggression against people. Although a single act is not predictive of another act, a pattern of substantial animal abuse may conceivably be associated with a pattern of recurrent violence directed against people. In the present study, extensive interview schedules were administered to aggressive criminals, nonaggressive criminals, and noncriminals. The nature of abuse was described for each subject who gave a history of substantial abuse. A clear relationship was found between early substantial abuse and recurrent violence against people. Possible explanations for conflicting results in the literature are discussed.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J
Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research.
Anderson, Craig A; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L; Bushman, Brad J; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R; Saleem, Muniba
Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past meta-analyses; (b) cross-cultural comparisons; (c) longitudinal studies for all outcomes except physiological arousal; (d) conservative statistical controls; (e) multiple moderator analyses; and (f) sensitivity analyses. Social-cognitive models and cultural differences between Japan and Western countries were used to generate theory-based predictions. Meta-analyses yielded significant effects for all 6 outcome variables. The pattern of results for different outcomes and research designs (experimental, cross-sectional, longitudinal) fit theoretical predictions well. The evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior. Moderator analyses revealed significant research design effects, weak evidence of cultural differences in susceptibility and type of measurement effects, and no evidence of sex differences in susceptibility. Results of various sensitivity analyses revealed these effects to be robust, with little evidence of selection (publication) bias.
Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Moore, Todd; Zucosky, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L.
Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk for partner aggression exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with partner aggression irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and partner aggression among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of partner aggression. PMID:25519237
Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura
Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.
Soloff, Paul H; Abraham, Kristy; Burgess, Ashley; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Chowdury, Asadur; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A
Fronto-limbic brain networks involved in regulation of impulsivity and aggression are abnormal in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However, it is unclear whether, or to what extent, these personality traits actually modulate brain responses during cognitive processing. Using fMRI, we examined the effects of trait impulsivity, aggression, and depressed mood on regional brain responses in 31 female BPD and 25 control subjects during a Go No-Go task using Ekman faces as targets. First-level contrasts modeled effects of negative emotional context. Second-level regression models used trait impulsivity, aggression and depressed mood as predictor variables of regional brain activations. In BPD, trait impulsivity was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), basal ganglia (BG), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with no areas of negative correlation. In contrast, aggression was negatively correlated with activation in OFC, hippocampus, and BG, with no areas of positive correlation. Depressed mood had a generally dampening effect on activations. Effects of trait impulsivity on healthy controls differed from effects in BPD, suggesting a disorder-specific response. Negative emotional context and trait impulsivity, but not aggression or depression, diminished task performance across both groups. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive functioning in BPD through interaction with the neurobiology of personality traits.
Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio
Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553
Background An increasing number of foetuses are recognized as having double Y because of the widespread use of prenatal screening using chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. 47, XYY karyotype occurs in about one out of 1,000 newborn males, but it is not often detected unless it is diagnosed during prenatal testing. Despite the fact that unbiased follow-up studies demonstrate largely normal post-natal development of young men with 47, XYY, there is a scarcity of controlled studies about the neurological, cognitive and behavioural phenotype which remains the main reason for anxiety and anticipatory negative attitudes of parents. Furthermore, prejudices still exist among professionals and the general population concerning the relationship between this sex chromosome aneuploidy and aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Methods We report on the clinical follow-up of children diagnosed prenatally with a 47,XYY karyotype, whose parents received multidisciplinary counselling and support at time of diagnosis. The specific focus of our study is on auxology, facial features, developmental milestones, behaviour, detection of aggressiveness as well as the evaluation of parental attitudes toward prenatal counselling. Clinical evaluations including auxological measurements and dysmorphological descriptions were as conducted on 13 boys aged 9 month -7 years. The Child Behavior Check List test specific for age and a 15 item questionnaire were administered to both parents. An update of ongoing problems was carried out by means of a telephone interview two years later. Results Our results show that, from birth, weight, height and head circumference were above average values while some facial features such mild hypertelorism are overrepresented when compared to parents' facial features. Language delay was detected in 8 out of 11 children older than 20 months. Parental attitudes were found to be favourable toward prenatal diagnoses of sexual chromosome aneuploidies. Conclusions
Anderson, Robert; Waayers, Robyn; Knight, Andrew
Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego's SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors. Our observations were consistent with those of a former Seaworld trainer, and provide important insights into orca cognition, communication, and social intelligence. However, after being trained as performers within Seaworld's commercial entertainment program, a number of orcas began to exhibit aggressive behaviors. The orcas who previously established apparent friendships with humans were most affected, although significant aggression also occurred in some of their descendants, and among the orcas they lived with. Such oceanaria confinement and commercial use can no longer be considered ethically defensible, given the current understanding of orcas' advanced cognitive, social, and communicative capacities, and of their behavioral needs.
Fung, Annis Lai-Chu
The distinction between aggressive and passive victims of school bullying is well documented. Aggressive victims exhibit restlessness and hot-temperedness, are easily provoked, and take revenge when irritated, whereas passive victims are quiet and timid when attacked or insulted and withdraw rather than retaliate. To date, there has been no evidence-based evaluative study examining interventions designed specifically to reduce aggressive victimization, and neither has there been an inclusive assessment screening of high-risk aggressive victims prior to intervention. This study addressed these research gaps by employing multi-stage assessment procedures and a mixed-mode methodology in a one-year longitudinal design. Data were collected from student self-reports, parent and teacher rating scales, and individual structured interviews with students, parents and teachers. A total of 269 potential high-risk aggressive victims were identified from among 5,089 schoolchildren, 68 of whom were screened out and randomly assigned to 10 treatment groups, with 39 completing a one-year follow-up study. Multivariate analysis of variance identified significant improvements in physical and verbal victimization (F(2,47, 93.99) = 10.73, p < 0.01), verbal victimization (F(2.74, 104.14) = 12.80, p < 0.01) and social exclusion scores at the three follow-up assessments compared to the pre-treatment scores, and the qualitative results were consistent, showing participants' cognition, emotion, and behavior to have been positively reconstructed by the group intervention. The consistent quantitative and qualitative results confirm that the cognitive-behavioral group therapy program reported herein is effective in reducing aggressive victims' anxious and depressed emotions and reactive cognition.
Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita
Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041
Giancola, Peter R
The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.
Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin
The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.
The Beliefs, Attitudes and Views of University Students about Anger and the Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Oriented Anger Control and Anxiety Management Programs on Their Anger Management Skill Levels
Karahan, T. Fikret; Yalçin, B. Murat; Erbas, Melda M.
This study was designed as a qualitative focus group using a randomized controlled trail with a mixed methodology. The study has dual aims. First we searched the beliefs, attitudes and views of 176 university students on how to deal with anger using eight focus discussion groups. The anxiety and anger levels of these students were investigated…
Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina
The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674
Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark T; Fortunato, Christine K; Coccia, Michael A
Early onset aggression precipitates a cascade of risk factors, increasing the probability of a range of externalizing and internalizing psychopathological outcomes. Unfortunately, decades of research on the etiological contributions to the manifestation of aggression have failed to yield identification of any risk factors determined to be either necessary or sufficient, likely attributable to etiological heterogeneity within the construct of aggression. Differential pathways of etiological risk are not easily discerned at the behavioral or self-report level, particularly in young children, requiring multilevel analysis of risk pathways. This study focuses on three domains of risk to examine the heterogeneity in 207 urban kindergarten children with high levels of aggression: cognitive processing, socioemotional competence and emotion processing, and family context. The results indicate that 90% of children in the high aggression group could be characterized as either low in verbal ability or high in physiological arousal (resting skin conductance). Children characterized as low verbal, high arousal, or both differed in social and emotional competence, physiological reactivity to emotion, and aspects of family-based contextual risk. The implications of this etiologic heterogeneity of aggression are discussed in terms of assessment and treatment.
Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina
The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages.
Reynes, E; Lorant, J
The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.
Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E
A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.
Lichtman, S M
Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.
Cardwell, Michael Steven
Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.
Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.
Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.
The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.
Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan
The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790
Coyne, Sarah M
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.
Suggests that violent activities occur not because of reduced self-control, but because cognitive skills and self-control are used through moral justifications and self-exonerative devices in the service of destructive causes. Threats to human welfare are generally brought about by deliberate acts of principle rather than by unrestrained acts of…
Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.
Affect and cognition have long been treated as independent entities, but in the current review we suggest that affect and cognition are in fact highly interdependent. We open the article by discussing three classic views for the independence of affect. These are (i) the affective independence hypothesis, that emotion is processed independently from cognition, (ii) the affective primacy hypothesis, that evaluative processing precedes semantic processing, and (iii) the affective automaticity hypothesis, that affectively potent stimuli commandeer attention and evaluation is automatic. We argue that affect is not independent from cognition, that affect is not primary to cognition, nor is affect automatically elicited. The second half of the paper discusses several instances of how affect influences cognition. We review experiments showing affective involvement in perception, semantic activation, and attitude activation. We conclude that one function of affect is to regulate cognitive processing. PMID:18458789
Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias
Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143
Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J.B. (Kip); Zinzow, Heidi; Swartout, Kevin
Purpose Preventing sexual aggression can be informed by determining if time-varying risk factors differentiate men who follow different sexual aggression risk trajectories. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with 795 college males surveyed at the end of each of their four years of college in 2008–2011. Repeated measures general linear models tested if changes in risk factors corresponded with sexual aggression trajectory membership. Results Changes in the risk factors corresponded with SA trajectories. Men who came to college with a history of SA but decreased their perpetration likelihood during college showed concurrent decreases in sexual compulsivity, impulsivity, hostile attitudes toward women, rape supportive beliefs, perceptions of peer approval of forced sex, and perceptions of peer pressure to have sex with many different women, and smaller increases in pornography use over their college years. Conversely, men who increased levels of SA over time demonstrated larger increases in risk factors in comparison to other trajectory groups. Conclusions The odds that males engaged in sexual aggression corresponded with changes in key risk factors. Risk factors were not static and interventions designed to alter them may lead to changes in sexual aggression risk. PMID:26592333
Smeijers, Danique; Rinck, Mike; Bulten, Erik; van den Heuvel, Thom; Verkes, Robbert-Jan
Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED). However, there is little knowledge to what extent this bias is displayed by each of these patient groups. The present study investigated whether a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions was displayed by forensic psychiatric outpatients (FPOs) and whether it was associated with ASPD and BPD in general or, more specifically, with a disposition to react with pathological aggression. Participants of five different groups were recruited: FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED, non-forensic patients with BPD (nFPOs-BPD), and healthy, non-aggressive controls (HCs). Results suggest that solely FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED exhibit a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions. Moreover, this bias was associated with type and severity of aggression, trait aggression, and cognitive distortions. The results suggest that a HIB regarding facial expressions is an important characteristic of pathological aggressive behavior. Interventions that modify the HIB might help to reduce the recurrence of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-12, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…
Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael
Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…
Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A
Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.
Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.
Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…
Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi
This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine
The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…
Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa
Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…
Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah
Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in
Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.
Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M; Yuen, Carlin
A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether nonexperimental studies revealed an association between men's pornography consumption and their attitudes supporting violence against women. The meta-analysis corrected problems with a previously published meta-analysis and added more recent findings. In contrast to the earlier meta-analysis, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperimental studies. In addition, such attitudes were found to correlate significantly higher with the use of sexually violent pornography than with the use of nonviolent pornography, although the latter relationship was also found to be significant. The study resolves what appeared to be a troubling discordance in the literature on pornography and aggressive attitudes by showing that the conclusions from nonexperimental studies in the area are in fact fully consistent with those of their counterpart experimental studies. This finding has important implications for the overall literature on pornography and aggression.
Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G; Daneman, Meredyth
The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.
Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth
The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437
García-Soriano, Gemma; Roncero, María
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and disabling disorder with a long delay in seeking help that could partly be due to poor mental health literacy and stigmatizing attitudes. This study analyzes the mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD in a Spanish adolescent sample. This age group was chosen because adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of OCD, and adolescents are often reluctant to seek professional help. One hundred and two non-clinical adolescents read two vignettes describing symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD. Then, referring to these two vignettes, they answered questions related to problem recognition, causality perception, need for treatment, treatment recommendations, and stigma. Results show that a high percentage of adolescents recognize the interference of order- and aggression-related OCD, consider that a peer with order- or aggression-related OCD needs treatment, and would recommend a formal source of help. Although order symptoms are highly recognized as OCD by adolescents, aggression-related OCD is frequently misidentified as schizophrenia or depression. Results also show higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes in adolescents, associated with aggression-OCD (versus order-OCD), especially in male adolescents and adolescents with no previous experience with mental health services/providers. Results suggest the need to develop school-based programs emphasizing OCD content heterogeneity, especially the aggression, sexual, and religious contents, and work toward eliminating stigma.
Turner, Margaret A.; Andrewes, David G.
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a simple scale for measuring positive interpersonal attitudes of depressed stroke patients, with regard to their cognitive limitations. Two versions of the Attitudes Towards Relationships Scale were developed and administered to depressed stroke (n = 48) and control rheumatic/orthopaedic (n = 45)…
Speer, Rita D.
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
Brock, Barbara L.
Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…
Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois
Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771
Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others
American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…
Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.
The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.
Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)
Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.
Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…
Haug, Lore I
Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs and people is a common problem arising most commonly from fear and territoriality. A number of factors contribute to its development, including socialization deficits, hormones, and genetic and neurophysiologic components. These factors are discussed in this article, as are management and behavior modification approaches for controlling aggression.
Holt, Wilma J.
This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…
Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.
In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…
Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy
For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…
Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen
The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.
Mitchell, Harold E.; Simpson, Ronald D.
The purposes of this study were to (1) study changes in attitude toward science, school, and academic self among college biology students, and (2) to examine relationships between attitudes and achievement in an introductory college course in biology. The three attitude variables were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. Each of the three constructs was measured by the semantic differential and one additional instrument. One cognitive measure, biology achievement, was taken at the beginning and end of the study. This was accomplished by using the Nelson Biology Test. Another cognitive measure, grade in the course, as given by the instructor, was recorded at the end of the course. Normative data and correlation coefficients among pre- and postadministrations were calculated for each institution and the composite sample as well. An analysis of variance showed that while gains in scores on the Nelson Biology Test were significant beyond the 0.01 level of probability, changes in attitude scores were not. Correlations were calculated between the attitude and cognitive variables in this study. Relationships between academic self-concept and achievement in biology were the strongest. Data from this study show that while student cognitive behavior was changed during an introductory college biology course, selected attitudes either stayed the same or became slightly more negative. Affective as well as cognitive gains would appear to be desirable goals in college courses. As we learn more about relationships that exist between cognition and affect, science educators at all levels will become better equipped to improve learning in science.
Ellis, Wendy E; Zarbatany, Lynne
Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social preference. Using the social cognitive map, 116 groups were identified involving 526 children (282 girls; M age=12.05). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high group centrality (visibility) magnified group socialization of relational aggression, deviant behavior, and prosocial behavior, and low group acceptance magnified socialization of deviant behavior. Results suggest group influence on behavior is not uniform but depends on group status, especially group visibility within the larger peer context.
Rosen, Tony; Pillemer, Karl; Lachs, Mark
Resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) between long-term care residents includes negative and aggressive physical, sexual, or verbal interactions that in a community setting would likely be construed as unwelcome and have high potential to cause physical or psychological distress in the recipient. Although this problem potentially has high incidence and prevalence and serious consequences for aggressors and victims, it has received little direct attention from researchers to date. This article reviews the limited available literature on this topic as well as relevant research from related areas including: resident violence toward nursing home staff, aggressive behaviors by elderly persons, and community elder abuse. We present hypothesized risk factors for aggressor, victim, and nursing home environment, including issues surrounding cognitive impairment. We discuss methodological challenges to studying RRA and offer suggestions for future research. Finally, we describe the importance of designing effective interventions, despite the lack currently available, and suggest potential areas of future research. PMID:19750126
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Büttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve children (average age 10 years), diagnosed with an oppositional defiant disorder or a conduct disorder, are treated either with a child welfare program or with a combined intervention of child welfare program and TAC. Before and immediately after completion of the combined treatment, parent and teacher ratings are collected. Parents report children participating in child welfare and TAC to show a stronger decline in social and conduct problems as well as a clearer increase in prosocial behavior. Teachers see a better improvement in social problems and tended to report a decrease in aggressive behavior. Results confirm that the TAC can enhance effects of a child welfare program.
Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette; Dimeff, Linda A.; Graham, Thomas L.
Among women, college is a high risk period for sexual assault by male acquaintances. Differences in expectations held by men and women may contribute to misinterpretation of social cues and subsequent sexual aggression and may impair women’s ability to respond effectively. This paper presents findings from a predominantly Caucasian sample (85.9%) of college sorority (n = 66) and fraternity (n = 34) members regarding the social context within which they interact and their expectations regarding perpetration of and response to sexual aggression. Results showed differences in men’s and women’s expectations and responses, and in particular highlighted how men’s expectations were related to women’s resistance of unwanted sex. Understanding the cognitive processes that men and women draw upon in social interactions can be useful for developing sexual aggression prevention and resistance interventions. PMID:25705071
Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.
Kravtsov, M N; Manukovskiĭ, V A; Zharinov, G M; Kandyba, D V; Tsibirov, A A; Savello, A V; Svistov, D V
Today vertebral hemangioma is not completely understood entity, neither its pathogenesis nor optimal treatment is determined. Nowadays in majority of clinics in this country ineffective radiotherapy remains the first-line treatment. We analyzed results of treatment of 205 patients (286 lesions) with aggressive hemangiomas operated in Department of Neurosurgery of Military Medical Academy and Department of Nuclear Medicine of of Russian Scientific Center of Radiological and Surgical Technologies (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) since 1999 till 2009. Percutaneus vertebroplasty was performed in 167 lesions, radiotherapy was applied in 119 aggressive hemangiomas. Vertebroplasty is more effective for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas in comparison with radiotherapy. Signs of hemangiomas aggression, indications for surgery, and tactics of management were determined. Use of percutaneous vertebroplasty for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas resulted in fast recovery of the patients. This procedure is minimally invasive, it reduces hospital stay and duration of recovery.
Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min
I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.
Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia
The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.
Chiu, Vivian W; Harvey, Robert H; Sloan, Nancy B; Ree, Melissa; Lin, Ashleigh; Janca, Aleksandar; Waters, Flavie
This study examines cognitive and behavioral factors linked to insomnia in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (with and without insomnia) and healthy controls (with and without insomnia). Fifty-five psychiatric inpatients and 66 healthy controls (n = 25 with insomnia in both groups) completed the Insomnia Severity Index, Thought Control Questionnaire for Insomnia-Revised, Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale, Sleep Hygiene Knowledge scale, and Beliefs about Causes of Sleep Problems questionnaires. Both insomnia groups demonstrated night-time rumination, aggressive suppression as a thought control strategy, and exaggerated views regarding the health consequences of poor sleep. In addition, the psychiatric group with insomnia frequently reported the causes of insomnia to be related to their illness (rather than to their lifestyle factors) and had an incomplete understanding of good sleep habits. Psychological interventions should be more commonly pursued as a first line of treatment for insomnia in schizophrenia and psychosis, and these should be adapted to address the unique knowledge gaps and cognitive style of patients.
Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D
Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.
Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ
Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887