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Sample records for aggressive combined modality

  1. Modal combination in response spectrum modal dynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C.R.; Singhal, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    UCRL-15910 does not give explicit requirements for combining the values of the resonse of individual modes in a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis. Since UCRL-15910 references ASE 4-86, modal combination methods given in ASCE 4-86 are described in this paper. Efficient use of typical dynamic analysis computer programs while complying with ASCE 4-86 is also described.

  2. Recent Advances in Combined Modality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nyati, Mukesh K.; Morgan, Meredith A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    Combined modality therapy emerged from preclinical data showing that carefully chosen drugs could enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation while having nonoverlapping toxicities. Recent advances in molecular biology involving the identification of cellular receptors, enzymes, and pathways involved in tumor growth and immortality have resulted in the development of biologically targeted drugs. This review highlights the recent clinical data in support of newer generation cytotoxic chemotherapies and systemic targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy. PMID:20413642

  3. LSCI and Aggression Replacement Training: A Multi-Modal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention converts a conflict into a meaningful learning experience for the student by discovering what drives his/her behavior and by defining clear outcome goals. Aggression Replacement Training teaches alternatives to problematic behavior. The collaborative use of ART and LSCI is an effective strategy, specifically in stage…

  4. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  5. Effectiveness of ECT combined with risperidone against aggression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S; Ashby, C R; Mills, M J

    2001-03-01

    Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients can often be problematic not only for the patients themselves, but for their families and others. This study examined the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in combination with risperidone in an open trial in 10 male schizophrenic patients with significant aggressive behaviors. Patients were given bilateral ECT five times a week in combination with risperidone. The mean total number of times of ECT was 6.6 (range 5-9). The aggressive behavior in five of the six patients, who showed positive symptoms, was rapidly ameliorated within 12 days. The ECT/risperidone regimen also eliminated aggressive behavior in four patients showing no positive symptoms within 10 days. These treatment effects lasted for at least 6 months in 9 (of the 10) patients. The results suggest that ECT, combined with risperidone, produce a rapid and effective elimination of aggressive behaviors in schizophrenic patients. In addition, there was a resolution of aggression in four patients with no positive symptoms. This suggests that aggression in some schizophrenic patients develops as a primary symptom of schizophrenia and is not related to other positive symptoms of the disease or the patient's personality traits. PMID:11281510

  6. Combining Multi-modal Features for Social Media Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Spiros; Giannakidou, Eirini; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Patras, Ioannis; Vakali, Athena

    In this chapter we discuss methods for efficiently modeling the diverse information carried by social media. The problem is viewed as a multi-modal analysis process where specialized techniques are used to overcome the obstacles arising from the heterogeneity of data. Focusing at the optimal combination of low-level features (i.e., early fusion), we present a bio-inspired algorithm for feature selection that weights the features based on their appropriateness to represent a resource. Under the same objective of optimal feature combination we also examine the use of pLSA-based aspect models, as the means to define a latent semantic space where heterogeneous types of information can be effectively combined. Tagged images taken from social sites have been used in the characteristic scenarios of image clustering and retrieval, to demonstrate the benefits of multi-modal analysis in social media.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy and Its Role in Combined Modality Anticancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brodin, N Patrik; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2015-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new modality for anticancer treatment and although the interest has increased greatly in the recent years, it is still far from clinical routine. As PDT consists of administering a nontoxic photosensitizing chemical and subsequently illuminating the tumor with visible light, the treatment is not subject to dose-limiting toxicity, which is the case for established anticancer treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy. This makes PDT an attractive adjuvant therapy in a combined modality treatment regimen, as PDT provides an antitumor immune response through its ability to elicit the release of damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor antigens, thus providing an increased antitumor efficacy, potentially without increasing the risk of treatment-related toxicity. There is great interest in the elicited immune response after PDT and the potential of combining PDT with other forms of treatment to provide potent antitumor vaccines. This review summarizes recent studies investigating PDT as part of combined modality treatment, hopefully providing an accessible overview of the current knowledge that may act as a basis for new ideas or systematic evaluations of already promising results.

  8. Combined modality preoperative therapy for unresectable rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Percarpio, B; Bitterman, J; Sabbath, K; Alfano, F; Ruszkowski, R; Bowen, J

    1992-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer has been a surgical challenge because of fixation of the primary tumor to the boney pelvis or to other pelvic soft tissues. During a 12-month period seven patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum were treated preoperatively with simultaneous pelvic irradiation (4500-5040 cGy) and infusion chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 1000 mg per m2 per day over 96 hours and mitomycin 10 mg per m2. Tolerance was reasonable and all patients underwent successful resection of the primary lesion. Two patients had a complete response to preoperative combined modality therapy with no cancer found in the surgical specimen. With a short follow-up period, all patients have experienced satisfactory healing and none have suffered local or distant recurrence. The results of this limited series are encouraging for future clinical trials.

  9. Implementation of modal combination rules for response spectrum analysis using GEMINI

    SciTech Connect

    Nukala, P K

    1999-06-01

    One of the widely used methodologies for describing the behavior of a structural system subjected to seismic excitation is response spectrum modal dynamic analysis. Several modal combination rules are proposed in the literature to combine the responses of individual modes in a response spectrum dynamic analysis. In particular, these modal combination rules are used to estimate the representative maximum value of a particular response of interest for design purposes. Furthermore, these combination rules also provide guidelines for combining the representative maximum values of the response obtained for each of the three orthogonal spatial components of an earthquake. This report mainly focuses on the implementation of different modal combination rules into GEMINI [I].

  10. Tolerability of Combined Modality Therapy for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years and Older

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Clark, Jeffrey; Willett, Christopher G.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-12-01

    combined modality therapy for rectal cancer should be performed with caution in elderly patients, who require aggressive supportive care to complete treatment.

  11. GIRLSS: A Study of the Effectiveness of a Multi-Modal Intervention to Reduce Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splett, Joni Williams

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression has quickly become a serious issue in schools. In response, school professionals have sought and developed interventions despite a dearth of empirical examination and support. The current study bolsters this area by examining the initial efficacy of GIRLSS, an intervention developed over multiple iterations incorporating the…

  12. 77 FR 69509 - Combining Modal Responses and Spatial Components in Seismic Response Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Combining Modal Responses and Spatial Components in Seismic Response Analysis AGENCY: Nuclear... Components in Seismic Response Analysis'' as an administratively changed guide in which there are minor... the NRC staff considers acceptable for combining modal responses and spatial components in...

  13. Combined modality management of retroperitoneal sarcomas: a single institution series of 121 patients

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Zagars, Gunar K.; Torres, Keila E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Cormier, Janice N.; Feig, Barry W.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate local control, survival outcomes, and complication rates of patients treated with aggressive surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS). Methods We reviewed the medical records of 121 consecutive patients treated for RPS with surgery and RT between 1965 and 2012. The most common histology was liposarcomas (n=42, 35%). The median follow-up was 100 months (range, 20–467 months). Eighty six (71%) patients were treated for initial presentation of RPS, and 35 patients (29%) presented with and were treated for RPS recurrence. RT was preoperative in 88 patients (73%) (median dose, 50.4 Gy) and post-operative in 33 (27%) (median dose, 55 Gy). Results The 5-year LC and OS rates were 56% and 57%, respectively. Two factors were associated with higher risk of any intra-abdominal recurrence at 5 years: positive or uncertain margins (58% vs. 30% for negative margins, P<0.001, HR 2.7 95% CI 1.6–4.8) and presenting with recurrent disease after previous resection (76% vs. 31% for de novo RPS, P<0.001, HR 4.4 95% CI 2.5–7.5). The 10-year complication rate was 5% and RT-related complications were associated with postoperative RT (P<0.001) and a RT dose ≥ 60 Gy (P<0.001). Conclusions Intra-abdominal RPS recurrences continue to be a significant challenge despite the use of aggressive surgery and radiation therapy. Given the complications associated with postoperative radiation therapy, we recommend that preoperative radiation therapy is the preferred strategy when combined modality therapy is recommended. PMID:26130233

  14. Combined Modality Management of Retroperitoneal Sarcomas: A Single-Institution Series of 121 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Zagars, Gunar K.; Torres, Keila E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Cormier, Janice N.; Feig, Barry W.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate local control, survival outcomes, and complication rates of patients treated with aggressive surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 121 consecutive patients treated for RPS with surgery and RT between 1965 and 2012. The most common histology was liposarcoma (n=42; 35%). The median follow-up was 100 months (range: 20-467 months). Eighty-six patients (71%) were treated for initial presentation of RPS, and 35 patients (29%) presented with and were treated for RPS recurrence. RT was preoperative in 88 patients (73%; median dose: 50.4 Gy) and postoperative in 33 patients (27%; median dose: 55 Gy). Results: Five-year local control and overall survival rates were 56% and 57%, respectively. Two factors were associated with higher risk of any intra-abdominal recurrence at 5 years: positive or uncertain margins (58% vs 30% for negative margins, P<.001; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-4.8) and disease recurrence after previous resection (76% vs 31% for de novo RPS, P<.001; HR: 4.4; 95% CI: 2.5-7.5). The 10-year complication rate was 5%, and RT-related complications were associated with postoperative RT (P<.001) and RT dose of ≥60 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Intra-abdominal RPS recurrence continues to be a significant challenge despite the use of aggressive surgery and radiation therapy. Given the complications associated with postoperative radiation therapy, we recommend that preoperative radiation therapy is the preferred strategy when combined modality therapy is recommended.

  15. Combined Modality Treatment for PET-Positive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Favorable Outcomes of Combined Modality Treatment for Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Positive Interim or Postchemotherapy FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Halasz, Lia M.; Jacene, Heather A.; Catalano, Paul J.; Van den Abbeele, Annick D.; LaCasce, Ann; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of patients treated for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with combined modality therapy based on [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response. Methods and Materials: We studied 59 patients with aggressive NHL, who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) from 2001 to 2008. Among them, 83% of patients had stage I/II disease. Patients with B-cell lymphoma received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic T-cell lymphoma received CHOP therapy. Interim and postchemotherapy FDG-PET or FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) scans were performed for restaging. All patients received consolidated involved-field RT. Median RT dose was 36 Gy (range, 28.8-50 Gy). Progression-free survival (PFS) and local control (LC) rates were calculated with and without a negative interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET scan. Results: Median follow-up was 46.5 months. Thirty-nine patients had negative FDG-PET results by the end of chemotherapy, including 12 patients who had a negative interim FDG-PET scan and no postchemotherapy PET. Twenty patients were FDG-PET-positive, including 7 patients with positive interim FDG-PET and no postchemotherapy FDG-PET scans. The 3-year actuarial PFS rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 97% and 90%, respectively. The 3-year actuarial LC rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients who had a positive interim or postchemotherapy FDG-PET had a PFS rate of 90% at 3 years after combined modality treatment, suggesting that a large proportion of these patients can be cured with consolidated RT.

  16. Combining modalities with different latencies for optimal motor control

    PubMed Central

    Bissmarck, Fredrik; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Doya, Kenji; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2010-01-01

    Feedback signals may be of different modality, latency and accuracy. To learn and control motor tasks the feedback available may be redundant, and it would not be necessary to rely on every accessible feedback loop. Which feedback loops should then be utilized? In this article, we propose that the latency is a critical factor to determine which signals will be influential at different learning stages. We use a computational framework to study the role of feedback modules with different latencies in optimal motor control. Instead of explicit gating between modules, the reinforcement learning algorithm learns to rely on the more useful module. We tested our paradigm for two different implementations, which confirmed our hypthesis. In the first, we examined how feedback latency affects the competitiveness of two identical modules. In the second, we examined an example of visuomotor sequence learning, where a plastic, faster somatosensory module interacts with a preacquired, slower visual module. We found that the overall performance depended on the latency of the faster module alone, while the relative latency determines the independence of the faster from the slower. In the second implementation, the somatosensory module with shorter latency overtook the slower visual module, and realized better overall performance. The visual module played different roles in early and late learning. First, it worked as a guide for the exploration of the somatosensory module. Then, when learning had converged, it contributed to robustness against system noise and external perturbations. Overall, these results demonstrate that our framework successfully learns to utilize the most useful available feedback for optimal control. PMID:18416676

  17. Double congenital fistulae with aneurysm diagnosed by combining imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Motomi; Mukouhara, Naoki; Hirami, Ryouichi; Fujio, Hideki; Yumoto, Akihisa; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hayashi, Aiko; Suminoe, Isao; Koudani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Congenital coronary pulmonary artery fistula (CAF) is rare, and systemic-to-pulmonary artery fistula (SPAF) is even more so. Furthermore, congenital coronary pulmonary fistula associated with congenital SPAF is extremely rare. As far as we know, CAF and SPAF connected with an aneurysm have not been described very often. We described an 83-year-old woman with an aneurysm originating from a CAF connected to an aortopulmonary artery fistula. Chest radiography revealed a shadow at the left edge of the heart line. Multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) with contrast enhancement and coronary cine angiography revealed that the shadow was an aneurysm connected to a tortuous fistula at the left anterior descending coronary artery. The aneurysm was formed by congenital coronary pulmonary and aortopulmonary artery fistulae. Echocardiography revealed predominantly systolic blood flow in the fistula from the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Although neither MDCT, echocardiography nor coronary angiography alone could provide a comprehensive image of the anomaly, including the hemodynamics in the fistulae and their relationship with surrounding organs and tissues, their combination could provided important facts the led to a deeper understanding of this very uncommon occurrence. PMID:24145730

  18. Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Shimin; Zeng, Jianfeng; Duan, Guangxin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guanglin; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.

  19. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  20. Combined Norepinephrine/Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression, and Oxytocin in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Elizabeth Thomas; Jarrett, Thomas Merryfield; McMurray, Matthew Stephen; Greenhill, Kevin; Hofler, Vivian E.; Williams, Sarah Kaye; Joyner, Paul Wayland; Middleton, Christopher L.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior (MB), although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent MB in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression, and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on MB, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. MB and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days 1 and 6 respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day 7. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease MB and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. Results: Amitriptyline and desipramine differentially reduced MB, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care. PMID:21713063

  1. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A.; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  2. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  3. Successes and Failures of Combined Modalities in Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: New Directions.

    PubMed

    Jamorabo, Daniel S; Lin, Steven H; Jabbour, Salma K

    2016-10-01

    Upper gastrointestinal malignancies generally have moderate to poor cure rates, even in the earliest stages, thereby implying that both local and systemic treatments have room for improvement. Therapeutic options are broadening, however, with the development of new immunotherapies and targeted agents, which can have synergistic effects with radiotherapy. Here we discuss the current state of combined modality therapy for upper gastrointestinal malignancies, specifically recent successes and setbacks in trials of radiation therapy with targeted therapies, vaccines, immunotherapies, and chemotherapies. PMID:27619252

  4. Improved medical image modality classification using a combination of visual and textual features.

    PubMed

    Dimitrovski, Ivica; Kocev, Dragi; Kitanovski, Ivan; Loskovska, Suzana; Džeroski, Sašo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the approach that we applied to the medical modality classification tasks at the ImageCLEF evaluation forum. More specifically, we used the modality classification databases from the ImageCLEF competitions in 2011, 2012 and 2013, described by four visual and one textual types of features, and combinations thereof. We used local binary patterns, color and edge directivity descriptors, fuzzy color and texture histogram and scale-invariant feature transform (and its variant opponentSIFT) as visual features and the standard bag-of-words textual representation coupled with TF-IDF weighting. The results from the extensive experimental evaluation identify the SIFT and opponentSIFT features as the best performing features for modality classification. Next, the low-level fusion of the visual features improves the predictive performance of the classifiers. This is because the different features are able to capture different aspects of an image, their combination offering a more complete representation of the visual content in an image. Moreover, adding textual features further increases the predictive performance. Finally, the results obtained with our approach are the best results reported on these databases so far. PMID:24997992

  5. Management of locally aggressive mandibular tumours using a gas combination cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, José Thiers; Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; da Silva Tabosa, Ana Karla; Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; de Menezes, Lucas Machado

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the results of curettage followed by cryosurgery using a combination of propane, butane, and isobutane gas for several benign but locally aggressive bone tumours on the mandible. Twenty-nine patients (16 men and 13 women) participated in the study. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 87 years (mean, 23.72 years). Before enucleation and cryosurgery, some patients received prior treatment consisting of marsupialisation to decrease tumour size. Twenty-seven of the 29 patients (93.10%) showed no evidence of clinical or radiographic recurrence after treatment through enucleation and cryosurgery. Wound dehiscence, which was observed in all cases, healed by second intention. The average follow-up period was 70.55 months (range, 53-120 months). These results suggest that enucleation followed by cryosurgery is an effective therapy for managing locally aggressive mandible tumours. In addition, this treatment is a less expensive intervention than more radical procedures. PMID:23835572

  6. Combining Acceleration and Displacement Dependent Modal Frequency Responses Using an MSC/NASTRAN DMAP Alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Ludwiczak, Damian R.

    1996-01-01

    Solving for dynamic responses of free-free launch vehicle/spacecraft systems acted upon by buffeting winds is commonly performed throughout the aerospace industry. Due to the unpredictable nature of this wind loading event, these problems are typically solved using frequency response random analysis techniques. To generate dynamic responses for spacecraft with statically-indeterminate interfaces, spacecraft contractors prefer to develop models which have response transformation matrices developed for mode acceleration data recovery. This method transforms spacecraft boundary accelerations and displacements into internal responses. Unfortunately, standard MSC/NASTRAN modal frequency response solution sequences cannot be used to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent responses required for spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. External user-written computer codes can be used with MSC/NASTRAN output to perform such combinations, but these methods can be labor and computer resource intensive. Taking advantage of the analytical and computer resource efficiencies inherent within MS C/NASTRAN, a DMAP Alter has been developed to combine acceleration- and displacement-dependent modal frequency responses for performing spacecraft mode acceleration data recovery. The Alter has been used successfully to efficiently solve a common aerospace buffeting wind analysis.

  7. Aggression by ovariectomized female rats: combined testosterone/estrogen implants support the development of hormone-dependent aggression.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-05-01

    Female hooded rats were ovariectomized and implanted with a single estrogen-filled and a single testosterone-filled Silastic tube. Control animals were ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. The implants produced an estrogen concentration of 30 pg/ml and a testosterone concentration of 0.25 ng/ml, levels close to those found in intact females. Two weeks following surgery, all animals were housed in individual cages, placed on a 23-hr food-deprivation schedule, and adapted to a liquid food. They were then housed in hormone-implant/empty-implant pairs and given a series of 3 restricted-access competition tests and 3 free-access competition tests (1/day). The animals were then paired with new partners and given a second series of restricted-access and free-access competition tests. Ovariectomized females with hormone implants were more successful at maintaining access to the liquid food and more aggressive than their competitors without hormone replacement. The aggression was used to maintain access to food during free-access as well as restricted-access competition. Following the competition tests, animals with hormone implants were significantly more aggressive toward an unfamiliar conspecific than were their cagemates with empty implants. The level of success and aggression by females with testosterone + estrogen implants appears greater than that which occurs with either hormone alone and comparable to that observed in intact females.

  8. Dual-modality imaging system combined fast photoacoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a fast dual-modality imaging system for reconstruction photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging based on a novel digital phased array. The scanning mode and image reconstruction algorithms were modified from our previous work to improve the image quality. A 128-element linear transducer array is connected to a multichannel signal acquisition and digital beam-formation system providing techniques of dynamic receiving focus and dynamic receiving apodization to process the signal. We use the linear transducer array with combined scanning mode to detect signals at multiple locations on a circle around the sample. It makes our dual-modality imaging own the ability of imaging complicated structures of objects. An improved limited-field filtered back projection algorithm with directivity factors was applied in photoacoustic imaging to further improve the lateral resolution. Phase-controlled imaging algorithm was applied to reconstruct acoustical impedance difference in the pure ultrasound imaging. The experiments on phantoms and in vivo early breast cancer detection in a mouse model were performed. The images are clearly, accurately provided.

  9. Trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia with various heating modalities in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Egawa, S; Ishioka, K; Kawada, Y

    1984-01-01

    A microwave heating apparatus with a frequency of 2,450 MHz and an inductive radio-frequency heating apparatus were developed for hyperthermia for cancer therapy, and clinical trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia were conducted. During the same period, a capacitive type radiofrequency unit was used. The tumors included superficial tumors, cancer of the uterine cervix, recurrent tumors at the stump of the cervix, and some deep-seated tumors. Cases showing complete response were as follows: 5 out of 13 cases treated with 2,450 MHz heating for superficial tumors, 8 out of 17 cases treated with 2,450 MHz intracavitary heating, and 2 out of 15 cases treated with radiofrequency heating. A feasibility study of various heating modalities was performed.

  10. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  11. Second neoplasms in patients with Hodgkin's disease following combined modality therapy--the Yale experience

    SciTech Connect

    Koletsky, A.J.; Bertino, J.R.; Farber, L.R.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Portlock, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    From 1969 to 1982, 183 patients with previously untreated stages IIIB and IV Hodgkin's disease and relapsing Hodgkin's disease after radiation therapy were treated with combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation (CRT). One hundred fifty patients who achieved a complete response (CR) were analyzed for risk of developing a second neoplasm. Median follow-up has been 8.3 years. Actuarial survival of all patients is 74% at 10 years with a relapse-free survival of 68%. An additional 24 patients with stage IIIA disease were also treated with CRT. There were 22 CRs at risk who were analyzed. Median follow-up has been 3+ years with an actuarial survival of 90% at five years and a relapse-free survival of 83%. Second neoplasms have developed in 14 of 172 patients at risk: acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL; five patients); aggressive histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; three patients); and a variety of solid neoplasms (six patients). Time to second neoplasm diagnosis after initial treatment ranged from 12 to 141 months. Five patients were older than 40 years. At the time of diagnosis of the second malignancy, 11 patients were free of Hodgkin's disease (for 36 to 141 months) and three were receiving therapy for recurrent Hodgkin's disease. The 10-year actuarial risk (%) of developing ANLL was 5.9 +/- 2.8; for NHL, the risk was 3.5 +/- 2.4, and for solid neoplasms, 5.8 +/- 3.0. Our results suggest that combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation does not appear to significantly increase the risk of developing second neoplasms above that already reported for combination chemotherapy when administered as either initial or salvage treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

  12. Young Aphids Avoid Erroneous Dropping when Evading Mammalian Herbivores by Combining Input from Two Sensory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Dafni, Amots; Inbar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian herbivores may incidentally ingest plant-dwelling insects while foraging. Adult pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) avoid this danger by dropping off their host plant after sensing the herbivore's warm and humid breath and the vibrations it causes while feeding. Aphid nymphs may also drop (to escape insect enemies), but because of their slow movement, have a lower chance of finding a new plant. We compared dropping rates of first-instar nymphs with those of adults, after exposing pea aphids to different combinations of simulated mammalian breath and vibrations. We hypothesized that nymphs would compensate for the greater risk they face on the ground by interpreting more conservatively the mammalian herbivore cues they perceive. Most adults dropped in response to breath alone, but nymphs rarely did so. Breath stimulus accompanied by one concurrent vibrational stimulus, caused a minor rise in adult dropping rates. Adding a second vibration during breath had no additional effect on adults. The nymphs, however, relied on a combination of the two types of stimuli, with a threefold increase in dropping rates when the breath was accompanied by one vibration, and a further doubling of dropping rates when the second vibration was added. The age-specificity of the aphids' herbivore detection mechanism is probably an adaptation to the different cost of dropping for the different age groups. Relying on a combination of stimuli from two sensory modalities enables the vulnerable nymphs to avoid costly mistakes. Our findings emphasize the importance of the direct trophic effect of mammalian herbivory for plant-dwelling insects. PMID:22496734

  13. When Negation and Epistemic Modality Combine: The Role of Information Strength in Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscati, Vincenzo; Crain, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Negative sentences with epistemic modals (e.g., John "might" not come/John "can" not come) contain two logical operators, negation and the modal, which yields a potential semantic ambiguity depending on scope assignment. The two possible readings are in a subset/superset relation, such that the strong reading ("can…

  14. Combining the Masking and Scaffolding Modalities of Colloidal Crystal Templates: Plasmonic Nanoparticle Arrays with Multiple Periodicities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Surface patterns with prescribed structures and properties are highly desirable for a variety of applications. Increasing the heterogeneity of surface patterns is frequently required. This work opens a new avenue toward creating nanoparticle arrays with multiple periodicities by combining two generally separately applied modalities (i.e., scaffolding and masking) of a monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) template. Highly ordered, loosely packed binary and ternary surface patterns are realized by a single-step thermal treatment of a gold thin-film-coated MCC and a nonclose-packed MCC template. Our approach enables control of the parameters defining these nanoscale binary and ternary surface patterns, such as particle size, shape, and composition, as well as the interparticle spacing. This technique enables preparation of well-defined binary and ternary surface patterns to achieve customized plasmonic properties. Moreover, with their easy programmability and excellent scalability, the binary and ternary surface patterns presented here could have valuable applications in nanophotonics and biomedicine. Specific examples include biosensing via surface-enhanced Raman scattering, fabrication of plasmonic-enhanced solar cells, and water splitting. PMID:25620849

  15. Influence of combined estradiol and testosterone implants on the aggressiveness of nonaggressive female rats.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1993-04-01

    Female rats that had been cohabiting with a sterile male or with another female for 6 weeks were tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female once each week for 3 weeks. Females that were not aggressive as a result of cohabitation with a sterile male were ovariectomized. Half were implanted with a Silastic tube containing estradiol (1 mm long hormone-filled space) and a tube containing testosterone (5 mm long hormone-filled space). The other half were implanted with empty tubes. All females that had been cohabiting with another female were ovariectomized and implanted with an estradiol- and a testosterone-filled tube. Three additional weekly tests of aggression were given beginning 1 week postoperatively. Females given hormone replacement displayed only a slight increase in aggression postoperatively. Females not given hormone replacement declined in aggressiveness. These results indicate that hormone replacement levels sufficient to maintain aggression in highly aggressive females following ovariectomy are not sufficient to produce a high level of aggression in females that have not become aggressive following cohabitation with a sterile male or that have been cohabiting with another female.

  16. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  17. Combined Modality Therapy Including Intraoperative Electron Irradiation for Locally Recurrent Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Haddock, Michael G.; Miller, Robert C.; Nelson, Heidi; Pemberton, John H.; Dozois, Eric J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival, relapse patterns, and prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer relapse treated with curative-intent therapy, including intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT). Methods and Materials: From April 1981 through January 2008, 607 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer received IOERT as a component of treatment. IOERT was preceded or followed by external radiation (median dose, 45.5 Gy) in 583 patients (96%). Resection was classified as R0 in 227 (37%), R1 in 224 (37%), and R2 in 156 (26%). The median IOERT dose was 15 Gy (range, 7.5-30 Gy). Results: Median overall survival was 36 months. Five- and 10-year survival rates were 30% and 16%, respectively. Survival estimates at 5 years were 46%, 27%, and 16% for R0, R1, and R2 resection, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that R0 resection, no prior chemotherapy, and more recent treatment (in the second half of the series) were associated with improved survival. The 3-year cumulative incidence of central, local, and distant relapse was 12%, 23%, and 49%, respectively. Central and local relapse were more common in previously irradiated patients and in those with subtotal resection. Toxicity Grade 3 or higher partially attributable to IOERT was observed in 66 patients (11%). Neuropathy was observed in 94 patients (15%) and was more common with IOERT doses exceeding 12.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survival and disease control was achievable in patients with locally recurrent colorectal cancer. Continued evaluation of curative-intent, combined-modality therapy that includes IOERT is warranted in this high-risk population.

  18. Potential of combining iterative reconstruction with noise efficient detector design: aggressive dose reduction in head CT

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B; Schabel, C; Fenchel, M; Ernemann, U; Korn, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With further increase of CT numbers and their dominant contribution to medical exposure, there is a recent quest for more effective dose control. While reintroduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) has proved its potential in many applications, a novel focus is placed on more noise efficient detectors. Our purpose was to assess the potential of IR in combination with an integrated circuit detector (ICD) for aggressive dose reduction in head CT. Methods: Non-contrast low-dose head CT [190 mAs; weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), 33.2 mGy] was performed in 50 consecutive patients, using a new noise efficient detector and IR. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with standard dose acquisitions (320 mAs; CTDIvol, 59.7 mGy) using a conventional detector and filtered back projection. Results: By combining ICD and IR in low-dose examinations, the signal to noise was improved by about 13% above the baseline level in the standard-dose control group. Both, contrast-to-noise ratio (2.02 ± 0.6 vs 1.88 ± 0.4; p = 0.18) and objective measurements of image sharpness (695 ± 84 vs 705 ± 151 change in Hounsfield units per pixel; p = 0.79) were fully preserved in the low-dose group. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the grading of several subjective image quality parameters when both noise-reducing strategies were used in low-dose examinations. Conclusion: Combination of noise efficient detector with IR allows for meaningful dose reduction in head CT without compromise of standard image quality. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of almost 50% dose reduction in head CT dose (1.1 mSv per scan) through combination of novel dose-reducing strategies. PMID:25827204

  19. Combined effects of motor response, sensory modality, and stimulus intensity on temporal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Indraccolo, Allegra; Spence, Charles; Vatakis, Argiro; Harrar, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    The ability to estimate a filled interval of time is affected by numerous non-temporal factors, such as the sensory modality, duration, and the intensity of the stimulus. Here we explore the role of modality (auditory or visual), stimulus intensity (low vs. high), and motor response speed on the ability to reproduce the duration of short (<1 s) filled intervals. In accordance with the literature, the reproduced duration was affected by both the modality and the intensity of the stimulus; longer reproduction times were generally observed for visual as compared to auditory stimuli, and for low as compared to high-intensity stimuli. We used general estimating equations in order to determine whether these factors independently affected participants' ability to reproduce a given duration, after eliminating the variability associated with reaction time, since it covaried with the reproduced durations. This analysis revealed that stimulus duration, modality, and intensity were all significant independent predictors of the reproduced durations. Additionally, duration interacted with intensity when reproducing auditory intervals. That is, after taking into account the general speeding-up effect that high-intensity stimuli have on responses, they seem to have an additional effect on the rate of the internal clock. These results support previous evidence suggesting that auditory and visual clocks run at different speeds.

  20. Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

    2014-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF). All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF.

  1. Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits in combined antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.

  2. Antiphase domain tailoring for combination of modal and 4¯ -quasi-phase matching in gallium phosphide microdisks.

    PubMed

    Guillemé, P; Vallet, M; Stodolna, J; Ponchet, A; Cornet, C; Létoublon, A; Féron, P; Durand, O; Léger, Y; Dumeige, Y

    2016-06-27

    We propose a novel phase-matching scheme in GaP whispering-gallery-mode microdisks grown on Si substrate combining modal and 4¯ -quasi-phase-matching for second-harmonic-generation. The technique consists in unlocking parity-forbidden processes by tailoring the antiphase domain distribution in the GaP layer. Our proposal can be used to overcome the limitations of form birefringence phase-matching and 4¯ -quasi-phase-matching using high order whispering-gallery-modes. The high frequency conversion efficiency of this new scheme demonstrates the competitiveness of nonlinear photonic devices monolithically integrated on silicon. PMID:27410613

  3. Practica continua: Connecting and combining simulation modalities for integrated teaching, learning and assessment.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Kneebone, Roger; Lachapelle, Kevin; Topps, David

    2009-08-01

    Simulation modalities are generally used independently of one another, largely due to physical and operational limitations to integration. Recent developments are enabling simulators and simulation environments to progress beyond single intervention models towards integrated continua of simulation. Moving to greater integration can improve contextualisation, better management of the transition from individual simulation to clinical practice, and provide wider opportunities to synthesise skills and approaches to practice. Simulation integration may involve experiential, modelling, technical, narrative, and evaluation dimensions; it includes both direct actions and activities, and technical and systems designs. The work in developing these integration continua is ongoing and takes many forms in many places. The framework of 'practica continua' proposed in this article links theoretical approaches and practical examples of integrated uses of simulation in education.

  4. Combined EEG/MEG can outperform single modality EEG or MEG source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply.

  5. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Cancer: Combining Modalities to Optimize Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eric T; Toms, Steven A; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2015-11-01

    The anticancer treatment modality tumor treating fields (TTFields; Optune, Novocure) use the lower frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum to destroy tumor cells during mitosis. This treatment has been evaluated in several trials of patients with glioblastoma. In these patients, TTFields are delivered through 4 transducer arrays applied to the scalp. In a phase 3 clinical trial of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, TTFields were as effective as chemotherapy, and were associated with fewer and milder systemic toxicities. Data from a phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma suggested that the addition of TTFields to postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy represents an important advance in the management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of TTFields in other tumor types, including pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, and non–small cell lung cancer. Other recent advances in the management of cancer have been seen with immunomodulatory therapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further study will be necessary to evaluate whether TTFields will enhance or impair other established and newly emerging therapies.

  6. Is there room for combined modality treatments? Dosimetric comparison of boost strategies for advanced head and neck and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Góra, Joanna; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Kuess, Peter; Paskeviciute, Brigita; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the dosimetric difference between three emerging treatment modalities--volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) and intensity-modulated carbon ion beam therapy (IMIT)--for two tumour sites where selective boosting of the tumour is applied. For 10 patients with locally advanced head and neck (H&N) cancer and 10 with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) a VMAT plan was generated for PTV initial that included lymph node regions, delivering 50 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and 50.4 Gy (IsoE) for PC patients. Furthermore, separate boost plans (VMAT, IMPT and IMIT) were created to boost PTV boost up to 70 Gy (IsoE) and 78 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and PC cases, respectively. Doses to brainstem, myelon, larynx and parotid glands were assessed for H&N cases. Additionally, various OARs (e.g. cochlea, middle ear, masticator space) were evaluated that are currently discussed with respect to quality of life after treatment. For PC cases, bladder, rectum and femoral heads were considered as OARs. For both tumour sites target goals were easily met. Looking at OAR sparing, generally VMAT + VMAT was worst. VMAT + IMIT had the potential to spare some structures in very close target vicinity (such as cochlea, middle ear, masticator space ) significantly better than VMAT + IMPT. Mean doses for rectal and bladder wall were on average 4 Gy (IsoE) and 1.5 Gy (IsoE) higher, respectively, compared to photons plus particles scenarios. Similar results were found for parotid glands and larynx. Concerning target coverage, no significant differences were observed between the three treatment concepts. Clear dosimetric benefits were observed for particle beam therapy as boost modality. However, the clinical benefit of combined modality treatments remains to be demonstrated.

  7. Testing a combined radiation protection modality: chemical protector and local shielding.

    PubMed

    Minkova, M; Baldzhijska, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of combined radiation protection upon damage to critical organs-spleen, small intestine, and bone marrow was studied in adult rat males 3 days after whole-body exposure to 9.5 Gy gamma-ray dose. Adeturone, the chemical radioprotector used, was administered intraperitoneally at 1/17 of its LD50 dose. Local shielding of the abdomino-lumbal region was accomplished using a lead ring providing on average 28-30% attenuation of radiation exposure. This degree of physical abdomino-lumbal protection combined with adeturone (50 mg/kg) pretreatment resulted in mutual enhancement of the components' action, expansion of the chemical agent's therapeutic range, providing a combination with improved overall antiradiation properties. PMID:2772157

  8. Successes and Failures of Combined Modality Therapies in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Daniel W; Deutsch, Eric; Raben, David

    2016-10-01

    The paradigms for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are changing as new subgroups are defined. The technical successes of improved radiation therapy are many; however, the success of novel combined therapies are few. With the emergence of human papillomavirus and the development of immunooncology agents, such as checkpoint inhibitors, are we ready to reevaluate how we use radiation and chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic disease-will we remain the fire or become the fire starter? PMID:27619251

  9. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Radiolucent Foreign Body from an EVAR Device by Combining Different Image Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiero, Giulio; Cognolato, Diego; Polverosi, Roberta; Guarise, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Percutaneous extraction techniques are an established method for removing endovascular foreign bodies. Generally, the foreign body to be removed is radiopaque (i.e., catheter and guidewire fragments, vena cava filters, embolization coils, endovascular stents). We propose an application of these techniques to remove a radiolucent foreign body (i.e., pigtail cover) by means of a combination of different imaging techniques (fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound, and computed axial tomography).

  10. Rituximab-Including Combined Modality Treatment for Primary Thyroid Lymphoma: An Effective Regimen for Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Natsuko; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kunii, Yo; Mukasa, Koji; Matsumoto, Masako; Suzuki, Miho; Sekiya, Kenichi; Ohye, Hidemi; Yoshihara, Ai; Iwaku, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kameyama, Kaori; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Kami, Masahiro; Sugino, Kiminori; Ito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) develops mostly in middle-aged and older females. However, the optimal treatment for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which accounts for most PTL cases, is unclear. Rituximab is a promising drug that, in combination with traditional combination therapy, has demonstrated an increased antitumor effect without a substantial increase in toxicity. In this study, treatment outcomes of elderly patients with thyroid DLBCL who underwent rituximab-including combination therapy were analyzed. Method: Between January 2005 and December 2011, 43 patients 60 years of age or older (median 71 years, range 60–80 years) were diagnosed as having stage IE (n=12) or stage IIE (n=31) DLBCL, and three courses of R-CHOP therapy (rituximab 375 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, adriamycin 40 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2, and prednisolone 100 mg/body) and involved field irradiation were planned. Treatment outcomes of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Two patients terminated the treatment because of interstitial pneumonia during R-CHOP therapy. Only one patient showed treatment resistance and the regimen was changed; 42 patients (98%) responded to the treatment. Five-year overall survival and event-free survival were 87% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 64–96%) and 74% (95% CI, 50–89%), respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that rituximab-including combination therapy was effective for elderly patients with thyroid DLBCL. A multicenter, long-term observational study is needed to confirm this, and additional refinement of the treatment protocol is required to optimize the antitumor effect. PMID:24547778

  11. A bi-modal approach against cancer: magnetic alginate nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni; Riggio, Cristina; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2009-07-01

    The use of polymeric carriers containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline particles has attracted considerable interest in the medical field. In this paper, we propose an innovative nanotechnological platform for cancer therapy, based on highly magnetized, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. Alginate magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by our group by an efficient emulsion/reticulation technique and tested as drug delivery system. Here, we present a potential application that combines, in a single nanovector, efficient targeting, overcoming of bio-barriers, drug delivery, and physical disruption of tumor tissues.

  12. Meaning and challenges in the practice of multiple therapeutic massage modalities: a combined methods study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) practitioners are predominantly trained in programs that are not uniformly standardized, and in variable combinations of therapies. To date no studies have explored this variability in training and how this affects clinical practice. Methods Combined methods, consisting of a quantitative, population-based survey and qualitative interviews with practitioners trained in multiple therapies, were used to explore the training and practice of TMB practitioners in Alberta, Canada. Results Of the 5242 distributed surveys, 791 were returned (15.1%). Practitioners were predominantly female (91.7%), worked in a range of environments, primarily private (44.4%) and home clinics (35.4%), and were not significantly different from other surveyed massage therapist populations. Seventy-seven distinct TMB therapies were identified. Most practitioners were trained in two or more therapies (94.4%), with a median of 8 and range of 40 therapies. Training programs varied widely in number and type of TMB components, training length, or both. Nineteen interviews were conducted. Participants described highly variable training backgrounds, resulting in practitioners learning unique combinations of therapy techniques. All practitioners reported providing individualized patient treatment based on a responsive feedback process throughout practice that they described as being critical to appropriately address the needs of patients. They also felt that research treatment protocols were different from clinical practice because researchers do not usually sufficiently acknowledge the individualized nature of TMB care provision. Conclusions The training received, the number of therapies trained in, and the practice descriptors of TMB practitioners are all highly variable. In addition, clinical experience and continuing education may further alter or enhance treatment techniques. Practitioners individualize each patient's treatment through a highly

  13. Reduction of fatal complications from combined modality therapy in Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mauch, P.M.; Canellos, G.P.; Rosenthal, D.S.; Hellman, S.

    1985-04-01

    A total of 464 pathologically staged IA through IIIB Hodgkin's disease patients were evaluated for the risk of developing acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or a fatal infection after treatment with radiation therapy (RT) alone, initial combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy (CMT), or RT with MOPP administered at relapse. Patients received a standard six cycles of MOPP, and additional maintenance chemotherapy was not administered. Patients receiving total nodal irradiation (TNI) and MOPP chemotherapy have an 11. 9% actuarial risk of developing a fatal complication at ten years, as compared to a 0.8% risk for lesser field irradiation and MOPP. The risk with RT alone is 0.6%. Patients 40 years of age or older have a greater risk for complications. These data report a low risk for fatal complication with CMT when less than TNI is administered and when maintenance chemotherapy is not used.

  14. Hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiation therapy. Correlations for combined modality therapy with systemic chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, R.A.; Lichter, A.S.; Bromer, R.H.; Minna, J.D.; Cohen, M.H.; Deisseroth, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    Using circulating granulocyte-monocyte precursor colony-forming units in culture (CFUc) numbers as a probe along with standard blood count (CBC), the authors have quantitatively examined the hematopoietic toxicity of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) when combined with concurrent systemic chemotherapy or when used alone. Among 20 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer receiving systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, CCNU, and methotrexate, the addition of involved field chest RT resulted in increased hematopoietic toxicity as judged by increased need for platelet transfusion (P less than 0.05) and decreased frequency of measurable CFUc (P less than 0.04). Among 22 patients receiving regional radiotherapy alone consistent hematopoietic toxicity was also observed. This toxicity, although generally of only mild to moderate clinical significance, was detected earlier and to a greater degree in patients who required radiation to larger treatment volumes, who had significant amounts of bone marrow in the port, and who had a high percentage of cardiac output flowing through the port. These data suggest that the hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiotherapy may be additive to that of concurrent systemic chemotherapy and may occur more promptly and to a greater degree when treatment volumes are larger or incorporate increased amounts of marrow volume or cardiac output.

  15. Improving cytotoxicity against cancer cells by chemo-photodynamic combined modalities using silver-graphene quantum dots nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Khaled; Encarnacion-Rosado, Joel; Garcia-Pabon, Kenny; Villalobos-Santos, Juan C; Makarov, Vladimir I; Avalos, Javier A; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy due to its synergistic effects. In this work, PEGylated silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs) were tested as a platform to deliver a chemotherapy drug and a photosensitizer, simultaneously, in chemo-photodynamic therapy against HeLa and DU145 cancer cells in vitro. Ag-GQDs have displayed high efficiency in delivering doxorubicin as a model chemotherapy drug to both cancer cells. The Ag-GQDs exhibited a strong antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting the viability of normal cells. Moreover, the Ag-GQDs exhibited a cytotoxic effect due to the generation of the reactive singlet oxygen upon 425 nm irradiation, indicating their applicability in photodynamic therapy. In comparison with chemo or photodynamic treatment alone, the combined treatment of Ag-GQDs conjugated with doxorubicin under irradiation with a 425 nm lamp significantly increased the death in DU145 and HeLa. This study suggests Ag-GQDs as a multifunctional and efficient therapeutic system for chemo-photodynamic modalities in cancer therapy.

  16. Improving cytotoxicity against cancer cells by chemo-photodynamic combined modalities using silver-graphene quantum dots nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Habiba, Khaled; Encarnacion-Rosado, Joel; Garcia-Pabon, Kenny; Villalobos-Santos, Juan C; Makarov, Vladimir I; Avalos, Javier A; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy due to its synergistic effects. In this work, PEGylated silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs) were tested as a platform to deliver a chemotherapy drug and a photosensitizer, simultaneously, in chemo-photodynamic therapy against HeLa and DU145 cancer cells in vitro. Ag-GQDs have displayed high efficiency in delivering doxorubicin as a model chemotherapy drug to both cancer cells. The Ag-GQDs exhibited a strong antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting the viability of normal cells. Moreover, the Ag-GQDs exhibited a cytotoxic effect due to the generation of the reactive singlet oxygen upon 425 nm irradiation, indicating their applicability in photodynamic therapy. In comparison with chemo or photodynamic treatment alone, the combined treatment of Ag-GQDs conjugated with doxorubicin under irradiation with a 425 nm lamp significantly increased the death in DU145 and HeLa. This study suggests Ag-GQDs as a multifunctional and efficient therapeutic system for chemo-photodynamic modalities in cancer therapy. PMID:26766909

  17. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  18. Extremity preservation by combined modality therapy in sarcomas of the hand and foot: an analysis of local control, disease free survival and functional result

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Loeffler, J.S.; Fraass, B.A.; Tepper, J.

    1983-08-01

    A primary tumor arising in the hand or foot represents an uncommon presentation for patients with Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or soft tissue sarcoma (STS). While there exists considerable literature on the treatment of extremity sarcomas, very little deals specifically with lesions of the hand or foot. It remains controversial whether these lesions can be successfully treated with combined modality therapy which preserves the extremity and maintains function. From 1972 to 1979, 10 patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot were treated with combined modality therapy at the National Cancer Institute. Seven patients with ES of bone received local irradiation to 5000 rad and combination chemotherapy following an incisional biopsy. Three patients with STS received a gross tumor excision and local irradiation to 6000 rad. Local control was achieved in nine patients (90%) with a follow-up of 30 to 119 months (median 56 months). These patients have complete or almost complete function of the treated extremity. Nine patients are alive with five patients remaining disease-free following the initial combined modality treatment. We conclude that for selected patients with sarcomas arising in the hand or foot, combined modality therapy which leaves the extremity intact results in excellent local tumor control and preserves function. Careful treatment planning is an essential aspect of successful radiation therapy of a hand or foot primary. Our treatment recommendations are outlined. This approach is a viable alternative to amputation in these patients.

  19. Aggressive TAFRO syndrome with reversible cardiomyopathy successfully treated with combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shunichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ichikawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Ken; Uchida, Emi; Yamamoto, Masahide; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Mizuchi, Daisuke; Miura, Osamu; Fukuda, Tetsuya

    2016-10-01

    TAFRO (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly) syndrome is an atypical manifestation of Castleman's disease. However, the mechanism underlying this very rare syndrome remains unknown, and there is no established standard treatment. Here we report cases of two young females with TAFRO syndrome who showed similar clinical courses. Both cases showed severe anasarca, ascites, and thrombocytopenia. Although high-dose steroids were ineffective, combination chemotherapy showed remarkable effects. However, both patients developed severe but reversible heart failure after CHOP therapy owing to diffuse cardiomyopathy, which was presumably associated with TAFRO syndrome. Therefore, although combination chemotherapy may be very effective in the treatment of TAFRO syndrome, careful observation for cardiomyopathy development is needed, particularly when using adriamycin-containing regimens.

  20. Future directions in combined modality therapy for rectal cancer: reevaluating the role of total mesorectal excision after chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Abhishek A; Chang, Daniel T; Liauw, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who develop rectal cancer present with locoregionally advanced (T3 or node-positive) disease. The standard management of locoregionally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), followed by radical resection (low-anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection with total mesorectal excision). Approximately 15% of patients can have a pathologic complete response (pCR) at the time of surgery, indicating that some patients can have no detectable residual disease after nCRT. The actual benefit of surgery in this group of patients is unclear. It is possible that omission of surgery in these patients, termed selective nonoperative management, can limit the toxicities associated with standard, multimodal combined modality therapy without compromising disease control. In this review, we discuss the clinical experiences to date using selective nonoperative management and various attempts at escalation of nCRT to improve the number of patients who have a pCR. We also explore several clinical, laboratory, imaging, histopathologic, and genetic biomarkers that have been tested as tools to predict which patients are most likely to have a pCR after nCRT. PMID:23983475

  1. Combined modality program with possible organ preservation for invasive bladder carcinoma: Results of RTOG protocol 85-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, W.; Porter, A.; Asbell, S.; Coughlin, C.; Heaney, J.; Krall, J.; Martz, K.; Venner, P.; Hammond, E. )

    1993-04-02

    This Phase 2 study was designed to test the tolerance and effectiveness of concurrent cisplatin-radiotherapy in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer. Objectives were to determine toxicity, complete response rate, bladder preservation rate, and survival. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, clinical Stages T2--4, NO-2 or NX, MO were treated with pelvic radiotherapy 40 Gy in 4 weeks and cisplatin 100 mg/m[sup 2] on days 1 and 22. Complete responders were given an additional 24 Gy bladder boost plus a third dose of cisplatin; patients with residual tumor after 40 Gy were assigned radical cystectomy. The complete remission rate following cisplatin and 40 Gy for evaluable cases was 31/47 (66%). Acute toxicity was acceptable with only two patients not completing induction therapy. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors were more likely to achieve complete remission. Of fully evaluable patients, 28/42 (67%) achieved complete remission with induction therapy, 11 remain continuously in remission, and eight have relapsed with bladder as the only site of failure. Five of these eight cases relapsed with noninvasive tumor. Of the 14 patients who failed to achieve complete remission, only three remain disease-free. Median survival is not reached, with 17/42 (19/48) deaths reported. Actuarial survival is 64% at 3 years. This combined cisplatin-radiotherapy regime was moderately well-tolerated and associated with tumor clearance in 66% of patients treated. Isolated bladder recurrences with invasive carcinoma are infrequent. Better definition of pretreatment selection criteria is needed if combined modality treatment is to achieve disease control and organ preservation for patients with bladder cancer. 37 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  3. Does Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Combined With Conventional Imaging Modalities Decrease the Rates of Surgical Margin Involvement and Reoperation?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Ying-Jen; Chen, Shu-Ling; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Wu, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess whether preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with conventional breast imaging techniques decreases the rates of margin involvement and reexcision. Data on patients who underwent surgery for primary operable breast cancer were obtained from the Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) breast cancer database. The rate of surgical margin involvement and the rate of reoperation were compared between patients who underwent conventional breast imaging modalities (Group A: mammography and sonography) and those who received breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging (Group B: mammography, sonography, and MRI). A total of 1468 patients were enrolled in this study. Among the 733 patients in Group A, 377 (51.4%) received breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 356 (48.6%) received mastectomy. Among the 735 patients in Group B, 348 (47.3%) received BCS and 387 (52.7%) received mastectomy. There were no significant differences in operative method between patients who received conventional imaging alone and those that received MRI and conventional imaging (P = 0.13). The rate of detection of pathological multifocal/multicentric breast cancer was markedly higher in patients who received preoperative MRI than in those who underwent conventional imaging alone (14.3% vs 8.6%, P < 0.01). The overall rate of surgical margin involvement was significantly lower in patients who received MRI (5.0%) than in those who received conventional imaging alone (9.0%) (P < 0.01). However, a significant reduction in rate of surgical margin positivity was only observed in patients who received BCS (Group A, 14.6%; Group B, 6.6%, P < 0.01). The overall BCS reoperation rates were 11.7% in the conventional imaging group and 3.2% in the combined MRI group (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in rate of residual cancer in specimens obtained during reoperation between the 2 preoperative imaging groups

  4. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP

  5. Long-term Oncologic Outcome Following Preoperative Combined Modality Therapy and Total Mesorectal Excision of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guillem, Jose G.; Chessin, David B.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Shia, Jinru; Mazumdar, Madhu; Enker, Warren; Paty, Philip B.; Weiser, Martin R.; Klimstra, David; Saltz, Leonard; Minsky, Bruce D.; Wong, W Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our aims were to (1) determine the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative combined modality therapy (CMT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME), (2) identify factors predictive of oncologic outcome, and (3) determine the oncologic significance of the extent of pathologic tumor response. Summary Background Data: Locally advanced (T3–4 and/or N1) rectal adenocarcinoma is commonly treated with preoperative CMT and TME. However, the long-term oncologic results of this approach and factors predictive of a durable outcome remain largely unknown. Methods: Two hundred ninety-seven consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma at a median distance of 6cm from the anal verge (range 0–15 cm) were treated with preoperative CMT (radiation: 5040 centi-Gray (cGy) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy) followed by TME from 1988 to 2002. A prospectively collected database was queried for long-term oncologic outcome and predictive clinicopathologic factors. Results: With a median follow-up of 44 months, the estimated 10-year overall survival (OS) was 58% and 10 year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 62%. On multivariate analysis, pathologic response >95%, lymphovascular invasion and/or perineural invasion (PNI), and positive lymph nodes were significantly associated with OS and RFS. Patients with a >95% pathologic response had a significantly improved OS (P = 0.003) and RFS (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer with preoperative CMT followed by TME can provide for a durable 10-year OS of 58% and RFS of 62%. Patients who achieve a >95% response to preoperative CMT have an improved long-term oncologic outcome, a novel finding that deserves further study. PMID:15849519

  6. Combined modality therapy for HIV-infected patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: Outcomes and toxicities

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, Scott . E-mail: scotte@radonc.emory.org; Johnstone, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We report toxicity and survival data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men with anal carcinoma treated with combined modality therapy (CMT) of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on the records of 17 HIV-positive patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma treated with CMT at our institution between 1991 and 2004. Radiotherapy consisted of 30.6 to 45 Gy to the pelvis, total dose of 50.4 to 59.4 Gy to initial gross disease, at 1.8 Gy/fraction. Chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil and either mitomycin C or cisplatin. The mean follow-up was 25.6 months (median, 15.6 months; range, 4.6-106 months). Results: Significant acute skin and hematologic toxicity developed in 8 of 17 and 9 of 17 patients, respectively. One patient died 12 days after treatment of progressive disease and sepsis. Significant late toxic sequelae developed in 3 patients: 1 anorectal ulcer, 2 dermatologic (perianal ulceration, hemorrhagic perineal sores and suspected fissure). Fourteen of 15 patients with Stage I-III disease had a complete response; 2 complete responders subsequently had a relapse in the anorectum. For all patients, actuarial 18-month survival was 67%. For patients with Stage I-III disease, survival at last follow-up by low CD4 count (<200) vs. high count (>200) was 4 of 7 vs. 7 of 8, respectively; significant acute toxicities developed in 4 of 8 vs. 6 of 9, respectively. Conclusion: For HIV patients with anal carcinoma, CMT yields reasonable local control with significant acute complications. Survival is lower than in the general population, attributable more to the underlying infection than to the malignancy.

  7. Patterns of Failure After Combined-Modality Approaches Incorporating Radiotherapy for Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Daly, Megan E.; El-Sayed, Ivan; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.; Bucci, M. Kara; Kaplan, Michael J.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with combined-modality approaches for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 21 patients with SNUC treated with curative intent at University of California, San Francisco between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed. Patient age ranged from 33 to 71 years (median, 47 years). Primary tumor sites included the nasal cavity (11 patients), maxillary sinus (5 patients), and ethmoid sinus (5 patients). All patients had T3 (4 patients) or T4 (17 patients) tumors. Local-regional treatment included surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for 17 patients; neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for 2 patients; and definitive chemoradiotherapy for 2 patients. Median follow-up among surviving patients was 58 months (range, 12-70 months). Results: The 2- and 5-year estimates of local control were 60% and 56%, respectively. There was no difference in local control according to initial treatment approach, but among the 19 patients who underwent surgery the 5-year local control rate was 74% for those with gross tumor resection, compared with 24% for those with subtotal tumor resection (p = 0.001). The 5-year rates of overall and distant metastasis-free survival were 43% and 64%, respectively. Late complications included cataracts (2 patients), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and sino-cutaneous fistula (1 patient). Conclusion: The suboptimal outcomes suggest a need for more effective therapies. Gross total resection should be the goal of all treatments whenever possible.

  8. A Prospective Pathologic Analysis Using Whole-Mount Sections of Rectal Cancer Following Preoperative Combined Modality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guillem, Jose G.; Chessin, David B.; Shia, Jinru; Suriawinata, Arief; Riedel, Elyn; Moore, Harvey G.; Minsky, Bruce D.; Wong, W Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to use a comprehensive whole-mount pathologic analysis to characterize microscopic patterns of residual disease, as well as circumferential and distal resection margins, in rectal cancer treated with preoperative CMT; and to identify clinicopathologic factors associated with residual disease. Summary Background Data: Recent studies have shown that preoperative combined modality therapy (CMT) for rectal cancer enhances rates of sphincter preservation. However, the efficacy of preoperative CMT in conjunction with a total mesorectal excision (TME)-based resection, in terms of resection margins using whole-mount sections, has not been reported. Furthermore, since patterns of residual disease and extent of distal spread following preoperative CMT are largely unknown, intraoperative determination of distal rectal transection remains a surgical challenge. Methods: We prospectively accrued 109 patients with endorectal ultrasound (ERUS)-staged, locally advanced rectal cancer (T2–T4 and/or N1), located a median distance of 7 cm from the anal verge, requiring preoperative CMT, and undergoing a TME-based resection. Comprehensive whole-mount pathologic analysis was performed, with particular emphasis on extent of residual disease, margin status, and intramural tumor extension. Clinicopathologic factors associated with residual disease were identified. Results: A sphincter-preserving resection was feasible in 87 patients (80%), and in all 109 patients, distal margins were negative (median, 2.1 cm; range, 0.4–10 cm). Intramural extension beyond the gross mucosal edge of residual tumor was observed in only 2 patients (1.8%), both ≤0.95 cm. There were no positive circumferential margins (median, 10 mm; range, 1–28 mm), although 6 were less than or equal to 1 mm. On multivariate analysis, residual disease was observed more frequently in distally located tumors (distance from anal verge <5 cm) (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Our comprehensive

  9. Combining Passive Polarimetric and Lidar Observations from TCAP to Vertically Partition a Multi-Modal Aerosol Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, B.; Ottaviani, M.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Chowdhary, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Mack, T. L.; Hare, R. J.; Cleckner, C. S.; Rogers, R.; Mueller, D.; Burton, S. P.; Obland, M. D.; Scarino, A. J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    The first airborne deployment associated with the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign was carried out on Cape Cod, Massachusetts during July 2012 using the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) and the NASA Langley B200. The first column located on Cape Cod has the surface based ARM Mobile Facility, which measures aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics, as its anchor point. The second column, 200 km to the East, was chosen to facilitate characterization of the large gradient of AOD near the coast of New England. The G-1 was equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to measure the size, composition and optics of aerosols, together with spectral Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) above the aircraft using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research. The G1 generally flew at low altitude except when profiling the two columns. The B200, flew at ~ 9 km, above the G1, and operated the world's first airborne three backscatter (355, 532 and 1064 nm) and two extinction (355 and 532 nm) channel high-spectral-resolution lidar, HSRL-2 and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which provides multi-angle multi-spectral observations of the intensity and polarization over a spectral range from 410 to 2260 nm. The TCAP measurements are ideal for remote sensing of aerosols since a dark ocean allows the full power of the passive intensity and polarization observations to be explored. RSP observations over the ocean have previously been used to retrieve the AOD, particle size and complex refractive index of aerosols, but it was noted that the vertical distribution of the aerosols could affect the accuracy of the retrieval. In this paper we combine HSRL-2 and RSP data to retrieve and partition a multi-modal aerosol model through the column. The lidar intensive variables (ratios of the lidar observations) that do not depend on aerosol load are used to constrain the microphysics of the aerosol modes. Where the classification technique presented

  10. Clinical feasibility study of combined optoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging modality providing coregistered functional and anatomical maps of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Herzog, Don; Clingman, Bryan; Miller, Tom; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; McCorvey, B. Michelle; Otto, Pamela; Ermilov, Sergey; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, Andre; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional optoacoustic imaging with a hand-held probe operated in backward mode is being developed for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer to evaluate the feasibility of a dual-modality optoacoustic plus ultrasonic system that maps functional information of anatomical tissue structures with ultrasonic resolution. Tissue is illuminated at 757nm and 1064nm for optical contrast between hypoxic blood of breast carcinomas and normally oxygenated blood in benign masses. The system is optimized and calibrated in phantoms for a pilot clinical study of patients with breast masses suspected for malignancy. Capability of the non-invasive system to improve detection and diagnosis of breast tumors is discussed.

  11. Gold nanoshelled liquid perfluorocarbon nanocapsules for combined dual modal ultrasound/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hengte; Yue, Xiuli; Wang, Jinrui; Xing, Sen; Zhang, Qian; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Shumin; Jin, Yushen

    2014-03-26

    The integration of multimodal contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging and therapeutic capabilities could utilize imaging guided therapy to plan the treatment strategy based on the diagnostic results and to guide/monitor the therapeutic procedures. Herein, gold nanoshelled perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) nanocapsules with PEGylation (PGsP NCs) are constructed by oil-in-water emulsion method to form polymeric PFOB nanocapsules, followed by the formation of PEGylated gold nanoshell on the surface. PGsP NCs could not only provide excellent contrast enhancement for dual modal ultrasound and CT imaging in vitro and in vivo, but also serve as efficient photoabsorbers for photothermal ablation of tumors on xenografted nude mouse model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of gold nanoshell serving as both CT contrast agents and photoabsorbers for photothermal therapy. The novel multifunctional nanomedicine would be of great value to offer more comprehensive diagnostic information to guide more accurate and effective cancer therapy. PMID:24500926

  12. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  13. Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes treated with combined-modality therapy: The importance of radiation field selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Lightsey, Judith; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of a consistent treatment approach with electron beam postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive nodes treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: TSixty-three breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes were treated with combined-modality therapy using an electron beam en face technique for PMRT at University of Florida. Patterns of recurrence were studied for correlation with radiation fields. Potential clinical and treatment variables were tested for possible association with local-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: TAt 5, 10, and 15 years, OS rates were 57%, 36%, and 27%, respectively; DFS rates were 46%, 37%, and 34%; and LRC rates were 87%, 87%, and 87%. No clinical or treatment variables were associated with OS or DFS. The use of supplemental axillary radiation (SART) (p = 0.012) and pathologic N stage (p = 0.053) were associated with improved LRC. Patients who received SART had a higher rate of LRC than those who did not. Moderate to severe arm edema developed in 17% of patients receiving SART compared with 7% in patients not treated with SART (p = 0.28). Conclusions: TA substantial percentage of patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes survive breast cancer. The 10-year overall survival in these patients was 36%. The addition of SART was associated with better LRC.

  14. Reduction of dangerously aggressive behavior in a severely retarded resident through a combination of positive reinforcement procedures1

    PubMed Central

    Vukelich, Ron; Hake, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A severely retarded resident was released from a timeout chair only occasionally for brief periods of time. Under the timeout contingency alone, the subject made a choke response within minutes of being released. Attention, such as hugs, smiles, and candy was then increased, first by providing it non-contingently and continuously as long as there were no aggressive responses and then, by making it contingent upon incompatible responses. Under conditions of timeout plus increased attention, choking decreased aburptly. Grabbing responses, which increased when choking was reduced, were also reduced under conditions of timeout plus attention. Unrestrained time was gradually increased and all extra attention, i.e., more scheduled attention than provided other residents, was gradually withdrawn. When the resident was unrestrained all day and all extra attention was withdrawn, grabs and, to a lesser extent, chokes increased. Both were again reduced to a manageable level by scheduling several brief periods of attention each day. Hence, the program resulted in quick reductions that endured when the program was largely withdrawn. The changes in aggressive responding as a function of the presence and absence of extra attention suggest the importance of extra “positive reinforcement” in programs based upon positive reinforcement procedures and dealing with retarded residents for whom positive reinforcers may be scarce. PMID:16795297

  15. Reduction of dangerously aggressive behavior in a severely retarded resident through a combination of positive reinforcement procedures.

    PubMed

    Vukelich, R; Hake, D F

    1971-01-01

    A severely retarded resident was released from a timeout chair only occasionally for brief periods of time. Under the timeout contingency alone, the subject made a choke response within minutes of being released. Attention, such as hugs, smiles, and candy was then increased, first by providing it non-contingently and continuously as long as there were no aggressive responses and then, by making it contingent upon incompatible responses. Under conditions of timeout plus increased attention, choking decreased aburptly. Grabbing responses, which increased when choking was reduced, were also reduced under conditions of timeout plus attention. Unrestrained time was gradually increased and all extra attention, i.e., more scheduled attention than provided other residents, was gradually withdrawn. When the resident was unrestrained all day and all extra attention was withdrawn, grabs and, to a lesser extent, chokes increased. Both were again reduced to a manageable level by scheduling several brief periods of attention each day. Hence, the program resulted in quick reductions that endured when the program was largely withdrawn. The changes in aggressive responding as a function of the presence and absence of extra attention suggest the importance of extra "positive reinforcement" in programs based upon positive reinforcement procedures and dealing with retarded residents for whom positive reinforcers may be scarce.

  16. Dual-Modality Imaging of the Human Finger Joint Systems by Using Combined Multispectral Photoacoustic Computed Tomography and Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yubin; Wang, Yating

    2016-01-01

    We developed a homemade dual-modality imaging system that combines multispectral photoacoustic computed tomography and ultrasound computed tomography for reconstructing the structural and functional information of human finger joint systems. The fused multispectral photoacoustic-ultrasound computed tomography (MPAUCT) system was examined by the phantom and in vivo experimental tests. The imaging results indicate that the hard tissues such as the bones and the soft tissues including the blood vessels, the tendon, the skins, and the subcutaneous tissues in the finger joints systems can be effectively recovered by using our multimodality MPAUCT system. The developed MPAUCT system is able to provide us with more comprehensive information of the human finger joints, which shows its potential for characterization and diagnosis of bone or joint diseases. PMID:27774453

  17. Combined Neuroprotective Modalities Coupled with Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study of Caffeinol and Mild Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Hallevi, Hen; Shaltoni, Hashem; Barreto, Andrew D.; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Aronowski, Jarek; Savitz, Sean I.; Grotta, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Both caffeinol and hypothermia are neuroprotective in preclinical models of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We tested whether combining caffeinol and hypothermia with t-PA in acute stroke patients is safe and feasible. Methods 20 patients with acute ischemic stroke were treated with caffeinol (caffeine 8-9 mg/kg + ethanol 0.4g/kg IV X 2 hours, started by 4 hrs after symptom onset) and hypothermia (started by 5 hrs and continued for 24 hrs (target temp 33-35°C) followed by 12 hrs of rewarming). IV t-PA was given to eligible patients. Meperidine and buspirone were used to suppress shivering. Results All patients received caffeinol, and most reached target blood levels. Cooling was attempted in 18 patients via endovascular (n=8) or surface (n=10) approaches. Two patients were not cooled due to catheter or machine failure. Thirteen patients reached target temperature; average time from symptom onset was 9hrs, 43min. The last 5 hypothermia patients received surface cooling with iced saline induction and larger doses of meperidine; all patients reached target temperature, on average within 2hrs 30min from induction and 6hrs 21min from symptom onset. Three patients died: one from symptomatic hemorrhage, one from malignant cerebral edema, and one from unrelated medical complications. No adverse events were attributed to caffeinol. One patient had reduced respiratory drive due to meperidine, requiring BiPAP. Discussion Combining caffeinol with hypothermia in acute stroke patients given IV t-PA is feasible. A prospective placebo-controlled randomized study is needed to further assess safety and to test the efficacy of caffeinol, hypothermia or both. PMID:19251183

  18. [Modality of combined methods of quantitative and qualitative research in evaluation of therapeutic effects of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-ping

    2011-05-01

    The core of evidence-based medicine lies in implementing the current best available evidence of clinical research to direct the decision making in clinical practice, incorporation of individual experience and value and preference of patients. However, the current evaluation method for clinical therapeutic effect cannot reflect the humanity and wholesomeness as well as individualized tailored treatment of Chinese medicine (CM) by using randomized controlled trials. This assay addressed the complex intervention of highly individualized treatment of CM and its societal characteristics, and the author proposes a model for the evaluation of therapeutic effects of CM in which quantitative and qualitative methods are combined, embodying the characteristics of the social and natural sciences in CM. The model can show the dynamic process of CM diagnosis and treatment from a perspective of the whole system and can be used for the evaluation of complex intervention of CM. We hope to raise a different thinking and method from the new drug development in the therapeutic effect evaluation.

  19. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; Zaiden, Robert; Slayton, William; Sandler, Eric; Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W.; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes

  20. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  1. Dose-intensified chemotherapy alone or in combination with mogamulizumab in newly diagnosed aggressive adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma: a randomized phase II study.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takashi; Jo, Tatsuro; Takemoto, Shigeki; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Uike, Naokuni; Saburi, Yoshio; Nosaka, Kisato; Utsunomiya, Atae; Tobinai, Kensei; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Taira, Naoya; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Imada, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akinaga, Shiro; Tomonaga, Masao; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2015-06-01

    This multicentre, randomized, phase II study was conducted to examine whether the addition of mogamulizumab, a humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibody, to mLSG15, a dose-intensified chemotherapy, further increases efficacy without compromising safety of patients with newly diagnosed aggressive adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATL). Patients were assigned 1:1 to receive mLSG15 plus mogamulizumab or mLSG15 alone. The primary endpoint was the complete response rate (%CR); secondary endpoints included the overall response rate (ORR) and safety. The %CR and ORR in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm (n = 29) were 52% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33-71%] and 86%, respectively; the corresponding values in the mLSG15 arm (n = 24) were 33% (95% CI, 16-55%) and 75%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events, including anaemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, leucopenia and decreased appetite, were observed more frequently (≥10% difference) in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm. Several adverse events, including skin disorders, cytomegalovirus infection, pyrexia, hyperglycaemia and interstitial lung disease, were observed only in the mLSG15-plus-mogamulizumab arm. Although the combination strategy showed a potentially less favourable safety profile, a higher %CR was achieved, providing the basis for further investigation of this novel treatment for newly diagnosed aggressive ATL. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01173887. PMID:25733162

  2. Targeting of tumor endothelial cells combining 2 Gy/day of X-ray with Everolimus is the effective modality for overcoming clinically relevant radioresistant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Mori, Miyuki; Kitahara, Shuji; Fukumoto, Motoi; Ezaki, Taichi; Mori, Shiro; Echigo, Seishi; Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used to treat cancer because it has the advantage of physically and functionally conserving the affected organ. To improve radiotherapy and investigate the molecular mechanisms of cellular radioresistance, we established a clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cell line, SAS-R, from SAS cells. SAS-R cells continue to proliferate when exposed to fractionated radiation (FR) of 2 Gy/day for more than 30 days in vitro. A xenograft tumor model of SAS-R was also resistant to 2 Gy/day of X-rays for 30 days. The density of blood vessels in SAS-R tumors was higher than in SAS tumors. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, sensitized microvascular endothelial cells to radiation, but failed to radiosensitize SAS and SAS-R cells in vitro. Everolimus with FR markedly reduced SAS and SAS-R tumor volumes. Additionally, the apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) increased in SAS-R tumor tissues when both Everolimus and radiation were administered. Both CD34-positive and tomato lectin-positive blood vessel densities in SAS-R tumor tissues decreased remarkably after the Everolimus and radiation treatment. Everolimus-induced apoptosis of vascular ECs in response to radiation was also followed by thrombus formation that leads to tumor necrosis. We conclude that FR combined with Everolimus may be an effective modality to overcome radioresistant tumors via targeting tumor ECs. PMID:24464839

  3. Targeting of tumor endothelial cells combining 2 Gy/day of X-ray with Everolimus is the effective modality for overcoming clinically relevant radioresistant tumors.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Mori, Miyuki; Kitahara, Shuji; Fukumoto, Motoi; Ezaki, Taichi; Mori, Shiro; Echigo, Seishi; Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used to treat cancer because it has the advantage of physically and functionally conserving the affected organ. To improve radiotherapy and investigate the molecular mechanisms of cellular radioresistance, we established a clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cell line, SAS-R, from SAS cells. SAS-R cells continue to proliferate when exposed to fractionated radiation (FR) of 2 Gy/day for more than 30 days in vitro. A xenograft tumor model of SAS-R was also resistant to 2 Gy/day of X-rays for 30 days. The density of blood vessels in SAS-R tumors was higher than in SAS tumors. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, sensitized microvascular endothelial cells to radiation, but failed to radiosensitize SAS and SAS-R cells in vitro. Everolimus with FR markedly reduced SAS and SAS-R tumor volumes. Additionally, the apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) increased in SAS-R tumor tissues when both Everolimus and radiation were administered. Both CD34-positive and tomato lectin-positive blood vessel densities in SAS-R tumor tissues decreased remarkably after the Everolimus and radiation treatment. Everolimus-induced apoptosis of vascular ECs in response to radiation was also followed by thrombus formation that leads to tumor necrosis. We conclude that FR combined with Everolimus may be an effective modality to overcome radioresistant tumors via targeting tumor ECs. PMID:24464839

  4. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  5. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  6. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X. X.; Li, C. L.; Xiong, C. B.

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  7. Interval to Biochemical Failure Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated by Combined-Modality Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shilkrut, Mark; McLaughlin, P. William; Merrick, Gregory S.; Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To validate the prognostic value of interval to biochemical failure (IBF) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (HiRPCa) treated with combined-modality radiation therapy (CMRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of HiRPCa (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, Gleason score [GS] 8-10, or clinical T stage T3-T4) treated with either dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or CMRT. Interval to biochemical failure was classified as ≤18 or >18 months from the end of all therapy to the date of biochemical failure (BF). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the prognostic value of IBF ≤18 months for distant metastasis (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: Of 958 patients with a median follow-up of 63.2 months, 175 patients experienced BF. In those with BF, there were no differences in pretreatment clinical characteristics between the EBRT and CMRT groups, except for a higher proportion of patients with GS 8-10 in the CMRT group (70% vs 52%, P=.02). Median IBF after all therapy was 24.0 months (interquartile range 9.6-46.0) in the EBRT group and 18.9 months (interquartile range 9.2-34.5) in the CMRT group (P=.055). On univariate analysis, IBF ≤18 months was associated with increased risk of DM and PCSM in the entire cohort and the individual EBRT and CMRT groups. On multivariate analysis, only GS 9-10 and IBF ≤18 months, but not the radiation therapy regimen or ADT use, predicted DM (hazard ratio [HR] 3.7, P<.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-10.3 for GS 9-10; HR 3.9, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-6.5 for IBF ≤18 months) and PCSM (HR 14.8, P<.009, 95% CI 2.0-110 for GS 9-10; HR 4.4, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-8.1 for IBF ≤18 months). Conclusions: Short IBF was highly prognostic for higher DM and PCSM in patients with HiRPCa. The prognostic value of IBF for DM and PCSM was not affected by the radiation

  8. Neural Correlates of Aggression in Medication-Naive Children with ADHD: Multivariate Analysis of Morphometry and Tractography.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Siciliano, Francesco; Biezonski, Dominik; Greenhill, Laurence; Pliszka, Steven R; Blader, Joseph C; Roy, Amy Krain; Leibenluft, Ellen; Posner, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is widely observed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been frequently linked to frustration or the unsatisfied anticipation of reward. Although animal studies and human functional neuroimaging implicate altered reward processing in aggressive behaviors, no previous studies have documented the relationship between fronto-accumbal circuitry-a critical cortical pathway to subcortical limbic regions-and aggression in medication-naive children with ADHD. To address this, we collected behavioral measures and parental reports of aggression and impulsivity, as well as structural and diffusion MRI, from 30 children with ADHD and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age, 10±2.1 SD). Using grey matter morphometry and probabilistic tractography combined with multivariate statistical modeling (partial least squares regression and support vector regression), we identified anomalies within the fronto-accumbal circuit in childhood ADHD, which were associated with increased aggression. More specifically, children with ADHD showed reduced right accumbal volumes and frontal-accumbal white matter connectivity compared with HC. The magnitude of the accumbal volume reductions within the ADHD group was significantly correlated with increased aggression, an effect mediated by the relationship between the accumbal volume and impulsivity. Furthermore, aggression, but not impulsivity, was significantly explained by multivariate measures of fronto-accumbal white matter connectivity and cortical thickness within the orbitofrontal cortex. Our multi-modal imaging, combined with multivariate statistical modeling, indicates that the fronto-accumbal circuit is an important substrate of aggression in children with ADHD. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at probing the fronto-accumbal circuit may be beneficial for the treatment of aggressive behaviors in childhood ADHD.

  9. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  10. Longitudinal Associations of Electronic Aggression and Victimization with Social Standing during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Dabney-Lieras, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Prior empirical work has documented that the dynamics of social standing can play a critical role in the perpetration and receipt of aggression during adolescence. Recently, investigators have emphasized the emergence of new, electronic modalities for aggressive acts. Our longitudinal project therefore considered electronic forms of aggression and…

  11. Combined multi-modal photoacoustic tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography system with an articulated probe for in vivo human skin structure and vasculature imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Chen, Zhe; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sinz, Christoph; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul C.; Ginner, Laurin; Hoover, Erich; Minneman, Micheal P.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Kittler, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous blood flow accounts for approximately 5% of cardiac output in human and plays a key role in a number of a physiological and pathological processes. We show for the first time a multi-modal photoacoustic tomography (PAT), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography system with an articulated probe to extract human cutaneous vasculature in vivo in various skin regions. OCT angiography supplements the microvasculature which PAT alone is unable to provide. Co-registered volumes for vessel network is further embedded in the morphologic image provided by OCT. This multi-modal system is therefore demonstrated as a valuable tool for comprehensive non-invasive human skin vasculature and morphology imaging in vivo.

  12. Combined multi-modal photoacoustic tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography system with an articulated probe for in vivo human skin structure and vasculature imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Chen, Zhe; Zabihian, Behrooz; Sinz, Christoph; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul C.; Ginner, Laurin; Hoover, Erich; Minneman, Micheal P.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Kittler, Harald; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous blood flow accounts for approximately 5% of cardiac output in human and plays a key role in a number of a physiological and pathological processes. We show for the first time a multi-modal photoacoustic tomography (PAT), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography system with an articulated probe to extract human cutaneous vasculature in vivo in various skin regions. OCT angiography supplements the microvasculature which PAT alone is unable to provide. Co-registered volumes for vessel network is further embedded in the morphologic image provided by OCT. This multi-modal system is therefore demonstrated as a valuable tool for comprehensive non-invasive human skin vasculature and morphology imaging in vivo. PMID:27699106

  13. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  14. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jain, Amit; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management. PMID:24104705

  15. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  16. An investigation of developmental changes in interpretation and construction of graphic AAC symbol sequences through systematic combination of input and output modalities.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann; Morford, Jill P

    2014-09-01

    While research on spoken language has a long tradition of studying and contrasting language production and comprehension, the study of graphic symbol communication has focused more on production than comprehension. As a result, the relationships between the ability to construct and to interpret graphic symbol sequences are not well understood. This study explored the use of graphic symbol sequences in children without disabilities aged 3;0 to 6;11 (years; months) (n=111). Children took part in nine tasks that systematically varied input and output modalities (speech, action, and graphic symbols). Results show that in 3- and 4-year-olds, attributing meaning to a sequence of symbols was particularly difficult even when the children knew the meaning of each symbol in the sequence. Similarly, while even 3- and 4-year-olds could produce a graphic symbol sequence following a model, transposing a spoken sentence into a graphic sequence was more difficult for them. Representing an action with graphic symbols was difficult even for 5-year-olds. Finally, the ability to comprehend graphic-symbol sequences preceded the ability to produce them. These developmental patterns, as well as memory-related variables, should be taken into account in choosing intervention strategies with young children who use AAC.

  17. Rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging guided enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinping; Guo, Fang; Yu, Meng; Liu, Li; Tan, Fengping; Yan, Ran; Li, Nan

    2016-09-10

    Imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) has promising application for treating tumors. Nevertheless, so far imaging-guided photothermal drug-delivery systems have been developed with limited success for tumor chemo-photothermal therapy. In this study, as the proof-of-concept, a stimuli-responsive tumor-targeting rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticle (RDLPNP) for dual-modal imaging-guided enhanced PTT efficacy is reported for the first time. In this system, polyaniline (PANI) with π-π electronic conjugated system and effective photothermal efficiency is chosen as the appropriate model receptor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and loaded cyanine probe (e.g., 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) acts as the donor of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, rapamycin (RAPA), which is used as the antiangiogenesis chemotherapeutic drug, can cutdown the tumor vessels and delay tumor growth obviously. After intravenous treatment of RDLPNPs into Hela tumor bearing mice, fluorescent (from DiR) and enhanced photoacoustic (from DLPNPs) signals were found in tumor site over time, which reached to peak at the 6h time point. After irradiating with an NIR laser, a good anti-tumor effect was observed owing to the enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic effect of RDLPNPs. These results show that the multifunctional nanoparticle can be used as a promising imaging-guided photothermal drug delivery nanoplatform for cancer therapy.

  18. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for improving the modal modeling of structures using test data and to determine appropriate analytical models based on substructure experimental data were explored. Two related research topics were considered in modal modeling: using several independently acquired columns of frequency response data, and modal modeling using simultaneous multi-point excitation. In component mode synthesis modeling, the emphasis is on determining the best way to employ complex modes and residuals.

  19. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the modal test of the 110-m-tall EOLE wind turbine. Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low /emdash/ some below 1.0 Hz. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure.

  20. Modal testing the EOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Modal testing an immense and flexible wind turbine poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of this type of structure are quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, the results of the modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine are presented which had a number of modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  2. Backbiting and bloodshed in books: short-term effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-03-01

    The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature.

  3. Roots of Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Aynat

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the interplay of grammar and context in the interpretation of modal words like "ought," "necessary," and "need." The empirical foci of the discussion are patterns in the use of strong and weak necessity modals in conversation, and the interpretation of syntactically and semantically…

  4. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  5. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Sibel; Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient's walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport(®)) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  6. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient’s walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport®) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  7. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  8. A combined modality therapeutic approach to metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma with systemic chemotherapy and local therapy to sites of disease: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Graham W.; Okun, Sherry; Peterson, Lindsay L.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of metastatic anal carcinoma managed with a combination of systemic chemotherapy and local therapies to both solitary sites of metastases and the primary site have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma to the liver treated with induction chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) followed by liver resection and radiation to the anal primary with concurrent 5FU and mitomycin. This approach resulted in control of disease without evidence of recurrence, and no increased toxicities now 19 months from initial diagnosis to time of reporting. This novel approach resulted in a good treatment response as documented by imaging and symptom improvement and a long disease free interval. PMID:27284490

  9. Dual-modality imaging demonstrates the enhanced antitumoral effect of herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir plus gemcitabine combination therapy on cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIANFENG; LI, ANG; JIN, MEI; ZHANG, FAN; LI, XIAOLING

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-TK/GCV) therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, which is the second most common hepatobiliary cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enhanced therapeutic effects of HSV-TK/GCV with gemcitabine on cholangiocarcinoma. QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cells and mouse models of cholangiocarcinoma (established via tumor xenografts) received one of the following treatments: i) Gemcitabine therapy (3 µg/ml); ii) HSV-TK/GCV monotherapy; iii) HSV-TK/GCV + gemcitabine; and iv) control group, treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Cell proliferation was quantified using MTT assay and post-treatment tumor alterations were monitored using ultrasound imaging and optical imaging. For the in vitro experiments, the MTT assays demonstrated that the relative cell viabilities in the gene therapy, gemcitabine and gemcitabine + gene groups were 70.37±9.07, 52.64±8.28 and 34.21±6.63%, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, optical imaging indicated significantly decreased optical signals in the combination therapy group, as compared with the gemcitabine and gemcitabine + gene groups (1.68±0.74 vs. 2.27±0.58 and 2.87±0.82, respectively; Р<0.05). As demonstrated by ultrasound imaging, reduced tumor volumes were detected in the combination therapy group, as compared with the three control groups (114.32±17.17 vs. 159±23.74, 201.63±19.26 and 298.23±36.1 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrated that gemcitabine enhances the antitumoral effects of HSV-TK/GCV on cholangiocarcinoma, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the management and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma using gemcitabine and gene therapy. PMID:27347037

  10. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  11. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  12. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  13. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  14. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  15. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  16. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression.

  17. Learning Modalities and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    Designers, teachers and administrators intuitively know that different students learn differently, but they rarely intentionally create learning environments for specific learning modalities--especially within traditionally academic spaces. The REFP workshop presented in September of 2009 at the CEFPI Annual World Conference and Expo provided…

  18. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  19. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293

  20. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  1. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  2. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The major accomplishments of this research are: (1) the refinement and documentation of a multi-input, multi-output modal parameter estimation algorithm which is applicable to general linear, time-invariant dynamic systems; (2) the development and testing of an unsymmetric block-Lanzcos algorithm for reduced-order modeling of linear systems with arbitrary damping; and (3) the development of a control-structure-interaction (CSI) test facility.

  3. Digital multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, M.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A review of several modal testing techniques is made, along with brief discussions of their advantages and limitations. A new technique is presented which overcomes many of the previous limitations. Several simulated experiments are included to verify the validity and accuracy of the new method. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation studies and recommendations for further work are presented. The complete computer code configured for the simulation study is presented.

  4. Energy-based modalities.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2007-06-01

    Research on touch therapies is still in the early stages of development. Studies of Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki are quite promising; however, at this point, they can only suggest that these healing modalities have efficacy in reducing anxiety; improving muscle relaxation; aiding in stress reduction, relaxation, and sense of well-being; promoting wound healing; and reducing pain. The multidimensional aspects of healing inherent in patient care continue to be expanded and facilitated by our understanding and application of energy therapies.

  5. Modal Mineralogy of Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S. T.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    Consortium (data available at web.utk.edu/~pgi/data.html). Without calibration our results differ (though by < 10 % relative) from those of the LSCC. Discrepancies may stem from the uncertainties in assigning a pixel to a specific mineral in the SEM point counting approach, not completely randomized orientations of the mineral grains during analysis by Terra, or shock effects in minerals not being taken into account by the Reitveld method. Data for 30 soils from the Apollo 16 site show that on a glass-free basis plagioclase ranges from 78 to 94 wt%, with the sites on the Descartes Mountains (Stations 4, 11, and 13) tending to contain more plagioclase, consistent with previous conclusions that the Descartes highlands are more feldspathic than the Cayley Plains. The relative abundance among mafic silicates varies throughout the site, although the small abundance of the mafic components leads to uncertainty in the Reitveld analysis. Particularly interesting for using the combination of remote sensing and sample measurements is the observation that modal plagioclase is systematically greater than normative plagioclase (normative/modal plagioclase is 0.83 to 0.95). A difference between modes and norms is not unusual, but this substantial difference indicates that the glass in the Apollo 16 regolith is more mafic than the crystalline material, consistent with the average composition of impact glass in Apollo 16 samples compared to bulk soils.

  6. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  7. Multivariate Chemical Image Fusion of Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging Modalities.

    PubMed

    Gowen, Aoife A; Dorrepaal, Ronan M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical image fusion refers to the combination of chemical images from different modalities for improved characterisation of a sample. Challenges associated with existing approaches include: difficulties with imaging the same sample area or having identical pixels across microscopic modalities, lack of prior knowledge of sample composition and lack of knowledge regarding correlation between modalities for a given sample. In addition, the multivariate structure of chemical images is often overlooked when fusion is carried out. We address these challenges by proposing a framework for multivariate chemical image fusion of vibrational spectroscopic imaging modalities, demonstrating the approach for image registration, fusion and resolution enhancement of chemical images obtained with IR and Raman microscopy. PMID:27384549

  8. Use of Modal Synthesis for Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Miloš; Chlebo, Ondrej

    2014-12-01

    A common occurrence in engineering practice is undesirable levels of vibration in the structures of machinery, which decrease their functionality, safety, reliability and service life. Current trends in the dynamic operation of machinery inherently generate such undesirable effects. That is to say, increasing the operational capacity of a machine (higher speeds, higher loads, more changes in operational regimes, etc...) is financially counterproductive to any desired savings in the material/technological realization of such structures. One possible approach to modify the dynamic properties of the structure is through modal synthesis. This approach combines the modal properties of the real structure obtained through measurements with the modal properties of additional components obtained computationally. This approach is particularly effective if the computational model of the built structure is incorrect.

  9. [Treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Moreno Nogueira, J A; Ruiz Borrego, M; Pérez Valderrama, B; Valero Azbiru, M

    2009-02-01

    Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) in localized stages I and II, without bulky areas and a fair International Prognostic Factor (IPI) (30% of all cases) have high possibilities of cure (80%) when treated with combined chemotherapy, CHOP or CHOP-like (3-4 courses) followed by locoregional radiation therapy. Localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with signs of poor prognosis or advanced stages (III and IV) must be treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy. As second line in responding patients (DHAP, ESHAP, MINE, VIM, DICE, etc., and rituximab) high doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic growth factor support should be considered, although not in refractory patients.

  10. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  11. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  12. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  13. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  14. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  15. Links of justice and rejection sensitivity with aggression in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25136820

  16. Links of justice and rejection sensitivity with aggression in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence.

  17. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases.

  18. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  19. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  20. Modal mineralogy of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Langevin, Yves; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-11-01

    The surface composition of Vesta is constrained using spectral data gathered by the visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer VIR onboard NASA/Dawn. To derive new constraints on the surface composition of this asteroid, we applied a scattering model to VIR reflectance spectra. This model was first successfully tested by properly reproducing the characteristics of several HED meteorites spectra. Abundance estimates of end-members in HEDs are accurate to within 15-25% for the analyzed samples, while the estimated particle sizes are within the intervals of actual sizes. The modeling technique was then applied to the VIR data to retrieve the modal mineralogy of selected terrains of Vesta. Major expected minerals (Low-Calcium Pyroxene, High-Calcium Pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine) can provide satisfactory fits with overall residuals ≤1%. The modal mineralogy of terrains exhibiting the strongest LCP signatures is well representative of those of diogenites. Modeling results demonstrate that coarse-grained olivine (a few hundred µm in size) is likely to be present in all major units of Vesta, with inferred abundance ranging from 10% to 20%. A bimodal distribution in grain size with relatively coarse grain for olivine and fine grains (typically smaller than 100 µm) for the other components is derived. This is similar to the lithologic size distribution of HEDs, in particular howardites containing olivine-bearing melt. In addition, there is a good agreement between the modal mineralogy of this type of HED and Vesta. The relatively uniform derived modal mineralogy of different units confirms that major homogenization occurred with time, possibly explaining the lack of specific olivine enrichment in Rheasilvia. This study provides strong support for the vestan origin of HEDs by clarifying the relationship between HEDs and the different geological units on Vesta. Howardites containing olivine-bearing melt, although rare in the HED collections, are the closest

  1. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  2. Multishaker modal testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A component mode synthesis method for damped structures was developed and modal test methods were explored which could be employed to determine the relevant parameters required by the component mode synthesis method. Research was conducted on the following topics: (1) Development of a generalized time-domain component mode synthesis technique for damped systems; (2) Development of a frequency-domain component mode synthesis method for damped systems; and (3) Development of a system identification algorithm applicable to general damped systems. Abstracts are presented of the major publications which have been previously issued on these topics.

  3. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  4. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  5. Evaluation of serum ceruloplasmin in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Harshavardhana, B.; Rath, S. K.; Mukherjee, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pro-inflammatory markers are seen to increase in inflammatory diseases like periodontitis. Detecting an increase in these markers is one of the diagnostic modality. One such marker, which can be detected, is the ceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin induces hypoxia and generates oxygen radicals at the site of aggressive periodontitis. It also causes a state of hypoferremia leading to increase in the natural resistance of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of cerruloplasmin in both aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from aggressive periodontitis patients (n = 20), chronic periodontitis patients (n = 20) and periodontally healthy patients (n = 20). The serum was extracted from all the blood samples and ceruloplasmin levels were spectroscopically evaluated through a new kinetic method, which used a norfloxacin based reagent. Results: Serum ceruloplasmin levels were found to be significantly higher in aggressive periodontitis patients (P > 0.05) than in chronic periodontitis patients (P > 0.05) even though increase in the level of ceruloplasmin was found in chronic periodontitis. Periodontally healthy patients did not show increase in the levels of serum ceruloplasmin. The levels of serum ceruloplasmin also increased with the disease severity whose manifestations were increased bleeding on probing, increased pocket depth and increased attachment loss. Conclusion: Serum ceruloplasmin levels increased in both aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients, but more in aggressive periodontitis patients making it a potential marker for diagnosis of periodontitis. PMID:24049334

  6. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  7. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  8. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  9. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  10. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  11. Implant Rehabilitation in Advanced Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasaeipour, Sasan; Siadat, Hakimeh; Rasouli, Amiralireza; Sajedinejadd, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have provided exceptional rehabilitative options for edentulous and partially edentulous patients. However, as more implants come into play, the more the clinicians come across problems where specific considerations must be taken into account to meet expectations. The Toronto Bridge is a treatment modality proposed for restoring several teeth lost in patients with increased crown height (interarch) space. Herein, we applied the Toronto Bridge to rehabilitate a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis; this article suggests that an implant-supported Toronto Bridge can be a reliable and acceptable treatment modality for patients suffering from tooth loss and vertical bone loss as the result of generalized aggressive periodontal disease. PMID:27123022

  12. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shalini; Sachdev, Ritesh; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-07-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer's ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  13. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL.

  14. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  15. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  16. Mimicry for all modalities.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry is a canonical example of adaptive signal design. In principle, what constitutes mimicry is independent of the taxonomic identity of the mimic, the ecological context in which it operates, and the sensory modality through which it is expressed. However, in practice the study of mimicry is inconsistent across research fields, with theoretical and empirical advances often failing to cross taxonomic and sensory divides. We propose a novel conceptual framework whereby mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result confers a selective benefit onto the mimic. Here, misidentification and/or deception are no longer formal requirements, and mimicry can evolve irrespective of the underlying proximate mechanisms. The centrality of receiver perception in this framework enables us to formally distinguish mimicry from perceptual exploitation and integrate mimicry and multicomponent signalling theory for the first time. In addition, it resolves inconsistencies in our understanding of the role of learning in mimicry evolution, and shows that imperfect mimicry is expected to be the norm. Mimicry remains a key model for understanding signal evolution and cognition, and we recommend the adoption of a unified approach to stimulate future interdisciplinary developments in this fascinating area of research. PMID:27117779

  17. Mimicry for all modalities.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry is a canonical example of adaptive signal design. In principle, what constitutes mimicry is independent of the taxonomic identity of the mimic, the ecological context in which it operates, and the sensory modality through which it is expressed. However, in practice the study of mimicry is inconsistent across research fields, with theoretical and empirical advances often failing to cross taxonomic and sensory divides. We propose a novel conceptual framework whereby mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result confers a selective benefit onto the mimic. Here, misidentification and/or deception are no longer formal requirements, and mimicry can evolve irrespective of the underlying proximate mechanisms. The centrality of receiver perception in this framework enables us to formally distinguish mimicry from perceptual exploitation and integrate mimicry and multicomponent signalling theory for the first time. In addition, it resolves inconsistencies in our understanding of the role of learning in mimicry evolution, and shows that imperfect mimicry is expected to be the norm. Mimicry remains a key model for understanding signal evolution and cognition, and we recommend the adoption of a unified approach to stimulate future interdisciplinary developments in this fascinating area of research.

  18. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  19. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  20. The role of sensory-motor modality compatibility in language processing.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Simone; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2016-03-01

    Language processing requires the combination of compatible (auditory-vocal and visual-manual) or incompatible (auditory-manual and visual-vocal) sensory-motor modalities, and switching between these sensory-motor modality combinations is very common in every-day life. Sensory-motor modality compatibility is defined as the similarity of stimulus modality and the modality of response-related sensory consequences. We investigated the influence of sensory-motor modality compatibility during performing language-related cognitive operations on different linguistic levels. More specifically, we used a variant of the task-switching paradigm, in which participants had to switch between compatible or between incompatible sensory-motor modality combinations during a verbal semantic categorization (Experiment 1) or during a word-form decision (Experiment 2). The data show higher switch costs (i.e., higher reaction times and error rates in switch trials compared to repetition trials) in incompatible sensory-motor modality combinations than in compatible sensory-motor modality combinations. This was true for every language-related cognitive operation, regardless of the individual linguistic level. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that sensory-motor modality compatibility plays an important role in modality switching during language processing.

  1. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  2. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  3. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  4. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G

    2008-01-01

    Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin

  5. Integrating Behavioral and Pharmacological Therapeutic Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Samuel F.

    1986-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures and associated anxiety are widely accepted as important deterents to optimal oral health. Such health care-related fears and anxieties are also common in many areas of medicine. For both medical and dental care a large body of psychologically derived therapeutic modalities have evolved. These methods have been shown to interact positively with pharmacological therapies also designed to help patients better tolerate medical and dental treatment. Despite these findings, behavioral interventions have not found widespread acceptance in medical and dental practice. A multidimensional model which emphasizes the simultaneous consideration of pharmacologic, psychologic, and clinical dental factors is suggested in order to arrive at therapeutic decisions. Further research could address more powerful behavioral modalities, safer pharmacologic methods, and behavioral and pharmacologic combinations which interact optimally for particular clinical conditions. PMID:3458386

  6. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  7. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  8. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.

  9. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  10. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  11. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  12. Executive Functioning, Irritability, and Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Godlaski, Aaron J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine: a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior. PMID:19769424

  13. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  14. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  15. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  17. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  18. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-02-18

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  19. Modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Nord, A.R.

    1982-11-01

    A testing technique has been developed to measure the modes of vibration of a rotating vertical-axis wind turbine. This technique has been applied to the Sandia Two-Meter Turbine, where the changes in individual modal frequencies as a function of the rotational speed have been tracked from 0 rpm (parked) to 600 rpm. During rotational testing, the structural response was measured using a combination of strain gages and accelerometers, passing the signals through slip rings. Excitation of the turbine structure was provided by a scheme which suddenly released a pretensioned cable, thus plucking the turbine as it was rotating at a set speed. In addition to calculating the real modes of the parked turbine, the modes of the rotating turbine were also determined at several rotational speeds. The modes of the rotating system proved to be complex due to centrifugal and Coriolis effects. The modal data for the parked turbine were used to update a finite-element model. Also, the measured modal parameters for the rotating turbine were compared to the analytical results, thus verifying the analytical procedures used to incorporate the effects of the rotating coordinate system.

  20. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  1. A modal capacity method for nonlinear dynamic analysis on transputer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhues, H.W.; Woerner, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    A new method to calculate the response of nonlinear behaving systems is described. The two fundamentals of the modal capacity method are the principle of a modal capacity method are the principle of a modal reduction on the one hand and the capacity design method on the other hand. The nonlinear behavior of systems can be expressed by nonlinear modes in combination with a new superposition method. The procedure can be used either for the design of systems [Nor95] or to derive existing systems similar to the ultimate load method [WSK91]. Because of the modal reduction of the modal capacity method transputer systems can be used in a very efficient way.

  2. Aggressive Extraocular Sebaceous Carcinoma Recurring after Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Konstantin V.; Leithauser, Laurel; Gloster, Hugh M.

    2015-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinomas (SC) are rare adnexal tumors with possible aggressive behavior usually arising in the head and neck region of adults in the seventh decade of life. Treatment has traditionally been with surgical excision with 5-6 mm wide margins but Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has also been reported as an effective treatment modality. We present a case of a Caucasian female renal transplant patient with a rapidly enlarging nodule on the left preauricular cheek that was excised with MMS with negative margins. The tumor recurred rapidly and metastasized ultimately leading to the death of the patient. There was some disagreement amongst pathologists as to the possible nature of the diagnosis with the original biopsy being labeled as a poorly differentiated carcinoma. We aim to highlight the potential aggressive nature of SC and review the features of the neoplasm including histological features that help in making the diagnosis. PMID:25685571

  3. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  4. The measurement of the modal strain fields using digital shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, H.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Vaz, M.; Gomes, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    This work presents a Michelson shearography interferometer configuration associated with stroboscopic double illumination technique for the measurement of modal rotation fields and their strain fields on a clamped circular aluminium plate. The speckle pattern is frozen by the synchronization between the LASER illumination and the modal vibration of the object. The quantitative evaluation is performed for each digital shearogram using a time modulation technique. The setup of double illumination LASER with out-of-plane opposite sensitivity allows the two phase maps measurement of the modal spatial gradient. The modal rotation and strain fields are extracted by the combination of this two digital phase maps. Image processing techniques are applied on the phase maps to obtain full-field measurements using a dedicated post-processing algorithm. Finally, is presented a comparison between the experimental measurement and the numerical solution.

  5. Modal identification of a rotating-blade system

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Ibrahim, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A new testing technique and the Ibrahim time domain (ITD) modal identification algorithm have been combined, resulting in a capability to estimate modal parameters for rotating blade systems. This capability has been evaluated on the Sandia two-meter, vertical-axis wind turbine. Variation in modal frequencies as a function of rotation speed has been experimentally determined from 0 rpm (parked) to 800 rpm. Excitation of the rotating turbine was provided by a scheme which suddenly released a pretensioned cable, thus plucking the turbine as it rotated. The structural response was obtained by passing the signals through slip rings. Using the measured free-decay responses as input for the ITD algorithm, the modes of the rotating turbine were determined at seven rotation speeds. The measured modal parameters were compared with analytical results obtained from a finite element analysis and with experimental results obtained from a complex exponential identification algorithm.

  6. Modal identification of a rotating-blade system

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Ibrahim, S.R.

    1983-04-01

    A new testing technique and the Ibrahim time-domain (ITD) modal identification algorithm have been combined, resulting in a capability to estimate modal parameters for rotating-blade systems. This capability has been evaluated on the Sandia two-meter, vertical-axis wind turbine. Variation in modal frequencies as a function of rotation speed has been experimentally determined from 0 rpm (parked) to 800 rpm. Excitation of the rotating turbine was provided by a scheme which suddenly released a pretensioned cable, thus plucking the turbine as it rotated. The structural response was obtained by passing the signals through slip rings. Using the measured free-decay responses as input data for the ITD algorithm, the modes of the rotating turbine were determined at seven rotation speeds. The measured modal parameters were compared with analytical results obtained from a finite element analysis and with experimental results obtained from a complex exponential identification algorithm.

  7. CM-2 Environmental / Modal Testing of Spacehab Racks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Farkas, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Combined environmental/modal vibration testing has been implemented at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Dynamics Laboratory. The benefits of combined vibration testing are that it facilitates test article modal characterization and vibration qualification testing. The Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) is a space experiment that launches on Shuttle mission STS 107 in the SPACEHAB Research Double Module. The CM-2 flight hardware is integrated into a SPACEHAB single and double rack. CM-2 rack level combined vibration testing was recently completed on a shaker table to characterize the structure's modal response and verify the random vibration response. Control accelerometers and limit force gauges, located between the fixture and rack interface, were used to verify the input excitation. Results of the testing were used to verify the loads and environments for flight on the Shuttle.

  8. Aggressive surgery for management of recurrent intraabdominal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roseman, J M; Minton, J P

    1983-06-01

    With the evolution of effective multimodality control of various tumors, the role of surgery for recurrent malignancies is emerging as significant factor in not only maintaining that control, but in permitting the possibility of late cure of certain, even advanced intraabdominal malignancies. Several patients with Stage IV colon or ovarian carcinoma were evaluated and found to benefit from such an aggressive surgical approach with the result of long term control as well as apparent clinical cure in the several instances. These possibilities are becoming increasingly significant as progress is made in the various treatment modalities for neoplastic diseases.

  9. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  10. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  11. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  12. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression.

  13. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression. PMID:19016226

  14. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  15. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  16. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  17. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.

    PubMed

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-11-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring

  18. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter

    PubMed Central

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word–referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS’s spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control’s range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS’s test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in

  19. Vocabulary acquisition in aphasia: Modality can matter.

    PubMed

    Tuomiranta, Leena; Grönroos, Ann-Mari; Martin, Nadine; Laine, Matti

    2014-11-01

    The present case study investigated modality-specific aspects of novel word acquisition in aphasia. It was prompted by recent aphasia case studies indicating great interindividual variability in the ability to learn and maintain novel words in aphasia. Moreover, two previous case studies revealed a striking effect of input modality by showing effective word learning and re-learning via visual input only (Kohen, Sola, Tuomiranta, Laine, & Martin, 2012; Tuomiranta et al., 2014). The present participant TS with chronic nonfluent aphasia and post-semantic anomia was administered novel word-referent learning tasks. In the first experiment, the learning phase included simultaneous phonological and orthographic input, while the follow-up was probed separately for spoken and written responses. In the second experiment, we studied the effect of four different input and output modality combinations on her ability to learn to name the novel items. In the first experiment, TS's spoken naming performance during the learning phase was just within the range of healthy controls. Maintenance declined and remained outside that range during the whole 6-month follow-up. However, TS maintained the learned words better in written than in spoken naming throughout the follow-up, and in written naming, her maintenance stayed within the control's range up to 8 weeks post-training. The second experiment indicated that the best learning outcome was achieved with orthographic input. Orthographic input combined with orthographic output resulted in fast and accurate learning of the novel words. Interestingly, TS's test profile was opposite to her learning profile, as she repeated better than she read aloud in the linguistic background assessment. The results from the present case highlight the importance of multiple learning channels for word acquisition in individuals with aphasia. Probing the functionality of different input and output channels for learning may also prove valuable in tailoring

  20. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  1. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  2. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  3. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  4. Role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    This article critically reviews the evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis and discusses the study approaches commonly used to identify genetic risk factors of this disease. Available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations in multiple genes, combined with environmental effects. Syndromic periodontal diseases include certain monogenic disorders that express phenotypes showing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the genetic triggering factors of most of these syndromes have been identified. Other periodontal disease phenotypes seem to occur through different genetic predisposition patterns. Case-control and genome-wide studies have been used to investigate the association with gene polymorphisms. Association studies and the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis suggest a significant genetic component in the increased predisposition to this disease. There is evidence to support the contribution of a few major genes or of multiple small-effects genes. In addition, there is evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Early studies suggested an X-linked mode of transmission of aggressive periodontitis, and subsequent studies support an autosomal mode. Genetic studies have the potential to improve the screening programs of subjects at risk for developing aggressive periodontitis and may enhance treatment outcome through gene therapy.

  5. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  6. Imaging modalities in spinal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kricun, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an approach to the various imaging modalities used to view the spine. It discusses the indications, limitations and practical use of each in the diagnosis, work-up and staging of various spinal disorders, and compares each of them in various clinical settings. Topics covered include low back pain syndrome, disk disease, spinal cord lesions, congenital abnormalities, and trauma.

  7. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2016-05-19

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications. PMID:27159645

  8. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications.

  9. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans. PMID:26453051

  10. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.

  11. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  12. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  13. Out of control: Evidence for anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity and reactive aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Alexander T.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Schuhmann, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting impulsive reactions while still defending one’s vital resources is paramount to functional self-control and successful development in a social environment. However, this ability of successfully inhibiting, and thus controlling one’s impulsivity, often fails, leading to consequences ranging from motor impulsivity to aggressive reactions following provocation. Although inhibitory failure represents the underlying mechanism, the neurocognition of social aggression and motor response inhibition have traditionally been investigated in separation. Here, we aimed to directly investigate and compare the neural mechanisms underlying the failure of inhibition across those different modalities of self-control. We used functional imaging to reveal the overlap in neural correlates between failed motor response inhibition (measured by a go/no-go task) and reactive aggression (measured by the Taylor aggression paradigm) in healthy males. The core overlap of neural correlates was located in the anterior insula, suggesting common anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity as well as reactive aggression. This evidence regarding an overarching role of the anterior insula across different modalities of self-control enables an integrative perspective on insula function and a better integration of cognitive, social and emotional factors into a comprehensive model of impulsivity. Furthermore, it can eventually lead to a better understanding of clinical syndromes involving inhibitory deficits. PMID:24837479

  14. Modal characteristics of a simplified brake rotor model using semi-analytical Rayleigh Ritz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Cheng, L.; Yam, L. H.; Zhou, L. M.

    2006-10-01

    Emphasis of this paper is given to the modal characteristics of a brake rotor which is utilized in automotive disc brake system. The brake rotor is modeled as a combined structure comprising an annular plate connected to a segment of cylindrical shell by distributed artificial springs. Modal analysis shows the existence of three types of modes for the combined structure, depending on the involvement of each substructure. A decomposition technique is proposed, allowing each mode of the combined structure to be decomposed into a linear combination of the individual substructure modes. It is shown that the decomposition coefficients provide a direct and systematic means to carry out modal classification and quantification.

  15. Modal domain fiber optic sensor for closed loop vibration control of a flexible beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D.; Thomas, D.; Reichard, K.; Lindner, D.; Claus, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a modal domain sensor in a vibration control experiment is described. An optical fiber is bonded along the length of a flexible beam. A control signal derived from the output of the modal domain sensor is used to suppress vibrations induced in the beam. A distributed effect model for the modal domain sensor is developed and combined with models of the beam and actuator dynamics to produce a system suitable for control design.

  16. A comparative overview of modal testing and system identification for control of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, J.-N.; Pappa, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative overview is presented of the disciplines of modal testing used in structural engineering and system identification used in control theory. A list of representative references from both areas is given, and the basic methods are described briefly. Recent progress on the interaction of modal testing and control disciplines is discussed. It is concluded that combined efforts of researchers in both disciplines are required for unification of modal testing and system identification methods for control of flexible structures.

  17. An investigation into the sub-acute effects of ecstasy on aggressive interpretative bias and aggressive mood - are there gender differences?

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Rosa; Pratt, Hannah; Mehta, Sachin; Bond, Alyson J; Curran, H Valerie

    2006-03-01

    The lowering of serotonin for a period following MDMA use could account for the increases in both self-rated and objective measures of aggression previously found in ecstasy users several days after taking the drug. There is some evidence of gender differences in the acute, sub-acute and long-term effects of MDMA use, and given that gender differences have been found in aggression, it is possible that men may experience more aggression mid-week than women. The aim of this study was to attempt to replicate findings showing increased bias towards aggressive material in ecstasy users several days after using the drug. In addition, to investigate possible gender differences in mid-week aggression. A total of 46 participants were tested: 19 ecstasy users and 27 controls were compared on the night of drug use and 4 days later. On day 4, a task designed to tap cognitive bias toward material with aggressive content was administered. Participants were required to process sentences that could be interpreted as either aggressive or neutral and subsequently remember them in a recognition test. This data set was then combined with the data from Curran et al.'s (2004) study that employed exactly the same procedure. Thus, the data from 107 participants was analysed to investigate gender differences. Ecstasy users recognized more aggressive sentences than controls and tended to react slower to neutral sentences than controls. Ecstasy users also rated themselves as being more aggressive and depressed than controls on day 4. No gender differences were found on any measure of aggression in the combined data set. Both male and female ecstasy users show a bias toward interpretation of ambiguous material in an aggressive manner when compared to controls 4 days after ecstasy use.

  18. Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz

    2009-01-01

    With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808

  19. Modal Analysis for Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-03

    MANGO software is to provide a solution for improving small signal stability of power systems through adjusting operator-controllable variables using PMU measurement. System oscillation problems are one of the major threats to the grid stability and reliability in California and the Western Interconnection. These problems result in power fluctuations, lower grid operation efficiency, and may even lead to large-scale grid breakup and outages. This MANGO software aims to solve this problem by automatically generating recommended operation procedures termed Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) to improve damping of inter-area oscillation modes. The MANGO procedure includes three steps: recognizing small signal stability problems, implementing operating point adjustment using modal sensitivity, and evaluating the effectiveness of the adjustment. The MANGO software package is designed to help implement the MANGO procedure.

  20. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  1. Evaluating evidence for atrophic scarring treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    McGrouther, Duncan; Chakrabarty, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction Atrophic scars cause significant patient morbidity. Whilst there is evidence to guide treatment, there does not appear to be a systematic review to analyse the efficacy of treatment options. Objectives To retrieve all evidence relating to atrophic scar treatment and evaluate using the Clinical Evidence GRADE score in order to allow clinicians to make evidence-based treatment choices. Method Searches were performed in Medline, EMBASE, CINHL and Cochrane to identify all English studies published evaluating treatment of atrophic scars on adults excluding journal letters. Each study was allocated a GRADE score based on type of study, quality, dose response, consistency of results and significance of results. The end score allowed categorisation of evidence into high, moderate, low or very low quality. Results A total of 41 studies were retrieved from searches including randomised controlled trials, observational studies, retrospective analyses and case reports of which 7% were allocated a high-quality score, 10% a moderate score, 7% a low score and 75% a very low score. Treatment modalities included ablative laser therapy, non-ablative laser therapy, autologous fat transfer, dermabrasion, chemical peels, injectables, subcision, tretinoin iontophoresis and combination therapy. Conclusion There is a paucity of good-quality clinical evidence evaluating treatment modalities for atrophic scarring. Evidence supports efficacy of laser, surgery and peel therapy. Further biomolecular research is required to identify targeted treatment options and more randomised controlled trials would make the evidence base for atrophic scar treatment more robust. PMID:25352991

  2. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  3. Comparison of modal test methods on the Voyager payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, B. R.; Miserentino, R.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Wada, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of modern modal data analysis methods on test data from the Voyager Jupiter/Saturn payload is presented. Four different test/data-analysis combinations are compared - multiple-point sine excitation tests, single-point random-excitation tests using two different techniques of manipulating Fourier transform data, and a time-domain method for analyzing random data. Results indicate that all four methods can give comparable results. Of the four, the time-domain approach detects more modes in the test data and, at the same time, shows the greatest promise for reducing the time and cost of modal testing.

  4. Modeling of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2013-05-20

    A model of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers is presented. This model combines an optical beam propagation method that incorporates laser gain through local solution of the rate equations and refractive index perturbations caused by the thermo-optic effect with a time-dependent thermal solver with a quantum defect heating source term. This model predicts modal instability a fiber amplifier operating at 241, 270, and 287 Watts of output power characterized by power coupling to un-seeded modes, the presence of stable and unstable regions within the fiber, and rapid intensity variations along the fiber. The instability becomes more severe as the power is increased.

  5. Bimodal extinction without cross-modal extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Inhoff, A W; Rafal, R D; Posner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with unilateral neurological injury were clinically examined. All showed consistent unilateral extinction in the tactile and visual modalities on simultaneous intramodal stimulation. There was virtually no evidence for cross-modal extinction, however, so that contralateral stimulation of one modality would have extinguished perception of ipsilateral stimuli in the other modality. It is concluded that the attentional system controlling the encoding of tactile and visual stimuli is not unified across the two sensory domains. PMID:1548496

  6. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  7. Suicide and female aggression: a contemporary analysis of anomic suicide.

    PubMed

    French, L; Bryce, F O

    1978-10-01

    Much has been said about the combined efforts of civil disorder and the emergence of the Women's Right Movement during the mid 1960s-early 1970s, suggesting that perhaps now females would rebel against their traditional subordinate/passive role and aspire to more assertive positions within society. Since social disruption and anomic suicide are closely associated, the authors looked at the relationship between suicide and female assertiveness (aggressive suicides). While male/female suicide rates remained proportional over time, female victims, during this period, did manifest a greater degree of aggression than in the past.

  8. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  9. On Modality in English and Other Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Thomas R.

    The descriptive contents (cognitive meanings) of the modals "can,""may,""could,""might,""must,""need,""ought,""should," compared with paraphrastic verbs and adjectives, motivate two cross-classifying dimensions: logical modality (possibility, impossibility, necessity) and linguistic modality (alethic, probability, authority, obligation,…

  10. Modal strain energies in COSMIC NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, B. D.; Venkayya, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was developed to take a NASTRAN output file from a normal modes analysis and calculate the modal strain energies of selected elements. The FORTRAN program can determine the modal strain energies for CROD, CBAR, CELAS, CTRMEM, CQDMEM2, and CSHEAR elements. Modal strain energies are useful in estimating damping in structures.

  11. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  12. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  13. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  14. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  15. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  16. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  17. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  18. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  19. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  20. [Aggression and violence in children in different contexts].

    PubMed

    Ratzke, K; Sanders, M; Diepold, B; Krannich, S; Cierpka, M

    1997-03-01

    Starting with the hypothesis that children's aggressive and potentially violent behavior is the climax of escalating conflicts that cannot be expressed or showed in any other way, we analyse, in the following article, the conditions from which these behavior pattern arise. We have focused on the following areas; the individual, the family, the school and society, and we have tried to show how the development of children's aggressive behavior is determined by the problem constellations in these different contexts. Insecure and disorganised early bonding experiences and/or dysfunctional family relationship patterns combined with parental upbringing methods that support or condone aggressive behavior, can lead to children having fewer resources or social skills available than their peers in kindergarten and school. This may result in conflict and lack of social integration in these institutions.

  1. Aversive parenting in China: associations with child physical and relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and girls) latent sum and difference structural equation model showed that combined parenting effects were slightly more prevalent than differential effects in predicting aggression. Furthermore, physical coercion was predictive of aggression in boys whereas psychological control was primarily associated with aggression in girls. Findings extend our understanding of relational aggression and the meaning of aversive parenting, particularly within the Chinese cultural context. PMID:16686788

  2. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  3. MINERVA-a multi-modal radiation treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Wemple, C A; Wessol, D E; Nigg, D W; Cogliati, J J; Milvich, M L; Frederickson, C; Perkins, M; Harkin, G J

    2004-11-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Montana State University have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system. This system can be used for planning and analyzing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common modality independent image and geometry construction and dose reporting and guiding. It employs an integrated, lightweight plugin architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The MINERVA design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java Virtual Machine for interoperability. A full computation path has been established for molecular targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with the associated transport plugin developed by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Development of the neutron transport plugin module is proceeding rapidly, with completion expected later this year. Future development efforts will include development of deformable registration methods, improved segmentation methods for patient model definition, and three-dimensional visualization of the patient images, geometry, and dose data. Transport and source plugins will be created for additional treatment modalities, including brachytherapy, external beam proton radiotherapy, and the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy.

  4. Modal test optimization using VETO (Virtual Environment for Test Optimization)

    SciTech Connect

    Klenke, S.E.; Reese, G.M.; Schoof, L.A.; Shierling, C.

    1996-01-01

    We present a software environment integrating analysis and test-based models to support optimal modal test design through a Virtual Environment for Test Optimization (VETO). A goal in developing this software tool is to provide test and analysis organizations with a capability of mathematically simulating the complete test environment in software. Derived models of test equipment, instrumentation and hardware can be combined within the VETO to provide the user with a unique analysis and visualization capability to evaluate new and existing test methods. The VETO assists analysis and test engineers in maximizing the value of each modal test. It is particularly advantageous for structural dynamics model reconciliation applications. The VETO enables an engineer to interact with a finite element model of a test object to optimally place sensors and exciters and to investigate the selection of data acquisition parameters needed to conduct a complete modal survey. Additionally, the user can evaluate the use of different types of instrumentation such as filters, amplifiers and transducers for which models are available in the VETO. The dynamic response of most of the virtual instruments (including the device under test) is modeled in the state space domain. Design of modal excitation levels and appropriate test instrumentation are facilitated by the VETO`s ability to simulate such features as unmeasured external inputs, A/D quantization effects, and electronic noise. Measures of the quality of the experimental design, including the Modal Assurance Criterion, and the Normal Mode Indicator Function are available.

  5. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of seminal vesicles: is there a role for relatively aggressive treatment modalities?

    PubMed

    Crestani, Alessandro; Guttilla, Andrea; Gardi, Mario; Gardiman, Marina; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Valotto, Claudio; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2014-12-30

    A 50 year old white man received an incidental ultrasound diagnosis of hypoechoic mass interesting the right seminal vesicle. A CT scan showed the presence of a 7.8 cm roundish cyst, originating from the right seminal vesicle. He had been followed by the removal of the right seminal vesicle and both the cystic lesion. The histological findings of the specimen documented the presence of small round cells compatible with Ewing's sarcoma/PPNET. The patient received also adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation treatment. After 10 years, the follow-up is still negative.

  6. Combined PET/MRI: Multi-modality Multi-parametric Imaging Is Here: Summary Report of the 4th International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 23-27, 2015, Tübingen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B; Barthel, H; Beer, A J; Bremerich, J; Czernin, J; Drzezga, A; Franzius, C; Goh, V; Hartenbach, M; Iida, H; Kjaer, A; la Fougère, C; Ladefoged, C N; Law, I; Nikolaou, K; Quick, H H; Sabri, O; Schäfer, J; Schäfers, M; Wehrl, H F; Beyer, T

    2015-10-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both technical versatility and acceptance by clinical and research-driven users from the status quo of last year. Still, with only minimal evidence of progress made in exploiting the true complementary nature of the PET and MRI-based information, PET/MRI is still yet to achieve its potential. In that regard, the conclusion of last year's meeting "the real work has just started" still holds true.

  7. Modal interference fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat, Marcin; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Gorka, Andrzej; Palka, Norbert; Zyczkowski, Marek; Niznik, Sylwester

    2004-11-01

    Modal Interference Fiber Optic Sensor (MIFOS) for permanent monitoring of the network is presented. A mechanical disturbance of a fiber cable influences on intensity distribution at the end-face of a multimode fiber. Variations in interfering images are analysed by means of a digital processing unit that determines the alarm in case of unauthorized access along the whole length of the fiber. A contrast of an interference pattern and a procedure of fiber optic selection for the sensor are shown. A simple criterion that bases on changes of local maximums positions of the interference patterns is applied. A laboratory arrangement of the sensor and its experimental research are shown.

  8. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  9. Globalization and emerging governance modalities.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Deane Edward

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for global governance effectively dealing with the international transmission of disease. First, zoonotic regulation and control pose a special case for public health agencies, and this paper proposes a propositional model for an effective public health stance. Second, globalization dynamics are briefly reviewed in terms of an emerging consensus on the need for global governance in public health. Third, a brief examination of global governance modalities suggests that a strong global governance case has distinct limitations (despite its possible justification); an exploration of contemporary directions in global governance follows. Finally, the paper examines the phenomenon of contemporary zoonotic control within the conditions of an effective regulatory regime.

  10. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  11. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  12. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  13. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  14. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  15. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  16. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  17. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

  18. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  19. Molecular Profiling of Aggressive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Gazzola, Anna; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Pileri, Stefano A.; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, several studies of molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas were performed. In particular, it was shown that DLBCL can be distinguished in two different entities according to GEP. Specifically, ABC and GCB subtypes were characterized by having different pathogenetic and clinical features. In addition, it was demonstrated that DLBCLs are distinct from BL. Indeed, the latter is a unique molecular entity. However, relevant pathological differences emerged among the clinical subtypes. More recently, microRNA profiling provided further information concerning BL-DLBCL distinction as well as for their subclassification. In this paper, the authors based on their own experience and the most updated literature review, the main concept on molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:22190944

  20. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  1. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  2. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  3. Neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic.

  4. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  5. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  6. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  7. Surgery for locally aggressive bone tumours.

    PubMed

    Devitt, A; O'Sullivan, T; Kavanagh, M; Hurson, B J

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of 16 patients with aggressive benign bone tumours and one patient with a low grade malignancy with a combined regimen of cryosurgery, phenolization and acrylic cementation is reported. Patients were aged between 9 and 51 years and were treated by this method between the years 1986 and 1993. Minimal follow up was 13 months. The commonest histological diagnosis was giant cell tumour (7), followed by aneurysmal bone cyst (6), chondromyxoidfibroma (3) and low grade chondrosarcoma (1). Patients were assessed for functional outcome and local recurrence. On average 86 per cent of premorbid function was restored at follow up and there was one local recurrence (6.29 per cent). We conclude that this is a satisfactory method of gaining local control of these tumours. PMID:8990655

  8. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  9. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  10. Cross-Modal Correspondences in Non-human Mammal Communication.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Taylor, Anna M; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    For both humans and other animals, the ability to combine information obtained through different senses is fundamental to the perception of the environment. It is well established that humans form systematic cross-modal correspondences between stimulus features that can facilitate the accurate combination of sensory percepts. However, the evolutionary origins of the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved in these cross-modal associations remain surprisingly underexplored. In this review we outline recent comparative studies investigating how non-human mammals naturally combine information encoded in different sensory modalities during communication. The results of these behavioural studies demonstrate that various mammalian species are able to combine signals from different sensory channels when they are perceived to share the same basic features, either because they can be redundantly sensed and/or because they are processed in the same way. Moreover, evidence that a wide range of mammals form complex cognitive representations about signallers, both within and across species, suggests that animals also learn to associate different sensory features which regularly co-occur. Further research is now necessary to determine how multisensory representations are formed in individual animals, including the relative importance of low level feature-related correspondences. Such investigations will generate important insights into how animals perceive and categorise their environment, as well as provide an essential basis for understanding the evolution of multisensory perception in humans. PMID:27311291

  11. Single dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Li, Ran; Kravitz, Edward A

    2013-04-01

    Monoamines, including dopamine (DA), have been linked to aggression in various species. However, the precise role or roles served by the amine in aggression have been difficult to define because dopaminergic systems influence many behaviors, and all can be altered by changing the function of dopaminergic neurons. In the fruit fly, with the powerful genetic tools available, small subsets of brain cells can be reliably manipulated, offering enormous advantages for exploration of how and where amine neurons fit into the circuits involved with aggression. By combining the GAL4/upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system with the Flippase (FLP) recombination technique, we were able to restrict the numbers of targeted DA neurons down to a single-cell level. To explore the function of these individual dopaminergic neurons, we inactivated them with the tetanus toxin light chain, a genetically encoded inhibitor of neurotransmitter release, or activated them with dTrpA1, a temperature-sensitive cation channel. We found two sets of dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression, one from the T1 cluster and another from the PPM3 cluster. Both activation and inactivation of these neurons resulted in an increase in aggression. We demonstrate that the presynaptic terminals of the identified T1 and PPM3 dopaminergic neurons project to different parts of the central complex, overlapping with the receptor fields of DD2R and DopR DA receptor subtypes, respectively. These data suggest that the two types of dopaminergic neurons may influence aggression through interactions in the central complex region of the brain involving two different DA receptor subtypes. PMID:23530210

  12. Modality and children's scope understanding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo; Lee, Hsiu-Fen Hélène

    2014-10-01

    This study intends to shed light on the inconclusive argument pertaining to children's acquisition of logical form (LF) operation. Specifically, we examined children's interpretations of sentences with the ambiguous modal verb yinggai 'should,' like 'Xiaohua yinggai shangchuang shuijiao le', whose meanings depend on the landing sites of yinggai at LF (root interpretation: Xiaohua is obligated to go to bed now. epistemic interpretation: It is the case that Xiaohua has gone to bed.). The results of truth value judgment task from 15 children (range: 4;8-6;2, mean: 5;4) and 37 adults indicate that both groups tend to interpret the ambiguous yinggai as epistemic readings and that children's interpretation is adult-like. Thus, this study supports (Syrett and Lidz's in Lang Acquis 16:67-81, 2009) view that 5-year-olds have adult-like LF development and their difficulties in interpreting covert movements may be reduced to extra-grammatical factors.

  13. Hybrid-modality high-resolution imaging: for diagnostic biomedical imaging and sensing for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, Vadakke M.; Hoong Ta, Lim

    2014-11-01

    Medical diagnostics in the recent past has seen the challenging trend to come up with dual and multi-modality imaging for implementing better diagnostic procedures. The changes in tissues in the early disease stages are often subtle and can occur beneath the tissue surface. In most of these cases, conventional types of medical imaging using optics may not be able to detect these changes easily due to its penetration depth of the orders of 1 mm. Each imaging modality has its own advantages and limitations, and the use of a single modality is not suitable for every diagnostic applications. Therefore the need for multi or hybrid-modality imaging arises. Combining more than one imaging modalities overcomes the limitation of individual imaging method and integrates the respective advantages into a single setting. In this context, this paper will be focusing on the research and development of two multi-modality imaging platforms. The first platform combines ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the eye. The second platform consists of optical hyperspectral and photoacoustic imaging for diagnostic applications in the colon. Photoacoustic imaging is used as one of the modalities in both platforms as it can offer deeper penetration depth compared to optical imaging. The optical engineering and research challenges in developing the dual/multi-modality platforms will be discussed, followed by initial results validating the proposed scheme. The proposed schemes offer high spatial and spectral resolution imaging and sensing, and is expected to offer potential biomedical imaging solutions in the near future.

  14. Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims.

    PubMed

    Prinstein, M J; Boergers, J; Vernberg, E M

    2001-12-01

    Examined the relative and combined associations among relational and overt forms of aggression and victimization and adolescents' concurrent depression symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, and externalizing behavior. An ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (55% girls) in Grades 9 to 12 participated. Results replicated prior work on relational aggression and victimization as distinct forms of peer behavior that are uniquely associated with concurrent social-psychological adjustment. Victimization was associated most closely with internalizing symptoms, and peer aggression was related to symptoms of disruptive behavior disorder. Findings also supported the hypothesis that victims of multiple forms of aggression are at greater risk for adjustment difficulties than victims of one or no form of aggression. Social support from close friends appeared to buffer the effects of victimization on adjustment.

  15. Failure to Consider Future Consequences Increases the Effects of Alcohol on Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; Giancola, Peter R.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Roth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The failure to consider the future consequences of one’s behavior is a major risk factor for aggression. Aggressive people tend to act first, and think later. Some people focus on the —here and now rather than on the future, a tendency measured by the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) scale (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). Alcohol intoxication is a neuro-biological variable that produces similar effects. Participants in the present experiment completed the CFC scale and then consumed either an alcohol or a placebo beverage. Next, they competed against a same-sex ostensible partner on an interpersonally adversarial competitive task in which the winner could administer electric shocks to the loser (the aggression measure). As expected, aggression was highest in intoxicated persons with low CFC scores. Being unconcerned about the future consequences of one’s actions, in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication, combine in a pernicious manner to increase aggression. PMID:22639468

  16. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J

    1995-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 2, participants reported their mood before and after the showing of a violet or nonviolent videotape. High trait aggressive individuals felt more angry after viewing the violent videotape than did low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 3, participants first viewed either a violent or a nonviolent videotape and then competed with an "opponent" on a reaction time task in which the loser received a blast of unpleasant noise. Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low trait aggressive individuals.

  17. Home Dialysis Modalities: Educational Barriers to Utilization.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, an increasing number of individuals are being diagnosed with end stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Home dialysis modalities are an available option in lieu of in-center hemodialysis therapy for these individuals, but are vastly underutilized in the U.S. for multiple reasons. Both healthcare providers and individuals requiring renal replacement therapy are frequently unaware these modalities are an available alternative to in-center hemodialysis and of the potential benefits related to home modality use. Lack of healthcare provider and patient education regarding home modalities is a primary factor related to underutilization. PMID:27501632

  18. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea. PMID:27416315

  19. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  20. Modal Analysis with the Mobile Modal Testing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has tested rocket engines with high pulse frequencies. This has resulted in the use of some of WSTF's existing thrust stands, which were designed for static loading, in tests with large dynamic forces. In order to ensure that the thrust stands can withstand the dynamic loading of high pulse frequency engines while still accurately reporting the test data, their vibrational modes must be characterized. If it is found that they have vibrational modes with frequencies near the pulsing frequency of the test, then they must be modified to withstand the dynamic forces from the pulsing rocket engines. To make this determination the Mobile Modal Testing Unit (MMTU), a system capable of determining the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of a structure, was used on the test stands at WSTF. Once the resonant frequency has been determined for a test stand, it can be compared to the pulse frequency of a test engine to determine whether or not that stand can avoid resonance and reliably test that engine. After analysis of test stand 406 at White Sands Test Facility, it was determined that natural frequencies for the structure are located around 75, 125, and 240 Hz, and thus should be avoided during testing.

  1. Top-down (Prior Knowledge) and Bottom-up (Perceptual Modality) Influences on Spontaneous Interpersonal Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E

    2016-04-01

    Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present.

  2. Top-down (Prior Knowledge) and Bottom-up (Perceptual Modality) Influences on Spontaneous Interpersonal Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E

    2016-04-01

    Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present. PMID:27033133

  3. Selective Attention and Sensory Modality in Aging: Curses and Blessings.

    PubMed

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Guerreiro, Maria J S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that selective attention is compromised in older adults as a result of impaired inhibitory control is well established. Yet it is primarily based on empirical findings covering the visual modality. Auditory and especially, cross-modal selective attention are remarkably underexposed in the literature on aging. In the past 5 years, we have attempted to fill these voids by investigating performance of younger and older adults on equivalent tasks covering all four combinations of visual or auditory target, and visual or auditory distractor information. In doing so, we have demonstrated that older adults are especially impaired in auditory selective attention with visual distraction. This pattern of results was not mirrored by the results from our psychophysiological studies, however, in which both enhancement of target processing and suppression of distractor processing appeared to be age equivalent. We currently conclude that: (1) age-related differences of selective attention are modality dependent; (2) age-related differences of selective attention are limited; and (3) it remains an open question whether modality-specific age differences in selective attention are due to impaired distractor inhibition, impaired target enhancement, or both. These conclusions put the longstanding inhibitory deficit hypothesis of aging in a new perspective.

  4. Selective Attention and Sensory Modality in Aging: Curses and Blessings

    PubMed Central

    Van Gerven, Pascal W. M.; Guerreiro, Maria J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The notion that selective attention is compromised in older adults as a result of impaired inhibitory control is well established. Yet it is primarily based on empirical findings covering the visual modality. Auditory and especially, cross-modal selective attention are remarkably underexposed in the literature on aging. In the past 5 years, we have attempted to fill these voids by investigating performance of younger and older adults on equivalent tasks covering all four combinations of visual or auditory target, and visual or auditory distractor information. In doing so, we have demonstrated that older adults are especially impaired in auditory selective attention with visual distraction. This pattern of results was not mirrored by the results from our psychophysiological studies, however, in which both enhancement of target processing and suppression of distractor processing appeared to be age equivalent. We currently conclude that: (1) age-related differences of selective attention are modality dependent; (2) age-related differences of selective attention are limited; and (3) it remains an open question whether modality-specific age differences in selective attention are due to impaired distractor inhibition, impaired target enhancement, or both. These conclusions put the longstanding inhibitory deficit hypothesis of aging in a new perspective. PMID:27064763

  5. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  6. Studying aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies).

    PubMed

    Mundiyanapurath, Sibu; Certel, Sarah; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    Aggression is an innate behavior that evolved in the framework of defending or obtaining resources. This complex social behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In many organisms, aggression is critical to survival but controlling and suppressing aggression in distinct contexts also has become increasingly important. In recent years, invertebrates have become increasingly useful as model systems for investigating the genetic and systems biological basis of complex social behavior. This is in part due to the diverse repertoire of behaviors exhibited by these organisms. In the accompanying video, we outline a method for analyzing aggression in Drosophila whose design encompasses important eco-ethological constraints. Details include steps for: making a fighting chamber; isolating and painting flies; adding flies to the fight chamber; and video taping fights. This approach is currently being used to identify candidate genes important in aggression and in elaborating the neuronal circuitry that underlies the output of aggression and other social behaviors.

  7. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness.

  8. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  9. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8–11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls’ RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys’ RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys. PMID:22665946

  10. Serotonin and the search for the anatomical substrate of aggression

    PubMed Central

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Kravitz, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All species of animals display aggression in order to obtain resources such as territories, mates, or food. Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the correct identification of a potential competitor, an evaluation of the environmental signals, and the physiological state of the animal. With a hard-wired circuitry involving fixed numbers of neurons, neuromodulators like serotonin offer adaptive flexibility in behavioral responses without changing the “hard-wiring”. In a recent report, we combined intersectional genetics, quantitative behavioral assays and morphological analyses to identify single serotonergic neurons that modulate the escalation of aggression. We found anatomical target areas within the brain where these neurons appear to form synaptic contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, and then confirmed the likelihood of those connections on a functional level. In this Extra View article, we offer an extended discussion of these recent findings and elaborate on how they can link a cellular and functional mapping of an aggression-regulating circuit at a single-cell resolution level. PMID:25923771

  11. Methodological Constraints for Detecting the Modality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria; Jahn, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our research was to investigate the modality effect in more detail by measuring it in a direct way. Two studies were conducted using the same subject and material. Method: Computer-based learning material was presented on several screens, each containing a short text and a picture. Modality was varied by presenting written…

  12. Teaching the Modals in an ESL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    Generalizations regarding languages should be presented to students to aid them in mastering the surface forms they encounter. Hoffmen's analysis of modals postulates a root meaning and an epistemic meaning for modals and predicts that the root interpretation is generally excluded by the progressive and perfect tenses. This system may form the…

  13. Aggressive Therapy for Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Synchronous Brain-only Oligometastatic Disease is Associated with Long-term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Phillip J.; Mak, Raymond H.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Cryer, Sarah K.; Pinnell, Nancy E.; Christianson, Laura W.; Sher, David J.; Arvold, Nils D.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Kozono, David E.; Swanson, Scott J.; Jackman, David M.; Alexander, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Optimal therapy for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) presenting with synchronous brain-only oligometastases (SBO) is not well defined. We sought to analyze the effect of differing therapeutic paradigms in this subpopulation. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed NSCLC patients with 1-4 SBO diagnosed between 1/2000 and 1/2011 at our institution. Patients with T0 tumors or documented Karnofsky Performance Status <70 were excluded. Aggressive thoracic therapy (ATT) was defined as resection of the primary disease or chemoradiotherapy whose total radiation dose exceeded 45 Gy. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models were used to analyze factors affecting survival and first recurrence in the brain. Results Sixty-six patients were included. Median follow-up was 31.9 months. Intrathoracic disease extent included 9 stage I, 10 stage II and 47 stage III patients. Thirty-eight patients received ATT, 28 did not. Patients receiving ATT were younger (median age 55 vs. 60.5 years, p=0.027) but were otherwise similar to those who did not. Receipt of ATT was associated with prolonged median overall survival (OS) (26.4 vs. 10.5 months; p<0.001) with actuarial 2-year rates of 54% vs. 26%. ATT remained associated with OS after controlling for age, thoracic stage, performance status and initial brain therapy (HR 0.40, p=0.009). On multivariate analysis, the risk of first failure in the brain was associated with receipt of ATT (HR 3.62, p=0.032) and initial combined modality brain therapy (HR 0.34, p=0.046). Conclusion Aggressive management of thoracic disease in NSCLC patients with SBO is associated with improved survival. Careful management of brain disease remains important, especially for those treated aggressively. PMID:24974152

  14. a Modal Logic of Indiscernibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker; Merlussi, Pedro

    This paper is a continuation of the authors' attempts to deal with the notion of indistinguishability (or indiscernibility) from a logical point of view. Now we introduce a two-sorted first-order modal logic to enable us to deal with objects of two different species. The intended interpretation is that objects of one of the species obey the rules of standard S5, while the objects of the other species obey only the rules of a weaker notion of indiscernibility. Quantum mechanics motivates the development. The basic idea is that in the `actual' world things may be indiscernible but in another accessible world they may be distinguished in some way. That is, indistinguishability needs not be seen as a necessary relation. Contrariwise, things might be distinguished in the `actual' world, but they may be indiscernible in another world. So, while two quantum systems may be entangled in the actual world, in some accessible world, due to a measurement, they can be discerned, and on the other hand, two initially separated quantum systems may enter in a state of superposition, losing their individualities. Two semantics are sketched for our system. The first is constructed within a standard set theory (the ZFC system is assumed at the metamathematics). The second one is constructed within the theory of quasi-sets, which we believe suits better the purposes of our logic and the mathematical treatment of certain situations in quantum mechanics. Some further philosophically related topics are considered.

  15. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  16. [Aggressive clients in Dutch veterinary practice].

    PubMed

    Barbonis, T S A E; Endenburg, N

    2007-05-15

    Aggressive clients seem to be becoming more common. This article describes a study in which questionnaires on client behaviour were sent to veterinary assistants and veterinarians in randomly selected practices in the Netherlands. Results showed that 26.4% of the veterinarians and 29.3% of the assistants had experienced aggressive clients in the last year. Age, experience, and sex of the veterinarian or assistant did not influence the frequency with which aggressive clients were encountered. The same was true for the type of veterinary practice (companion animals, farm animals, horses, etc). The risk of encountering aggressive clients was higher among practices in large towns and in practices with a small turnover Of the veterinarians who had encountered aggressive clients at least once in their career, 31% has taken some kind of action after the aggressive encounter Nearly a quarter (24.9%) of veterinary practices have adopted a Risk Inventarization and Evaluation (RI&E) approach to preventing client aggression and 26.6% of practices have adopted another approach. While veterinarians tend not to consider aggression a big problem, they are often open to the suggestion that more attention should be paid to aggression in veterinary practice. PMID:17578228

  17. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  18. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  19. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  20. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  1. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  2. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  3. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  4. Modal characterization of the ASCIE segmented optics testbed: New algorithms and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, Alain C.; Aubrun, Jean-Noel

    1993-01-01

    New frequency response measurement procedures, on-line modal tuning techniques, and off-line modal identification algorithms are developed and applied to the modal identification of the Advanced Structures/Controls Integrated Experiment (ASCIE), a generic segmented optics telescope test-bed representative of future complex space structures. The frequency response measurement procedure uses all the actuators simultaneously to excite the structure and all the sensors to measure the structural response so that all the transfer functions are measured simultaneously. Structural responses to sinusoidal excitations are measured and analyzed to calculate spectral responses. The spectral responses in turn are analyzed as the spectral data become available and, which is new, the results are used to maintain high quality measurements. Data acquisition, processing, and checking procedures are fully automated. As the acquisition of the frequency response progresses, an on-line algorithm keeps track of the actuator force distribution that maximizes the structural response to automatically tune to a structural mode when approaching a resonant frequency. This tuning is insensitive to delays, ill-conditioning, and nonproportional damping. Experimental results show that is useful for modal surveys even in high modal density regions. For thorough modeling, a constructive procedure is proposed to identify the dynamics of a complex system from its frequency response with the minimization of a least-squares cost function as a desirable objective. This procedure relies on off-line modal separation algorithms to extract modal information and on least-squares parameter subset optimization to combine the modal results and globally fit the modal parameters to the measured data. The modal separation algorithms resolved modal density of 5 modes/Hz in the ASCIE experiment. They promise to be useful in many challenging applications.

  5. Modal analysis of PATHFINDER unmanned air vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Woehrle, T.G.; Costerus, B.W.; Lee, C.L.

    1994-10-19

    An experimental modal analysis was performed on PATHFINDER, a 450-lb, 100-ft wing span, flying-wing-design aircraft powered by solar/electric motors. The aircraft was softly suspended and then excited using random input from a long-stroke shaker. Modal data was taken from 92 measurement locations on the aircraft using newly designed, lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers. A conventional PC-based data acquisition system provided data handling. Modal parameters were calculated, and animated mode shapes were produced using SMS STARStruct{trademark} Modal Analysis System software. The modal parameters will be used for validation of finite element models, optimum placement of onboard accelerometers during flight testing, and vibration isolation design of sensor platforms.

  6. Examining the role of testosterone in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social stimuli in a lizard.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Jo; While, Geoffrey M; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hormones have been suggested as a key proximate mechanism that organize and maintain consistent individual differences in behavioural traits such as aggression. The steroid hormone testosterone in particular has an important activational role in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social and environmental stimuli within many vertebrate systems. We conducted two complementary experiments designed to investigate the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii, a social lizard species. First, we investigated whether a conspecific aggressive challenge induced a testosterone response and second, we artificially manipulated testosterone concentrations to examine whether this changed aggression levels. We found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge. However, there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations, with individuals not receiving an aggression challenge maintaining consistency in their circulating testosterone concentrations, while those individuals that received a challenge did not. Manipulating circulating testosterone concentrations had no influence on either mean-level or individual-level aggression. Combined with our previous work, our study adds increasing evidence that the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward, and promotes the investigation of alternative hormonal pathways and differences in neuro-synthesis and neuroendocrine pathways to account for species variable testosterone - aggression links.

  7. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468

  8. Examining the Role of Testosterone in Mediating Short-Term Aggressive Responses to Social Stimuli in a Lizard

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Jo; While, Geoffrey M.; Jones, Susan M.; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hormones have been suggested as a key proximate mechanism that organize and maintain consistent individual differences in behavioural traits such as aggression. The steroid hormone testosterone in particular has an important activational role in mediating short-term aggressive responses to social and environmental stimuli within many vertebrate systems. We conducted two complementary experiments designed to investigate the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii, a social lizard species. First, we investigated whether a conspecific aggressive challenge induced a testosterone response and second, we artificially manipulated testosterone concentrations to examine whether this changed aggression levels. We found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge. However, there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations, with individuals not receiving an aggression challenge maintaining consistency in their circulating testosterone concentrations, while those individuals that received a challenge did not. Manipulating circulating testosterone concentrations had no influence on either mean-level or individual-level aggression. Combined with our previous work, our study adds increasing evidence that the relationship between testosterone and aggression is not straightforward, and promotes the investigation of alternative hormonal pathways and differences in neuro-synthesis and neuroendocrine pathways to account for species variable testosterone - aggression links. PMID:25906149

  9. Empathy, target distress, and neurohormone genes interact to predict aggression for others-even without provocation.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Anneke E K; Poulin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Can empathy for others motivate aggression on their behalf? This research examined potential predictors of empathy-linked aggression including the emotional state of empathy, an empathy target's distress state, and the function of the social anxiety-modulating neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. In Study 1 (N = 69), self-reported empathy combined with threat to a close other and individual differences in genes for the vasopressin receptor (AVPR1a rs3) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576) to predict self-reported aggression against a person who threatened a close other. In Study 2 (N = 162), induced empathy for a person combined with OXTR variation or with that person's distress and AVPR1a variation led to increased amount of hot sauce assigned to that person's competitor. Empathy uniquely predicts aggression and may do so by way of aspects of the human caregiving system in the form of oxytocin and vasopressin. PMID:25287464

  10. Empathy, target distress, and neurohormone genes interact to predict aggression for others-even without provocation.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Anneke E K; Poulin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Can empathy for others motivate aggression on their behalf? This research examined potential predictors of empathy-linked aggression including the emotional state of empathy, an empathy target's distress state, and the function of the social anxiety-modulating neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. In Study 1 (N = 69), self-reported empathy combined with threat to a close other and individual differences in genes for the vasopressin receptor (AVPR1a rs3) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576) to predict self-reported aggression against a person who threatened a close other. In Study 2 (N = 162), induced empathy for a person combined with OXTR variation or with that person's distress and AVPR1a variation led to increased amount of hot sauce assigned to that person's competitor. Empathy uniquely predicts aggression and may do so by way of aspects of the human caregiving system in the form of oxytocin and vasopressin.

  11. Modal analysis of a violin octet.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George

    2003-04-01

    Experimental modal analysis of a complete Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet, combined with cavity mode analysis and room-averaged acoustic analysis, gives a highly detailed characterization of the dynamics for this historic group of instruments. All the "signature" modes in the open string pitch region--cavity modes A0 ("main air") and A1 (lowest longitudinal), C-bout "rhomboid," the first corpus bending modes B1- and B1+ (comprising the "main wood")--were observed across the octet. A0 was always the lowest dominant radiator, below all corpus modes. A1 contributed significant acoustic output only for larger instruments, but was the dominant contributor for the large bass in the "main wood" region. Acoustic results indicate either B1- or B1+ can be the major radiator. Damping results indicate that B1 modes overall radiate approximately 28% of their vibrational energy. "Doublet" B1 modes from substructure couplings were observed for three instruments. "A0-B0" coupling was not significant for the largest instruments. The original flat-plate-based scaling of the "main wood" resonance was generally successful across the octet, although that for the "main air" was not. PMID:12703721

  12. Modal analysis of a drumlike silencer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixi

    2002-11-01

    Low-frequency duct noise is difficult to deal with by passive methods such as porous duct lining. Reactive methods like expansion chamber are rather bulky, while compact resonators are too narrow banded. This study shows that a suitably stretched thin membrane backed by a slender cavity can achieve a satisfactory performance from low to medium frequencies over an octave band. The present paper focuses on the details of the modal behavior of the fully coupled membrane-cavity system, and examples are given with parameters set in a practical range. Typically, the membrane has a structure to air mass ratio of unity, and is stretched towards the elastic stress limit for a material like aluminum. The backing cavity has a depth equal to the duct height and a length five times the duct height. Three resonant peaks are found in the low to medium frequency range while the transmission loss between adjacent peaks remain above 10 dB. For the first peak, almost complete sound reflection occurs as a result of an out-of-phase combination of the first and second in vacuo modes of simply supported membranes. The second peak is solely contributed to by the first mode, while the third peak features mainly the second mode vibration.

  13. Modal analysis of a drumlike silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lixi

    2002-11-01

    Low-frequency duct noise is difficult to deal with by passive methods such as porous duct lining. Reactive methods like expansion chamber are rather bulky, while compact resonators are too narrow banded. This study shows that a suitably stretched thin membrane backed by a slender cavity can achieve a satisfactory performance from low to medium frequencies over an octave band. The present paper focuses on the details of the modal behavior of the fully coupled membrane-cavity system, and examples are given with parameters set in a practical range. Typically, the membrane has a structure to air mass ratio of unity, and is stretched towards the elastic stress limit for a material like aluminum. The backing cavity has a depth equal to the duct height and a length five times the duct height. Three resonant peaks are found in the low to medium frequency range while the transmission loss between adjacent peaks remain above 10 dB. For the first peak, almost complete sound reflection occurs as a result of an out-of-phase combination of the first and second in vacuo modes of simply supported membranes. The second peak is solely contributed to by the first mode, while the third peak features mainly the second mode vibration. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  14. Threatened Retaliation as an Inhibitor of Human Aggression: Mediating Effects of the Instrumental Value of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    Whereas threatened punishment proves effective under conditions where the instrumental value of aggressive behavior is quite low, the following techniques of control may work better in situations where the value of aggression is relatively high: (1) the use of restrained, non-aggressive models; (2) empathic arousal among aggressors; or (3)…

  15. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  16. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  17. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  18. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    1982-01-01

    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  19. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  20. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  1. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  2. Modal analysis of a shell-payload structure using test data

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Tucker, M.D.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of computed modal frequencies obtained from a combined experimental/analytical model for a shell-payload structure. The total structure is physically divided into two subsystems, the shell and the internal payload, which are connected through a stiff joint. The payload was tested to obtain its free modes, while a finite element model of the shell was analyzed to obtain its modal description. A component mode synthesis technique was investigated which incorporates free modes and residual flexibility. The experimental modal data base for the payload was directly coupled with the finite element modal model of the shell to create an experimental/analytical model of the total structure. Both the translational and rotational elements of the payload mode shapes at the interface were measured and used in the coupling. The modal frequencies, computed using the combined experimental/analytical model, were then compared to those from a modal test of the entire structure. The sensitivity of the combined model to the residual flexibilities was also determined. Finally, recommended procedures for developing combined experimental/analytical models of shell-payload structures are given.

  3. Neurotransmitters regulating feline aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A; Schubert, K

    1995-01-01

    The experiments described in this review reveal that the expression and modulation of aggressive responses in the cat are organized by two distinct sets of pathways. One set of pathways is associated with the elicitation of a specific form of attack behavior. It includes the medial hypothalamus and its projections to the PAG for the expression of defensive rage behavior and the lateral hypothalamus and its descending projections for the expression of predatory attack behavior. The primary focus of the present review is upon the analysis of defensive rage behavior. It was demonstrated that the pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the PAG, which appears to be essential for elicitation of defensive rage, is powerfully excitatory and utilizes excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The other pathways examined in this review arise from different nuclei of the amygdala and are modulatory in nature. Here, two facilitatory systems have been identified. The first involves a projection system from the basal complex of amygdala that projects directly to the PAG. Its excitatory effects are manifest through excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The second facilitatory pathway arises from the medial nucleus of the amygdala. However, its projection system is directed to the medial hypothalamus rather than the PAG. Its neurotransmitter appears to be substance P that acts upon NK1 receptors within the medial hypothalamus (see Figure 10). It has yet to be determined whether substance P acts upon any of the other neurokinin receptor subtypes. It should also be pointed out that the substance P pathway from the medial amygdala to the medial hypothalamus functions to suppress predatory attack behavior elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. In this network, it is likely that the modulatory effects of the medial amygdala require the presence of a second, inhibitory pathway from the medial hypothalamus that innervates the

  4. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. PMID:26345359

  5. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences. PMID:25914653

  6. Determination of rolling tyre modal parameters using Finite Element techniques and Operational Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanivelu, Sakthivel; Narasimha Rao, K. V.; Ramarathnam, Krishna Kumar

    2015-12-01

    In order to address various noise generation mechanisms and noise propagation phenomena of a tyre, it is necessary to study the tyre dynamic behaviour in terms of modal parameters. This paper enumerates a novel method of finding the modal parameters of a rolling tyre using an Explicit Finite Element Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). ABAQUS Explicit, a commercial Finite Element (FE) software code has been used to simulate the experiment, a tyre rolling over a semi-circular straight and inclined cleat. The acceleration responses obtained from these simulations are used as input to the OMA. LMS test lab has been used for carrying out the Operational Modal Analysis. The modal results are compared with the published results of Kindt [22] and validated. Also, the modal results obtained from OMA are compared with FE modal results of stationary unloaded tyre, stationary loaded tyre and Steady State Transport rolling tyre.

  7. NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be performed

  8. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  9. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  10. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  11. Modality of Communication and Recall of Health-related Information.

    PubMed

    Corston, R; Colman, A M

    1997-04-01

    A health warning was presented to 89 female and 19 male students aged 17-36 years via three modalities or channels of communication: a 'talking head' (video), an audiotape recording (audio) or a printed transcript (print). The verbal content of the message was identical in all three conditions. Participants' free recall, cued recall (recognition) and global recall of the message were then measured. On two separate dependent measures and a combined measure, recall was significantly (p < .005) better in both the audio and print conditions than in the video condition. No significant differences in recall were found between the audio and print conditions. These results, and those of earlier studies of modality effects on recall of information, are discussed in terms of self-pacing and distraction theories. PMID:22013002

  12. Tri-modal microscope for head and neck tissue identification

    PubMed Central

    De Montigny, Etienne; Goulamhoussen, Nadir; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Strupler, Mathias; Gologan, Olguta Ecaterina; Ayad, Tareck; Boudoux, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    A novel tri-modal microscope combining optical coherence tomography (OCT), spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) and fluorescence imaging is presented. This system aims at providing a tool for rapid identification of head and neck tissues during thyroid surgery. The development of a dual-wavelength polygon-based swept laser allows for synchronized, co-registered and simultaneous imaging with all three modalities. Further ameliorations towards miniaturization include a custom lens for optimal compromise between orthogonal imaging geometries as well as a double-clad fiber coupler for increased throughput. Image quality and co-registration is demonstrated on freshly excised swine head and neck tissue samples to illustrate the complementarity of the techniques for identifying signature cellular and structural features. PMID:27231585

  13. Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Peng, Yuan-yuan; Guo, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recently emerged as a promising imaging technique for prostate cancer. But there was still a lot of challenge in the PAI for prostate cancer detection, such as laser illumination modality. Knowledge of absorbed light distribution in prostate tissue was essential since the distribution characteristic of absorbed light energy would influence the imaging depth and range of PAI. In order to make a comparison of different laser illumination modality of photoacoustic imaging technique for prostate cancer, optical model of human prostate was established and combined with Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the light absorption distribution in the prostate tissue. Characteristic of light absorption distribution of transurethral and trans-rectal illumination case, and of tumor at different location was compared with each other.The relevant conclusions would be significant for optimizing the light illumination in a PAI system for prostate cancer detection.

  14. Application of Damage Detection Techniques Using Wind Turbine Modal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.; Rumsey, M.; Simmermacher, T.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-12-17

    As any structure ages, its structural characteristics will also change. The goal of this work was to determine if modal response data fkom a wind turbine could be used in the detection of damage. The input stimuli to the wind turbine were from traditional modal hammer input and natural wind excitation. The structural response data was acquired using accelerometers mounted on the rotor of a parked and undamaged horizontal-axis wind turbine. The bolts at the root of one of the three blades were then loosened to simulate a damaged blade. The structural response data of the rotor was again recorded. The undamaged and damage-simulated datasets were compared using existing darnage detection algorithms. Also, a novel algorithm for combining the results of different damage detection algorithms was utilized in the assessment of the data. This paper summarizes the code development and discusses some preliminary damage detection results.

  15. Social Networking Sites: An Adjunctive Treatment Modality for Psychological Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Indu S.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thennarasu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Materials and Methods: Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Results: Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. Conclusions: It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems. PMID:25035548

  16. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  17. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  18. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  19. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  20. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  1. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  2. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  3. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  4. Human Aggression: Current Theories and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    The literature on human aggression is large and diverse. Some of it is theory-driven, but much of it dwells on solving social problems rather than on building general models and research paradigms. This paper examines some of the research programs and theoretical emphases in aggression research and presents theory convergences to see how these…

  5. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  6. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  7. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  8. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively.

  9. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  10. An introduction to physical therapy modalities.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brenda L; Liebert, Rainer B; Lininger, Monica R; Groth, Jessica J

    2007-05-01

    Timely and appropriate rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries is the most effective way of restoring full function and decreasing the likelihood of recurrence of the same injury. Application of specific physical therapy modalities and therapeutic exercises is based on the stages of healing. A typical physical therapy protocol progresses sequentially through the following phases: pain control, restoring range of motion, restoring strength, neuromuscular retraining, and return to full activity. The commonly used modalities reviewed here include heat, cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, and electrical stimulation. In this article we provide a basic review of physical therapy modalities.

  11. Modal Filtering for Control of Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2013-01-01

    Modal regulators and deformation trackers are designed for an open-loop fluttering wing model. The regulators are designed with modal coordinate and accelerometer inputs respectively. The modal coordinates are estimated with simulated fiber optics. The robust stability of the closed-loop systems is compared in a structured singular-value vector analysis. Performance is evaluated and compared in a gust alleviation and flutter suppression simulation. For the same wing and flight condition two wing-shape-tracking control architectures are presented, which achieve deformation control at any point on the wing.

  12. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases. PMID:24142292

  13. Dual-modal silica nanoprobes with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic and fluorescent signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Myung

    2015-07-01

    We present that dual-modal silica nanoprobes based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and fluorescence, demonstrating the several combinations of two spectroscopic signals for the noble combinatorial nanoprobes (F-SERS dot). Their synthetic procedure was introduced and dual-modal spectroscopic analyses were performed as preliminary studies. Hopefully, F-SERS dots will be one of promising and multifunctional nanoprobes for the various in vitro and in vivo biological diagnoses and screenings.

  14. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.

  15. Modal sound transmission loss of a single leaf panel: Effects of inter-modal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Sound transmission through a single leaf panel has mostly been discussed and explained by using the approaching wave concept, from which the well-known mass law can be derived. In this paper, the modal behavior in sound transmission coefficients is explored, and it is shown that the mutual modal radiation impedances in modal sound transmission coefficients may not be ignored even for a panel immersed in a light fluid. By introducing the equivalent modal impedance which incorporates the inter-modal coupling effect, an analytical expression for the modal sound transmission coefficient is derived, and the overall sound transmission coefficient is simply a modal superposition of modal sound transmission coefficients. A good correlation is obtained between analytical calculation and boundary element method. In addition, it is found that inter-modal coupling has noticeable effects in modal sound transmission coefficients in the subsonic region but may be ignored as modes become supersonic. It is also shown that the well-known mass law performance is attributed to all the supersonic modes.

  16. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  17. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  18. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  19. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  20. From Sensory Signals to Modality-Independent Conceptual Representations: A Probabilistic Language of Thought Approach.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Goker; Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models-that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model's percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects' ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception.

  1. From Sensory Signals to Modality-Independent Conceptual Representations: A Probabilistic Language of Thought Approach

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Goker; Yildirim, Ilker; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    People learn modality-independent, conceptual representations from modality-specific sensory signals. Here, we hypothesize that any system that accomplishes this feat will include three components: a representational language for characterizing modality-independent representations, a set of sensory-specific forward models for mapping from modality-independent representations to sensory signals, and an inference algorithm for inverting forward models—that is, an algorithm for using sensory signals to infer modality-independent representations. To evaluate this hypothesis, we instantiate it in the form of a computational model that learns object shape representations from visual and/or haptic signals. The model uses a probabilistic grammar to characterize modality-independent representations of object shape, uses a computer graphics toolkit and a human hand simulator to map from object representations to visual and haptic features, respectively, and uses a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer modality-independent object representations from visual and/or haptic signals. Simulation results show that the model infers identical object representations when an object is viewed, grasped, or both. That is, the model’s percepts are modality invariant. We also report the results of an experiment in which different subjects rated the similarity of pairs of objects in different sensory conditions, and show that the model provides a very accurate account of subjects’ ratings. Conceptually, this research significantly contributes to our understanding of modality invariance, an important type of perceptual constancy, by demonstrating how modality-independent representations can be acquired and used. Methodologically, it provides an important contribution to cognitive modeling, particularly an emerging probabilistic language-of-thought approach, by showing how symbolic and statistical approaches can be combined in order to understand aspects of human perception. PMID

  2. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games.

  3. Multisensory perception of the six basic emotions is modulated by attentional instruction and unattended modality.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sachiko; Hiramatsu, Saori; Tabei, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the perception of facial and vocal affective expressions interacts with each other. Facial expressions usually dominate vocal expressions when we perceive the emotions of face-voice stimuli. In most of these studies, participants were instructed to pay attention to the face or voice. Few studies compared the perceived emotions with and without specific instructions regarding the modality to which attention should be directed. Also, these studies used combinations of the face and voice which expresses two opposing emotions, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the emotion perception is modulated by instructions to pay attention to the face or voice using the six basic emotions. Also we examine the modality dominance between the face and voice for each emotion category. Before the experiment, we recorded faces and voices which expresses the six basic emotions and orthogonally combined these faces and voices. Consequently, the emotional valence of visual and auditory information was either congruent or incongruent. In the experiment, there were unisensory and multisensory sessions. The multisensory session was divided into three blocks according to whether an instruction was given to pay attention to a given modality (face attention, voice attention, and no instruction). Participants judged whether the speaker expressed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, or surprise. Our results revealed that instructions to pay attention to one modality and congruency of the emotions between modalities modulated the modality dominance, and the modality dominance is differed for each emotion category. In particular, the modality dominance for anger changed according to each instruction. Analyses also revealed that the modality dominance suggested by the congruency effect can be explained in terms of the facilitation effect and the interference effect.

  4. Comparing location memory for 4 sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Smeets, Monique A M; Postma, Albert

    2010-02-01

    Stimuli from all sensory modalities can be linked to places and thus might serve as navigation cues. We compared performance for 4 sensory modalities in a location memory task: Black-and-white drawings of free forms (vision), 1-s manipulated environmental sounds (audition), surface textures of natural and artificial materials (touch), and unfamiliar smells (olfaction) were presented in 10 cubes. In the learning stage, participants walked to a cube, opened it, and perceived its content. Subsequently, in a relocation task, they placed each stimulus back in its original location. Although the proportion of correct locations selected just failed to yield significant differences between the modalities, the proportion of stimuli placed in the vicinity of the correct location or on the correct side of the room was significantly higher for vision than for touch, olfaction, and audition. These outcomes suggest that approximate location memory is superior for vision compared with other sensory modalities.

  5. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Modal test structure project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.; Gregory, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a simple test structure which could be used to compare modal systems and modal methods. A secondary objective would be to develop a structure which could be used to train newcomers to modal testing. We wanted a structure which would be easy to analyze, have well defined properties, be easy to fabricate, and have both widely spaced and closely coupled modes. The widely spaced modes could test the single degree of freedom methods and the closely coupled modes could test the multiple degree of freedom methods. Most test structures have very low damping, while most real structures have significant damping. Each range of damping presents its own problems for modal extraction. We wanted to find a mateial with a moderate amount of damping to more closely model the kinds of structures frequently tested.

  7. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:23293593

  8. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  9. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  10. Comparison of two dissimilar modal identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Niedbal, Norbert; Klusowski, Erhard

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results using a refined phase resonance method and the eigensystem realization algorithm on the same test structure are reported. These methods are dissimilar modal identification techniques suitable for future large spacecraft. The theory, application approach, and results obtained for each technique are summarized and compared. Although both methods worked well in this investigation, significant differences occurred in some identified mode shapes. Comparison of independently derived modal parameters provides the means for disclosing such discrepancies in flight projects.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of barefoot footstrike modalities.

    PubMed

    Nunns, Michael; House, Carol; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-10-18

    Barefoot running has increased in popularity over recent years, with suggested injury risk and performance benefits. However, despite many anecdotal descriptions of barefoot running styles, there is insufficient evidence regarding the specific characteristics of barefoot running. The present study provided reference data for four footstrike modalities adopted across a large cohort of habitually shod male runners while running barefoot: heel strikers (HS), midfoot strikers (MS), forefoot strikers (FS) and a newly defined group, toe runners (TR - contact made only with the forefoot), compared with the three modalities previously reported. Plantar pressure analysis was used for the classification of footstrike modality, with clearly distinguishable pressure patterns for different modalities. In the present study, the distribution of footstrike types was similar to that previously observed in shod populations. The absence of differences in ground contact time and stride length suggest that potential performance benefits of a non-HS style are more likely to be a function of the act of running barefoot, rather than of footstrike type. Kinematic data for the knee and ankle indicate that FS and TR require a stiffer leg than HS or MS, while ankle moment and plantar pressure data suggest that a TR style may put greater strain on the plantar-flexors, Achilles tendon and metatarsal heads. TR style should therefore only be adopted with caution by recreational runners. These findings indicate the importance of considering footstrike modality in research investigating barefoot running, and support the use of four footstrike modalities to categorise running styles.

  12. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  13. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  14. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  15. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  16. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  17. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  18. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  19. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  20. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  1. Modulatory action of taurine on ethanol-induced aggressive behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Barbara D; Meinerz, Daniele L; Rosa, Luiz Vinícius C; Mezzomo, Nathana J; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Quadros, Vanessa A; Filho, Gilvan L B; Blaser, Rachel E; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol is a potent agent for eliciting aggression in vertebrates. Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid with pleiotropic actions on brain function. It is one of the most abundant molecules present in energy drinks frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. However, the combined effects of TAU and ethanol (EtOH) on behavioral parameters such as aggression are poorly understood. Considering that zebrafish is a suitable vertebrate to assess agonistic behaviors using noninvasive protocols, we investigate whether TAU modulates EtOH-induced aggression in zebrafish using the mirror-induced aggression (MIA) test. Since body color can be altered by pharmacological agents and may be indicative of emotional state, we also evaluated the actions of EtOH and TAU on pigment response. Fish were acutely exposed to TAU (42, 150, and 400mg/L), EtOH (0.25%), or cotreated with both molecules for 1h and then placed in the test apparatus for 6min. EtOH, TAU 42, TAU 400, TAU 42/EtOH and TAU 400/EtOH showed increased aggression, while 150mg/L TAU only increased the latency to attack the mirror. This same concentration also prevented EtOH-induced aggression, suggesting that it antagonizes the effects of acute alcohol exposure. Representative ethograms revealed the existence of different aggressive patterns and our results were confirmed by an index used to estimate aggression in the MIA test. TAU did not alter pigment intensity, while EtOH and all cotreated groups presented a substantial increase in body color. Overall, these data show a biphasic effect of TAU on EtOH-induced aggression of zebrafish, which is not necessarily associated with changes in body color. PMID:26631619

  2. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  3. The impact of aggressive priming, rumination, and frustration on prison sentencing.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo Antonio; Bartsch, Vanessa O; Pedersen, William C; Miller, Norman

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ruminating about a previous aggressive prime interacts with a subsequent minor frustration to augment aggression. Sixty participants watched a video showing a murder during a bank robbery (the aggressive prime). Those in the rumination condition were asked to write about the video for 20 min. In the no rumination condition, participants were given 20 min to complete an irrelevant task. Participants were then either frustrated or not frustrated. Our results supported the main hypothesis. Relative to the control condition, neither rumination nor frustration alone impacted aggression. Rumination, in combination with a minor frustration, however, increased the recommended prison sentence towards the targets. We discuss the implications of our findings.

  4. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

  5. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  6. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression.

  7. Natural stimuli from three coherent modalities enhance behavioral responses and electrophysiological cortical activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Sella, Irit; Reiner, Miriam; Pratt, Hillel

    2014-07-01

    Cues that involve a number of sensory modalities are processed in the brain in an interactive multimodal manner rather than independently for each modality. We studied multimodal integration in a natural, yet fully controlled scene, implemented as an interactive game in an auditory-haptic-visual virtual environment. In this imitation of a natural scene, the targets of perception were ecologically valid uni-, bi- and tri-modal manifestations of a simple event-a ball hitting a wall. Subjects were engaged in the game while their behavioral and early cortical electrophysiological responses were measured. Behavioral results confirmed that tri-modal cues were detected faster and more accurately than bi-modal cues, which, likewise, showed advantages over unimodal responses. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded, and the first 200 ms following stimulus onset was analyzed to reveal the latencies of cortical multimodal interactions as estimated by sLORETA. These electrophysiological findings indicated bi-modal as well as tri-modal interactions beginning very early (~30 ms), uniquely for each multimodal combination. The results suggest that early cortical multimodal integration accelerates cortical activity and, in turn, enhances performance measures. This acceleration registers on the scalp as sub-additive cortical activation.

  8. Escalation of aggression: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J H; Davis, R W; Herman, D

    1975-01-01

    A finding commonly obtained in research using the Buss "aggression machine" is a main effect for trail blocks, indicating an escalation in shock intensity over trails. Theoretical explanations for this effect were tested in a modified verbal operant-conditioning situation. In Experiment 1, subjects could administer any of 10 levels of positive reinforcement to a "learner" for correct verbal responses or any of 10 levels of negative reinforcement to a learner for incorrect responses. Half of the subjects were required to begin with weak, half with strong, reinforcements. Results indicated that, regardless of condition, subjects gave more intense reinforcements as the learning trails progressed. Those who administered negative reinforcements devalued the learner relative to those who administered positive reinforcements. In Experiment 2, a role-playing procedure was used in which subjects administered either positive or negative reinforcements to a learner whose performance either did or did not improve over trials. Again, in all experimental groups, subjects administered increasingly intense reinforcements over trials. The results are interpreted as supporting a disinhibition theory of anti- and prosocial behavior.

  9. Modelling modal gating of ion channels with hierarchical Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Mark; Crampin, Edmund J.; Taylor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels spontaneously switch between different levels of activity. Although this behaviour known as modal gating has been observed for a long time it is currently not well understood. Despite the fact that appropriately representing activity changes is essential for accurately capturing time course data from ion channels, systematic approaches for modelling modal gating are currently not available. In this paper, we develop a modular approach for building such a model in an iterative process. First, stochastic switching between modes and stochastic opening and closing within modes are represented in separate aggregated Markov models. Second, the continuous-time hierarchical Markov model, a new modelling framework proposed here, then enables us to combine these components so that in the integrated model both mode switching as well as the kinetics within modes are appropriately represented. A mathematical analysis reveals that the behaviour of the hierarchical Markov model naturally depends on the properties of its components. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical Markov model can be parametrized using experimental data and show that it provides a better representation than a previous model of the same dataset. Because evidence is increasing that modal gating reflects underlying molecular properties of the channel protein, it is likely that biophysical processes are better captured by our new approach than in earlier models.

  10. Perceptual Modalities Guiding Bat Flight in a Native Habitat.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaodan; Fuller, Nathan; Wang, Shuai; Özcimder, Kayhan; Gillam, Erin; Theriault, Diane; Betke, Margrit; Baillieul, John

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals accomplish high-speed navigation through fields of obstacles using a suite of sensory modalities that blend spatial memory with input from vision, tactile sensing, and, in the case of most bats and some other animals, echolocation. Although a good deal of previous research has been focused on the role of individual modes of sensing in animal locomotion, our understanding of sensory integration and the interplay among modalities is still meager. To understand how bats integrate sensory input from echolocation, vision, and spatial memory, we conducted an experiment in which bats flying in their natural habitat were challenged over the course of several evening emergences with a novel obstacle placed in their flight path. Our analysis of reconstructed flight data suggests that vision, echolocation, and spatial memory together with the possible exercise of an ability in using predictive navigation are mutually reinforcing aspects of a composite perceptual system that guides flight. Together with the recent development in robotics, our paper points to the possible interpretation that while each stream of sensory information plays an important role in bat navigation, it is the emergent effects of combining modalities that enable bats to fly through complex spaces. PMID:27264498

  11. Modelling modal gating of ion channels with hierarchical Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Mark; Crampin, Edmund J.; Taylor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many ion channels spontaneously switch between different levels of activity. Although this behaviour known as modal gating has been observed for a long time it is currently not well understood. Despite the fact that appropriately representing activity changes is essential for accurately capturing time course data from ion channels, systematic approaches for modelling modal gating are currently not available. In this paper, we develop a modular approach for building such a model in an iterative process. First, stochastic switching between modes and stochastic opening and closing within modes are represented in separate aggregated Markov models. Second, the continuous-time hierarchical Markov model, a new modelling framework proposed here, then enables us to combine these components so that in the integrated model both mode switching as well as the kinetics within modes are appropriately represented. A mathematical analysis reveals that the behaviour of the hierarchical Markov model naturally depends on the properties of its components. We also demonstrate how a hierarchical Markov model can be parametrized using experimental data and show that it provides a better representation than a previous model of the same dataset. Because evidence is increasing that modal gating reflects underlying molecular properties of the channel protein, it is likely that biophysical processes are better captured by our new approach than in earlier models. PMID:27616917

  12. Ex-vivo multi-modal microscopy of healthy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Edgar; Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lesage, Frédéric; González, Francisco Javier

    2014-09-01

    The thorough characterization of skin samples is a critical step in investigating dermatological diseases. The combination of depth-sensitive anatomical imaging with molecular imaging has the potential to provide vast information about the skin. In this proof-of-concept work we present high-resolution mosaic images of skin biopsies using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) manually co-registered with standard microscopy, bi-dimensional Raman spectral mapping and fluorescence imaging. A human breast skin sample, embedded in paraffin, was imaged with a swept-source OCT system at 1310 nm. Individual OCT volumes were acquired in fully automated fashion in order to obtain a large field-of-view at high resolution (~10μm). Based on anatomical features, the other three modalities were manually co-registered to the projected OCT volume, using an affine transformation. A drawback is the manual co-registration, which may limit the utility of this method. However, the results indicate that multiple imaging modalities provide complementary information about the sample. This pilot study suggests that multi-modal microscopy may be a valuable tool in the characterization of skin biopsies.

  13. Perceptual Modalities Guiding Bat Flight in a Native Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaodan; Fuller, Nathan; Wang, Shuai; Özcimder, Kayhan; Gillam, Erin; Theriault, Diane; Betke, Margrit; Baillieul, John

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals accomplish high-speed navigation through fields of obstacles using a suite of sensory modalities that blend spatial memory with input from vision, tactile sensing, and, in the case of most bats and some other animals, echolocation. Although a good deal of previous research has been focused on the role of individual modes of sensing in animal locomotion, our understanding of sensory integration and the interplay among modalities is still meager. To understand how bats integrate sensory input from echolocation, vision, and spatial memory, we conducted an experiment in which bats flying in their natural habitat were challenged over the course of several evening emergences with a novel obstacle placed in their flight path. Our analysis of reconstructed flight data suggests that vision, echolocation, and spatial memory together with the possible exercise of an ability in using predictive navigation are mutually reinforcing aspects of a composite perceptual system that guides flight. Together with the recent development in robotics, our paper points to the possible interpretation that while each stream of sensory information plays an important role in bat navigation, it is the emergent effects of combining modalities that enable bats to fly through complex spaces. PMID:27264498

  14. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  15. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  16. Precise diagnosis in different scenarios using photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging with dual-modality nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong; Du, Yang; Shi, Yiwen; Mao, Duo; Jia, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide comprehensive in vivo physiological and pathological information. However, currently there are limited probes available that can realize both fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, and advanced biomedical applications for applying this dual-modality imaging approach remain underexplored. In this study, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic-fluorescence imaging nanoprobe, ICG-loaded Au@SiO2, which was uniquely designed, consisting of gold nanorod cores and indocyanine green with silica shell spacer layers to overcome fluorophore quenching. This nanoprobe was examined by both PAI and FMI for in vivo imaging on tumor and ischemia mouse models. Our results demonstrated that the nanoparticles can specifically accumulate at the tumor and ischemic areas and be detected by both imaging modalities. Moreover, this dual-modality imaging strategy exhibited superior advantages for a precise diagnosis in different scenarios. The new nanoprobe with the dual-modality imaging approach holds great potential for diagnosis and stage classification of tumor and ischemia related diseases.Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide

  17. Working memory resources are shared across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Salmela, V R; Moisala, M; Alho, K

    2014-10-01

    A common assumption in the working memory literature is that the visual and auditory modalities have separate and independent memory stores. Recent evidence on visual working memory has suggested that resources are shared between representations, and that the precision of representations sets the limit for memory performance. We tested whether memory resources are also shared across sensory modalities. Memory precision for two visual (spatial frequency and orientation) and two auditory (pitch and tone duration) features was measured separately for each feature and for all possible feature combinations. Thus, only the memory load was varied, from one to four features, while keeping the stimuli similar. In Experiment 1, two gratings and two tones-both containing two varying features-were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, two gratings and two tones-each containing only one varying feature-were presented sequentially. The memory precision (delayed discrimination threshold) for a single feature was close to the perceptual threshold. However, as the number of features to be remembered was increased, the discrimination thresholds increased more than twofold. Importantly, the decrease in memory precision did not depend on the modality of the other feature(s), or on whether the features were in the same or in separate objects. Hence, simultaneously storing one visual and one auditory feature had an effect on memory precision equal to those of simultaneously storing two visual or two auditory features. The results show that working memory is limited by the precision of the stored representations, and that working memory can be described as a resource pool that is shared across modalities.

  18. Working memory resources are shared across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Salmela, V R; Moisala, M; Alho, K

    2014-10-01

    A common assumption in the working memory literature is that the visual and auditory modalities have separate and independent memory stores. Recent evidence on visual working memory has suggested that resources are shared between representations, and that the precision of representations sets the limit for memory performance. We tested whether memory resources are also shared across sensory modalities. Memory precision for two visual (spatial frequency and orientation) and two auditory (pitch and tone duration) features was measured separately for each feature and for all possible feature combinations. Thus, only the memory load was varied, from one to four features, while keeping the stimuli similar. In Experiment 1, two gratings and two tones-both containing two varying features-were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, two gratings and two tones-each containing only one varying feature-were presented sequentially. The memory precision (delayed discrimination threshold) for a single feature was close to the perceptual threshold. However, as the number of features to be remembered was increased, the discrimination thresholds increased more than twofold. Importantly, the decrease in memory precision did not depend on the modality of the other feature(s), or on whether the features were in the same or in separate objects. Hence, simultaneously storing one visual and one auditory feature had an effect on memory precision equal to those of simultaneously storing two visual or two auditory features. The results show that working memory is limited by the precision of the stored representations, and that working memory can be described as a resource pool that is shared across modalities. PMID:24935809

  19. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence.

  20. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group.

  1. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-01-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  2. Copy Number Alterations in Prostate Tumors and Disease Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Levin, Albert M.; Tai, Yu Chuan; Plummer, Sarah; Chen, Gary K.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Casey, Graham; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Witte, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Detecting genomic alterations that result in more aggressive prostate cancer may improve clinical treatment and our understanding of the biology underlying this common but complex disease. To this end, we undertook a genome-wide copy number alterations (CNAs) study of clinicopathological characteristics of 62 prostate tumors using the Illumina 1M SNP array. The highest overall frequencies of CNAs were on chromosomes 8q (gains), 8p (loss and copy-neutral) and 6q (copy-loss). Combined loss and copy-neutral events were associated with increasing disease grade (p=0.03), stage (p=0.01), and diagnostic PSA (p=0.01). Further evaluation of CNAs using gene ontology identified pathways involved with disease aggressiveness. The ‘regulation of apoptosis’ pathway was associated with stage of disease (p=0.004), while the ‘reproductive cellular process’ pathway was associated with diagnostic PSA (p=0.00038). Specific genes within these pathways exhibited strong associations with clinical characteristics; for example, in the apoptosis pathway BNIP3L was associated with increasing prostate tumor stage (p=0.007). These findings confirm known regions of CNAs in prostate cancer, and localize additional regions and possible genes (e.g., BNIP3L, WWOX, and GATM) that may help clarify the genetic basis of prostate cancer aggressiveness. PMID:21965145

  3. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  4. The aggression paradox: understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences.

    PubMed

    Joireman, Jeff; Anderson, Jonathan; Strathman, Alan

    2003-06-01

    Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C.A. Anderson & B.J. Bushman. 2002), positing that hostile cognition and negative affect mediate the relationships between the aforementioned individual differences and aggression. Sensation seeking also predicted a desire to engage in physical and verbal aggression. The final study demonstrated that relative to those scoring low, individuals scoring high on the consideration of future consequences are only less aggressive when aggression is likely to carry future costs. PMID:12793590

  5. Current restorative modalities for young patients with missing anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Schatz, J P

    1997-04-01

    The early loss of permanent teeth following trauma or congenital aplasia may be corrected by orthodontic or prosthetic means, sometimes combined with implant therapy. The orthodontic solution results usually in different anatomic, functional, and esthetic problems. Prosthetic and implant procedures, on the other hand, are very demanding and require long-term maintenance. Considering these limitations, a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment plan is mandatory to achieve the most satisfactory clinical result. Modern restorative modalities, such as recontouring, bleaching, and resin composite bonding, may improve the final clinical result after orthodontic space closure. In more difficult situations, veneers and crowns may also be indicated. PMID:10332371

  6. Multiple-modality program for standoff detection of roadside hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn; Middleton, Seth; Close, Ryan; Luke, Robert H.; Suri, Rajiv

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is executing a program to assess the performance of a variety of sensor modalities for standoff detection of roadside explosive hazards. The program objective is to identify an optimal sensor or combination of fused sensors to incorporate with autonomous detection algorithms into a system of systems for use in future route clearance operations. This paper provides an overview of the program, including a description of the sensors under consideration, sensor test events, and ongoing data analysis.

  7. Aggressive dogs: assessment and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2008-05-01

    The question of what to do with an aggressive dog involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This first column on the subject addresses the clinical aspects from the standpoint of the general veterinarian. PMID:18581290

  8. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  9. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  10. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  11. Use of Deslorelin Acetate Implants to Mitigate Aggression in Two Adult Male Domestic Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Correlating Plasma Testosterone Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Molter, Christine M; Fontenot, Deidre K; Terrell, Scott P

    2015-09-01

    Two adult, male domestic turkeys were treated with implants of deslorelin acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, to reduce intermale aggression and aggression directed toward the animal care team at a zoologic institution. The turkeys were manually restrained and either two 4.7-mg or two 9.4-mg implants were placed within the pectoral musculature on 3 occasions over the course of approximately 1.5 years. Plasma testosterone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay every 2 weeks for the first month after a new implant placement and then monthly thereafter. Testosterone concentrations remained low and aggressive behavior was decreased for a period of several months after implant placement. At necropsy of both birds, no adverse gross or histologic lesions were noted at the implantation sites in the pectoral musculature or within the gonadal tissue. Deslorelin acetate implants are a treatment modality to consider for mitigation of aggression in male domestic turkeys.

  12. Modality-specific attention in foraging bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Nityananda, Vivek; Chittka, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Attentional demands can prevent humans and other animals from performing multiple tasks simultaneously. Some studies, however, show that tasks presented in different sensory modalities (e.g. visual and auditory) can be processed simultaneously. This suggests that, at least in these cases, attention might be modality-specific and divided differently between tasks when present in the same modality compared with different modalities. We investigated this possibility in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) using a biologically relevant experimental set-up where they had to simultaneously choose more rewarding flowers and avoid simulated predatory attacks by robotic ‘spiders’. We found that when the tasks had to be performed using visual cues alone, bees failed to perform both tasks simultaneously. However, when highly rewarding flowers were indicated by olfactory cues and predators were indicated by visual cues, bees managed to perform both tasks successfully. Our results thus provide evidence for modality-specific attention in foraging bees and establish a novel framework for future studies of crossmodal attention in ecologically realistic settings. PMID:26587245

  13. Androgen receptors, sex behavior, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviors is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens' effects on behaviors through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behavior repertoires.

  14. Psychoanalytic views of aggression: some theoretical problems.

    PubMed

    Pedder, J

    1992-06-01

    Various problems in relation to psychoanalytic theories of aggression are considered in a review which is by no means exhaustive but includes areas which have puzzled and interested the author. First to be considered is why the concept of aggression as a major drive was a relative late-comer in psychoanalysis; next the contentious concept of a 'death instinct' and some of the factors in Freud's lifetime which may have contributed to both. Then it is suggested that we seem to have theories of aggression which might be called primary or secondary in two different senses. First is the question whether aggression is innate or secondary to frustration. In another sense, primary and secondary theories of aggression seem to survive paralleling Freud's original primary and secondary theories of anxiety. In this sense the primary theory survives as an explanation of psychosomatic disorder. Lastly, the link between suicide and murder is considered and the turning of aggression against the self in depression and self-destructive attacks. PMID:1633126

  15. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  16. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  17. The Modality-Match Effect in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Osborn, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The modality-match effect in recognition refers to superior memory for words presented in the same modality at study and test. Prior research on this effect is ambiguous and inconsistent. The present study demonstrates that the modality-match effect is found when modality is rendered salient at either encoding or retrieval. Specifically, in…

  18. Modal confidence factor in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The modal confidence factor (MCF) is a number calculated for every identified mode for a structure under test. The MCF varies from 0.00 for a distorted nonlinear, or noise mode to 100.0 for a pure structural mode. The theory of the MCF is based on the correlation that exists between the modal deflection at a certain station and the modal deflection at the same station delayed in time. The theory and application of the MCF are illustrated by two experiments. The first experiment deals with simulated responses from a two-degree-of-freedom system with 20%, 40%, and 100% noise added. The second experiment was run on a generalized payload model. The free decay response from the payload model contained 22% noise.

  19. Modalities of psychotherapy with the elderly.

    PubMed

    Karpf, R J

    1980-08-01

    Emphasized is the view that geriatric psychotherapy can be effectively administered only with knowledge of the biology, psychology, and sociology of old age. The concepts of transference, countertransference, interpretation, conflict and defense mechanisms are crucial for understanding the various treatment modalities. Five intervention patterns are offered for the therapeutic approaches, i.e., interpretation, suggestion, reinforcement, confrontation, and clarification. The different modalities of geriatric psychotherapy may be viewed as variations of different clusters of these interventions, e.g., psychoanalysis makes most use of interpretation whereas group therapy makes most use of confrontation and clarification. For the psychologic treatment of disorders in late life, there are five basic modalities and one adjunct. The basic psychotherapies are classified as psychoanalytic, supportive, group, family, and behavioral; the adjunct is psychopharmacologic treatment, which is not a substitute for effective psychotherapy. Much semantic confusion has centered around this adjunctive treatment. Conceptual confusions about the meaning of the word "cure" are discussed.

  20. Adaptive Modal Identification for Flutter Suppression Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Drew, Michael; Swei, Sean S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will develop an adaptive modal identification method for identifying the frequencies and damping of a flutter mode based on model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) and least-squares methods. The least-squares parameter estimation will achieve parameter convergence in the presence of persistent excitation whereas the MRAC parameter estimation does not guarantee parameter convergence. Two adaptive flutter suppression control approaches are developed: one based on MRAC and the other based on the least-squares method. The MRAC flutter suppression control is designed as an integral part of the parameter estimation where the feedback signal is used to estimate the modal information. On the other hand, the separation principle of control and estimation is applied to the least-squares method. The least-squares modal identification is used to perform parameter estimation.

  1. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than −40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

  2. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, ..pi../sup -/, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only /sup 60/Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities.

  3. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  4. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  5. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  6. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, Earl H.

    1992-01-01

    Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA) is a method which is used to model linear dynamical systems with many participating modes. The AMA method was originally developed to show the relationship between statistical energy analysis (SEA) and classical modal analysis (CMA). In the limit of a large number of modes of a vibrating system, the classical modal analysis result can be shown to be equivalent to the statistical energy analysis result. As the CMA result evolves into the SEA result, a number of systematic assumptions are made. Most of these assumptions are based upon the supposition that the number of modes approaches infinity. It is for this reason that the term 'asymptotic' is used. AMA is the asymptotic result of taking the limit of CMA as the number of modes approaches infinity. AMA refers to any of the intermediate results between CMA and SEA, as well as the SEA result which is derived from CMA. The main advantage of the AMA method is that individual modal characteristics are not required in the model or computations. By contrast, CMA requires that each modal parameter be evaluated at each frequency. In the latter, contributions from each mode are computed and the final answer is obtained by summing over all the modes in the particular band of interest. AMA evaluates modal parameters only at their center frequency and does not sum the individual contributions from each mode in order to obtain a final result. The method is similar to SEA in this respect. However, SEA is only capable of obtaining spatial averages or means, as it is a statistical method. Since AMA is systematically derived from CMA, it can obtain local spatial information as well.

  7. Heterogeneity of relationally aggressive adolescents in Taiwan: direct and indirect relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2014-11-01

    Relational aggressors mistreat their targets in covert ways; however, they also inflict psychological harm to victims. A clarification of the distinctive function of the perpetrators' destructive patterns would be helpful for interventional consideration. This study's purpose was to, first, explore the classification of relational aggression (RA) by means of operational channels, and then, to examine the psychosocial characteristics of each subtype. The participants were 860 junior high school students (431 boys, M age = 14.2) from four schools in Taiwan. Self-reported measures of empathy, normative beliefs of RA, and coping strategy of interpersonal conflicts were used for data collection, as well as peer-nominated measures of RA and peer acceptance. By means of cluster analyses, five clusters were identified: direct, indirect, severe/combined, mild/combined, and uninvolved. The meaningfulness of the resultant cluster solution was examined through the analysis of social-cognitive, affective, and behavioral features as well as psychosocial adjustment. The findings indicated that different subgroups of relational aggressors demonstrated distinct psychosocial characteristics. In particular, in contrast to non-involved adolescents, the direct group tended to regard RA as acceptable, and the indirect group was more likely to rely on social support and have negative emotional reactions in dealing with interpersonal problems. PMID:24850766

  8. A spatial modality effect in serial memory.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sébastien; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Guérard, Katherine; Nicholls, Alastair P; Jones, Dylan M

    2006-09-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors tested whether the classical modality effect-that is, the stronger recency effect for auditory items relative to visual items-can be extended to the spatial domain. An order reconstruction task was undertaken with four types of material: visual-spatial, auditory-spatial, visual-verbal, and auditory-verbal. Similar serial position curves were obtained regardless of the nature of the to-be-remembered sequences, with the exception that a modality effect was found with spatial as well as with verbal materials. The results are discussed with regard to a number of models of short-term memory.

  9. Nonoperative Modalities to Treat Symptomatic Cervical Spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael; Butler, Joseph S.; Dolan, Roisin T.; O'Byrne, John M.; Poynton, Ashley R.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis. PMID:21991426

  10. Modal Waves Solved in Complex Wave Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.-J.; Jenot, F.; Ourak, M.

    2005-04-01

    A numerical algorithm is proposed for the resolution in complex domain of the ultrasonic modal waves from the characteristic equation of elastic structures. The method is applicable to any numerically available function given explicitly or implicitly. The complex root loci of the modal waves are constructed by varying other parameters. Different situations which can cause the roots searching and following failure are analysed and the corresponding solutions are proposed. The computation examples are given for a three layered adhesive joint and a composite plate.

  11. Optimal identification using inconsistent modal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This work examines techniques under the general approach of optimal-update identification which produce optimally adjusted, or updated, property matrices (i.e., mass, stiffness and damping matrices) to more closely match the structure modal response. For practical applications, the techniques must perform when the modal response is inconsistent with other constraints on the desired model. An alternate view of the optimal-update problem is presented that leads to new techniques for addressing inconsistent data. Viewpoints used for previously published techniques are also examined to explore issues in optimal-update identification.

  12. Modal insensitivity with optimality. [in feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Raman, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a constant gain, feedback controller which results in selected modal insensitivity, and at the same time optimizes a quadratic performance index representative of desired system performance for nominal plant parameter values. Both full state and output feedback control are considered. A constraint is established for the feedback gain matrix that results in modal insensitivity, and necessary conditions for optimality subject to this constraint are given. This forms the basis for a numerical algorithm to compute the optimal feedback gain. To illustrate the procedure, a design is carried out using the lateral dynamics of an L-1011 aircraft.

  13. Modal identification of a deployable space truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Axel; Pappa, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Work performed under a collaborative research effort between NASA and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) is summarized. The objective is to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for system identification of future large space structures. Recent experiences using the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) for modal identification of Mini-Mast are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20-meter-long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active-vibration control research at the NASA Langley Research Center. Due to nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods available with ERA for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results are illustrated.

  14. Psychosis, aggression, and self-destructive behavior in hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Delga, I; Heinssen, R K; Fritsch, R C; Goodrich, W; Yates, B T

    1989-04-01

    The authors studied the history of aggressive and self-destructive behaviors in psychotic and nonpsychotic hospitalized adolescents (N = 137). A multidimensional measure of self- and other-directed aggression was retrospectively applied to each patient's social and developmental history. Nonsignificant gender and diagnostic differences were obtained on ratings of violence and suicide. Broader definitions of internal and external aggression yielded nonsignificant diagnostic differences, but gender differences were observed on both internal and external aggression measures. Females displayed greater internal aggression, and males reported higher external aggression scores. These results, compared to those of other investigators, suggest the importance of social and cultural variables in understanding adolescent psychosis and aggression.

  15. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  16. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  17. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  18. [Retrospective analysis for 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma treated with different modality therapies].

    PubMed

    Du, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Xiu-Bin; Su, Hang; Da, Yong; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhong, Kai-Li; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Lu, Yun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Wei-Jing

    2012-04-01

    This paper explored the curative effect of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma. 104 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma from Jan 1987 to Dec 2010 in PLA Hospital 307 were retrospectively analyzed, including 76 cases in combined modality therapy group and 28 cases in extended field radiotherapy group, and the long-term efficacy and toxicity of two therapy modalities were evaluated. The results showed that the median survival time of 104 cases was 85.42 months, the complete remission rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 72.4 and 71.4 respectively (P = 0.924); the overall response rates of combined modality therapy and extended field radiotherapy groups were 97.4 and 96.4 respectively (P = 0.779); the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates in the 2 groups were 89.5 and 89.1 respectively, and the 8-year OS rates of the 2 groups were 81.3 and 70.6. No statistical difference was found in above-mentioned 2 groups. Moreover, the 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates of these 2 groups were 84.2 and 69.0 (P = 0.04), and 8-year PFS rates of these 2 groups were 80.0 and 55.5 (P = 0.04) respectively, the 5-year relapse rates of these 2 groups were 28.1 and 45.6 (P = 0.023) respectively. It is concluded that the combined modality therapy can raise the PFS rate and reduce the relapse rate as compared with extended field radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma, but there is no difference in the overall survival rate between the 2 groups.

  19. FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Flavia M.; Tinoco, Eduardo M. B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Duarte, Poliana M.; Faveri, Marcelo; Marques, Marcelo R.; Mendonça, Adriana C.; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03) was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009). Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:20383335

  20. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  1. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  2. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  3. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  4. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  5. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  6. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1993-01-01

    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  7. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  8. Witnessed aggression: influence of an observer's sex and values on aggressive responding.

    PubMed

    Borden, R J

    1975-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of the presence of an observer on aggressive responding. In one experiment, male subjects observed by a male aggressed more than those observed by a female. When the male observer was removed from the situation, subjects' level of aggressiveness more closely matched the level manifested by the opponent. The removal of the female observer had little effect on the subjects' behavior. In the second experiment, the male or female observer of the subject's behavior was disguised as a member of an organization with explicit values (aggressive or pacifistic) regarding the use of aggression. In this case, significant differences in aggression were associated with the observer's values but not the observer's sex. Following the departure of the observer, the shock settings of subjects in the two aggressive-value observer groups showed a signifcant decrease. The average shock setting of subjects in the two pacifistic-value observer groups remained at about the same level. In sum, the results indicated that the subjects' aggressive behavior was apparently a function of their expectations of approval for such behavior, based on the inferred or explicit values of the observer. The results were further discussed in terms of social learning theory.

  9. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  10. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  11. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components.

  12. Beliefs about Aggression and Submissiveness: A Comparison of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jamie; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relevance of the social information processing model of aggression to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated the "response access" and "response decision" steps of this model. Photo stories were used to compare aggressive and nonaggressive individuals' beliefs about the outcomes of…

  13. Inverting the modality effect in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip

    2002-04-01

    Differences in recall ability between immediate serial recall of auditorily and visually presented verbal material have traditionally been considered restricted to the end of to-be-recalled lists, the recency section of the serial position curve (e.g., Crowder & Morton, 1969). Later studies showed that--under certain circumstances--differences in recall between the two modalities can be observed across the whole of the list (Frankish, 1985). However in all these studies the advantage observed is for recall of material presented in the auditorily modality. Six separate conditions across four experiments demonstrate that a visual advantage can be obtained with serial recall if participants are required to recall the list in two distinct sections using serial recall. Judged on a list-wide basis, the visual advantage is of equivalent size to the auditory advantage of the classical modality effect. The results demonstrate that differences in representation of auditory and visual verbal material in short-term memory persist beyond lexical and phonological categorization and are problematic for current theories of the modality effect.

  14. A Spatial Modality Effect in Serial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Guerard, Katherine; Nicholls, Alastair P.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors tested whether the classical modality effect--that is, the stronger recency effect for auditory items relative to visual items--can be extended to the spatial domain. An order reconstruction task was undertaken with four types of material: visual-spatial, auditory-spatial, visual-verbal, and auditory-verbal.…

  15. Impact of Learning Modalities on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenouillet, Fabien; Kaplan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on the analysis of academic results of 692 undergraduate and graduate students in two disciplines in a French university who attended their courses using one out of four possible learning modalities. Within the two disciplines, Art History and Educational Sciences, students chose between face-to-face learning (on campus),…

  16. Inside out: Focusing as a Therapeutic Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Katje

    2006-01-01

    The author explores Focusing (E. Gendlin, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1967, 1968, 1981, 1989, 1996, 2004) as a psychotherapeutic modality and presents background that led to the development of Focusing, its rationale and theoretical orientation, and supporting research. The author also provides a detailed and experiential illustration of the…

  17. Seeking Conceptual Clarity in the Action Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the presumption that action learning has not made as deep an impact in promoting participatory social change as its supporters may have hoped for, but nor has its cousin action modalities, such as action research and action science. These action strategies have evolved separately along distinct traditions and, rather than…

  18. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Daniela; Carnuccio, Rosa; Maiuri, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials. PMID:23304518

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Modality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews research on the modality effect, the educational practice of presenting to-be-learned graphical information visually, and related textual information through an auditory mode. Meta-analytic methods were applied to 43 independent effects (39 between-subjects designs, 4 within-subjects designs). Major hypotheses regarding the…

  20. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  1. Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

  2. Operational modal analysis approach based on multivariable transmissibility with different transferring outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Araújo, Iván; Laier, Jose Elias

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, transmissibility functions have been used as alternatives to identify the modal parameters of structures under operating conditions. The scalar power spectrum density transmissibility (PSDT), which relates only two responses, was proposed to extract modal parameters by combining different PSDTs with different transferring outputs. In this sense, this paper proposes extending the scalar PSDT concept to multivariable PSDT by relating multiple responses instead of only two. This extension implies the definition of a transmissibility matrix, relating the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and U with the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and K. The coordinates in Z are known as the transferring outputs. By defining the same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs Z, we prove that the multivariable PSDT converges to the same matrix when it approaches the system poles. This property is used to define only one matrix with different multivariable PSDTs with same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs. The resulting matrix is singular at the system poles, meaning that by applying the inverse of the matrix, the modal parameters can be identified. Here, a numeric example of a beam model subjected to excitations and data from an operational vibration bridge test shows that the proposed method is capable of identifying modal parameters. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the possibility of estimating the same modal parameters by changing only the coordinates K and U, providing greater reliability during modal parameter identification.

  3. Precise diagnosis in different scenarios using photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging with dual-modality nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dong; Du, Yang; Shi, Yiwen; Mao, Duo; Jia, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2016-08-14

    Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide comprehensive in vivo physiological and pathological information. However, currently there are limited probes available that can realize both fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, and advanced biomedical applications for applying this dual-modality imaging approach remain underexplored. In this study, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic-fluorescence imaging nanoprobe, ICG-loaded Au@SiO2, which was uniquely designed, consisting of gold nanorod cores and indocyanine green with silica shell spacer layers to overcome fluorophore quenching. This nanoprobe was examined by both PAI and FMI for in vivo imaging on tumor and ischemia mouse models. Our results demonstrated that the nanoparticles can specifically accumulate at the tumor and ischemic areas and be detected by both imaging modalities. Moreover, this dual-modality imaging strategy exhibited superior advantages for a precise diagnosis in different scenarios. The new nanoprobe with the dual-modality imaging approach holds great potential for diagnosis and stage classification of tumor and ischemia related diseases.

  4. Modality dependence and intermodal transfer in the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task: Screen vs. Floor.

    PubMed

    Röser, Andrea; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    Four versions of the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task (CSST) were tested in a complete within-subject design, investigating whether participants' performance depends on the modality of task presentation and reproduction that put different demands on spatial processing. Presentation of the sequence (encoding phase) and the reproduction (recall phase) were each carried out either on a computer screen or on the floor of a room, involving actual walking in the recall phase. Combinations of the two different encoding and recall procedures result in the modality conditions Screen-Screen, Screen-Floor, Floor-Screen, and Floor-Floor. Results show the expected decrease in performance with increasing sequence length, which is likely due to processing limitations of working memory. We also found differences in performance between the modality conditions indicating different involvements of spatial working memory processes. Participants performed best in the Screen-Screen modality condition. Floor-Screen and Floor-Floor modality conditions require additional working memory resources for reference frame transformation and spatial updating, respectively; the resulting impairment of the performance was about the same in these two conditions. Finally, the Screen-Floor modality condition requires both types of additional spatial demands and led to the poorest performance. Therefore, we suggest that besides the well-known spatial requirements of CSST, additional working memory resources are demanded in walking CSST supporting processes such as spatial updating, mental rotation, reference frame transformation, and the control of walking itself.

  5. EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Senneville, B. Denis; Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Moonen, C.

    2016-10-01

    Image registration is part of a large variety of medical applications including diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and/or treatment effectiveness and, more recently, therapy guidance. Such applications usually involve several imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging, either separately or combined. In the current work, we propose a non-rigid multi-modal registration method (namely EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration) that aims at maximizing edge alignment between the images being registered. The proposed algorithm requires only contrasts between physiological tissues, preferably present in both image modalities, and assumes deformable/elastic tissues. Given both is shown to be well suitable for non-rigid co-registration across different image types/contrasts (T1/T2) as well as different modalities (CT/MRI). This is achieved using a variational scheme that provides a fast algorithm with a low number of control parameters. Results obtained on an annotated CT data set were comparable to the ones provided by state-of-the-art multi-modal image registration algorithms, for all tested experimental conditions (image pre-filtering, image intensity variation, noise perturbation). Moreover, we demonstrate that, compared to existing approaches, our method possesses increased robustness to transient structures (i.e. that are only present in some of the images).

  6. Precise diagnosis in different scenarios using photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging with dual-modality nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dong; Du, Yang; Shi, Yiwen; Mao, Duo; Jia, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2016-08-14

    Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide comprehensive in vivo physiological and pathological information. However, currently there are limited probes available that can realize both fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, and advanced biomedical applications for applying this dual-modality imaging approach remain underexplored. In this study, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic-fluorescence imaging nanoprobe, ICG-loaded Au@SiO2, which was uniquely designed, consisting of gold nanorod cores and indocyanine green with silica shell spacer layers to overcome fluorophore quenching. This nanoprobe was examined by both PAI and FMI for in vivo imaging on tumor and ischemia mouse models. Our results demonstrated that the nanoparticles can specifically accumulate at the tumor and ischemic areas and be detected by both imaging modalities. Moreover, this dual-modality imaging strategy exhibited superior advantages for a precise diagnosis in different scenarios. The new nanoprobe with the dual-modality imaging approach holds great potential for diagnosis and stage classification of tumor and ischemia related diseases. PMID:27406825

  7. Noise reduction for modal parameters estimation using algorithm of solving partially described inverse singular value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xingxian; Cao, Aixia; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Modal parameters estimation plays an important role for structural health monitoring. Accurately estimating the modal parameters of structures is more challenging as the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of solving the partially described inverse singular value problem (PDISVP) combined with the complex exponential (CE) method to estimate the modal parameters. The PDISVP solving method is to reconstruct an L2-norm optimized (filtered) data matrix from the measured (noisy) data matrix, when the prescribed data constraints are one or several sets of singular triplets of the matrix. The measured data matrix is Hankel structured, which is constructed based on the measured impulse response function (IRF). The reconstructed matrix must maintain the Hankel structure, and be lowered in rank as well. Once the filtered IRF is obtained, the CE method can be applied to extract the modal parameters. Two physical experiments, including a steel cantilever beam with 10 accelerometers mounted, and a steel plate with 30 accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulsive load, respectively, are investigated to test the applicability of the proposed scheme. In addition, the consistency diagram is proposed to exam the agreement among the modal parameters estimated from those different accelerometers. Results indicate that the PDISVP-CE method can significantly remove noise from measured signals and accurately estimate the modal frequencies and damping ratios.

  8. Characterization of aggressive prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojaste, Amir; Imani, Farhad; Moradi, Mehdi; Berman, David; Siemens, D. Robert; Sauerberi, Eric E.; Boag, Alexander H.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalently diagnosed and the second cause of cancer-related death in North American men. Several approaches have been proposed to augment detection of prostate cancer using different imaging modalities. Due to advantages of ultrasound imaging, these approaches have been the subject of several recent studies. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on differentiating between lower and higher grade prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series data. We also propose new spectral features of RF time series to highlight aggressive prostate cancer in small ROIs of size 1 mm × 1 mm in a cohort of 19 ex vivo specimens of human prostate tissue. In leave-one-patient-out cross-validation strategy, an area under accumulated ROC curve of 0.8 has been achieved with overall sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 80%, respectively. The current method shows promising results on differentiating between lower and higher grade of prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series.

  9. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  10. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  11. Nonlinear Reduced-Order Simulation Using Stress-Free and Pre-Stressed Modal Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Stover, Michael A.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    A study is undertaken to determine the advantages and disadvantages associated with application of stress-free and pre-stressed modal bases in a reduced-order finite-element-based nonlinear simulation. A planar beam is chosen as an application example and its response due to combined thermal and random pressure loadings is examined. Combinations of two random pressure levels and two thermal conditions are investigated. The latter consists of an ambient temperature condition and an elevated temperature condition in the post-buckled regime. It is found that stress-free normal modes establish a broadly applicable modal basis yielding accurate results for all the loading regimes considered. In contrast, the range of applicability for a thermally pre-stressed modal basis is found to be limited. The behavior is explained by scrutinizing the coupling found in the linear stiffness and the effect this coupling has on the structural response characteristics under the range of loading conditions considered.

  12. A substructure energy method for prediction of Space Shuttle modal damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kana, D. D.; Unruh, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The results of this program demonstrate the validity of a dissipative energy approach for predicting the damping of a four-component Space Shuttle model by means of modal parameters obtained from tests of the individual components. A relationship between modal damping energy per cycle and peak strain (or kinetic) energy is first determined empirically from test data for each component. Undamped analytical models of each component are also developed, and combined into a system model from which are obtained modal kinetic (or strain) energies for its respective modes. These data are then used with the empirical damping curves to apportion the proper amount of damping energy to each component in a combined system mode, and thereby allow a prediction of damping ratio.

  13. Modal Coupling of Single Photon Emitters Within Nanofiber Waveguides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale generation of individual photons in confined geometries is an exciting research field aiming at exploiting localized electromagnetic fields for light manipulation. One of the outstanding challenges of photonic systems combining emitters with nanostructured media is the selective channelling of photons emitted by embedded sources into specific optical modes and their transport at distant locations in integrated systems. Here, we show that soft-matter nanofibers, electrospun with embedded emitters, combine subwavelength field localization and large broadband near-field coupling with low propagation losses. By momentum spectroscopy, we quantify the modal coupling efficiency identifying the regime of single-mode coupling. These nanofibers do not rely on resonant interactions, making them ideal for room-temperature operation, and offer a scalable platform for future quantum information technology. PMID:27203403

  14. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  15. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  16. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  17. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  18. [Self aggressive-behaviours in prison].

    PubMed

    Ammar, Malek M; Borras, L; Eytan, A

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among prisoners is a relatively well documented public health issue. On the other hand, data about self-aggressive behaviours in prisons are scarce, despite the fact that this problem seems to be highly prevalent. We conducted a retrospective study over a fifteen months period in a remand prison situated in the French speaking area of Switzerland. During this time period, 161 self-aggressive behaviours were recorded, corresponding to 80 inmates. The most frequent acts were self-cuttings and self-mutilations, followed by strangulations. All these patients were male and their mean age was 25. Some of these behaviours (ingesting cutting objects and sewing of the lips) were specific to some ethno-cultural groups. Copycat behaviours play a significant role in closed communities such as prisons. These results underline the necessity of taking into account self-aggressive behaviours in penitentiary institutions. PMID:19024369

  19. Sun-induced frowning fosters aggressive feelings.

    PubMed

    Marzoli, Daniele; Custodero, Mariagrazia; Pagliara, Alessandra; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether aggressiveness can be triggered by the involuntary frowning that occurs when people face the sun, due to the fact that sun-induced frowning involves the same pattern of facial muscle activation as in the expression of anger (interestingly, Charles Darwin remarked on the sunshade-like nature of frowning). In line with data showing that experimentally and unobtrusively induced facial and body displays facilitate congruent feelings, we found that participants walking against the sun without sunglasses scored higher in a self-report measure of anger and aggression compared to those walking with the sun behind and/or wearing sunglasses. We also suggest that frowning at the sun affects mood very quickly, because we did not find any effect of walking time on self-reported aggressiveness. Our results provide the first evidence of the ecological validity of the facial feedback hypothesis.

  20. CT dose minimization using personalized protocol optimization and aggressive bowtie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yin, Zhye; Jin, Yannan; Wu, Mingye; Yao, Yangyang; Tao, Kun; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; De Man, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we propose to use patient-specific x-ray fluence control to reduce the radiation dose to sensitive organs while still achieving the desired image quality (IQ) in the region of interest (ROI). The mA modulation profile is optimized view by view, based on the sensitive organs and the ROI, which are obtained from an ultra-low-dose volumetric CT scout scan [1]. We use a clinical chest CT scan to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept: the breast region is selected as the sensitive organ region while the cardiac region is selected as IQ ROI. Two groups of simulations are performed based on the clinical CT dataset: (1) a constant mA scan adjusted based on the patient attenuation (120 kVp, 300 mA), which serves as baseline; (2) an optimized scan with aggressive bowtie and ROI centering combined with patient-specific mA modulation. The results shows that the combination of the aggressive bowtie and the optimized mA modulation can result in 40% dose reduction in the breast region, while the IQ in the cardiac region is maintained. More generally, this paper demonstrates the general concept of using a 3D scout scan for optimal scan planning.

  1. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates.

    PubMed

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2013-10-01

    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between the plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards a simplified prediction model for ribbed plates. PMID:24116410

  2. Proactive and reactive aggression in referred children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Cunningham, Julie A; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2004-04-01

    Investigating different types of aggression is important to facilitate a better understanding of excessive maladaptive aggression in referred youth. Using regression analysis, the authors investigated demographic, historical, diagnostic, and treatment correlates of proactive aggression and reactive aggression in a heterogeneous population (N = 323) of psychiatrically referred youths. Ratings of proactive and reactive aggression significantly correlated with more established measures of aggression. Results suggest the importance of hyperactive/impulsive behavior, disruptive behavior disorders, and self-reported hostility in youths with both reactive and proactive aggression. Substance use disorders, a family history of substance abuse, and family violence were specifically associated with proactive aggression. Younger age and a history of abuse were correlated with reactive aggression. Implications for clinical interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:15113242

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  4. Validation of a laboratory play measure of child aggression.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A; DeLuca, D; Murtaugh, K; Deiner, E

    1977-03-01

    The validity of laboratory play measures of aggression has been called into question. Critics have charged that laboratory findings on childhood aggression cannot be generalized to everyday aggression. In the present study, the validity of striking a Bobo clown as a measure of aggression was assessed by correlating the rate of this behavior with peer ratings, teaching ratings, and self-ratings of aggressiveness in a preschool. Laboratory aggression correlated significantly with both peer ratings, r = .76, p less than .01, and teacher ratings, r = .57, p less than .05, but not with self-ratings, r = .36. Laboratory aggression correlated more highly with aggression ratings for males (N = 9) than for females (N = 9), but not significantly so. The findings support the use of laboratory play as a valid measure of aggression in children.

  5. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  6. [Advantages of fixed combinations].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2008-07-01

    Fixed combinations are indicated in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension when monotherapy does not sufficiently reduce IOP. Fixed combinations show better efficacy than the instillation of each separate component and are at least equivalent to the administration of both components in a separate association. They simplify treatment, increase compliance and quality of life, and decrease exposure to preservatives. Although they are less aggressive for patients when a new drug needs to be added, the use of fixed combinations should not decrease the follow-up. PMID:18957922

  7. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility. PMID:26427235

  8. Aversive Parenting in China: Associations with Child Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…

  9. The Effect of Digital Games and Game Strategies on Young Adolescents' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Sigal; Eshet-Alkalai, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Violence is a major element in many of the present-day's digital games. Despite the extensive research on this subject, the effect of violent digital games on the aggression level among children has not been satisfactorily clarified. The study examines the combined effect of collaborative/competitive game strategy and the presence or absence of…

  10. The Allure of a Mean Friend: Relationship Quality and Processes of Aggressive Adolescents with Prosocial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Card, Noel A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent theory on social dominance suggests that aggressive individuals should be socially successful if they also display prosocial behavior. The combination of coercive and prosocial strategies of resource control (i.e., bistrategic control) is thought to facilitate hierarchy ascension. Adolescents (N = 929, grades 7-10) were queried about the…

  11. International Space Station Modal Correction Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotz[atrocl. Lrostom; Grugoer. < ocjae; Laible, Michael; Sugavanam, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit modal test and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS Stage ULF4, DTF S4-1A, October 11,2010, GMT 284/06:13:00.00. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models with the intent to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve fatigue life prediction. For the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic responses were collected with Russian vehicles attached and without the Orbiter attached to the ISS. ISS instrumentation systems that were used to collect the dynamic responses during the DTF S4-1A included the Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and ISS External Cameras. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical modal parameters were performed to assess the accuracy of models for the ISS configuration under consideration. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. Section 2.0 of this report presents the math model used in the analysis. This section also describes the ISS configuration under consideration and summarizes the associated primary modes of interest along with the fundamental appendage modes. Section 3.0 discusses the details of the ISS Stage ULF4 DTF S4-1A test. Section 4.0 discusses the on-orbit instrumentation systems that were used in the collection of the data analyzed in this paper. The modal analysis approach and results used in the analysis of the collected data are summarized in Section 5.0. The model correlation and validation effort is reported in Section 6.0. Conclusions and

  12. A prototype hand-held tri-modal instrument for in vivo ultrasound, photoacoustic, and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeeun; Chang, Jin Ho; Wilson, Brian C.; Veilleux, Israel; Bai, Yanhui; DaCosta, Ralph; Kim, Kang; Ha, Seunghan; Lee, Jong Gun; Kim, Jeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hak Jong; Ahn, Young Bok; Han, Seunghee; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2015-03-01

    Multi-modality imaging is beneficial for both preclinical and clinical applications as it enables complementary information from each modality to be obtained in a single procedure. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel tri-modal in vivo imaging system to exploit molecular/functional information from fluorescence (FL) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging as well as anatomical information from ultrasound (US) imaging. The same ultrasound transducer was used for both US and PA imaging, bringing the pulsed laser light into a compact probe by fiberoptic bundles. The FL subsystem is independent of the acoustic components but the front end that delivers and collects the light is physically integrated into the same probe. The tri-modal imaging system was implemented to provide each modality image in real time as well as co-registration of the images. The performance of the system was evaluated through phantom and in vivo animal experiments. The results demonstrate that combining the modalities does not significantly compromise the performance of each of the separate US, PA, and FL imaging techniques, while enabling multi-modality registration. The potential applications of this novel approach to multi-modality imaging range from preclinical research to clinical diagnosis, especially in detection/localization and surgical guidance of accessible solid tumors.

  13. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time.

  14. [Effect of sodium valproate on aggressive behavior of male mice with various aggression experience].

    PubMed

    Smagin, D A; Bondar', N P; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2010-01-01

    Sector of Social Behavior Neurogenetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch, Effects of sodium valproate on the aggressive behavior of male mice with 2- and 20-day positive fighting experience have been studied. It is established that valproate administered in a singe dose of 100 mg/kg has no effect on the behavior of male mice with a 2-day experience of aggression. The treatment of mice with 300 mg/kg of valproate significantly decreased the level of aggressive motivation and the percentage of animals demonstrating attacks and threats. In male mice with a 20-day experience of aggression, valproate decreased the time of hostile behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Valproate in a single dose of 300 mg/kg significantly decreased the level of aggressive motivation, but also produced a toxic effect, whereby 73% of aggressive males demonstrated long-term immobility and 45% exhibited movement abnormalities (falls) upon the treatment. It is suggested that changes in the brain neurochemical activity, which are caused by a prolonged experience of aggression, modify the effects of sodium valproate.

  15. Disentangling impulsiveness, aggressiveness and impulsive aggression: an empirical approach using self-report measures.

    PubMed

    García-Forero, Carlos; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2009-06-30

    There is confusion in the literature concerning the concept of impulsive aggression. Based on previous research, we hypothesize that impulsivity and aggression may be related, though not as closely as to consider them the same construct. So, our aim was to provide empirical evidence of the relationship between the impulsivity and aggressiveness constructs when considered as traits. Two widely used questionnaires [Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Aggression Questionnaire-Refined (AQ-R)] were administered to 768 healthy respondents. Product-moment and canonical correlations were then calculated. In addition, a principal components analysis was conducted to explore whether impulsive aggression can be defined phenotypically as the expression of a single trait. The common variance between impulsivity and aggressiveness was never higher than 42%. The principal components analysis reveals that one component is not enough to represent all the variables. In conclusion, our results show that impulsivity and aggressiveness are two separate, although related constructs. This is particularly important in view of the misconceptions in the literature.

  16. Comparing effects of tobacco use prevention modalities: need for complex system models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many modalities of tobacco use prevention programming have been implemented including various policy regulations (tax increases, warning labels, limits on access, smoke-free policies, and restrictions on marketing), mass media programming, school-based classroom education, family involvement, and involvement of community agents (i.e., medical, social, political). The present manuscript provides a glance at these modalities to compare relative and combined impact of them on youth tobacco use. In a majority of trials, community-wide programming, which includes multiple modalities, has not been found to achieve impacts greater than single modality programming. Possibly, the most effective means of prevention involves a careful selection of program type combinations. Also, it is likely that a mechanism for coordinating maximally across program types (e.g., staging of programming) is needed to encourage a synergistic impact. Studying tobacco use prevention as a complex system is considered as a means to maximize effects from combinations of prevention types. Future studies will need to more systematically consider the role of combined programming. PMID:23339410

  17. Focus of Attention and Choice of Text Modality in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnotz, Wolfgang; Mengelkamp, Christoph; Baadte, Christiane; Hauck, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The term "modality effect" in multimedia learning means that students learn better from pictures combined with spoken rather than written text. The most prominent explanations refer to the split attention between visual text reading and picture observation which could affect transfer of information into working memory, maintenance of…

  18. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  19. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  20. Aggressive and nonaggressive children's moral judgments and moral emotion attributions in situations involving retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression.