Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive conflict resolution

  1. The Effects of Conflict Resolution Education on Conflict Resolution Skills, Social Competence, and Aggression in Turkish Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgun, Serap; Araz, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement "we can resolve our conflicts" training program to elementary school students and to assess the effectiveness of this school-based conflict resolution training program, designed to enhance students' conflict resolution skills and social competence and consequently decrease aggression. Three…

  2. Aggression, conflict resolution, popularity, and attitude to school in Russian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Timentschik, Vera M; Burkova, Valentina N

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of aggression and conflict-managing skills on popularity and attitude to school in Russian adolescents. Three types of aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect), constructive conflict resolution, third-party intervention, withdrawal, and victimization were examined using the Peer-Estimated Conflict Behavior (PECOBE) inventory [Bjorkquist and Osterman, 1998]. Also, all respondents rated peer and self-popularity with same-sex classmates and personal attitude to school. The sample consisted of 212 Russian adolescents (101 boys, 111 girls) aged between 11 and 15 years. The findings attest to significant sex differences in aggression and conflict resolution patterns. Boys scored higher on physical and verbal aggression, and girls on indirect aggression. Girls were socially more skillful than boys in the use of peaceful means of conflict resolution (they scored higher on constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention). The attributional discrepancy index (ADI) scores were negative for all three types of aggression in both sexes. Verbal aggression is apparently more condemned in boys than in girls. ADI scores were positive for constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention in both genders, being higher in boys. In girls, verbal aggression was positively correlated with popularity. In both sexes, popularity showed a positive correlation with constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention, and a negative correlation with withdrawal and victimization. Boys who liked school were popular with same-sex peers and scored higher on constructive conflict resolution. Girls who liked school were less aggressive according to peer rating. They also rated higher on conflict resolution and third-party intervention. Physical aggression was related to age. The results are discussed in a cross-cultural perspective.

  3. The Effects of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training on Primary School Students' Level of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Sevkin, Burcak; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the effects of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training on the levels of aggression of 10-11-year-old Turkish primary school students. The study was conducted using a quasi-experimental design. The experimental group of the study included 347 students (173 girls, 174 boys), and the control group had 328…

  4. Conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The sooner conflict is identified and confronted, the more quickly it can be resolved (and the sooner, the better). When this is accomplished calmly and objectively, many areas of conflict will be eliminated. Addressing conflict as it arises also sends a clear message to the team that the practice seeks resolution, not punishment or negative consequences. In addition, the dentist and the office manager need to lead by example by avoiding gossip and encouraging open communication. The goal is to go from a parent-child relationship with the dental team to an adult-adult relationship using this series of managerial conflict resolution steps.

  5. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  6. Conflict resolution in the parent-child, marital, and peer contexts and children's aggression in the peer group: a process-oriented cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation-participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli and Palestinian families and their 1st-born toddler. We observed the ecology of parent-child conflict during home visits, the couple's discussion of marital conflicts, and children's conflicts with peers as well as aggressive behavior at child care. Israeli families used more open-ended tactics, including negotiation and disregard, and conflict was often resolved by compromise, whereas Palestinian families tended to consent or object. During marital discussions, Israeli couples showed more emotional empathy, whereas Palestinians displayed more instrumental solutions. Modes of conflict resolution across contexts were interrelated in culture-specific ways. Child aggression was predicted by higher marital hostility, more coparental undermining behavior, and ineffective discipline in both cultures. Greater family compromise and marital empathy predicted lower aggression among Israeli toddlers, whereas more resolution by consent predicted lower aggression among Palestinians. Considering the cultural basis of conflict resolution within close relationships may expand understanding on the roots of aggression.

  7. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  8. Automated conflict resolution issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  9. Conflict Resolution Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Melinda G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, due to escalating violence in contemporary society, community colleges should offer certificate or degree programs in conflict resolution. Describes a conflict resolution communication program, which teaches communication skills, mediation processes, and coping strategies to prospective mediators. (NB)

  10. A Conflict Resolution Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John; Wood, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The Conflict Resolution Model was formulated by a group of Australian psychologists who set about integrating the literature on achieving mutually beneficial outcomes in a conflict situation in order to create a best-practice prescriptive process for conflict resolution. A number of experimental studies conducted at the University of Tasmania with…

  11. Conflict Resolution Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnofsky, Norene M., Comp.

    Various theories and approaches to conflict resolution and peace education are presented in the 31 resources listed in this annotated bibliography. It is divided into two sections. Section 1 contains materials designed to help adults become more effective role models for the peaceful resolution of conflict. Topics include parent/child conflicts,…

  12. Conflict resolution training in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Steve; Henderson, Iain

    2006-07-01

    The following article is based on a presentation at AfPP's Annual Congress in October 2005. It deals with the increasing level of violence and aggression directed towards NHS staff in the workplace and advises on conflict resolution.

  13. Conflict resolution for student midwives.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary

    2011-03-01

    Poor working relationships, aggressive behaviour and bullying within the midwifery profession are a common phenomenon, with student midwives reporting that they have either experienced or witnessed this within their clinical or educational environments. There is a need to address this unpleasant phenomenon and one way is to introduce conflict resolution strategies. This article describes and discusses how the Start Treating Others Positively (STOP) model has been adapted to develop an educational workshop to assist student midwives in enhancing and developing skills to manage conflict in their working and learning environments. PMID:21473323

  14. International Conflict Resolution Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stephen P.

    This paper describes two attempts to utilize a conflict resolution approach in academic settings. The approach includes: (1) the significance of the structure of communication between parties in conflict; (2) the understanding of face-to-face interaction processes; (3) problems of perceptual distortion; and (4) political socializations. The…

  15. Conflict Resolution in the Parent-Child, Marital, and Peer Contexts and Children's Aggression in the Peer Group: A Process-Oriented Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…

  16. Automating the conflict resolution process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  17. Conflict resolution in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Ratnieks, Francis L W; Foster, Kevin R; Wenseleers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.

  18. Conflict. Process and resolution.

    PubMed

    Dove, M A

    1998-04-01

    Because most organizations function as open systems, they are susceptible to conflict. Identifying destructive conflict, seeking its root cause and using problem-solving techniques to resolve issues provide satisfactory outcomes for both sides. The steps in the conflict process and the possible solutions are given. PMID:9697491

  19. Family Conflict and Childhood Aggression: The Role of Child Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Akiho; Raishevich, Natoshia; Scarpa, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Family conflict and childhood anxiety has been implicated in the development of aggressive behaviors, but the nature of these relationships has not been fully explored. Thus, the present study examined the role of anxiety in moderating the relationship between family conflict and childhood aggression in 50 children aged 7 to 13 years.…

  20. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  1. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  3. Conflict Resolution in Quaker Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutz, Judith L.; Ingoldsby, Bron B.

    1984-01-01

    Compared conflict resolution in male (N=130) and female (N=158) Quaker adults to the national study on family violence. Results generally showed no differences in the violence rates; however, Quaker fathers reported more acts of overall violence toward their children and Quaker sibling violence was higher than the national sample. (LLL)

  4. Scoring Conflict-Resolution Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Marie W.

    1998-01-01

    Successful programs for classroom management and discipline treat students as active participants in building positive affective environments. This paper discusses the basic steps of conflict resolution and presents an example of how one elementary school handled a situation in which a group of students who played soccer each day during recess had…

  5. Increasing Advisor Effectiveness by Understanding Conflict and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    On a daily basis, advisors encounter various types of interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict. Through this article, the reader will better understand conflict, its positive and negative impacts and the approaches of the actors experiencing conflict, and the means whereby conflicts arise, escalate, and come to resolution in advising situations.…

  6. Conflict Resolution and Mediation for Peer Helpers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Don L.

    This book explores conflict resolution strategies and presents a systematic approach to mediation for peer helpers. The first part examines conflict resolution. Internal and external sources of conflict are considered. Irritations, inappropriate expectations, and unknown sources of external conflict are examined. A section on looking inside…

  7. Interpersonal Relations and Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedmont City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: This year we initiated a program to assist students with conflict resolution and problem-solving. The program has two components. Each month the principal holds a class meeting with students in grades 2-5, one grade at a time. Since we have 2 classes for each grade, the principal meets in a large,…

  8. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  9. Children's Social Cognitions: Physically and Relationally Aggressive Strategies and Children's Goals in Peer Conflict Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delveaux, Kendra D.; Daniels, Tina

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the relation between goals and strategies for conflict resolution of children in 4th through 6th grades. Found that prosocial strategies positively correlated with relationship and equality goals, whereas physically or relationally aggressive strategies related to self-interest, control, and revenge goals. Discovered gender differences in…

  10. Improving staff nurse conflict resolution skills.

    PubMed

    Baker, K M

    1995-01-01

    As health care organizations restructure their organizations based on a team-managed philosophy, staff nurses will need new skills to function successfully in this type of environment. Specifically, staff nurses will need improved conflict resolution skills. Training and nurse managers' modeling of effective resolution techniques are key elements in developing improved conflict resolution skills among staff nurses. PMID:7566208

  11. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  12. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  13. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  14. Conflict resolution in healthcare management.

    PubMed

    Lipcamon, James D; Mainwaring, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    Conflict causes decided tension in the workplace and often produces poor professional outcomes. A manager dealing with conflict can experience a crisis of confidence and often ends up second-guessing himself or herself, regardless of how a situation has been handled. In some organizations, conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement. In these organizations, most individuals will see conflict as being unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. Yet, conflict provides employees with critical feedback on how things are going. When viewed in a positive context, even personality conflicts may provide information to the healthcare manager about what is not working in the organization. If conflict is not directed and controlled, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale. Our job as healthcare managers is to deal with conflict so that it does not decrease productivity or detract from the provision of patient-centered care. There are 4 general sources for interpersonal conflict: personal differences, informational deficiency, role incompatibility, and environmental stress. There are 5 common responses used in dealing with conflict: forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating. Healthcare managers should become comfortable with using all of these approaches.

  15. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control.

  16. Conflict Resolution in the Multicultural Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCour, Misty M.; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Schools reflect culture at large. This paper will discuss how conflict in schools and ways in which we handle disagreements reflect community standards, including ethnicity and socio economic influences. Also analyzed are changing gender roles with increased female aggression in schools to include the role of technology.

  17. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers and air traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control imctions.This paper describes a conflict detection and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection and resolution method.

  18. Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution in nursing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter J; Troth, Ashlea C

    2002-08-01

    How nurses maintain relationships and resolve conflict in the workplace is considered an important skill in the nursing profession (Hillhouse & Adler, 1997). In this paper we explore the utility of emotional intelligence in predicting an individual's preferred style of conflict resolution. Theorists such as Goleman (1998) have proposed a strong link between emotional intelligence and successful conflict resolution. A preliminary analysis of our empirical study indicates that individuals with high emotional intelligence prefer to seek collaborative solutions when confronted with conflict. Implications for the nursing profession are discussed. PMID:16118974

  19. Predicting aggression, conciliation, and concurrent rumination in escalating conflict.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, James M; Sheldon, Pavica; Pence, Michelle E; Hatcher, Laura C

    2015-01-01

    Interactions are characterized by opposite motives according to game theory. The purpose of this study was to explore how people judge the probability and advisability of conflict reactions in an unfolding dispute within a married couple using latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). Individuals participated in a study using two videotaped scenarios depicting marital conflict in which a spouse comes home after a long day at work only to criticize his or her partner for violating expectations of a good meal. One situation involved male-initiated conflict and female reactance, whereas another illustrated female-initiated conflict and male reactance. Participants were asked to predict the future reactions based on aggressive tactics (e.g., slapping the partner, insulting the partner) or prosocial and forgiving communication (e.g., apologizing, discussing the issue calmly) as well as the use of online, imagined interaction (II) rumination in which individuals replay arguments in their mind as well as thinking about what to say next during the argument. Results of the LGCM revealed support for various hypotheses in which it was predicted that the husband would be more likely to be conciliatory than the wife, and the wife would be more aggressive than her husband. II rumination was initially expected to increase and be advised before reaching a plateau. Findings are discussed in terms of game theory and II conflict-linkage theory.

  20. Integrating Conflict Resolution Training into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevahn, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    All students can be taught how to manage conflicts constructively by integrating training into the existing school curriculum. This article describes a practical and effective approach to curriculum-integrated conflict resolution training that involves students in repeatedly using integrative negotiation and peer mediation procedures to resolve…

  1. Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)

  2. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  3. Interactive Conflict Resolution in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, George

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of the (perceived) interactional role in information transfer that exists when individuals from different international backgrounds encounter conflicts in their worlds of reference. The results of a task-related pairing study between outer and expanding circle English-using students are used to address the subject. (GLR)

  4. Conflict Resolution Styles, Self-Efficacy, Self-Control, and Future Orientation of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Shin, Richard Q.; Montgomery, Gloria P.; Mildner, Carolyn; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the correlates and predictors of conflict resolution styles in a sample of urban seventh and eighth graders. Girls were found to rely on verbal assertion more frequently and aggressiveness less frequently than boys in the sample. Self-efficacy and self-control were found to be significant predictors of conflict resolution…

  5. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a Conflicts of Interest...) Resolution—(1) Pre-award conflicts. Resolution of an organizational conflict of interest is a...

  6. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PMID:24684716

  7. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict.

  8. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b) Resolution: Resolution...

  9. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  10. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  11. Understanding conflict-resolution taskload: Implementing advisory conflict-detection and resolution algorithms in an airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Adan Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    From 2010 to 2030, the number of instrument flight rules aircraft operations handled by Federal Aviation Administration en route traffic centers is predicted to increase from approximately 39 million flights to 64 million flights. The projected growth in air transportation demand is likely to result in traffic levels that exceed the abilities of the unaided air traffic controller in managing, separating, and providing services to aircraft. Consequently, the Federal Aviation Administration, and other air navigation service providers around the world, are making several efforts to improve the capacity and throughput of existing airspaces. Ultimately, the stated goal of the Federal Aviation Administration is to triple the available capacity of the National Airspace System by 2025. In an effort to satisfy air traffic demand through the increase of airspace capacity, air navigation service providers are considering the inclusion of advisory conflict-detection and resolution systems. In a human-in-the-loop framework, advisory conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tools identify potential conflicts and propose resolution commands for the air traffic controller to verify and issue to aircraft. A number of researchers and air navigation service providers hypothesize that the inclusion of combined conflict-detection and resolution tools into air traffic control systems will reduce or transform controller workload and enable the required increases in airspace capacity. In an effort to understand the potential workload implications of introducing advisory conflict-detection and resolution tools, this thesis provides a detailed study of the conflict event process and the implementation of conflict-detection and resolution algorithms. Specifically, the research presented here examines a metric of controller taskload: how many resolution commands an air traffic controller issues under the guidance of a conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tool. The goal

  12. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Contractors § 421.312 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a... of interest. (b) Resolution—(1) Pre-award conflicts. Resolution of an organizational conflict...

  13. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Contractors § 421.312 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a... of interest. (b) Resolution—(1) Pre-award conflicts. Resolution of an organizational conflict...

  14. Violence as a Means of Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummey, Nefertari

    This paper describes, from an historicial perspective, the causes and consequences of violent outbreaks involving the black community and examines the effectiveness of various kinds of violence in the resolution of conflict. Violence as a means of protest and a method of change is presented as an integral factor in the shaping of American history.…

  15. Songs for Peacemakers: Conflict Resolution. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nass, Marcia; Nass, Max

    This teacher's guide was designed as part of a kit that includes a video tape and sound cassette recording, but may be adapted for independent use. The resource is based on the premise that teaching conflict resolution is becoming a necessity in an increasingly violent world, and that using music to teach peace education is successful with young…

  16. Gandhi: An Alternative for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kathleen M.

    Designed to expose high school students to an alternative method of conflict resolution, this lesson revolves around the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain and the principles of non-violence advocated by Mahatma Gandhi which helped make that movement successful. The activities presented are designed to fit into a general world…

  17. Conflict Resolution, Diversity, and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Briefly explores the issue of conflict resolution (CR) in education; the introduction of CR into the public schools; and whether CR processes such as mediation meet the needs of nondominant groups. It also introduces several articles that discuss specific approaches to the development and implementation of CR programs in schools. (GLR)

  18. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  19. Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

  20. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  1. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  2. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... though the conflict of interest exists and a request for waiver is approved in accordance with 48 CFR 9... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of...

  3. Interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression: a test of a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Marcus, N E; Lindahl, K M; Malik, N M

    2001-06-01

    Although correlations between interparental conflict and child maladjustment are well-established, the processes connecting these 2 phenomena are less understood. The present study tested whether an aggressogenic cognitive style mediates the relationship between interparental conflict and child aggression. A multiethnic sample of 115 families with a child between the ages of 7 and 13 years participated. Questionnaires were used to assess parents' and children's perceptions of interparental conflict, children's social problem-solving strategies and beliefs about aggression, and parent and teacher reports of child aggression. Support was found for the mediating effect of aggressogenic cognitions on children's school aggression but not on children's aggression at home. Implications for understanding the associations among interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression in different environmental contexts are discussed.

  4. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  5. Parental Agreement of Reporting Parent to Child Aggression Using the Conflict Tactics Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined mothers' and fathers' reporting congruency using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales. We asked if the mother's report of the father's parenting aggression was consistent with the father's self-report of parenting aggression and if the father's report of the mother's parenting aggression was consistent with the…

  6. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping.

    PubMed

    Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression.

  7. Conflict Resolution Education: A Component of Peer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga, Mary G.; Oliver, Marvarene

    2006-01-01

    Conflict resolution programs are one part of peer programs offered in schools to enhance the development of life skills of students. This article addresses the need for and role of conflict resolution education in the schools. It then describes several approaches to conflict resolution education. A review of outcome research concerning conflict…

  8. Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation: Pathways to Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines conflict resolution and peer mediation and reviews the theoretical base for conflict resolution research. Examines the goals and activities of several peer mediation programs, and discusses the benefits of such programs. Notes that conflict resolution and peer mediation offer feasible opportunities for an entire school community to create…

  9. Conflict Resolution, Can It Really Make a Difference in the Classroom: Conflict Resolution Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollan, Savannah; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conflict and provides five resolutions for teachers on managing negative behaviors within the classroom. Acknowledging and implementing conflict resolution strategies in the classroom enables every student to fully participate in the learning process.

  10. Investigating the Effects of Group Practice Performed Using Psychodrama Techniques on Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of group practice which is performed using psychodrama techniques on adolescents' conflict resolution skills. The subjects, for this study, were selected among the high school students who have high aggression levels and low problem solving levels attending Haci Zekiye Arslan High School, in Nigde.…

  11. The Effects of Music Videos on Adolescent Meaning Construction and Attitudes toward Physical Violence as a Method of Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn A.

    This study addressed the problem of sexism and violence in music videos that present conflict resolutions in domestic violence situations. Research suggests a positive relationship between violence in the home coupled with violence on television and subsequent aggression in individuals. This study examined the effects of this conflict resolution…

  12. Teaching about Marriage: Some Principles for Effective Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surra, Catherine A.; Asmussen, Linda A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses three principles of effective conflict resolution that can be taught in the classroom: communication occurs in two channels, verbal and nonverbal; certain behaviors or skills employed by mates during conflict resolution have been found to discriminate between happy and unhappy spouses; and marital discussions during conflict have three…

  13. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution for, other requirements of this chapter. In any conflict between the requirements in this part...

  14. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution for, other requirements of this chapter. In any conflict between the requirements in this part...

  15. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A...

  16. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A of this part and a special rule...

  17. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A...

  18. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... government to award a contract to the offeror (in accordance with 48 CFR subpart 9.503) even though a... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section... Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board. CMS may establish and convene a Conflicts of...

  19. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A...

  20. Peace Building and Conflict Resolution in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestal, Anita; Jones, Nancy Aaron

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether teacher training facilitates greater conflict resolution strategies and whether conflict resolution training leads to prosocial solutions by preschoolers who are at risk for conflict and violence in their environments. Head Start teachers were trained in a 40-hour college-level course. Teachers were…

  1. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution for, other requirements of this chapter. In any conflict between the requirements in this part...

  2. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A...

  3. Bias-Related Incidents, Hate Crimes, and Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prutzman, Priscilla

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of conflict resolution in addressing bias-related incidents and hate crimes. The author discusses how one organization, Children's Creative Response to Conflict, is working to teach conflict-resolution skills to students and teachers to reduce bias-related violence. Recommendations for the creation of bigotry-free school…

  4. An Airborne Conflict Resolution Approach Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondoloni, Stephane; Conway, Sheila

    2001-01-01

    An airborne conflict resolution approach is presented that is capable of providing flight plans forecast to be conflict-free with both area and traffic hazards. This approach is capable of meeting constraints on the flight plan such as required times of arrival (RTA) at a fix. The conflict resolution algorithm is based upon a genetic algorithm, and can thus seek conflict-free flight plans meeting broader flight planning objectives such as minimum time, fuel or total cost. The method has been applied to conflicts occurring 6 to 25 minutes in the future in climb, cruise and descent phases of flight. The conflict resolution approach separates the detection, trajectory generation and flight rules function from the resolution algorithm. The method is capable of supporting pilot-constructed resolutions, cooperative and non-cooperative maneuvers, and also providing conflict resolution on trajectories forecast by an onboard FMC.

  5. Transforming Negative Emotions: A Case Study of Intergroup Conflict among Conflict Resolution Practitioners of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Examined how conflict affected internalized oppression and conflict-handling methods utilized during a facilitated meeting that attempted to resolve or manage intergroup conflict. Data on diverse conflict-resolution practitioners and mentors at a training session on how to overcome the effects of oppression in the writing process illuminated how…

  6. Choice of conflict resolution strategy is linked to sociability in dog puppies.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2013-12-01

    Measures that are likely to increase sociability in dog puppies, such as appropriate socialisation, are considered important in preventing future fear or aggression related problems. However, the interplay between sociability and conflict behaviour has rarely been investigated. Moreover, while many studies have addressed aggression in domestic dogs, alternative, non-aggressive conflict resolution strategies have received less scientific attention. Here we tested 134 Border collie puppies, aged 40-50 days, in a personality test which included friendly interactions with an unfamiliar person, exposure to a novel object, and three brief restraint tests. Considering the latter to be mild 'conflict' situations, we analysed whether the puppies' behaviour in the restraint tests was related to their sociability or to their boldness towards the novel object. Strategies employed by the puppies during restraint tests included trying to interact socially with the experimenter, remaining passive, and attempting to move away. In line with findings from humans and goats, puppies scoring high on sociability were more likely to adopt an interactive conflict resolution strategy, while those with low sociability scores tended to react passively. In contrast, avoidance behaviours were unrelated to sociability, possibly reflecting inconsistency in the flight strategy in dogs. Boldness towards a novel object was not related to sociability or to puppies' reactions in restraint tests. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate a link between sociability and conflict resolution strategies in non-human animals. PMID:24910487

  7. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  8. The Stratway Program for Strategic Conflict Resolution: User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Stratway is a strategic conflict detection and resolution program. It provides both intent-based conflict detection and conflict resolution for a single ownship in the presence of multiple traffic aircraft and weather cells defined by moving polygons. It relies on a set of heuristic search strategies to solve conflicts. These strategies are user configurable through multiple parameters. The program can be called from other programs through an application program interface (API) and can also be executed from a command line.

  9. Interparental Conflict and Early Adolescents' Aggression: Is Irregular Sleep a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemola, Sakari; Schwarz, Beate; Siffert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether (a) short and irregular sleep are related to aggressive behavior in early adolescence and (b) whether they moderate the relation between interparental conflict and aggressive behavior. 176 early adolescents (mean age 11.6 years, 89 girls) reported their bed and wake times on weekdays and on weekends and their aggressive…

  10. Friendship and Aggressiveness As Determinants of Conflict Outcomes in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancilio, Michael F. M.; And Others

    To examine the role of friendship among children involved in potential conflicts, 37 aggressive, 37 non-aggressive, and 76 "intermediate" third- and fifth-grade boys were presented with a variety of potentially conflictual situations, nine in story form and one involving a contest. Each situation involved a negative or ambiguous outcome for the…

  11. [Changes in the P300 amplitude under the influence of "aggressive" computer game in adolescents with various levels of initial aggression and conflicting behavior].

    PubMed

    Grigorian, V G; Stepanian, L S; Stepanian, A Iu; Agababian, A R

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the amplitude of component P300 of the evoked potentials in different cortical areas were studied as an index of activity of cortical structures responsible for actualization of a computer game with aggressive content with regard for the level of initial aggression and conflict in behavior of adolescent subjects. Dynamic changes in anxiety and aggression evoked by playing an "aggressive" computer game were shown to be dependent on the initial level of aggression and conflict. An increase in P300 in the frontal and orbitofrontal areas of both hemispheres was observed in adolescents with initially high level of aggression and conflict. In adolescents with initially low aggression and conflict, P300 decreased bilaterally in the frontal areas and did not change significantly in the orbitofrontal areas. These findings testify to the bilateral frontal top-down control over negative emotions.

  12. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    PubMed

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other.

  13. Decolonizing Conflict Resolution: Addressing the Ontological Violence of Westernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Polly O.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the impact of worldview on a people's approach to dealing with conflict and compare the worldviews underlying specific Western and Indigenous approaches to dealing with conflict. It suggests that power imbalances in conflict resolution research and practice perpetuate colonization through ontological violence, marginalizing…

  14. Conflict resolution strategies: when ethical dilemmas evolve into conflict.

    PubMed

    Broom, C

    1991-01-01

    In critical care, ethical dilemmas arise when all duties, rights, and goals cannot be satisfied by the alternatives that are available. Conflicts evolve from ethical dilemmas due to differences in how nurses, physicians, administrators, and patients or families who are involved in a clinical situation assign priorities or interpret roles and responsibilities. This author presents strategies for critical care nurses to use to resolve conflicts that arise in relation to ethical dilemmas.

  15. Unveiling the Hidden Curriculum in Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Future Directions toward a Critical Conflict Education and "Conflict" Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, R. Michael

    2000-01-01

    This report offers a brief summary of a master thesis that had the purpose to study the way conflict management educators write and think about "conflict." Using a critical discourse analysis (a la Foucault) of 22 conflict resolution manuals for adults and children (U.S., Canadian, Australian), and using a selected sample of those most available…

  16. Social conflict resolution regulated by two dorsal habenular subregions in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Yi; Amo, Ryunosuke; Kinoshita, Masae; Cherng, Bor-Wei; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Tazu; Takahoko, Mikako; Yamazaki, Masako; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    When animals encounter conflict they initiate and escalate aggression to establish and maintain a social hierarchy. The neural mechanisms by which animals resolve fighting behaviors to determine such social hierarchies remain unknown. We identified two subregions of the dorsal habenula (dHb) in zebrafish that antagonistically regulate the outcome of conflict. The losing experience reduced neural transmission in the lateral subregion of dHb (dHbL)-dorsal/intermediate interpeduncular nucleus (d/iIPN) circuit. Silencing of the dHbL or medial subregion of dHb (dHbM) caused a stronger predisposition to lose or win a fight, respectively. These results demonstrate that the dHbL and dHbM comprise a dual control system for conflict resolution of social aggression. PMID:27034372

  17. The Conflict Pyramid: A Holistic Approach to Structuring Conflict Resolution in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how the conflict pyramid, originally defined and used by Richard Cohen, can be used as a model to describe the relations between different conflict resolution education programs and activities included in the programs. The central questions posed in the paper are: How can Richard Cohen's conflict pyramid be used as a model for…

  18. Transforming Conflict Resolution Education: Applying Anthropology alongside Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avruch, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the role graduate students can play in transforming their education in the emergent field of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, as occurs at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR), at George Mason University, Washington, DC. It also unpacks how anthropology plays a role in the education of these students at…

  19. 42 CFR 421.312 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 421.312 Section 421.312 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare Integrity Program Contractors § 421.312 Conflict of interest resolution....

  20. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section 455.240 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Integrity Program § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution for, other requirements...

  2. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  3. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  4. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not...

  5. Conflict Resolution in Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  6. Nonadversarial Conflict Resolution Simulation in a School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitz, Corinne M.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the "Westside Community Schools" case that involved religious freedom to illustrate using mediation as a form of conflict resolution. Provides instructions to the teacher and a sketch of participants' roles in simulation role-play exercise. Lists additional resources on religious freedom and conflict resolution. (DB)

  7. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other part...

  8. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  9. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  10. Trajectories of Adolescent Aggression and Family Cohesion: The Potential to Perpetuate or Ameliorate Political Conflict.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Pete; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between intergroup violence and youth aggression are often reported. Yet longitudinal research is needed to understand the developmental factors underlying this relation, including between-person differences in within-person change in aggression through the adolescent years. Multilevel modeling was used to explore developmental and contextual influences related to risk for youth aggression using 4 waves of a prospective, longitudinal study of adolescent/mother dyad reports (N = 820; 51% female; 10-20 years old) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted political conflict. Experience with sectarian (i.e., intergroup) antisocial behavior predicted greater youth aggression; however, that effect declined with age, and youth were buffered by a cohesive family environment. The trajectory of aggression (i.e., intercepts and linear slopes) related to more youth engagement in sectarian antisocial behavior; however, being female and having a more cohesive family were associated with lower levels of youth participation in sectarian acts. The findings are discussed in terms of protective and risk factors for adolescent aggression, and more specifically, participation in sectarian antisocial behavior. The article concludes with clinical and intervention implications, which may decrease youth aggression and the perpetuation of intergroup violence in contexts of ongoing conflict.

  11. Kohlberg and the Resolution of Moral Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressler, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Author challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development with its conjoint moral standards. One's knowledge of the principle of moral justice, he said, does not offer him directives for dealing with specific moral conflicts. (Editor/RK)

  12. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  13. Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Transformations across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Peace education includes lessons about conflict sources, transformation and resolution. While featuring field-based examples in multiple disciplines, including political science, anthropology, communication, psychology, sociology, counseling, law and teacher training, this book presents real cases of conflict work. Explained are concepts…

  14. Conflict Resolution in a French Immersion Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevahn, Laurie; Munger, Linda; Kealey, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide substantive data on the effectiveness of the total-student-body approach to school-based conflict resolution training. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the Peacemakers (D. W. Johnson & Johnson, 1995) program, a total-student-body conflict training program taught bilingually to all students in a K-6…

  15. Team Sports and Conflict Resolution Among the Mississippi Choctaw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Kendall

    Four hypotheses pertaining to conflict and its resolution in the team sport experience among seven Choctaw communities were tested: Choctaws have a unique conception of conflict vis-a-vis Anglos; this conception has a limiting effect on the exercise or occurrence of more dramatic forms of violence; this notion is reflected in Choctaw team sport…

  16. Conflict Resolution Using Mediation Skills in the Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Lora Alexa

    While conflict resolution programs in the elementary schools have been in existence for the last decade, few studies have provided quantitative data concerning the effectiveness of such programs. A study was conducted which used interviews and surveys to focus on the development, implementation, and results of a Conflict Manager program at one…

  17. Peer Mediation. Conflict Resolution in Schools. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrumpf, Fred; And Others

    This program guide for the middle and high school levels contains the student manual which is also published separately. Teachers and administrators are advised on how to implement a peer mediation program, which is designed as an alternative for conflict resolution. The peer mediation approach presented here assumes that conflict is a normal and…

  18. 76 FR 22848 - Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and Conflict Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... conflict management into the normal business practices of the Department of Defense. (iv) Establishes DoD... Management AGENCY: Defense Legal Services Agency, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This part establishes... alternative means of dispute resolution and conflict management practices as an integral part of...

  19. Performance evaluation for conflict resolution transaction management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.C.; Henschen, L.J.

    1997-05-01

    The authors continue their previous study on the conflict resolution approach to transaction management. They compare both time and space performance of their approach with those of other transaction management models. They use mathematical abstraction and calculation for the comparison.

  20. The Effects of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training on Turkish Elementary School Students' Conflict Resolution Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza; Sevkin, Burcak

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training among 10- and 11-year-old elementary school students was examined. The CRPM training program consisted of skills, such as understanding the nature of interpersonal conflicts, communication, anger management, negotiation and peer mediation. The research was carried out…

  1. Lexical conflict resolution in children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Ladányi, Enikő; Lukács, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the effect of conflict on naming latencies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children and to explore whether deficits in conflict resolution contribute to lexical problems in SLI. In light of previous results showing difficulties with inhibitory functions in SLI, we expected higher semantic conflict effect in the SLI than in the TD group. To investigate this question 13 children with SLI and 13 age- and gender-matched TD children performed a picture naming task in which the level of conflict was manipulated and naming latencies were measured. Children took longer to name pictures in high conflict conditions than in low conflict conditions. This effect was equally present in the SLI and TD groups. Our results suggest that word production is more effortful for children when conflict resolution is required but children with SLI manage competing lexical representations as efficiently as TD children. This result contradicts studies, which found difficulties with inhibitory functions and is in line with findings of intact inhibitory abilities in children with SLI. Further studies should rule out the possibility that in SLI lower level of conflict resulting from weaker lexical representations masks impairments in inhibition, and investigate the effect of linguistic conflict in other areas. PMID:27135369

  2. Conflict Resolution and the Communication Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Mary Ann

    1980-01-01

    The author claims that open communication and extended dialog can be destructive, while bargaining and compromise can be more successful in resolving conflict. She discusses origins of the communication myth, situations where communication fails, alternatives to destructive dialogue, acknowledging incompatibility, the bargaining process, and…

  3. Resolution of Value Conflicts by Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Henry D.; Parsley, James F., Jr.

    In order to identify how social studies teachers attempt to resolve values conflict situations, 82 "disinterested" teachers in southeast Ohio responded to a questionnaire. The term "disinterested" is used to describe teachers who did not belong to a professional social studies organization, nor attend conferences specifically geared for updating…

  4. Parent Mediation Empowers Sibling Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hildy S.; Lazinski, Marysia J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: For the current study, formal mediation procedures were adapted for families and parents were trained and asked to mediate their children's disputes; control group parents intervened as they normally would. Conflict negotiations with parents and their children (ages 3½-11 years) occurring 3 and 7 weeks following training,…

  5. Cultural Connections: An Alternative to Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traore, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    In today's increasingly polyglot classrooms, interpersonal and inter-group conflicts often arise out of mutual misunderstandings between different collections of students, some based on language or status differences but many more generated by emotionally charged misconceptions. As such, peer mediation and peaceful solutions to student arguments…

  6. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    PubMed

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process.

  7. The Chorus Conflict and Loss of Separation Resolution Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hagen, George E.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chorus software is designed to investigate near-term, tactical conflict and loss of separation detection and resolution concepts for air traffic management. This software is currently being used in two different problem domains: en-route self- separation and sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. This paper describes the core resolution algorithms that are part of Chorus. The combination of several features of the Chorus program distinguish this software from other approaches to conflict and loss of separation resolution. First, the program stores a history of state information over time which enables it to handle communication dropouts and take advantage of previous input data. Second, the underlying conflict algorithms find resolutions that solve the most urgent conflict, but also seek to prevent secondary conflicts with the other aircraft. Third, if the program is run on multiple aircraft, and the two aircraft maneuver at the same time, the result will be implicitly co-ordinated. This implicit coordination property is established by ensuring that a resolution produced by Chorus will comply with a mathematically-defined criteria whose correctness has been formally verified. Fourth, the program produces both instantaneous solutions and kinematic solutions, which are based on simple accel- eration models. Finally, the program provides resolutions for recovery from loss of separation. Different versions of this software are implemented as Java and C++ software programs, respectively.

  8. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): A Different Framework for Conflict Resolution in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Selahattin; Taylor, Charles

    This paper briefly introduces alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes and their fundamental principles. The paper provides a review of the literature on ADR and discusses its applicability in educational settings. The concept of conflict is explained, along with analysis of the limitations of traditional conflict resolution processes. The…

  9. Two experimental tests of the relationship between group stability and aggressive conflict in Polistes wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Hudson Kern

    2008-05-01

    Two field experiments were used to examine how the relative benefits of cooperation influence within-group conflict in foundress associations of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. P. dominulus foundresses can either nest alone or cooperate with other foundresses. We experimentally manipulated the relative benefits of co-foundress associations vs independent reproduction and tested the effect on aggressive within-group conflict. First, we examined aggression between alpha and beta co-foundresses before and after lower-ranking foundresses were removed. Removal of subordinates increases the relative contributions of the remaining subordinates to group reproductive output as there are fewer adults to care for the brood. Transactional models predict that group conflict over reproductive shares will increase as the relative benefits of grouping increase. As predicted, aggression between the co-foundresses significantly increased following subordinate removal. Second, we experimentally reduced ecological constraints on independent nesting by placing a previously orphaned, adoptable nest comb near the occupied nests. Providing an independent breeding opportunity is predicted to increase the benefits of independent reproduction relative to those of cooperating, thereby reducing group stability and aggression. As predicted, aggression between dominant and subordinate foundresses significantly decreased after the orphaned comb was presented. Therefore, group members sense variation in ecological constraints and relative productivity contributions and quickly modulate their behavior in response. Overall, these two experiments suggest that paper wasps behave as if within-group competition is limited by the threat of group dissolution such that stable groups where cooperation is strongly favored can withstand higher levels of conflict than unstable groups.

  10. Two experimental tests of the relationship between group stability and aggressive conflict in Polistes wasps.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Reeve, Hudson Kern

    2008-05-01

    Two field experiments were used to examine how the relative benefits of cooperation influence within-group conflict in foundress associations of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. P. dominulus foundresses can either nest alone or cooperate with other foundresses. We experimentally manipulated the relative benefits of co-foundress associations vs independent reproduction and tested the effect on aggressive within-group conflict. First, we examined aggression between alpha and beta co-foundresses before and after lower-ranking foundresses were removed. Removal of subordinates increases the relative contributions of the remaining subordinates to group reproductive output as there are fewer adults to care for the brood. Transactional models predict that group conflict over reproductive shares will increase as the relative benefits of grouping increase. As predicted, aggression between the co-foundresses significantly increased following subordinate removal. Second, we experimentally reduced ecological constraints on independent nesting by placing a previously orphaned, adoptable nest comb near the occupied nests. Providing an independent breeding opportunity is predicted to increase the benefits of independent reproduction relative to those of cooperating, thereby reducing group stability and aggression. As predicted, aggression between dominant and subordinate foundresses significantly decreased after the orphaned comb was presented. Therefore, group members sense variation in ecological constraints and relative productivity contributions and quickly modulate their behavior in response. Overall, these two experiments suggest that paper wasps behave as if within-group competition is limited by the threat of group dissolution such that stable groups where cooperation is strongly favored can withstand higher levels of conflict than unstable groups.

  11. Neural activity in the hippocampus during conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Okada, Kana; Hattori, Minoru; Takeda, Kozue; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-01-15

    This study examined configural association theory and conflict resolution models in relation to hippocampal neural activity during positive patterning tasks. According to configural association theory, the hippocampus is important for responses to compound stimuli in positive patterning tasks. In contrast, according to the conflict resolution model, the hippocampus is important for responses to single stimuli in positive patterning tasks. We hypothesized that if configural association theory is applicable, and not the conflict resolution model, the hippocampal theta power should be increased when compound stimuli are presented. If, on the other hand, the conflict resolution model is applicable, but not configural association theory, then the hippocampal theta power should be increased when single stimuli are presented. If both models are valid and applicable in the positive patterning task, we predict that the hippocampal theta power should be increased by presentation of both compound and single stimuli during the positive patterning task. To examine our hypotheses, we measured hippocampal theta power in rats during a positive patterning task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power increased during the presentation of a single stimulus, but did not increase during the presentation of a compound stimulus. This finding suggests that the conflict resolution model is more applicable than the configural association theory for describing neural activity during positive patterning tasks. PMID:22985685

  12. Neural activity in the hippocampus during conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Okada, Kana; Hattori, Minoru; Takeda, Kozue; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-01-15

    This study examined configural association theory and conflict resolution models in relation to hippocampal neural activity during positive patterning tasks. According to configural association theory, the hippocampus is important for responses to compound stimuli in positive patterning tasks. In contrast, according to the conflict resolution model, the hippocampus is important for responses to single stimuli in positive patterning tasks. We hypothesized that if configural association theory is applicable, and not the conflict resolution model, the hippocampal theta power should be increased when compound stimuli are presented. If, on the other hand, the conflict resolution model is applicable, but not configural association theory, then the hippocampal theta power should be increased when single stimuli are presented. If both models are valid and applicable in the positive patterning task, we predict that the hippocampal theta power should be increased by presentation of both compound and single stimuli during the positive patterning task. To examine our hypotheses, we measured hippocampal theta power in rats during a positive patterning task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power increased during the presentation of a single stimulus, but did not increase during the presentation of a compound stimulus. This finding suggests that the conflict resolution model is more applicable than the configural association theory for describing neural activity during positive patterning tasks.

  13. Conflict resolution in a nutshell: tips for everyday nursing.

    PubMed

    Herzog, A C

    2000-01-01

    Current health care is a breeding ground for conflicts, both small and large. The effects of discord range from wasted personal energy to destruction of people and institutions. Nurses from direct patient care, administration, education, and research all need effective conflict resolution skills to maximize the benefit of nursing's all too scarce resources. Assessment of the cause, ownership, cost/benefit ratio, and elements that need to be addressed is the first step. Five conflict behaviors have distinct advantages and disadvantages: avoidance, competition, accommodation, compromise, and collaboration can each be right or wrong in different situations and under different circumstances. While planning resolution, it is important to understand the wants, feelings, reasons, and perspectives of all participants before devising wise mutual options. Finally, evaluation of results is necessary to complete the process. Each conflict that is successfully resolved makes the future a little easier. PMID:12038056

  14. Scheduling with Automatic Resolution of Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Schaffer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    DSN Requirement Scheduler is a computer program that automatically schedules, reschedules, and resolves conflicts for allocations of resources of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) on the basis of ever-changing project requirements for DSN services. As used here, resources signifies, primarily, DSN antennas, ancillary equipment, and times during which they are available. Examples of project-required DSN services include arraying, segmentation, very-long-baseline interferometry, and multiple spacecraft per aperture. Requirements can include periodic reservations of specific or optional resources during specific time intervals or within ranges specified in terms of starting times and durations. This program is built on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system (aspects of which have been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles), with customization to reflect requirements and constraints involved in allocation of DSN resources. Unlike prior DSN-resource- scheduling programs that make single passes through the requirements and require human intervention to resolve conflicts, this program makes repeated passes in a continuing search for all possible allocations, provides a best-effort solution at any time, and presents alternative solutions among which users can choose.

  15. Stratway: A Modular Approach to Strategic Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George E.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Stratway, a modular approach to finding long-term strategic resolutions to conflicts between aircraft. The modular approach provides both advantages and disadvantages. Our primary concern is to investigate the implications on the verification of safety-critical properties of a strategic resolution algorithm. By partitioning the problem into verifiable modules much stronger verification claims can be established. Since strategic resolution involves searching for solutions over an enormous state space, Stratway, like most similar algorithms, searches these spaces by applying heuristics, which present especially difficult verification challenges. An advantage of a modular approach is that it makes a clear distinction between the resolution function and the trajectory generation function. This allows the resolution computation to be independent of any particular vehicle. The Stratway algorithm was developed in both Java and C++ and is available through a open source license. Additionally there is a visualization application that is helpful when analyzing and quickly creating conflict scenarios.

  16. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  17. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    PubMed

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals.

  18. Peace studies and conflict resolution: the need for transdisciplinarity.

    PubMed

    Galtung, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Peace studies seeks to understand the negation of violence through conflict transformation, cooperation and harmony by drawing from many disciplines, including psychology, sociology and anthropology, political science, economics, international relations, international law and history. This raises the problem of the complementarity, coexistence and integration of different systems of knowledge. In fact, all of the human and social sciences are products of the post-Westphalian state system and so reify the state and its internal and international system and focus on this as the main source of political conflict. Conflicts, however, can arise from other distinctions involving gender, generation, race, class and so on. To contribute to peace building and conflict resolution, the social sciences must be globalized, developing theories that address conflicts at the levels of interpersonal interaction (micro), within countries (meso), between nations (macro ), and between whole regions or civilizations (mega). Psychiatry and the "psy" disciplines can contribute to peace building and conflict resolution through understanding the interactions between processes at each of these levels and the mental health or illness of individuals. PMID:20511249

  19. Resolution of Parent-Child Conflicts in the Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, Maria Jose; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres; Maiquez, Maria Luisa; Dekovic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to examine whether adolescents' attachment and the perceived quality of the communication with their parents relate to effective resolution of parent-child conflicts and (2) to determine whether the pattern of associations changes with adolescents' gender and age. The sample consisted of 295 adolescents who filled…

  20. Conflict Resolution. The Best of ERIC, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 11 documents and articles in this annotated bibliography provide administrators with sources from which to obtain a basic understanding of the current status of conflict resolution theory and practice as it applies to education. Not all the entries are taken directly from the education literature; the references include information from…

  1. Teaching Conflict Resolution with the Rainbow Kids Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porro, Barbara

    Based on the view that making social concepts and feelings concrete would help children in primary grades to take turns, cooperate, and solve their problems respectfully, this curriculum uses a story about the Rainbow Kids, an imaginary community of children, to introduce children to social concepts and conflict resolution skills. The Rainbow Kids…

  2. Conflict Resolution Across the Lifespan: The Work of the ICCCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter T.; Fisher-Yoshida, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Violence and alienation are common occurrences in the lives of many young people today. This article presents an overview of the work of the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR) at Teachers College, Columbia University, which is aimed at helping individuals, schools, communities, businesses, and governments better…

  3. Conflict Resolution in the Schools: A Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Kathryn; Koch, Susan J.

    Based on material developed by the National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR), this practical resource guide shows principals, district administrators, counselors, and teacher educators how to diagnose conflicts, handle difficult confrontations, and implement appropriate mediation and problem-solving strategies. Extensive examples and…

  4. Children's Patterns of Emotional Reactivity to Conflict as Explanatory Mechanisms in Links between Interpartner Aggression and Child Physiological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.; Zale, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Background: This paper examined children's fearful, sad, and angry reactivity to interparental conflict as mediators of associations between their exposure to interparental aggression and physiological functioning. Methods: Participants included 200 toddlers and their mothers. Assessments of interparental aggression and children's emotional…

  5. In-group defense, out-group aggression, and coordination failures in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor; Giffin, Michael; Prochazkova, Eliska; Krikeb, Jonathan; Columbus, Simon

    2016-09-20

    Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests). Individuals received an endowment from which they could contribute to their group's fighting capacity. Contributions were always wasted, but when the aggressor group's fighting capacity exceeded that of the defender group, the aggressor group acquired the defender group's remaining resources (otherwise, individuals on both sides were left with the remainders of their endowment). In-group defense appeared stronger and better coordinated than out-group aggression, and defender groups survived roughly 70% of the attacks. This low success rate for aggressor groups mirrored that of group-hunting predators such as wolves and chimpanzees (n = 1,382 cases), hostile takeovers in industry (n = 1,637 cases), and interstate conflicts (n = 2,586). Furthermore, whereas peer punishment increased out-group aggression more than in-group defense without affecting success rates (Exp. 1), sequential (vs. simultaneous) decision-making increased coordination of collective action for out-group aggression, doubling the aggressor's success rate (Exp. 2). The relatively high success rate of in-group defense suggests evolutionary and cultural pressures may have favored capacities for cooperation and coordination when the group goal is to defend, rather than to expand, dominate, and exploit.

  6. In-group defense, out-group aggression, and coordination failures in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor; Giffin, Michael; Prochazkova, Eliska; Krikeb, Jonathan; Columbus, Simon

    2016-09-20

    Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests). Individuals received an endowment from which they could contribute to their group's fighting capacity. Contributions were always wasted, but when the aggressor group's fighting capacity exceeded that of the defender group, the aggressor group acquired the defender group's remaining resources (otherwise, individuals on both sides were left with the remainders of their endowment). In-group defense appeared stronger and better coordinated than out-group aggression, and defender groups survived roughly 70% of the attacks. This low success rate for aggressor groups mirrored that of group-hunting predators such as wolves and chimpanzees (n = 1,382 cases), hostile takeovers in industry (n = 1,637 cases), and interstate conflicts (n = 2,586). Furthermore, whereas peer punishment increased out-group aggression more than in-group defense without affecting success rates (Exp. 1), sequential (vs. simultaneous) decision-making increased coordination of collective action for out-group aggression, doubling the aggressor's success rate (Exp. 2). The relatively high success rate of in-group defense suggests evolutionary and cultural pressures may have favored capacities for cooperation and coordination when the group goal is to defend, rather than to expand, dominate, and exploit. PMID:27601640

  7. Conflict.

    PubMed

    Porter, L

    1996-07-01

    Conflict management is a major component of a nurse manager's role. How conflict is defined and subsequently approached can determine if its outcome is a positive, growth-enhancing experience, or, if instead, it will have lingering negative effects destined to resurface, provoking further conflict. When conflict progresses without effective intervention, others are drawn, or triangled in, and it becomes difficult to determine how, why, and with whom the conflict began. Approaches range from total avoidance to a fully invested, collaborative process of resolution. The collaborative response demands significant management involvement; however, its outcome can be the discovery of new and better practice opportunities, benefiting all involved. PMID:8718405

  8. Moral conflict and collaborative mode as moral conflict resolution in health care.

    PubMed

    Jormsri, Pantip

    2004-09-01

    Moral conflict as a complex moral issue in health care has emerged from several causes that are related to different values, beliefs and opinions. Moral conflict can occur when duties and obligations of health care providers or general guiding ethical principles are unclear. Health care providers and institutions or agencies need to resolve or initiate appropriate methods for professional staff so they can recognize, discuss and resolve moral conflicts in the health care delivery system. Collaborative mode is a useful method for moral conflict resolution, because patient care is a complex phenomenon that results from the integrated knowledge and work of individuals with different professional training. In the process of collaborative practice, all members need to respect each other's opinions, values and responsibilities regarding patient care. PMID:15291770

  9. Conflict Resolution Strategies Adopted from Parenting Coordination: Assisting High-Conflict Coparenting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Mitcham, Michelle A.; Henry, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by nontraditional college students who are coparents as a result of divorce. The need for college counseling centers to have counseling options designed to assist this special population in successfully completing their academic pursuits is presented. Conflict resolution techniques based on the Parenting…

  10. Alternative dispute resolution: a conflict management tool in health care.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A; Rotarius, T M; Kendall, L

    1997-12-01

    This article focuses on methods of resolving conflict either within or between health care organizations using an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) strategy. After identifying the principal sources of contemporary disagreements within health services settings, the authors describe the basis of ADR. This is followed by a discussion of some common obstacles to settling a dispute. The principal communication guidelines and stages of a mediation session are presented. An alternative dispute resolution framework is proposed that includes an Office of Dispute Resolution (ODR). Also provided is a series of attributes that together comprise the core of mediation as a discipline. PMID:10174448

  11. Formal Verification of a Conflict Resolution and Recovery Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey; Butler, Ricky; Geser, Alfons; Munoz, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    New air traffic management concepts distribute the duty of traffic separation among system participants. As a consequence, these concepts have a greater dependency and rely heavily on on-board software and hardware systems. One example of a new on-board capability in a distributed air traffic management system is air traffic conflict detection and resolution (CD&R). Traditional methods for safety assessment such as human-in-the-loop simulations, testing, and flight experiments may not be sufficient for this highly distributed system as the set of possible scenarios is too large to have a reasonable coverage. This paper proposes a new method for the safety assessment of avionics systems that makes use of formal methods to drive the development of critical systems. As a case study of this approach, the mechanical veri.cation of an algorithm for air traffic conflict resolution and recovery called RR3D is presented. The RR3D algorithm uses a geometric optimization technique to provide a choice of resolution and recovery maneuvers. If the aircraft adheres to these maneuvers, they will bring the aircraft out of conflict and the aircraft will follow a conflict-free path to its original destination. Veri.cation of RR3D is carried out using the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

  12. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: the moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Shi, Junqi; Zhou, Le; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work-family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work-family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains. PMID:25528246

  13. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: the moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Shi, Junqi; Zhou, Le; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work-family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work-family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains.

  14. A Turn-Projected State-Based Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    State-based conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithms detect conflicts and resolve them on the basis on current state information without the use of additional intent information from aircraft flight plans. Therefore, the prediction of the trajectory of aircraft is based solely upon the position and velocity vectors of the traffic aircraft. Most CD&R algorithms project the traffic state using only the current state vectors. However, the past state vectors can be used to make a better prediction of the future trajectory of the traffic aircraft. This paper explores the idea of using past state vectors to detect traffic turns and resolve conflicts caused by these turns using a non-linear projection of the traffic state. A new algorithm based on this idea is presented and validated using a fast-time simulator developed for this study.

  15. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  16. A Fuel-Efficient Conflict Resolution Maneuver for Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, Aisha Ruth; Santiago, Confesor

    2012-01-01

    Automated separation assurance algorithms are envisioned to play an integral role in accommodating the forecasted increase in demand of the National Airspace System. Developing a robust, reliable, air traffic management system involves safely increasing efficiency and throughput while considering the potential impact on users. This experiment seeks to evaluate the benefit of augmenting a conflict detection and resolution algorithm to consider a fuel efficient, Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver, when resolving a given conflict based on either minimum fuel burn or minimum delay. A total of twelve conditions were tested in a fast-time simulation conducted in three airspace regions with mixed aircraft types and light weather. Results show that inclusion of this maneuver has no appreciable effect on the ability of the algorithm to safely detect and resolve conflicts. The results further suggest that enabling the Zero-Delay Direct-To maneuver significantly increases the cumulative fuel burn savings when choosing resolution based on minimum fuel burn while marginally increasing the average delay per resolution.

  17. Molecular mechanisms and the conflict between courtship and aggression in three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Sanogo, Yibayiri O; Bell, Alison M

    2016-09-01

    In nature, animals often face conflicting demands. For example, breeding males must attract a mate but at the same time be ready to defend against rivals. The molecular mechanisms by which the brain resolves behavioural trade-offs are largely unknown. In this study, we compared the brain transcriptional responses of territorial male three-spined sticklebacks to a mating opportunity with a female and to a territorial challenge by a rival male. We focused on the diencephalon and the cerebellum, two regions of the brain implicated in courtship and aggression. There was a set of genes that were differentially expressed in response to both a courtship opportunity and a territorial challenge. Closer inspection of the direction of regulation revealed that genes that were downregulated in response to a courtship opportunity were upregulated in response to a territorial challenge and vice versa. Our study reveals some of the potential molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural trade-offs between sex and aggression, along with a possible solution to the conflict via social context-dependent gene regulation. PMID:27452346

  18. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  19. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  20. Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?

    PubMed

    Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice.

  1. Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?

    PubMed

    Demsky, Caitlin A; Ellis, Allison M; Fritz, Charlotte

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. PMID:24635738

  2. Evolution of a grounded theory: conflict resolution through culture brokering.

    PubMed

    Jezewski, M A

    1995-03-01

    This article describes the evolution of the middle-range substantive theory of culture brokering. The theory was generated by first conducting a concept analysis that yielded 12 attributes of the concept of culture brokering. The concept analysis was accomplished using the anthropology, health-related, and business literature. In addition, data from an interpretive ethnographic study were used to further develop the concept of culture brokering. The theory was then generated from four grounded theory studies. Each study was used to frame the grounded theory model and to strengthen and refine the categories and links between categories within the basic social process of culture brokering. The culture brokering theory can guide the practice of nurses in situations where conflict is present in the health care interaction. The theory is grounded in the experiences of nurses attempting conflict resolution in the context of health care interactions. PMID:7778888

  3. Analysis of Automated Aircraft Conflict Resolution and Weather Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, John F.; Chan, William N.; Lee, Chu Han

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of using trajectory-based automation to resolve both aircraft and weather constraints for near-term air traffic management decision making. The auto resolution algorithm developed and tested at NASA-Ames to resolve aircraft to aircraft conflicts has been modified to mitigate convective weather constraints. Modifications include adding information about the size of a gap between weather constraints to the routing solution. Routes that traverse gaps that are smaller than a specific size are not used. An evaluation of the performance of the modified autoresolver to resolve both conflicts with aircraft and weather was performed. Integration with the Center-TRACON Traffic Management System was completed to evaluate the effect of weather routing on schedule delays.

  4. The Effect of Conflict Resolution Training on Children’s Behavioral Problems in Shiraz, Southern Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Mani, Arash; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that marital problems can contribute to child behavior problems. In fact, the way that parents solve their conflicts, such as aggression, physical violence, and poor communication skills, can eventually culminate in aggression and emotional problems in children. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of conflict resolution training on children’s behavioral problems in a sample of Iranian couples. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was carried out on the couples who referred to counseling centers in Shiraz, Iran. In this study, 56 couples were selected through convenience sampling and assigned to an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received 10 sessions of communication skills training. All the participants filled out conflict resolution questionnaire and Child Behavior Problem Checklist (CBCL). To analyze the data we used the SPSS statistical software (version 16), using repeated measurement test, paired t-test, and independent t test. Results: In this study, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups regarding the demographic characteristics. Also, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean score of child behavior problems. Besides, a significant difference was found in the intervention group’s mean score of marital conflict in post-test compared to the pre-test; however, no such trend was observed in the control group. Conclusion: Conflict resolution skill training was effective in reducing marital conflict. Also, it showed a slight reduction in the score of child behavior problems after the intervention. But this reduction wasn’t statisticaly significant. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201109112812N2 PMID:25349861

  5. Mediation skills for conflict resolution in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fung Kei

    2015-07-01

    Encountering conflicts among family members in hospital produces burnout among nurses, implying a need for alternative dispute resolution training. However, current nursing education pays more attention to counselling skills training than to mediation. The present report examines the fundamental concepts of mediation, including its nature, basic assumptions and values, and compares those with counselling. Its implications may open a discussion on enhancing contemporary nursing education by providing mediation training in the workplace to nurses so that they can deal more effectively with disputes. PMID:25795617

  6. 49 CFR 391.47 - Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation. 391... Qualifications and Examinations § 391.47 Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation. (a) Applications... field in which the medical conflict arose. The specialist should be one agreed to by the motor...

  7. 49 CFR 391.47 - Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation. 391... Qualifications and Examinations § 391.47 Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation. (a) Applications... field in which the medical conflict arose. The specialist should be one agreed to by the motor...

  8. Sixth Graders' Conflict Resolution in Role Plays with a Peer, Parent, and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borbely, Christina J.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used conflict resolution role play vignettes and self-report surveys of 450 New York City 6th graders to examine associations between adolescents' conflict resolution efficacy and social skills. Vignettes covered 3 social contexts, conflict with a peer (disagreement over activities), with a parent (raise in allowance), and with a…

  9. Regulation of reproduction in a queenless ant: aggression, pheromones and reduction in conflict.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Peeters, Christian; Cobb, Matthew

    2002-06-22

    In the monogynous queenless ant Diacamma ceylonense, the future reproductive (future gamergate) is very aggressive towards infertile workers during the first days of her adult life. Overt aggression disappears at about three weeks, when the future gamergate begins to lay male-destined eggs and is ready to mate. Over the same period, her cuticular hydrocarbon profile alters, changing from a chemical signature similar to that of a sterile worker towards that of a gamergate. In nature, these behavioural and chemical changes will coincide with a reduction in conflict within the nest: faced with a virgin future gamergate, infertile workers have an interest in producing male-destined eggs; however, once the gamergate produces female eggs, they have an interest in rearing her offspring. This demonstration of a shift from physical inhibition to chemical signalling is interpreted in terms of sociogenetic theory, the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as an indicator of fertility in insects and the fact that the regulation of reproduction in Diacamma involves mechanisms redolent of both queenless and queenright ant species. PMID:12065047

  10. Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

  11. Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…

  12. Advisor-Advisee Three: Graduate Students' Perceptions of Verbal Aggression, Credibility, and Conflict Styles in the Advising Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra M.; Wrench, Jason S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study looked at the relation between advisee perceptions of advisor's verbal aggression, credibility, and conflict styles. Participants were 153 graduate students who reported their perceptions concerning their advisor. First, the study found that advisee perceptions of their advisor's credibility (competence, caring/goodwill, &…

  13. Principals' and Teachers' Use of Conflict Management Strategies on Secondary Students' Conflict Resolution in Rivers State-Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe; Nnokam, Nyege Chinda

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to identify the principals' and teachers' level of utilization of conflict management strategies: integrating, dominating, compromising and avoiding strategies on secondary students' conflict resolution and their related implications in the internal school administration. Four research questions and four hypotheses addressed…

  14. Effectiveness of a Conflict Resolution Training Program in Changing Graduate Students Style of Managing Conflict with Their Faculty Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockman, Julie L.; Nunez, Antonio A.; Basu, Archana

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the conflict management preferences of graduate students with their faculty advisors and assessed the effects of participating in a conflict resolution workshop on those preferences. One hundred and twenty-one graduate students completed the pre-workshop surveys, and 69 participants completed the post-workshop surveys after seven…

  15. Towards Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations Among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multi-method, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence in the home. Consistent with emotional security theory, autoregressive structural equation model analyses indicated that children’s fearful reactivity to conflict was the only consistent mediator in the associations among interparental aggression and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms one year later. Pathways remained significant across maternal and observer ratings of children’s symptoms and with the inclusion of other predictors and mediators, including children’s sad and angry forms of reactivity to conflict, temperamental emotionality, gender, and socioeconomic status. PMID:22716918

  16. School-Wide Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Programs: Experiences in Three Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daunic, Ann P.; Smith, Stephen W.; Robinson, T. Rowand; Miller, M. David; Landry, Kristine L.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a conflict resolution and peer mediation program implemented in three middle schools. The program used a school-wide conflict resolution curriculum and enlisted a core group of trained peer mediators in each school. A resolution acceptable to disputing parties was reached more than 95 percent of the time. (Contains 11…

  17. Automated Conflict Resolution, Arrival Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, arrival sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of arrival traffic, referred to as the Arrival Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast time simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 times current traffic levels.

  18. Airport Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    A conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept for the terminal maneuvering area (TMA) was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. The CD&R concept is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of aircraft-based CD&R algorithms in the TMA, as a function of surveillance accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and results. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for the year 2025 and beyond envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner [1]. NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and provide an overall system capacity up to three times that of current operating levels. Emerging NextGen operational concepts [2], such as four-dimensional trajectory based airborne and surface operations, equivalent visual operations, and super density arrival and departure operations, require a different approach to air traffic management and as a result, a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck and air traffic control (ATC) to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system.

  19. Placebo-Suggestion Modulates Conflict Resolution in the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Gevers, Wim; Cleeremans, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction) can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a “brain wave” machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion). We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion’s contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. PMID:24130735

  20. Fast-time Simulation of an Automated Conflict Detection and Resolution Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Erzberger, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect on the National Airspace System of reducing air traffc controller workload by automating conflict detection and resolution. The Airspace Concept Evaluation System is used to perform simulations of the Cleveland Center with conventional and with automated conflict detection and resolution concepts. Results show that the automated conflict detection and resolution concept significantly decreases growth of delay as traffic demand is increased in en-route airspace.

  1. Conflict Resolution for Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace with Wind Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodionova, Olga; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT) experiences very strong winds caused by jet streams. Flying wind-optimal trajectories increases individual flight efficiency, which is advantageous when operating in the NAT. However, as the NAT is highly congested during peak hours, a large number of potential conflicts between flights are detected for the sets of wind-optimal trajectories. Conflict resolution performed at the strategic level of flight planning can significantly reduce the airspace congestion. However, being completed far in advance, strategic planning can only use predicted environmental conditions that may significantly differ from the real conditions experienced further by aircraft. The forecast uncertainties result in uncertainties in conflict prediction, and thus, conflict resolution becomes less efficient. This work considers wind uncertainties in order to improve the robustness of conflict resolution in the NAT. First, the influence of wind uncertainties on conflict prediction is investigated. Then, conflict resolution methods accounting for wind uncertainties are proposed.

  2. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time.

  3. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  4. Conflict and its resolution in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2007-03-01

    The operating room is a high-stress and volatile workplace where interpersonal conflict can be frequent and at times intense. This article explores some of the common sources of conflict and suggests some remedies.

  5. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  6. Conflict Resolution: Critical to Productive Schools of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Vivian M.

    1995-01-01

    Declining resources and increased expectations enhance conflict in nursing schools. A variety of strategies to diagnose and resolve conflict should be used, ideally including collaboration and win/win. Alternative approaches to confront destructive conflict yet benefit individuals and schools are essential. (Author/SK)

  7. Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

    A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the…

  8. The critical role of conflict resolution in teams: a close look at the links between conflict type, conflict management strategies, and team outcomes.

    PubMed

    Behfar, Kristin J; Peterson, Randall S; Mannix, Elizabeth A; Trochim, William M K

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the linkages between strategies for managing different types of conflict and group performance and satisfaction. Results from a qualitative study of 57 autonomous teams suggest that groups that improve or maintain top performance over time share 3 conflict resolution tendencies: (a) focusing on the content of interpersonal interactions rather than delivery style, (b) explicitly discussing reasons behind any decisions reached in accepting and distributing work assignments, and (c) assigning work to members who have the relevant task expertise rather than assigning by other common means such as volunteering, default, or convenience. The authors' results also suggest that teams that are successful over time are likely to be both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all group members. PMID:18211143

  9. Can Social Stories Enhance the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Skills of Children with LD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Since many children with learning disabilities (LD) face interpersonal conflict resolution problems, this study examines the efficacy of social stories in helping them choose more appropriate interpersonal conflict resolution strategies. A social story was recorded and played to the 31 children with LD in the experimental group twice a week for a…

  10. Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution in the Schools: Some Practical Intervention Strategies for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Teresa A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a context for understanding the increase in school violence as a function of poor conflict resolution skills. They provide counselors with selected cross-cultural approaches for conflict resolution and problem solving. They also discuss how the methods could be implemented in a school setting. A case study is used to…

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual... disqualification is employed to resolve an apparent or actual conflict of interest, the disqualified employee...

  12. Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills to Middle and High School Students through Interactive Drama and Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Frabutt, James M.; Vigliano, Debra

    2007-01-01

    In response to the rising levels of school conflict, the present study investigated a new approach to conflict resolution for middle and high school students using interactive drama and role play called the Win-Win Resolutions program. The standardized curriculum delivered within the school setting includes strategies for self-control and anger…

  13. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  14. Turkish Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Strategies toward Peers and Parents as a Function of Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, Ayse; Demir, Ayhan; Bikos, Lynette Heim

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of loneliness on the conflict resolution strategies of adolescents toward their friends, mothers, and fathers. High school students (N = 180) from 8 different schools in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Conflict Resolution Questionnaire with respect to their friends, mothers, and fathers.…

  15. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  16. Cross-Contextual Variability in Parents' and School Tutors' Conflict Resolution Styles and Positive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodrigo, María José; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how the variability in adult conflict resolution styles in family and school contexts was related to adolescents' positive development. Cluster analysis classified 440 fathers, 440 mothers, and 125 tutors into 4 clusters, based on self-reports of their conflict resolution styles. Adolescents exposed to Cluster 1 (inconsistency…

  17. Peace Education and Conflict Resolution through the Expressive Arts in Early Childhood Education and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinitz, Blythe F.; Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.

    Several modes of expressive arts may be especially appropriate for peace education and conflict resolution instruction in early childhood and teacher education classrooms. This paper explores the integration of the concepts and processes of peace education and conflict resolution through an examination of current research and professional…

  18. The Art of Peacemaking: A Guide to Integrating Conflict Resolution Education into Youth Arts Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Russell; Conte, Zephryn; Masar, Shelley

    This resource guide provides information and tools that introduce arts teachers to conflict resolution skills and processes. The guide also contains various arts-based exercises that can be used to introduce conflict resolution concepts to young people in the classroom. These exercises serve merely as a starting point; arts teachers are encouraged…

  19. Combining Conflict Resolution Education and Human Rights Education: Thoughts for School-Based Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tricia S.

    2006-01-01

    Peace education embraces a wide range of programs and initiatives. Two of those subfields, human rights education and conflict resolution education, are often considered too different in goals, models and content to be seen as partners in the same educational effort. A review of recent literature confirms that few conflict resolution education…

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest. (a) Disqualification from participating in a particular matter or category of...

  1. Voices from the Field: Teachers Talk about Strategies for Peace and Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Edyth; Stomfay-Stitz, Aline

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the strategies used by teachers in early childhood programs and elementary schools when they teach about peace and conflict resolution. In a focus group, the teachers relate that they primarily need consistency as they work toward peace and conflict resolution. The teachers also identify communication with…

  2. The Conflict Resolution Connection: Increasing School Attachment in Cooperative Classroom Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydenberk, Roberta Anna; Heydenberk, Warren R.

    2007-01-01

    Although conflict resolution education programs are usually designed to help resolve crises and reduce school disruption, the power of these programs extends far beyond the original purpose of reacting to violence. This article highlights the positive impact of conflict resolution on student relationships and school climates.

  3. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict. PMID:19034500

  4. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  5. Language Policy, Ethnic Conflict, and Conflict Resolution: Albanian in the Former Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The 1990s disintegration of Yugoslavia was marked by vicious ethnic conflict in several parts of the region. In this paper, I consider the role of policy towards the Albanian language in promoting and perpetuating conflict. I take three case studies from the former Yugoslavia in which conflict between ethnic Albanians and the dominant group…

  6. Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

  7. Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems.

  8. Effect of Conflict Resolution Maneuver Execution Delay on Losses of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines uncertainty in the maneuver execution delay for data linked conflict resolution maneuvers. This uncertainty could cause the previously cleared primary conflict to reoccur or a secondary conflict to appear. Results show that the likelihood of a primary conflict reoccurring during a horizontal conflict resolution maneuver increases with larger initial turn-out angles and with shorter times until loss of separation. There is also a significant increase in the probability of a primary conflict reoccurring when the time until loss falls under three minutes. Increasing horizontal separation by an additional 1.5 nmi lowers the risk, but does not completely eliminate it. Secondary conflicts were shown to have a small probability of occurring in all tested configurations.

  9. Parenting Coordination: Applying Clinical Thinking to the Management and Resolution of Post-Divorce Conflict.

    PubMed

    Demby, Steven L

    2016-05-01

    There is a small but significant number of parents who remain stuck in a high level of conflict with each other after the legal conclusion of their divorce. Exposure to chronically high levels of parental conflict is a strong risk factor negatively affecting both children's short- and long-term adjustment. Parenting coordination is a nonadversarial, child-focused dispute-resolution process designed to help divorced parents contain their conflict to protect children from its negative effect. Parenting coordination is a hybrid role combining different skills and conflict-resolution approaches. In high-conflict divorce, each parent's internalization of relationship patterns constructed from past experiences contributes to the intractable nature of the interparent conflict. A case presentation illustrates how this clinical perspective enhances the parenting coordinator's ability to work with parents to manage and contain their parenting conflicts with each other.

  10. Using multimedia to teach conflict-resolution skills to young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, K; Espelage, D; DuBay, T; Dahlberg, L L; Daytner, G

    1996-01-01

    SMART Talk is a multimedia, computer-based violence-prevention intervention that employs games, simulations, graphics, cartoons, and interactive interviews to engage young adolescents in learning new skills to resolve conflicts without violence. Eight modules cover anger management, dispute resolution, and perspective taking. SMART Talk was pilot-tested in a small-city middle school during a three-week period. After the pilot testing, SMART Talk was implemented in a middle school (sixth, seventh, and eighth grades) with a diverse socioeconomic population, located within 10 miles of a major Midwestern metropolis. The 16-week intervention began in January. Students had access to SMART Talk during the school day and could use the computer alone or with a partner. Subjects for whom parental permission (n = 558) was granted were given a preintervention and postintervention survey. The survey measured demographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors as well as aggressive and other violence-related behaviors. After the pretest, two teams from each grade were randomly assigned to the intervention group and one team to the control group. Only students in the intervention group had access to SMART Talk during the 16-week intervention period. After the posttest, control subjects had access to SMART Talk. Additional data for the evaluation were collected through archival records of grades and school disciplinary actions. All variables indicated comparability between intervention and control groups. As a population, 84% of the students were Caucasian and 9% were African American. Psychosocial variables indicated 30-day frequently angry (64%), 30-day depression (15%), and impulsivity (28%). Environmental variables indicated that 68% reported they could get a gun easily, 59% feel unsafe in their neighborhood, and 24% were personally affected by violence. Violence-related variables indicated 30-day threatened to hit (45%), 30-day hit someone (56%), bullying behavior (29%), and

  11. Conflict resolution: critical to productive schools of nursing.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, V M

    1995-01-01

    Conflict, a normal component of university life, is enhanced in today's schools of nursing because of declining resources and increased expectations of faculty. Management of conflict for positive change and increased productivity is essential for academic leaders. A variety of strategies to diagnose, confront, and resolve conflict are important resources to facilitate change and allow faculty and administrators to respond to new opportunities and challenges. Collaboration and win/win strategies are ideal, but not always possible. Alternative approaches to confront destructive conflict, yet present options that benefit individuals as well as schools are also essential. PMID:7844288

  12. Conflict resolution style as an indicator of adolescents' substance use and other problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Colsman, Melissa; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2002-01-01

    Reports of violence in schools across the nation prompted us to investigate how adolescents resolve conflicts among themselves. We hypothesized that adolescents who act out at school ("problem students") do so because they have acquired maladaptive conflict resolution styles compared to students who do not manifest conduct problems at school ("nonproblem students"). We further hypothesized that inappropriate conflict resolution skills would be associated with a variety of other maladaptive behaviors. Sixty-one adolescents from a public high school (31 problem and 30 nonproblem students) participated in this study. Based on the dual concern model of conflict resolution, four interpersonal conflict resolution styles were assessed via self-report and videotaped behavioral enactment: cooperation, contentiousness, accommodation, and avoidance. Findings indicated that the problem adolescents were less cooperative and more contentious in conflict situations with peers. Maladaptive conflict resolution styles were associated with a range of externalizing behaviors including fighting, cigarette smoking, drinking, and marijuana use as well as low academic achievement. This study supports a role for conflict resolution style in studies of adolescent problem behavior and makes recommendations for the design of school-based prevention programs.

  13. A conceptual model to empower software requirements conflict detection and resolution with rule-based reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sabrina; Jalil, Intan Ermahani A.; Ahmad, Sharifah Sakinah Syed

    2016-08-01

    It is seldom technical issues which impede the process of eliciting software requirements. The involvement of multiple stakeholders usually leads to conflicts and therefore the need of conflict detection and resolution effort is crucial. This paper presents a conceptual model to further improve current efforts. Hence, this paper forwards an improved conceptual model to assist the conflict detection and resolution effort which extends the model ability and improves overall performance. The significant of the new model is to empower the automation of conflicts detection and its severity level with rule-based reasoning.

  14. Education as a Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernadette C.; McAllister, Ian

    2009-01-01

    How education systems operate in divided societies is an increasingly important question for academics and educational practitioners as well as for governments. The question is particularly pertinent in post-conflict societies, where education is a key mechanism for resolving conflict between divided communities. Using Northern Ireland as a case…

  15. Program Evaluation Tools for Campus Conflict Resolution & Mediation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Katherine N.; Warters, William C.; Borshuk, Catherine; Hill, Michelle; Macfarlane, Julie; Kmitta, Daniel; Hedeen, Timothy; Jackman, Scott

    2001-01-01

    A modular campus conflict management evaluation toolkit prepared by the Conflict Management in Higher Education Resource Center. Topic areas covered include a general orientation to evaluation research, special resources related to mediation evaluation, and sample tools for Needs Assessment, Process Monitoring, Summative Evaluation and the…

  16. The Role of Women in Water Management and Conflict Resolution in Marsabit, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerian, Sarah; Hennink, Monique; Greene, Leslie E.; Kiptugen, Daniel; Buri, Jared; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-12-01

    We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women's contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women's access to domestic water supplies.

  17. The role of women in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Yerian, Sarah; Hennink, Monique; Greene, Leslie E; Kiptugen, Daniel; Buri, Jared; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women's contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women's access to domestic water supplies.

  18. Conflicts in operating room: Focus on causes and resolution

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mohan, Brij; Bala, Neeru; Sandhu, Kulwinder Singh; Bansal, Lipsy

    2015-01-01

    The operation theater (OT) environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care. PMID:26543468

  19. Conflicts in operating room: Focus on causes and resolution.

    PubMed

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mohan, Brij; Bala, Neeru; Sandhu, Kulwinder Singh; Bansal, Lipsy

    2015-01-01

    The operation theater (OT) environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care. PMID:26543468

  20. Friendship Conflict and the Development of Generalized Physical Aggression in the Early School Years: A Genetically Informed Study of Potential Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative…

  1. Conflict resolution styles: a comparison of assisted living and nursing home facilities.

    PubMed

    Small, Jeff A; Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian

    2006-01-01

    In this exploratory study, the authors investigated how interpersonal conflict is resolved in assisted living and nursing home facilities. In particular, the authors examined whether conflict resolution styles differed between type of facility and between residents and staff in each type of facility. Four focus groups were conducted--two with residents and two with staff from each type of facility. The focus groups centered on discussing the occurrence of conflict and how each participant handled it. Discourse analysis was employed to identify participants' use of three styles of conflict resolution: controlling, solution-oriented, and non-confrontational. The results indicate that staff in each care context showed a preference for the solution-oriented approach. Residents in each setting reported equal use of the non-confrontational and solution-oriented styles. The findings suggest that preferred conflict resolution styles may vary more as a function of the role of each communicator than the context of the care setting. PMID:16475464

  2. Context-based resolution of semantic conflicts in biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interactions between biological entities such as genes, proteins and metabolites, so called pathways, are key features to understand molecular mechanisms of life. As pathway information is being accumulated rapidly through various knowledge resources, there are growing interests in maintaining the integrity of the heterogeneous databases. Methods Here, we defined conflict as a status where two contradictory pieces of evidence (i.e. 'A increases B' and 'A decreases B') coexist in a same pathway. This conflict damages unity so that inference of simulation on the integrated pathway network might be unreliable. We defined rule and rule group. A rule consists of interaction of two entities, meta-relation (increase or decrease), and contexts terms about tissue specificity or environmental conditions. The rules, which have the same interaction, are grouped into a rule group. If the rules don't have a unanimous meta-relation, the rule group and the rules are judged as being conflicting. Results This analysis revealed that almost 20% of known interactions suffer from conflicting information and conflicting information occurred much more frequently in the literature than the public database. With consideration for dual functions depending on context, we thought it might resolve conflict to consider context. We grouped rules, which have the same context terms as well as interaction. It's revealed that up to 86% of the conflicts could be resolved by considering context. Subsequent analysis also showed that those contradictory records generally compete each other closely, but some information might be suspicious when their evidence levels are seriously imbalanced. Conclusions By identifying and resolving the conflicts, we expect that pathway databases can be cleaned and used for better secondary analyses such as gene/protein annotation, network dynamics and qualitative/quantitative simulation. PMID:26045143

  3. Children's appraisals of conflict, beliefs about aggression, and externalizing problems in families characterized by severe intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Vu, Nicole L; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2014-12-01

    This research examined whether children's threat and self-blame appraisals regarding interparental conflict and their beliefs about the justifiability of aggression predicted children's externalizing problems in families in which there had been recent severe intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls) aged 7 to 10 and their mothers. Families in which there had been recent severe IPV were recruited during their stay at a domestic violence shelter. Children completed measures of threat, self-blame, beliefs about the justifiability of aggression, and externalizing problems. Mothers completed a measure of children's externalizing problems. Measures were completed at 3 time points, spaced 6 months apart. In multilevel modeling analyses, threat appraisals and beliefs about the justifiability of aggression were positively associated with children's reports of externalizing problems concurrently, and self-blame appraisals were positively associated with mothers' reports of externalizing problems concurrently. In prospective analyses, beliefs about the justifiability of aggression at 1 time point were positively associated with children's reports of externalizing problems 6 months later. The results provide partial support for the modified cognitive-contextual framework. PMID:25221973

  4. The Inevitability of Conflict and the Importance of Its Resolution in Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Leslie Sturdivant

    2008-01-01

    Among Christian adherents, the subject of conflict and its proper resolution has been a source of misunderstanding and angst for centuries. New Testament admonitions concerning the proper Christian life have traditionally focused on passivism and have been interpreted broadly by Christendom to require avoidance of all conflict as a virtue. The…

  5. Conflict Resolution: Preparing Preservice Special Educators to Work in Collaborative Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Janetta Fleming; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative practice to provide effective programs for students with special needs and their families has increased with many positive results. But as this collaborative practice increases, so does the potential for conflict. Constructive conflict resolution occurs when disputants have knowledge and skills to produce positive outcomes, maintain…

  6. Circle Justice: A Creative Arts Approach to Conflict Resolution in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This brief report describes a cooperative classroom art therapy intervention in a public elementary school that provided conflict resolution education, social learning, and group cohesion among sixth-grade students. The organizing framework of a "circle justice" group explored the roles of fictional characters in conflict, including group…

  7. The Restorative and Transformative Power of the Arts in Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, April Hyoeun

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of the arts has much to contribute to the field of conflict resolution. This article broadly investigates how artistic engagement facilitates transformative learning and the development of skills and capacities for more constructive engagement with conflict. Many scholar practitioners have acknowledged the widespread use of…

  8. Effects of Personality on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study of the effects of five personality dimensions on conflict resolution preferences in student teams. Two hundred and sixteen students provided self-reports of personality dimensions and conflict styles using the Neo-FFI and ROCI-II scales. Simultaneous effects of five personality dimensions on five conflict…

  9. The Institute for Mediation and Conflict Resolution: A Private Sector Approach to Community Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, George

    1981-01-01

    The Institute for Mediation and Conflict Resolution (IMCR) was established as a means of resolving community disputes by applying the mediation techniques used in labor-management conflicts. The major emphases of the IMCR are on ad-hoc mediation, the building of dispute settlement systems, and mediation and negotiation training. (JCD)

  10. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  11. Faculty-Administration Conflict in California Public Junior Colleges: An Analysis and a Proposal for Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niland, William Patrick

    This study identifies areas of administration-faculty conflict and offers a strategy for resolution. Information was collected by mail and interview. From the findings, inferences were drawn relating to the causes of conflict, as shown by the differences in perception of the administrator and teacher, in attitudes to the open-door policy, and in…

  12. Teachers' Views of Forgiveness for the Resolution of Conflicts between Students in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rique, Julio; Lins-Dyer, Maria Tereza

    2003-01-01

    Investigates teachers views of forgiveness and institutional pardon for conflict resolution at school. Asks questions related to forgiveness and forgiving. Shows that teachers endorse forgiveness as social expectation, a humanitarian, moral response to conflicts at conventional levels. Argues that teachers do notperceive forgiveness as related to…

  13. Early Childhood Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for Early Childhood Educators. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Whittall, Sandy Tsubokawa

    This early childhood curriculum (ages 3-6) uses games, music, art, drama, and storytelling to teach young children effective, nonviolent ways to resolve conflicts and provides caregivers with tools for helping young children develop key conflict resolution skills. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides guidance in assessing the…

  14. Conflict Resolution among Preschool Children: The Appeal of Negotiation in Hypothetical Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskandar, Niveen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using hypothetical puppet interviews, 48 preschool children were interviewed about their preferences for teacher methods of conflict intervention. Puppet vignettes contrasted conflict issue, peer status, and resolution strategy (negotiation, power assertion, and disengagement). Results showed that preschoolers preferred negotiation strategies over…

  15. Best Technology Practices of Conflict Resolution Specialists: A Case Study of Online Dispute Resolution at United States Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Kimberli Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to remedy the paucity of knowledge about higher education's conflict resolution practice of online dispute resolution by providing an in-depth description of mediator and instructor online practices. Telephone interviews were used as the primary data collection method. Eleven interview questions were relied upon to…

  16. Aggression and Withdrawal Related Behavior within Conflict Management Progression in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method: Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old.…

  17. Growing Up Amid Ethno-Political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Outgroups.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L R; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira D

    2016-09-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. This study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n = 600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in three age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Furthermore, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic outgroups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes.

  18. Effects of aggression on achievement: does conflict with the teacher make it worse?

    PubMed

    Stipek, Deborah; Miles, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined different explanations for negative associations between aggression and academic achievement using data collected from 403 children from low-income families followed from kindergarten or first grade (ages 6 and 7 years) through fifth grade (ages 10-11 years). Most results of growth curve analyses examining change over time and path analyses examining associations among the variables within grades were consistent with the hypothesis that the effect of aggression on achievement was partially mediated by the conflictual relationships relatively more aggressive children tended to develop with their teachers and concomitant reductions in engagement in academic tasks. The evidence suggested, however, that the relationship between aggression and achievement is complex and reciprocal. Gender differences were also observed. PMID:19037945

  19. Growing Up Amid Ethno-Political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Outgroups.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L R; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira D

    2016-09-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. This study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n = 600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in three age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Furthermore, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic outgroups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes. PMID:27684400

  20. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional conflict resolution: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z; Wei, D; Xue, S; Du, X; Hitchman, G; Qiu, J

    2014-09-01

    Successful emotion regulation is a fundamental prerequisite for well-being and dysregulation may lead to psychopathology. The ability to inhibit spontaneous emotions while behaving in accordance with desired goals is an important dimension of emotion regulation and can be measured using emotional conflict resolution tasks. Few studies have investigated the gray matter correlates underlying successful emotional conflict resolution at the whole-brain level. We had 190 adults complete an emotional conflict resolution task (face-word task) and examined the brain regions significantly correlated with successful emotional conflict resolution using voxel-based morphometry. We found successful emotional conflict resolution was associated with increased regional gray matter density in widely distributed brain regions. These regions included the dorsal anterior cingulate/dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, amygdala, ventral striatum, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform face area. Together, our results indicate that individual differences in emotional conflict resolution ability may be attributed to regional structural differences across widely distributed brain regions.

  1. [Causal attribution and conflict resolution in the Japanese language instruction setting].

    PubMed

    Kagami, Tomiyo; Ohbuchi, Ken-ichi

    2004-02-01

    Conflicts sometimes arise between the language teachers and foreign students in the Japanese language instruction setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of causal attribution and selection of conflict resolution strategies in such conflicts, and to explicate the characteristics of intercultural conflicts resolution strategies, especially paying attention to the teacher expectation of student strategy to resolve a conflict. A questionnaire was administered to 84 Japanese teachers, 214 Chinese students, and 154 Korean students. Results indicated that when students attributed the conflict to the teachers, they chose assertive strategies, and that when attributed to themselves, compromising strategies were used. Moreover, while Chinese students tended to use such compromising strategies as cooperation and obedience when they attributed the conflict to cultural differences, Korean students did not tend to use non-confrontational strategies. The teachers did not expect their students to use assertive strategies, and the large gap between teacher and student perception of assertive strategies could be one of reasons for difficulties that arise in such intercultural conflict resolution.

  2. [Causal attribution and conflict resolution in the Japanese language instruction setting].

    PubMed

    Kagami, Tomiyo; Ohbuchi, Ken-ichi

    2004-02-01

    Conflicts sometimes arise between the language teachers and foreign students in the Japanese language instruction setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of causal attribution and selection of conflict resolution strategies in such conflicts, and to explicate the characteristics of intercultural conflicts resolution strategies, especially paying attention to the teacher expectation of student strategy to resolve a conflict. A questionnaire was administered to 84 Japanese teachers, 214 Chinese students, and 154 Korean students. Results indicated that when students attributed the conflict to the teachers, they chose assertive strategies, and that when attributed to themselves, compromising strategies were used. Moreover, while Chinese students tended to use such compromising strategies as cooperation and obedience when they attributed the conflict to cultural differences, Korean students did not tend to use non-confrontational strategies. The teachers did not expect their students to use assertive strategies, and the large gap between teacher and student perception of assertive strategies could be one of reasons for difficulties that arise in such intercultural conflict resolution. PMID:15112508

  3. Using small-group instructional diagnosis and collaborative conflict resolution to facilitate course changes.

    PubMed

    Volden, C M; Melland, H I

    1999-01-01

    Small-group instructional diagnosis and collaborative conflict resolution are techniques that were successfully employed when course changes aimed at enhancing an undergraduate nursing leadership and management course with cultural diversity perspectives caused conflict among students and faculty. In this article these skills are described in relation to a specific situation; however, they both can have wide application. The small-group process can be conducted at midterm in any course, and conflict resolution techniques are applicable to most conflict situations, whether they occur in classrooms, with colleagues, or out of the workplace. Therefore, this article is intended for all faculty members who seek knowledge of formative classroom assessment techniques or help in managing conflict. PMID:10640088

  4. Modifications in Children's Goals when Encountering Obstacles to Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Asher, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that children's goals are associated with their success in peer relationships. The current study extends earlier findings by examining changes in children's goals during hypothetical conflicts. Participants were 252 children ages 9 to 12 years old (133 boys, 119 girls). As predicted, children's goals changed…

  5. Cognitive Conflicts and Resolutions in Online Text Revisions: Three Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how college students solve their cognitive conflicts when receiving peers' suggestions and corrections in online text revision. A sample of 45 undergraduate students were recruited to read their peer writers' texts, edit peer writers' errors, evaluate peer editors' corrections and suggestions, and finally rewrite their own…

  6. Mediators and Mentors: Partners in Conflict Resolution and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Garon, Pamela S.; Ybarra-Merlo, Monica; Zajac, Joe Dee; Vierra, Tekla

    2005-01-01

    It is the view of these authors that children learn to be peacebuilders in the context of relationships where, if fortunate, they experience guided practice in interpersonal skill development around conflict. "Mediator Mentors", the program described in this article, is a school-university partnership in which Teacher-Education Candidates, Peace…

  7. Exploring Opportunities for Conflict Resolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippelli-DiManna, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to identify methods to improve conflict management skills of administrative staff in higher education. General systems, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and (c) Burton's human needs theories served as the conceptual frameworks for the study. The lived experiences of 25 community…

  8. Superiority of Vicarious over Direct Experience in Interpersonal Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braver, Sanford L.; Rohrer, Van

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory experiment compared the relative effects of observing and participating in a first Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) on subsequent PDG encounters by the original observer and participant. Concludes that vicarious experience is superior to direct experience in producing responses that reduce interpersonal conflict. Available from: Sage…

  9. Sources, Outcomes, and Resolution of Conflicts in Marriage among Iranian women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Zahra Sadat; Sadeghi, Roya; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Zamani-Alavijeh, Freshteh; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Khoshdel, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Family’s conflict is the important determinant of the quality and quantity of relationships among family members. No study of which we are aware has assessed conflicts, especially among normal or apparently satisfied couples in the Iranian context. This study explored that how women deal with different points, ideas and behaviors in marital life. Methods For the study, we recruited 30 to 45-year-old housewives who visited health centers in Tehran, Iran. The participants (n = 45) were selected using purposefully convenient sampling. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used. The data were analyzed qualitatively using MAXQDA 10. Results Themes, including conflicting situations, causes of conflict, consequences of conflict, and conflict resolution styles were extracted. Conclusion Although Iranian women were dissatisfied with their lives, they tried to protect their marriages. PMID:27123212

  10. Parental conflict resolution styles and children's adjustment: children's appraisals and emotion regulation as mediators.

    PubMed

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Guided by the emotional security hypothesis and the cognitive-contextual framework, the authors investigated whether the associations between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's internalizing and externalizing problems were mediated by children's appraisals of threat and self-blame and their emotion regulation. Participants were 192 Swiss 2-parent families with children aged 9-12 years (M age = 10.62 years, SD = 0.41 years). Structural equation modeling was used to test the empirical validity of the theoretical model. Results indicated that children's maladaptive emotion regulation mediated the association between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's internalizing as well as externalizing problems. Whereas perceived threat was related only to children's internalizing problems, self-blame did not mediate the links between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's adjustment. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to interparental conflict could lead to children's maladjustment and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. How does cognitive control reduce anger and aggression? The role of conflict monitoring and forgiveness processes.

    PubMed

    Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Robinson, Michael D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2010-05-01

    It is well-established that superior cognitive control abilities are associated with lower levels of anger and aggression. However, the precise emotion regulation operations underlying this relationship have been underspecified and underexplored in previous research. Drawing on neuropsychological models of cognitive control, the authors propose that limited capacity resources can be recruited within a hostile situation to promote a process of forgiveness. The results of 2 studies supported this proposal. Across studies, individual differences in hostility-primed cognitive control were assessed implicitly. In Study 1, hostility-primed cognitive control predicted less aggressive behavior in response to a laboratory provocation. Moreover, forgiveness mediated these effects. In Study 2, hostility-primed cognitive control predicted forgiveness of provocations in participants' daily lives and subsequent reductions in anger. In sum, the results contribute to a systematic understanding of how cognitive control leads to lower levels of anger and aggression.

  12. Developmental Changes in Conflict Resolution Styles in Parent-Adolescent Relationships: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…

  13. Familial Predictors of Sibling and Romantic-Partner Conflict Resolution: Comparing Late Adolescents from Intact and Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…

  14. Automating Deep Space Network scheduling and conflict resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Clement, Bradley

    2005-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a central part of NASA's infrastructure for communicating with active space missions, from earth orbit to beyond the solar system. We describe our recent work in modeling the complexities of user requirements, and then scheduling and resolving conflicts on that basis. We emphasize our innovative use of background 'intelligent' assistants' that carry out search asynchrnously while the user is focusing on various aspects of the schedule.

  15. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  16. Rumors, Conflicts, Resolutions: A Mediation Training Video for Middle School and High School Students. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conflict Resolution Unlimited, Inc., Bellevue, WA.

    Young people need to learn and to use alternative dispute resolution skills at school as well as in their daily lives. Ways in which to instruct high school and middle school students in these skills are detailed in the leader's guide and accompanying video. As illustrated by the video, Conflict Resolution Unlimited's (CRU) mediation model is one…

  17. How threats influence the evolutionary resolution of within-group conflict.

    PubMed

    Cant, Michael A; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2009-06-01

    Most examples of cooperation in nature share a common feature: individuals can interact to produce a productivity benefit or fitness surplus, but there is conflict over how these gains are shared. A central question is how threats to exercise outside options influence the resolution of conflict within such cooperative associations. Here we show how a simple principle from economic bargaining theory, the outside option principle, can help to solve this problem in biological systems. According to this principle, outside options will affect the resolution of conflict only when the payoff of taking up these options exceeds the payoffs individuals can obtain from bargaining or negotiating within the group; otherwise, threats to exercise outside options are not credible and are therefore irrelevant. We show that previous attempts to incorporate outside options in synthetic models of reproductive conflict fail to distinguish between credible and incredible threats, and then we use the outside option principle to develop credible synthetic models in two contexts: reproductive skew and biparental care. A striking prediction of our analysis is that outside options are least relevant to the resolution of conflict in cooperative groups of kin and are most relevant in transient associations or interactions among nonrelatives. Our analysis shows a way to link the resolution of within-group conflict to the environmental setting in which it occurs, and it illuminates the role of threats in the evolution of social behavior.

  18. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  19. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. PMID:25086461

  20. Children’s Patterns of Emotional Reactivity to Conflict as Explanatory Mechanisms in Links Between Interpartner Aggression and Child Physiological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.; Zale, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper examined children’s fearful, sad, and angry reactivity to interparental conflict as mediators of associations between their exposure to interparental aggression and physiological functioning. Methods Participants included 200 toddlers and their mothers. Assessments of interparental aggression and children’s emotional reactivity were derived from maternal surveys and a semi-structured interview. Cortisol levels and cardiac indices of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity were used to assess toddler physiological functioning. Results Results indicated that toddler exposure to interparental aggression was associated with greater cortisol levels and PNS activity and diminished SNS activity. Toddler angry emotional reactivity mediated associations between interparental aggression and cortisol and PNS functioning. Fearful emotional reactivity was a mediator of the link between interparental aggression and SNS functioning. Conclusions The results are interpreted within conceptualizations of how exposure and reactivity to family risk organizing individual differences in physiological functioning. PMID:19744183

  1. Conflict Resolution and Distress in Dementia Caregiver Families: Comparison of Cubans and White Non-Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Victoria B; Vaughan, Ellen L; McCabe, Brian E; Feaster, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of family conflict resolution as a mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and psychological distress in dementia caregivers. The sample was composed of the families of 182 caregivers who participated in REACH (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health). The sample consisted of 84 Cuban American and 98 non-Hispanic White American families. Mediation analyses revealed that both income and conflict resolution partially mediated the relationship between ethnicity and caregiver psychological distress. Specifically, Cuban American families were less likely than non-Hispanic White families to reach a resolution to their disagreements, which may have rendered the caregiver at greater risk for psychological distress. These results suggest that Cuban American caregivers may benefit from interventions that improve the family's ability to resolve conflicts. PMID:20448830

  2. Conflict resolution protocols for random multiple-access channels with binary feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Mehravari, N.

    The problem of conflict resolution in a random multiple-access, time-slotted, packet-switched channel with binary feedback is considered. Conflict resolution algorithms (CRA) for two different types of binary feedback which informs the users only about whether or not there was a collision in the previous slot achieves a throughput of 0.442. The CRA proposed for the case in which the feedback informs the users about whether or not the previous slot was empty achieves a throughput of 0.279.

  3. Working toward peace in the clinical setting: the role of clinical ethics in conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    Ethics consultants or committees are often called into situations of conflict. What is their role in conflict resolution? What process should they use? What standards should they apply? The methods of alternative dispute resolution (negotiation, mediation and arbitration) provide a useful model for analysis of procedure, though they may not adequately describe all ethics consultations. Boundaries of acceptable standards may be gleaned from the precepts of medical ethics as well as from statutory and case law. In addition, the believer may obtain guidance from Scripture and prayer. PMID:12755086

  4. An Area-Efficient Reconfigurable LDPC Decoder with Conflict Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changsheng; Huang, Yuebin; Huang, Shuangqu; Chen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaoyang

    Based on Turbo-Decoding Message-Passing (TDMP) and Normalized Min-Sum (NMS) algorithm, an area efficient LDPC decoder that supports both structured and unstructured LDPC codes is proposed in this paper. We introduce a solution to solve the memory access conflict problem caused by TDMP algorithm. We also arrange the main timing schedule carefully to handle the operations of our solution while avoiding much additional hardware consumption. To reduce the memory bits needed, the extrinsic message storing strategy is also optimized. Besides the extrinsic message recover and the accumulate operation are merged together. To verify our architecture, a LDPC decoder that supports both China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting (CMMB) and Digital Terrestrial/ Television Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) standards is developed using SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process. The core area is 4.75mm2 and the maximum operating clock frequency is 200MHz. The estimated power consumption is 48.4mW at 25MHz for CMMB and 130.9mW at 50MHz for DTMB with 5 iterations and 1.2V supply.

  5. Beyond winning: mediation, conflict resolution, and non-rational sources of conflict in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Knickle, Kerry; McNaughton, Nancy; Downar, James

    2012-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with widely metastatic breast cancer was admitted to your intensive care unit (ICU) because of a decreased level of consciousness and respiratory failure. She had documented cerebral and meningeal metastases that were progressing despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The admitting physician met with her family and suggested a palliative approach, making them very upset. The family insisted that the team 'do everything' and now they refuse to discuss any change in the plan of treatment. They maintain a constant presence at the bedside, taking notes and questioning everyone who enters the room. They have threatened legal action toward several of the nursing staff, and hospital security has been called twice because of shouting matches between family and staff members. As the physician taking over care for the ICU, you would like to resolve this conflict. PMID:22713247

  6. Beyond winning: mediation, conflict resolution, and non-rational sources of conflict in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Knickle, Kerry; McNaughton, Nancy; Downar, James

    2012-06-19

    A 55-year-old woman with widely metastatic breast cancer was admitted to your intensive care unit (ICU) because of a decreased level of consciousness and respiratory failure. She had documented cerebral and meningeal metastases that were progressing despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The admitting physician met with her family and suggested a palliative approach, making them very upset. The family insisted that the team 'do everything' and now they refuse to discuss any change in the plan of treatment. They maintain a constant presence at the bedside, taking notes and questioning everyone who enters the room. They have threatened legal action toward several of the nursing staff, and hospital security has been called twice because of shouting matches between family and staff members. As the physician taking over care for the ICU, you would like to resolve this conflict.

  7. Assessing the Forms and Functions of Aggression Using Self-Report: Factor Structure and Invariance of the Peer Conflict Scale in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Monica A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Childs, Kristina K.; Frick, Paul J.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Munoz, Luna C.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Lau, Katherine S. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the structure of a self-report measure of the forms and functions of aggression in 855 adolescents (582 boys, 266 girls) aged 12 to 19 years recruited from high school, detained, and residential settings. The Peer Conflict Scale (PCS) is a 40-item measure that was developed to improve upon existing measures and provide an…

  8. Computer vector multiprocessing control with multiple access memory and priority conflict resolution method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Schiffleger, A.J.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a multiprocessor memory system. It comprises: a central memory comprised of a plurality of independently addressable memory banks organized into a plurality of sections each accessible through a plurality of access paths; a plurality of processing machines; each of the processing machine including a plurality of ports for generating memory references to any one of the central memory sections; and conflict resolution means interfacing each of the ports to each of the central memory sections through the central memory access paths. The resolution means for receiving references from the ports and coordinating and controlling the procession of the references along to the access paths. The conflict resolution means comprising a plurality of conflict resolution circuits corresponding in number to the memory sections, each of the circuits receiving the references to its corresponding section from any one of the ports and selectively conveying the references to the access paths for the corresponding section. The circuits each including; means for checking the readiness of the memory banks to be referenced and holding a reference to a busy one of the banks until the bank is ready to be referenced; means for detecting when more than one of the references is pending to the same bank simultaneously and holding all but one of the simultaneously pending references; and means communicating with the ports and the other of the conflict resolution circuits to cause one of the ports referencing the memory to suspend generation of further references when a reference from the referencing port is being held.

  9. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  10. Conflict Resolution in the Clinical Setting: A Story Beyond Bioethics Mediation.

    PubMed

    Morreim, Haavi

    2015-01-01

    Because ethics consults are often more about conflict than moral puzzlement, the skills of conflict resolution and communication facilitation are now deemed a core competency for ethics consultants. Those skills range beyond the traditional ambit of "bioethics mediation," as illustrated here by a recent mediation regarding a difficult discharge. As conflict permeates healthcare, often spawning downstream ethical issues, conflict resolution services might be deemed a genre of preventive ethics suitably offered by ethics committees. If so, a strong distinction must be made. "Bioethics mediation" as historically defined is a curious amalgam between a consultant who recommends, and a mediator who facilitates consensus among the parties at the table. On closer examination this approach is problematic, particularly in the clinical setting. A mediator who acts as consultant, telling parties what they should do or directly circumscribing the limits of an "acceptable" decision, quickly becomes just another pair of fists in the fight. At that point the odds for reaching genuine agreement, as opposed to a transient acquiescence, diminish markedly. Accordingly, those who undertake conflict resolution in the clinical setting need to distinguish quite sharply between facilitative mediation, versus a consultant's role. PMID:26711422

  11. Availability and Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Primary Schools in Nandi North District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimur, Hilda Ng'etich; Chemwei, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the availability and use of instructional resources necessary for teaching Conflict and Conflict Resolution as a topic in Social Studies subject in primary schools in Nandi North District in Kenya. The study was carried out through descriptive survey. The study population included Social Studies teachers in Kosirai Division of…

  12. Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Furlong, Lisa

    This guide includes hundreds of hands-on, engaging activities designed to meet the unique needs of after-school programs, camps, and recreation centers. The activities teach the skills of creative conflict resolution to school-age children through games, cooperative team challenges, drama, crafts, music, and cooking. It includes easy-to-implement…

  13. Mock Arbitration--Conflict Resolution in Major League Baseball: Sports and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles; Hayes, Bill

    This lesson plan uses students' interest in sports to teach good citizenship. With its focus on rules, responsibility, conflict resolution, and teamwork, the unit emphasizes the development of critical thinking, decision-making, and citizenship skills in young people. This lesson plan is part of a series of fully prepared, interactive classroom…

  14. 49 CFR 391.47 - Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upon which the party making application relies in the form set out in 49 CFR 386.37. (9) The... U.S.C. 1801, et seq.); 49 CFR 1.48, 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation....

  15. 49 CFR 391.47 - Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... upon which the party making application relies in the form set out in 49 CFR 386.37. (9) The... (49 U.S.C. 1801, et seq.); 49 CFR 1.48, 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resolution of conflicts of medical evaluation....

  16. 77 FR 24766 - Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... PEACE Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding For Immediate Release AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Micro... Peace (USIP) requests proposals to develop and manage a new micro support initiative for...

  17. Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaseena M.P.M., Fathima; P., Divya

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find out the extent and difference in the mean scores of Psychosocial Maturity and Conflict Resolution Management of Higher secondary school students of Kerala. A survey technique was used for the study. Sample consists of 685 higher secondary students by giving due representation other criteria. Findings revealed that…

  18. Predictor Relationships between Values Held by Married Individuals, Resilience and Conflict Resolution Styles: A Model Suggestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…

  19. Investigation of Primary School Teachers' Conflict Resolution Skills in Terms of Different Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Yilmaz, Kamile Özge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of conflict resolution skills of primary school teachers and whether they vary by different variables. The study was organised in accordance with the scanning model. The universe of the study consists of primary school teachers working at 14 primary schools, two from each of the seven geographical…

  20. Cooperation, Conflict Resolution, and School Violence: A Systems Approach. Choices Briefs Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter T.; Deutsch, Morton

    This brief presents the assumptions underlying the approach taken by the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution, Teachers College, Columbia University, in creating a nonviolent school. It also provides specific program components that schools can implement. The approach is based on the recognition that violence is a function…

  1. Project WIN Evaluation Shows Decreased Violence and Improved Conflict Resolution Skills for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura; Yeomans, Peter; Ferro-Almeida, Susan

    2007-01-01

    We believe the problems of school violence are linked to competition and bullying in school culture. We also believe that by fostering more cooperation and more compassion in school culture, we can reduce school violence. One of the ways to develop school culture is to implement conflict resolution training. In the current study, we introduced…

  2. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  3. Conflict Resolution in Mexican-Origin Couples: Culture, Gender, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between Mexican-origin spouses' conflict resolution strategies (i.e., nonconfrontation, solution orientation, and control) and (a) gender-typed qualities and attitudes, (b) cultural orientations, and (c) marital quality in a sample of 227 couples. Results of multilevel modeling revealed that Mexican cultural…

  4. The Effects of Extroversion on Conflict Resolution in Student Teams: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashchian, Armen; Forrester, William R.; Kalamas, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cross-cultural investigation of the role of Extroversion in determining the conflict resolution styles of business students in the United States and the Republic of Armenia. PLS modeling showed that Extroversion was associated with the Dominating style among US students and with the Compromising and Obliging…

  5. The Efficacy of Police Interventions towards Resolution of Conflicts within the Illemi Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mele, Joseph; Okoth, Pontian; Were, Edmond; Vundi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Intervention of security agencies is considered key to lasting peace. This is especially crucial to attaining peace in communities where socio-cultural beliefs advocate for revenge. The study sought to examine the efficacy of police interventions towards resolution of conflicts within the Illemi Triangle. The study adopted neo-realism and conflict…

  6. A Strategy to Develop a Concept of Peace as Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, George B.

    A teaching strategy designed to help elementary students conceptualize about peace as a process of conflict resolution is described. The Baboon Troop and Netsilik Eskimo materials of "Man: A Course of Study" provide the course content in which the students learn that cooperation is the most important ingredient in group survival. Classroom…

  7. Improving Student Behaviors through the Use of Conflict Resolution in Fifth and Eighth Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Karyn; Baker, Debra

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a 10-week conflict resolution program to improve the behavior of fifth- and eighth-grade students. Participating were eighth graders from a large suburban school district with a diverse socioeconomic background, and fifth graders from a growing suburban school district with a high mobility…

  8. Why There Can Be No Conflict Resolution as Long as People Are Being Humiliated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Evelin G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how conflict resolution and reconciliation, in their interplay with emotions, are embedded into two current trends: the transition toward increasing global interdependence, and the call for equal dignity for all. In a traditional world of ranked honour, humiliation is often condoned as a legitimate and useful tool; however, in…

  9. Developing a Peace and Conflict Resolution Curriculum for Quaker Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    In 2008-2009, a team of educators from George Fox University, in collaboration with a committee of teachers and administrators from selected Quaker secondary schools in western Kenya, developed the first draft of a peace and conflict resolution curriculum for Kenyan form one (ninth grade) students. This case study offers a model for developing a…

  10. Violence Prevention and Conflict Resolution Curricula. What Works in Preventing School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiba, Russell

    In the face of pervasive violence in American schools and society, many schools have begun to consider making violence prevention and conflict resolution part of their curricula. Faced with such a culture of violence, curricula that teach students the attitudes and skills they need to avoid violence seem to provide a sound strategy for violence…

  11. Social Perspective Taking: A Facilitating Aptitude for Conflict Resolution, Historical Empathy, and Social Studies Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between social perspective taking (SPT) and student achievement in three domains: conflict resolution, historical empathy, and social studies grades. Although many have asserted that SPT relates to important educational outcomes, varying conceptualizations of SPT have impeded researchers' abilities to assess…

  12. A conflict resolution algorithm for noisy multiaccess channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryter, D. M.

    1980-06-01

    An efficient contention resolution scheme has been developed by Gallager to be used in allocating usage of common channel to a large number of independent transmitters. Time is divided into equal size intervals called slots. Message transmissions begin only at slot boundaries and do not overlap boundaries. Depending on the channel history, as monitored by the users, the algorithm defines a system-wide 'transmission interval' at the beginning of each slot. A user can only transmit when it possesses a message with a generation time falling at the current transmission interval. This algorithm is modelled as a Markov process. The Gallager algorithm is based on the assumption that the transmitters make no errors in the detection of channel activity. This thesis investigates the case where a limited class of detection errors is introduced into the system. A modified algorithm is proposed to effectively correct these errors. This Noisy Channel Algorithm includes a stack mechanism and two special processing states. The algorithm is again modelled as a Markov process and retains some key features of the Gallager algorithm. The algorithm is analyzed and the degree to which system performance is downgraded by errors is determined.

  13. An Investigation of Devotion to Democratic Values and Conflict Resolution Abilities: A Case of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Mediha; Sari, Sezen; Otunc, Mine Suat

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities of elementary school students. In the direction of this general purpose, the level of the students' devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities were investigated by the Devotion to Democratic Values Scale (DDVS) and…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  15. The Impact of Training on the Conflict Resolution Ability of Rural Women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonor, B. O.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 332 rural Nigerian women before and after training in conflict resolution revealed that it significantly increased their willingness to use the critical core skills of co-creative conflict resolution. Participants appeared highly committed to and proficient in the use of the process. (SK)

  16. Power asymmetry in conflict resolution with application to a water pollution dispute in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Kilgour, D. Marc; Hipel, Keith W.; Zhao, Min

    2015-10-01

    The concept of power asymmetry is incorporated into the framework of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) and then applied to a water pollution dispute in China in order to show how it can provide strategic insights into courses of action. In a new definition of power asymmetry, one of the decision makers (DMs) in a conflict can influence the preferences of other DMs by taking advantage of additional options reflecting the particular DM's more powerful position. The more powerful DM may have three different kinds of power: direct positive, direct negative, or indirect. It is useful to analyze a model of a conflict without power asymmetry, and then to analyze a power-asymmetric model. As demonstrated by analysis of the water quality controversy that took place at the border separating the Chinese provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, this novel conflict resolution methodology can be readily applied to real-world strategic conflicts to gain an enhanced understanding of the effects of asymmetric power.

  17. Experimental Performance of a Genetic Algorithm for Airborne Strategic Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, David A.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.; DePascale, Stephen M.; Consiglio, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Operations Planner, a research prototype flight-deck decision support tool to enable airborne self-separation, uses a pattern-based genetic algorithm to resolve predicted conflicts between the ownship and traffic aircraft. Conflicts are resolved by modifying the active route within the ownship s flight management system according to a predefined set of maneuver pattern templates. The performance of this pattern-based genetic algorithm was evaluated in the context of batch-mode Monte Carlo simulations running over 3600 flight hours of autonomous aircraft in en-route airspace under conditions ranging from typical current traffic densities to several times that level. Encountering over 8900 conflicts during two simulation experiments, the genetic algorithm was able to resolve all but three conflicts, while maintaining a required time of arrival constraint for most aircraft. Actual elapsed running time for the algorithm was consistent with conflict resolution in real time. The paper presents details of the genetic algorithm s design, along with mathematical models of the algorithm s performance and observations regarding the effectiveness of using complimentary maneuver patterns when multiple resolutions by the same aircraft were required.

  18. Experimental Performance of a Genetic Algorithm for Airborne Strategic Conflict Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, David A.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.; DePascale, Stephen M.; Consiglio, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Operations Planner, a research prototype flight-deck decision support tool to enable airborne self-separation, uses a pattern-based genetic algorithm to resolve predicted conflicts between the ownship and traffic aircraft. Conflicts are resolved by modifying the active route within the ownship's flight management system according to a predefined set of maneuver pattern templates. The performance of this pattern-based genetic algorithm was evaluated in the context of batch-mode Monte Carlo simulations running over 3600 flight hours of autonomous aircraft in en-route airspace under conditions ranging from typical current traffic densities to several times that level. Encountering over 8900 conflicts during two simulation experiments, the genetic algorithm was able to resolve all but three conflicts, while maintaining a required time of arrival constraint for most aircraft. Actual elapsed running time for the algorithm was consistent with conflict resolution in real time. The paper presents details of the genetic algorithm's design, along with mathematical models of the algorithm's performance and observations regarding the effectiveness of using complimentary maneuver patterns when multiple resolutions by the same aircraft were required.

  19. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance.

  20. Auditory conflict resolution correlates with medial-lateral frontal theta/alpha phase synchrony.

    PubMed

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters "A" or "O". They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60-110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance. PMID:25343503

  1. Using WAS/MYWAS For Water Management And Conflict Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F. M.; Huber, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Water is a special economic commodity that cannot be efficiently allocated in a free private market because of social values that are not private ones. The WAS (Water Allocation System) model and its multiyear extension (MYWAS) use demand curves as well as supply conditions to allocate water so as to optimize the total net benefits it brings. However, they permit the user to prescribe policies and constraints on the allocation process so as to take social values into account. These models can be used to perform cost- benefit analyses of projected infrastructure projects taking into account the system-wide effects such projects will bring about. MYWAS, in particular will choose from a menu of possible projects and provide guidance on which ones should be built, when, in what order, and to what capacity. It is a very powerful tool that can be used under varying assumed conditions of climatic conditions. WAS models have been built for Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and MYWAS models are underway for all three. Aside from their value as domestic management tools, WAS and MYWAS also offer assistance in resolving water disputes, turning what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. They do so by concentrating on water value rather than water quantity and monetizing the disputes in question. In so doing, they provide a method of guiding cooperation in water and separating the analysis of optimal water usage from the often unresolvable question of water ownership and water rights. We have shown in the case of the Middle East, that the gains from such cooperation are typically worth more than the value of fairly large changes in water ownership the size of which is greatly reduced by cooperation. Moreover, disputing parties need not wait for the resolution of the water ownership issue to begin a cooperation that benefits all and permits flexible readjustment of water usage as situations (climatic conditions, populations, etc.) change. They can agree to pay for

  2. Formal Verification of Safety Buffers for Sate-Based Conflict Detection and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Jeannin, Jean-Baptiste; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2010-01-01

    The information provided by global positioning systems is never totally exact, and there are always errors when measuring position and velocity of moving objects such as aircraft. This paper studies the effects of these errors in the actual separation of aircraft in the context of state-based conflict detection and resolution. Assuming that the state information is uncertain but that bounds on the errors are known, this paper provides an analytical definition of a safety buffer and sufficient conditions under which this buffer guarantees that actual conflicts are detected and solved. The results are presented as theorems, which were formally proven using a mechanical theorem prover.

  3. Health care alliances and alternative dispute resolution: managing trust and conflict.

    PubMed

    Rotarius, T; Liberman, A

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. health care industry has entered an unprecedented era of alliance activity. These alliances involve medical groups and hospitals, as well as many of the newer health care entities such as managed care organizations and integrated delivery systems. The increase in organizational collaboration has resulted in an increase in organizational conflict. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques can serve as a valuable tool for mitigating this type of conflict. The role of ADR is to refocus partners' attentions away from an adversarial posture and toward a complementary existence. This will permit the partners to realize the intended outcomes of the collaboration. PMID:10915338

  4. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources. PMID:24213481

  5. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences.

  6. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population. PMID:27423562

  7. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    PubMed

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors).

  8. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  9. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  10. Analysis of Interactive Conflict Resolution Tool Usage in a Mixed Equipage Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted that examined separation assurance concepts in varying levels of traffic density with mixtures of aircraft equipage and automation. This paper's analysis focuses on one of the experimental conditions in which traffic levels were approximately fifty percent higher than today, and approximately fifty percent of the traffic within the test area were equipped with data communications (data comm) capabilities. The other fifty percent of the aircraft required control by voice much like today. Within this environment, the air traffic controller participants were provided access to tools and automation designed to support the primary task of separation assurance that are currently unavailable. Two tools were selected for analysis in this paper: 1) a pre-probed altitude fly-out menu that provided instant feedback of conflict probe results for a range of altitudes, and 2) an interactive auto resolver that provided on-demand access to an automation-generated conflict resolution trajectory. Although encouraged, use of the support tools was not required; the participants were free to use the tools as they saw fit, and they were also free to accept, reject, or modify the resolutions offered by the automation. This mode of interaction provided a unique opportunity to examine exactly when and how these tools were used, as well as how acceptable the resolutions were. Results showed that the participants used the pre-probed altitude fly-out menu in 14% of conflict cases and preferred to use it in a strategic timeframe on data comm equipped and level flight aircraft. The interactive auto resolver was also used in a primarily strategic timeframe on 22% of conflicts and that their preference was to use it on conflicts involving data comm equipped aircraft as well. Of the 258 resolutions displayed, 46% were implemented and 54% were not. The auto resolver was rated highly by participants in terms of confidence and preference. Factors such as

  11. Perceptions of aggressive conflicts and others' distress in children with callous-unemotional traits: ‘I'll show you who's boss, even if you suffer and I get in trouble'

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Byrd, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits may have a particularly malevolent view of social conflicts and a pervasive insensitivity to others' distress. The current study examined whether children with CU traits have unique expectations and values regarding the consequences of aggressive conflicts and a ubiquitous lack of concern for others' feelings independent of co-occurring aggression. Methods Participants were 96 (46 males, 50 females) children recruited from elementary schools within an urban city. Associations between CU traits and child reports of outcome expectancies/values following aggressive conflicts and facets of empathy were examined after controlling for aggression, academic abilities, and demographic covariates. Results Children with higher CU traits were less likely to expect that aggression would result in victim suffering and feelings of remorse. After controlling for co-occurring aggression, children with higher CU traits were more likely to expect that aggression would result in peer dominance, while children with higher levels of aggression were more likely to expect that attacking others would reduce their aversive behavior. Children with higher CU traits were less concerned that aggressive behavior would result in punishment, victim suffering, and feelings of remorse. Moreover, children with higher CU traits reported lower levels of empathetic concern and sadness in response to others' distress outside of aggressive conflicts. Conclusions Children with CU traits tend to minimize the extent to which aggression causes victim suffering and openly acknowledge caring less about distress and suffering in others. They are less intimidated by the possibility of being punished for aggressive behavior and tend to view aggression as an effective means for dominating others. In sum, children with CU traits have a particularly malicious social schema that may be difficult to change using conventional treatment methods. PMID:22066467

  12. U.S.-Japan Relations: The View from Both Sides of the Pacific. Part I, Episodes in the History of U.S.-Japan Relations: Case Studies of Conflict, Conflict Management & Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary

    This curriculum unit is the first part of a three-part series; it focuses on the theme of conflict. It introduces students to conflict on personal, group, international, and global levels and to basic conflict resolution/management alternatives. Students learn about six categories of conflict through the analysis of episodes in the history of…

  13. Students' Consideration of Source Information during the Reading of Multiple Texts and Its Effect on Intertextual Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated students' spontaneous use of source information for the resolution of conflicts between texts. One-hundred fifty-four undergraduate students read two conflicting explanations concerning the relationship between blood type and personality under two conditions: either one explanation with a higher credibility source and…

  14. Conflict Resolution Performance in an Experimental Study of En Route Free Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Hitt, James M., II

    2005-01-01

    NASA has developed a far-term air traffic management concept, termed Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM). One component of DAG-TM, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows properly trained flight crews of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for separation from other autonomous aircraft and from Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft. Ground-based air traffic controllers continue to separate IFR traffic and issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To examine En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a joint human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted in summer 2004 at the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. Test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve traffic conflicts and adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by subject controllers. The experimental airspace integrated both autonomous and IFR aircraft at varying traffic densities. This paper presents a subset of the En Route Free Maneuvering experimental results, focusing on airborne and ground-based conflict resolution, and the effects of increased traffic levels on the ability of pilots and air traffic controllers to perform this task. The results show that, in general, increases in autonomous traffic do not significantly impact conflict resolution performance. In addition, pilot acceptability of autonomous operations remains high throughout the range of traffic densities studied. Together with previously reported findings, these results continue to support the feasibility of the En Route Free Maneuvering component of DAG-TM.

  15. Coastal zone and Continental Shelf conflict resolution: improving ocean use and resource dispute management

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhart, J.D.; Harding, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    Contents include: An overview of coastal zone and continental shelf conflicts; Experience in coastal zone management conflict; Future coastal zone conflicts; Outer continental shelf conflicts; Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine; and Future considerations.

  16. Steps Towards the Integration of Conflict Resolution with Metering and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, B. David; Edwards, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is developing decision support tool technology for air traffic controllers to improve the efficiency and capacity of National Airspace System. The goal is to provide technology, tools and procedures that result in the highest possible level of user preferred trajectories whenever possible with safe and efficient traffic management when necessary. The work is being conducted under the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technology Program in cooperation with the FAA through the Inter-Agency Integrated Product Team. The objective is to develop technology and procedures that lead towards a seamless integration of conflict resolution with metering and scheduling for arrival aircraft and en route aircraft that are under metering restrictions. A requirement is that the integration incorporate user preferred trajectories. The ultimate goal is the implementation and validation of the Descent Advisor (DA) concept which provides clearance advisories to a sector controller that simultaneously meet metering constraints, are conflict free, incorporate a user preferred (e.g., minimum fuel) descent profile, and generally require no further corrective clearance as the aircraft transitions from en route cruise into the TRACON. The DA concept may also be applied to en route aircraft under metering constraints, e.g., miles-in-trail. To achieve the DA concept a stepwise development and field evaluation is anticipated. This paper addresses the initial steps towards implementation of the DA. The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) computes arrival time sequence and required delay information for display to the sector controller during periods when arrivals must be metered due to landing rate restrictions at the airport. The Initial Conflict Probe (ICP) compares trajectory predictions for all aircraft and alerts the controller when any two aircraft are predicted to violate separation standards (5 mi. and 2000 ft. in en route airspace). ICP also includes a trial

  17. Characteristics of mother-child conflict and child sex predicting resolution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Sang, Samantha A; Wilson, Elizabeth K

    2014-04-01

    Data from 190 mothers and their 5- to 7-year-old children were used to evaluate how characteristics of mother-child conflict discussions contribute to the likelihood of reaching a compromise, a win-loss resolution, or a standoff. Dyads discussed 2 topics they reported having disagreements about that were emotionally arousing. Coders rated global measurements of mothers' emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, and negativity; children's negativity; and the frequency of mothers' and children's constructive and oppositional comments. Child sex was examined as a moderator of the relation between discussion characteristics and resolution reached. Results indicated that more constructive comments by mothers and children increased the likelihood of reaching a resolution versus a standoff, but only children's constructive comments differentiated between a compromise and a win-loss resolution favoring mothers. Dyads with more emotionally responsive mothers who made fewer oppositional comments were also more likely to reach a compromise versus a win-loss resolution. A significant interaction with child sex revealed that, for boys, the use of more child oppositional comments was associated with a higher likelihood of reaching a standoff versus a compromise. Girls' oppositional comments did not predict resolution type. These results are discussed in terms of the children's developmental level and parents' socialization goals.

  18. Power and conflict resolution in sibling, parent-child, and spousal negotiations.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Holly E; Ross, Hildy S; Vickar, Marcia

    2010-10-01

    This study used a within-family observational design to examine conflict strategies (planning, opposition) and resolutions (standoff, win-loss, compromise) across family subsystems, with an emphasis on power differences between parents and children during relatively symmetrical within-generation (spousal, sibling) and relatively asymmetrical between-generation (parent-child) dyadic interactions. Up to six dyads in 67 families (children's ages ranging from 3 to 12 years) discussed an unresolved conflict. Results revealed that within-generation discussions ended more in standoff, whereas between-generation discussions ended with more win-loss resolutions. Multilevel analyses indicated that parents engaged in more planning and opposition than children; however, they opposed more and planned less with their spouses than their children. In general, more planning and less opposition were associated with achieving resolutions rather than failing to resolve differences. Some effects were qualified by within-family differences between mothers versus fathers and older versus younger siblings, as well as between-family differences in younger siblings' age. Implications for theories of power and family relationship dynamics are discussed.

  19. Developmental changes in conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years. Adolescents' reported use of positive problem solving increased with mothers, but did not change with fathers. Fathers reported an increase of positive problem solving with adolescents, whereas mothers reported no change. Adolescents' use of conflict engagement was found to temporarily increase with mothers, but showed no change with fathers. Mothers and fathers reported a decrease in conflict engagement with adolescents. Adolescents' use of withdrawal with parents increased, although this increase was temporarily with mothers. Mothers reported no change in withdrawal, whereas fathers' use of withdrawal increased. Generally, we found that both adolescents and their parents changed in their use of conflict resolution from early to middle adolescence. These results show that conflict resolution in parent-adolescent relationships gradually change in favor of a more horizontal relationship.

  20. Mode identification using stochastic hybrid models with applications to conflict detection and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri Kouzehgarani, Asal

    2009-12-01

    Most models of aircraft trajectories are non-linear and stochastic in nature; and their internal parameters are often poorly defined. The ability to model, simulate and analyze realistic air traffic management conflict detection scenarios in a scalable, composable, multi-aircraft fashion is an extremely difficult endeavor. Accurate techniques for aircraft mode detection are critical in order to enable the precise projection of aircraft conflicts, and for the enactment of altitude separation resolution strategies. Conflict detection is an inherently probabilistic endeavor; our ability to detect conflicts in a timely and accurate manner over a fixed time horizon is traded off against the increased human workload created by false alarms---that is, situations that would not develop into an actual conflict, or would resolve naturally in the appropriate time horizon-thereby introducing a measure of probabilistic uncertainty in any decision aid fashioned to assist air traffic controllers. The interaction of the continuous dynamics of the aircraft, used for prediction purposes, with the discrete conflict detection logic gives rise to the hybrid nature of the overall system. The introduction of the probabilistic element, common to decision alerting and aiding devices, places the conflict detection and resolution problem in the domain of probabilistic hybrid phenomena. A hidden Markov model (HMM) has two stochastic components: a finite-state Markov chain and a finite set of output probability distributions. In other words an unobservable stochastic process (hidden) that can only be observed through another set of stochastic processes that generate the sequence of observations. The problem of self separation in distributed air traffic management reduces to the ability of aircraft to communicate state information to neighboring aircraft, as well as model the evolution of aircraft trajectories between communications, in the presence of probabilistic uncertain dynamics as well

  1. Analytic and heuristic processes in the detection and resolution of conflict.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mário B; Mata, André; Donkin, Christopher; Sherman, Steven J; Ihmels, Max

    2016-10-01

    Previous research with the ratio-bias task found larger response latencies for conflict trials where the heuristic- and analytic-based responses are assumed to be in opposition (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 9/100 ratios of success) when compared to no-conflict trials where both processes converge on the same response (e.g., choosing between 1/10 and 11/100). This pattern is consistent with parallel dual-process models, which assume that there is effective, rather than lax, monitoring of the output of heuristic processing. It is, however, unclear why conflict resolution sometimes fails. Ratio-biased choices may increase because of a decline in analytical reasoning (leaving heuristic-based responses unopposed) or to a rise in heuristic processing (making it more difficult for analytic processes to override the heuristic preferences). Using the process-dissociation procedure, we found that instructions to respond logically and response speed affected analytic (controlled) processing (C), leaving heuristic processing (H) unchanged, whereas the intuitive preference for large nominators (as assessed by responses to equal ratio trials) affected H but not C. These findings create new challenges to the debate between dual-process and single-process accounts, which are discussed.

  2. "If Your Only Tool Is a Hammer, Any Issue Will Look like a Nail": Building Conflict Resolution and Mediation Capacity in South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    This article commences with an explanation of some of the technical terms in the field of conflict resolution. It then examines the common ways which parties to a conflict use in an effort to deal with it and concludes that, on a number of criteria, collaborative conflict resolution is the superior method. Using some representative examples of…

  3. High cognitive reserve is associated with a reduced age-related deficit in spatial conflict resolution

    PubMed Central

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies support the existence of a specific age-related difficulty in suppressing potentially distracting information. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether spatial conflict resolution is selectively affected by aging. The way aging affects individuals could be modulated by many factors determined by the socieconomic status: we investigated whether factors such as cognitive reserve (CR) and years of education may play a compensatory role against age-related deficits in the spatial domain. A spatial Stroop task with no feature repetitions was administered to a sample of 17 non-demented older adults (69–79 years-old) and 18 younger controls (18–34 years-old) matched for gender and years of education. The two age groups were also administered with measures of intelligence and CR. The overall spatial Stroop effect did not differ according to age, neither for speed nor for accuracy. The two age groups equally showed sequential effects for congruent trials: reduced response times (RTs) if another congruent trial preceded them, and accuracy at ceiling. For incongruent trials, older adults, but not younger controls, were influenced by congruency of trialn−1, since RTs increased with preceding congruent trials. Interestingly, such an age-related modulation negatively correlated with CR. These findings suggest that spatial conflict resolution in aging is predominantly affected by general slowing, rather than by a more specific deficit. However, a high level of CR seems to play a compensatory role for both factors. PMID:23248595

  4. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs. PMID:26999441

  5. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs.

  6. Mindfulness: overcoming intractable conflict.

    PubMed

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara L; Horton, Janell M

    2003-08-01

    Intractable conflict involves reoccurring patterns of ineffective communication in which issues are not resolved and build over time. These situations can lead to bad feelings, damaged relationships, depression, aggression, anxiety and substance abuse. Grounded theory methods were used to study the processes involved in intractable conflicts and to identify ways of responding that promote growth and/or resolution. Results indicate that developing mindfulness over mindlessness is the basic social process that threads through three phases of working through intractable conflict. Phases include: growing awareness, self-realization, and regaining equilibrium. Mental health professionals can use this knowledge to support mindful practices as a means to protect against destructive conflict and mental health woes. PMID:14508774

  7. Mindfulness: overcoming intractable conflict.

    PubMed

    Horton-Deutsch, Sara L; Horton, Janell M

    2003-08-01

    Intractable conflict involves reoccurring patterns of ineffective communication in which issues are not resolved and build over time. These situations can lead to bad feelings, damaged relationships, depression, aggression, anxiety and substance abuse. Grounded theory methods were used to study the processes involved in intractable conflicts and to identify ways of responding that promote growth and/or resolution. Results indicate that developing mindfulness over mindlessness is the basic social process that threads through three phases of working through intractable conflict. Phases include: growing awareness, self-realization, and regaining equilibrium. Mental health professionals can use this knowledge to support mindful practices as a means to protect against destructive conflict and mental health woes.

  8. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  9. An Examination of the Conflict Resolution Strategies and Goals of Children with Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the reports of conflict strategies and goals in response to hypothetical conflict situations, (b) generation of solutions to hypothetical conflicts, and (c) conflict in observed dyadic exchanges in children with high and low depressive symptoms. Children from Grades 4, 5, and 6 were divided into high…

  10. Optimal reservoir operation considering the water quality issues: A stochastic conflict resolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2006-12-01

    In this study, an algorithm combining a water quality simulation model and a deterministic/stochastic conflict resolution technique is developed for determining optimal reservoir operating rules. As different decision makers and stakeholders are involved in reservoir operation, the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests. The utility functions of the proposed models are developed on the basis of the reliability of the water supply to downstream demands, water storage, and the quality of the withdrawn water. The expected value on the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the stochastic model, which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle and the reservoir discharge quality through a selective withdrawal structure. The optimization models are solved using a new version of genetic algorithms called varying chromosome length genetic algorithm (VLGA). In this algorithm the chromosome length is sequentially increased to provide a good initial solution for the final traditional GA-based optimization model. The proposed stochastic optimization model can also reduce the computational burden of the previously proposed models such as stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) by reducing the number of state transitions in each stage. The proposed models which are called VLGAQ and SVLGAQ are applied to the 15-Khordad Reservoir in the central part of Iran. The results show that the proposed models can reduce the salinity of allocated water to different water demands as well as the salinity buildup in the reservoir.

  11. Evaluation of a Pair-Wise Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm in a Multiple Aircraft Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The KB3D algorithm is a pairwise conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithm. It detects and generates trajectory vectoring for an aircraft which has been predicted to be in an airspace minima violation within a given look-ahead time. It has been proven, using mechanized theorem proving techniques, that for a pair of aircraft, KB3D produces at least one vectoring solution and that all solutions produced are correct. Although solutions produced by the algorithm are mathematically correct, they might not be physically executable by an aircraft or might not solve multiple aircraft conflicts. This paper describes a simple solution selection method which assesses all solutions generated by KB3D and determines the solution to be executed. The solution selection method and KB3D are evaluated using a simulation in which N aircraft fly in a free-flight environment and each aircraft in the simulation uses KB3D to maintain separation. Specifically, the solution selection method filters KB3D solutions which are procedurally undesirable or physically not executable and uses a predetermined criteria for selection.

  12. Horizontal Conflict Resolution Maneuvers with a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Jago, S.; Dubord, M.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot resolution of potential conflicts in the horizontal plane when the only information available on the other aircraft was presented on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is investigated. The pilot's task was to assess the situation and if necessary maneuver so as to avoid the other aircraft. No instructions were given on evasive strategy or on what was considered to be an acceptable minimum separation. The results indicate that pilots had a strong bias of turning toward the intruder aircraft in order to pass behind it. In more than 50% of the encounters with a 90 degree crossing angle in which the intruder aircraft was programmed to pass behind the aircraft, the pilots maneuvered so as to pass behind the intruder. This bias was not as strong with the display which showed a prediction of the intruder's relative velocity. The average miss distance for all encounters was about 4500 feet.

  13. Towards responsible system development in health services: a discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2010-02-01

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.

  14. Talk it out: a conflict resolution program for preschool children with speech and language impairments.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Barbara; Gray, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Talk It Out was developed by speech-language pathologists to teach young children, especially those with speech and language impairments, to recognize problems, use words to solve them, and verbally negotiate solutions. One of the very successful by-products is that these same strategies help children avoid harming their voice. Across a school year, Talk It Out provides teaching and practice in predictable contexts so that children become competent problem solvers. It is especially powerful when implemented as part of the tier 1 preschool curriculum. The purpose of this article is to help school-based speech-language pathologists (1) articulate the need and rationale for early implementation of conflict resolution programs, (2) develop practical skills to implement Talk It Out strategies in their programs, and (3) transfer this knowledge to classroom teachers who can use and reinforce these strategies on a daily basis with the children they serve. PMID:23633173

  15. Transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup: competing models of job satisfaction, change commitment, and cooperative conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses the effects of transformational leadership on cooperative conflict resolution (management) by evaluating several alternative models related to the mediating role of job satisfaction and change commitment. Samples of data from customer service personnel in Taiwan were analyzed. Based on the bootstrap sample technique, an empirical study was carried out to yield the best fitting model. The procedure of hierarchical nested model analysis was used, incorporating the methods of bootstrapping mediation, PRODCLIN2, and structural equation modeling (SEM) comparison. The analysis suggests that leadership that promotes integration (change commitment) and provides inspiration and motivation (job satisfaction), in the proper order, creates the means for cooperative conflict resolution.

  16. "No! The Lambs Can Stay Out Because They Got Cozies": Constructive and Destructive Sibling Conflict, Pretend Play, and Social Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Jennings, Melissa; Petrakos, Harriet

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations among constructive and destructive sibling conflict, pretend play, internal state language, and sibling relationship quality among sibling pairs with one kindergarten-age child. Found that specific resolution strategies were associated with conflict issues, aggression and internal state language, and that conflict issues…

  17. Reactive Aggression and Peer Victimization from Pre-Kindergarten to First Grade: Accounting for Hyperactivity and Teacher-Child Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of reactive aggression in the development of peer victimization remains unclear due in part to a failure to account for confounding problems of behavioural undercontrol (e.g., hyperactivity). As well, the school social context has rarely been examined to see whether these risks are mediated by relationships with teachers.…

  18. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  19. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships. PMID:10126220

  20. The Effects of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on Sociotropy Levels of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, T. Fikret

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on sociotropy levels of university students were investigated. The working group was consisted of thirty two voluntary university students. A pre-test and post-test model was used with control group and experimental group, each consisting of sixteen…

  1. Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…

  2. An Experimental Evaluation of an Internet-Delivered Conflict Resolution Skills Curriculum in a Secondary School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauricio, Anne M.; Dillman-Carpentier, Francesca; Horan, John

    2005-01-01

    Given the Internet's capacity to reach a wide audience and recent increases in violence-related episodes among our nation's youth, Internet-delivered, interactive conflict resolution programs may prove to be a powerful tool to prevent the growing phenomena of adolescent violence. In this study, we tested the efficacy of an Internet-delivered…

  3. A stochastic conflict resolution model for water quality management in reservoir river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, optimal operating rules for water quality management in reservoir-river systems are developed using a methodology combining a water quality simulation model and a stochastic GA-based conflict resolution technique. As different decision-makers and stakeholders are involved in the water quality management in reservoir-river systems, a new stochastic form of the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests related to water supply to different demands, allocated water quality and waste load allocation in downstream river. The expected value of the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the model which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle in the reservoir, the quality of releases from different outlets as well as the temporal and spatial variation of the pollutants in the downstream river. In this study, a Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm (VLGA), which has computational advantages comparing to other alternative models, is used. VLGA provides a good initial solution for Simple Genetic Algorithms and comparing to Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) reduces the number of state transitions checked in each stage. The proposed model, which is called Stochastic Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm with water Quality constraints (SVLGAQ), is applied to the Ghomrud Reservoir-River system in the central part of Iran. The results show, the proposed model for reservoir operation and waste load allocation can reduce the salinity of the allocated water demands as well as the salinity build-up in the reservoir.

  4. Effect of Creative Drama-Based Group Guidance on Male-Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavuzer, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: This study assumes that conflict itself is not constructive or destructive, whereas the path chosen to resolve the conflict is what leads to constructive or destructive results. When individuals resolve conflicts in a destructive manner, they instill feelings of anger, rage, hostility and violence in the people involved. On the…

  5. Teaching and Learning the Techniques of Conflict Resolution for Challenging Ethics Consultations.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Edward J; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Professional mediators have long possessed a skill set that is uniquely suited to facilitation of difficult conversations between and among individuals in emotionally charged situations. This skill set has increasingly been recognized as invaluable to the work of clinical ethics consultants as they navigate conflicts involving families, surrogates, and providers. Given widespread acknowledgment that communication difficulties lie at the root of many clinical ethics conflicts, mediation offers techniques to enhance communication between conflicting parties. This special section of The Journal of Clinical Ethics focuses on core aspects of the mediation process designed for effective management of clinical conflict emanating from communication breakdowns, highly charged value conflicts, and instances of perceived disrespect.

  6. Parent-adolescent conflict and its resolution in monogamous and polygamous Bedouin Arab families in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Hektner, Joel M; Morad, Mohammed; Abu-Bader, Soleman H

    2003-12-05

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare whether children from polygamous family structures significantly differ from children from monogamous family structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict, and (2) whether children from these two structures employ different patterns of family conflict resolution. To address these questions, a random sample of 212 high school students (60.8% monogamous) completed a self-administered survey. The results of MANOVA show no significant differences (p > 0.05) between these two structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict. The results also show similar conflict management styles between these two family structures within each of the following five domains (privacy, school and career, money spending, going out and leisure, and physical appearance). This study is unique in that it is the first empirical research to be conducted in the field of conflict resolution among youth and adolescents in polygamous marital structures and therefore, further investigation is needed to replicate these results utilizing different cross-cultural populations practicing polygamy.

  7. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  8. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love. PMID:25663237

  9. Why There can BE no Conflict Resolution as Long as People are Being Humiliated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Evelin G.

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses how conflict resolution and reconciliation, in their interplay with emotions, are embedded into two current trends: the transition toward increasing global interdependence, and the call for equal dignity for all. In a traditional world of ranked honour, humiliation is often condoned as a legitimate and useful tool; however, in terms of human rights it is seen as a violation of humanity. This article argues that the norms of equal dignity are worth supporting for two reasons: first, the human rights framework promotes quality of life, and second, it is the best way to tackle increasing global interdependence. Yet, there is a caveat. While feelings of humiliation in the face of debasing conditions are an important resource in that they emotionally "fuel" the human rights movement, they also represent what the author calls the "nuclear bomb of the emotions" that, if instrumentalised, can power cycles of humiliation and atrocities. Only if the implementation of human rights is approached hands-on and these feelings converted into Mandela-like social transformation to form a decent global village can the human rights movement fulfil its promise and humiliation be transcended.

  10. Nursing generations: an expanded look at the emergence of conflict and its resolution.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Sandra; Liberman, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Never before have so many generations in nursing been asked to work together. The coexistence of 3 generations in nursing is leading to intergenerational conflict. The current intergenerational conflict is not enticing Generation X to seek or maintain nursing careers, therefore exacerbating the current nursing shortage. Using the theoretic frameworks of Conflict and Cohort theories, this article will examine and suggest the impact of generational diversity on the future of nursing. PMID:15035349

  11. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  12. Activity Systems and Conflict Resolution in an Online Professional Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Conflicts often arise in online professional communication class discussions as students discuss sensitive ethical issues relating to the workplace. When conflicts arise in an online class, the activity system of the class has to be kept in balance for the course to continue functioning effectively. Activity theory and distributed learning theory…

  13. Conflict Resolution in Team Teaching: A Case Study in Interdisciplinary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Elayne J.; Dempsey, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges of creating an integrated, interdisciplinary team-taught course. This case study focuses on conflict arising from interdependency, when interdisciplinary teams determine course content and negotiate identity, relationship, and process issues. Although no formulaic solutions can resolve such conflicts, the study…

  14. Normal cognitive conflict resolution in psychosis patients with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smid, Henderikus G O M; Bruggeman, Richard; Martens, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled conflict control problems in other disorders. Differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in stimulus perception, selective attention, alertness, processing speed and reaction time variability may have been previously overlooked. By controlling for these potential confounders, the present experiments were aimed to be more rigorous tests of the hypothesis that psychosis and schizophrenia are associated with impairments of conflict control. To that end, 27 healthy controls and 53 recent-onset psychosis patients with (n = 27) and without schizophrenia (n = 26) with comparable age, intelligence, and education level, performed three iconic conflict control tasks: the Simon task, the Eriksen flanker task, and the Stroop task, all equipped with neutral trials, and analyzed for various potential confounders. They further performed a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Schizophrenia patients showed no increased conflict effects in any of the 3 tasks for any alternative measures used. Nonschizophrenia patients only showed abnormally increased response competition in the Simon task. All patients nevertheless demonstrated impaired control of attention and verbal memory. These findings indicate that the type of conflict control engaged by conflict tasks is intact in recent-onset schizophrenia, suggesting that a major component of executive function is spared in schizophrenia. We discuss these findings in terms of proactive and reactive control. PMID:26569036

  15. Impaired Conflict Resolution and Alerting in Children with ADHD: Evidence from the Attention Network Task (ANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Watchorn, Amy; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An important theory of attention suggests that there are three separate networks that execute discrete cognitive functions. The "alerting" network acquires and maintains an alert state, the "orienting" network selects information from sensory input and the "conflict" network resolves conflict that arises between potential responses.…

  16. Dispositional anger and the resolution of the approach-avoidance conflict.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Boyd, Ryan L; Persich, Michelle R

    2016-09-01

    The approach-avoidance conflict is one in which approaching reward brings increased threat while avoiding threat means forgoing reward. This conflict can be uniquely informative because it will be resolved in different ways depending on whether approach (toward) or avoidance (away from) is the stronger motive. Two studies (total N = 191) created a computerized version of this conflict and used the test to examine questions of motivational direction in anger. In Study 1, noise blast provocations increased the frequency of approach behaviors at high levels of trait anger, but decreased their frequency at low levels. In Study 2, a simpler version of the conflict test was used to predict anger in daily life. As hypothesized, greater approach frequencies in the test predicted greater anger reactivity to daily provocations and frustrations. The discussion focuses on the utility of the approach-avoidance conflict test and on questions of motivational direction in anger. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078742

  17. The role of conflict resolution styles on nursing staff morale, burnout, and job satisfaction in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian; Small, Jeff A

    2006-06-01

    This study focuses on the ability of nursing staff to interact with residents in a way that affects positively on the nurses' well-being and occupational satisfaction. It investigates the role of coping skills related to staff-resident interactions, in particular, the use of conflict resolution styles and their influence on the level of morale, burnout and job satisfaction of nursing professionals. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 161 direct care nursing staff. The authors used a multiple regression procedure to examine the influence of predictors on nursing staff outcomes. Multivariate analyses indicated that nurses' psychological morale, occupational stress, and job satisfaction are influenced by conflict resolution styles, after controlling by individual characteristics, work demands, and work resources factors. The findings highlight the importance of considering personal coping abilities to foster positive staff-resident interactions and to increase nurses' morale and job satisfaction. PMID:16648392

  18. Evaluation of the 2006-2007 Students' Creative Response to Conflict Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yungbluth, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate the Students' Creative Response to Conflict (SCRC) program, which is based on the principles of conflict resolution education and social-emotional learning. It is predicted that SCRC will influence students to reduce their approval of aggression and associated problem behaviors…

  19. An overview of conflict.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacinta

    2006-01-01

    Conflict is found in all aspects of society and nursing is not immune. Conflict is also found in critical care units. However, conflict within the nursing profession has traditionally generated negative feelings and many nurses use avoidance as a coping mechanism. This article will provide an overview of conflict, conflict management, and conflict resolution.

  20. An overview of conflict.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacinta

    2006-01-01

    Conflict is found in all aspects of society and nursing is not immune. Conflict is also found in critical care units. However, conflict within the nursing profession has traditionally generated negative feelings and many nurses use avoidance as a coping mechanism. This article will provide an overview of conflict, conflict management, and conflict resolution. PMID:16501367

  1. Aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members.

    PubMed

    Vinton, L; Mazza, N

    1994-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests there is a significant amount of aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members. This exploratory study describes a random sample survey of 70 Florida nursing homes. Administrators reported 1,193 acts of verbal aggression and 13 acts of physical aggression for a 6-month period. Dissatisfaction over how the specific and overall care needs of residents were being met was most frequently cited as the contributing factor. Social work staff and directors of nursing were most often called on to resolve these conflicts. The authors conclude with recommendations for research and conflict resolution. PMID:7959112

  2. Evaluating Climate Causation of Conflict in Darfur Using Multi-temporal, Multi-resolution Satellite Image Datasets With Novel Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Wennbom, M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change, population growth and changes in traditional lifestyles have led to instabilities in traditional demarcations between neighboring ethic and religious groups in the Sahel region. This has resulted in a number of conflicts as groups resort to arms to settle disputes. Such disputes often centre on or are justified by competition for resources. The conflict in Darfur has been controversially explained by resource scarcity resulting from climate change. Here we analyse established methods of using satellite imagery to assess vegetation health in Darfur. Multi-decadal time series of observations are available using low spatial resolution visible-near infrared imagery. Typically normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analyses are produced to describe changes in vegetation ';greenness' or ';health'. Such approaches have been widely used to evaluate the long term development of vegetation in relation to climate variations across a wide range of environments from the Arctic to the Sahel. These datasets typically measure peak NDVI observed over a given interval and may introduce bias. It is furthermore unclear how the spatial organization of sparse vegetation may affect low resolution NDVI products. We develop and assess alternative measures of vegetation including descriptors of the growing season, wetness and resource availability. Expanding the range of parameters used in the analysis reduces our dependence on peak NDVI. Furthermore, these descriptors provide a better characterization of the growing season than the single NDVI measure. Using multi-sensor data we combine high temporal/moderate spatial resolution data with low temporal/high spatial resolution data to improve the spatial representativity of the observations and to provide improved spatial analysis of vegetation patterns. The approach places the high resolution observations in the NDVI context space using a longer time series of lower resolution imagery. The vegetation descriptors

  3. Genomic resolution of an aggressive, widespread, diverse and expanding meningococcal serogroup B, C and W lineage

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Hill, Dorothea M.C.; Bratcher, Holly B.; Gray, Steve J.; du Plessis, Mignon; Tsang, Raymond S.W.; Vazquez, Julio A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Efron, Adriana M.; Gorla, Maria C.; Findlow, Jamie; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and septicaemia. The hyperinvasive ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) caused serogroup C (MenC) outbreaks in the US military in the 1960s and UK universities in the 1990s, a global Hajj-associated serogroup W (MenW) outbreak in 2000–2001, and subsequent MenW epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. More recently, endemic MenW disease has expanded in South Africa, South America and the UK, and MenC cases have been reported among European and North American men who have sex with men (MSM). Routine typing schemes poorly resolve cc11 so we established the population structure at genomic resolution. Methods Representatives of these episodes and other geo-temporally diverse cc11 meningococci (n = 750) were compared across 1546 core genes and visualised on phylogenetic networks. Results MenW isolates were confined to a distal portion of one of two main lineages with MenB and MenC isolates interspersed elsewhere. An expanding South American/UK MenW strain was distinct from the ‘Hajj outbreak’ strain and a closely related endemic South African strain. Recent MenC isolates from MSM in France and the UK were closely related but distinct. Conclusions High resolution ‘genomic’ multilocus sequence typing is necessary to resolve and monitor the spread of diverse cc11 lineages globally. PMID:26226598

  4. An Evaluation of Conflict Resolution Programs at the Secondary Level at the Toronto Board of Education 1993-1994: The Evolution of a Model. No. 210.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert S.; And Others

    This report evaluates the second and third years of conflict resolution programs that were established at both the elementary and secondary levels during the 1991-92 school year. The programs emphasized peer mediation, in which students in conflict meet with a pair of students trained in mediation skills. The mediators attempt to open…

  5. Oculomotor dominance in multitasking: mechanisms of conflict resolution in cross-modal action.

    PubMed

    Pieczykolan, Aleksandra; Huestegge, Lynn

    2014-11-18

    In daily life, eye movement control usually occurs in the context of concurrent action demands in other effector domains. However, little research has focused on understanding how such cross-modal action demands are coordinated, especially when conflicting information needs to be processed conjunctly in different action modalities. In two experiments, we address this issue by studying vocal responses in the context of spatially conflicting eye movements (Experiment 1) and in the context of spatially conflicting manual actions (Experiment 2, under controlled eye fixation conditions). Crucially, a comparison across experiments allows us to assess resource scheduling priorities among the three effector systems by comparing the same (vocal) response demands in the context of eye movements in contrast to manual responses. The results indicate that in situations involving response conflict, eye movements are prioritized over concurrent action demands in another effector system. This oculomotor dominance effect corroborates previous observations in the context of multiple action demands without spatial response conflict. Furthermore, and in line with recent theoretical accounts of parallel multiple action control, resource scheduling patterns appear to be flexibly adjustable based on the temporal proximity of the two actions that need to be performed.

  6. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

    2006-02-01

    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  7. An asymptotically nonadaptive algorithm for conflict resolution in multiple-access channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komlos, J.; Greenberg, A. G.

    1985-03-01

    A basic problem in the decentralized control of a multiple access channel is to resolve the conflicts that arise when several stations transmit simultaneously to the channel. Capetanakis, Hayes, and Tsybakov and Mikhailov found a deterministic tree algorithm that resolves conflicts among k stations from an ensemble of n in time (Theta) /k + k log(n/k)/ in the worst case. In this algorithm, at each step, the choice of which stations to enable to transmit depends crucially on feedback information provided by the channel. It is shown that if k is given a priori then such conflicts can be resolved in time (Theta) /k + k log(n/k)/ using an algorithm in which the corresponding choices do not depend on feedback.

  8. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  9. A Survey on Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Nairobi Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Ken; Zhimin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of the study was to determine various mechanisms applied in resolving conflicts within public secondary schools in Nairobi province. This study used descriptive and exploratory research design. A sample comprising of principals, representatives of Boards of Governors (BoG's), class teachers, students and education officers was…

  10. You Can't Come to My Birthday Party! Conflict Resolution with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Betsy

    Noting that many teachers and parents are baffled by the repetitiveness of young children's conflict and by their own reaction to it, this book describes how adults can help children find alternatives to hurtful words and fighting by settling differences through a six-step mediation process based on several basic adult-child interaction…

  11. A Peer Mediation Model: Conflict Resolution for Elementary and Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pamela S.; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    1992-01-01

    Describes school peer mediation as a mode of student conflict management to be used with elementary and middle school students. The background and theoretical assumptions underlying the model are explained, benefits to students and to the school are discussed, and training of staff and student peer mediators is described. A peer mediation process…

  12. Peace Education for Consensual Peace: The Essential Role of Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2006-01-01

    Peace education is a key for establishing and maintaining a consensual peace. Creating an effective peace education program involves five steps. First, a public education system must be established with compulsory attendance; all children and youth should attend so that students from the previously conflicting groups interact and have the…

  13. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  14. Mediation and Conflict Resolution in a Multicultural Context: New Skills for Student Development Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter B.

    With the increase in violence over the past few decades, academic and human development practitioners have tried to better understand the dynamics of conflict and develop effective intervention and prevention strategies. There is an ever-deepening appreciation for the mediation process. The mediation process is a powerful problem-solving and…

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interest. 73.735-904 Section 73.735-904 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... sign a written statement reflecting the scope of the disqualification and the precise nature of the... interest when the nature of the financial interest is such that the conflict of interest cannot...

  16. A framework for multi-stakeholder decision-making and conflict resolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a decision-making framework to compute compromise solutions that balance conflicting priorities of multiple stakeholders on multiple objectives. In our setting, we shape the stakeholder dis-satisfaction distribution by solving a conditional-value-at-risk (CVaR) minimiz...

  17. Alternatives to litigation for health care conflicts and claims: alternative dispute resolution in medicine.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Edward A

    2002-12-01

    Health care has undergone radical changes, and it may be predicted that further changes are in the offing as the burdens and the benefits of the newer configurations become known. Change in any system stresses it, creating opportunities for conflict as people and organizations adjust to new realities and encounter changed expectations. The opportunities for conflict in health care (and legal conflict with it), therefore, have been and will continue to be a measurable part of health care's daily life. Many of these conflicts can be managed through one or another of the several forms of ADR. Some ADR procedures are most productive when used as alternatives to impending litigation. Others may be employed when litigation is not likely but when the persistence of conflict, such as that within a newly structured provider organization, would otherwise take its toll on the productivity of the organization and those who work within it. The challenge in using ADR for any of these problems is similar to what physicians understand as differential diagnosis. A good therapy applied to the wrong case yields a bad result. The world of ADR has matured to the point at which the salient features of both cases and procedures are well-enough understood to allow for low-risk and high-benefit applications. This is particularly true for disputes involving allegations of medical error, where the indicators of efficacy are very positive and the risks to safety are comfortably low. Mediation in particular, but mediation of the interest-based style rather than the settlement conference style, deserves fuller consideration and broader use. PMID:12512175

  18. The effects of family conflict resolution and decision making on the provision of help for an elder with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, M A; Fisher, L

    1999-04-01

    This study explored how characteristics of multigeneration families of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) affected the family's ability to provide help to their ill elder. An intensive patient and family assessment battery was employed with 211 families with an elder with AD, and measures of the amount and kind of help offered by the family group were recorded. Above and beyond control variables, families that used a focused decision-making style and positive conflict resolution methods provided more help than families that did not use these styles and methods. These data suggest the importance of the family system of care in disease management. PMID:10224712

  19. Water farms and transfer conflicts in Arizona, USA: A proposed resolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntire, Joanne

    1989-05-01

    Water is a relatively scarce resource in Arizona, especially since the recent urban growth booms of Phoenix and Tucson. Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Management Act was the precursor to current water-transfer conflicts between urban buyers, rural farmers, and third parties. Water farms are bought with the intention to transfer their appurtenant groundwater to the two major metropolitan areas. As water markets have emerged, differing values and public interest issues have become apparent, while the state legislature attempts to resolve inequities. Site-specific transfer disputes, as well as policy-making conflicts, offer suitable situations for a mediation process. Equity- and efficiency-based criteria are suggested as the basis for resolving water-transfer conflicts, and a mediation process is proposed. However, third parties must develop an agenda, and a balance of power should be attained before mediation can effectively forge an agreement on water-transfer policies. The attainment of statewide policies generated through a mediated process has the potential to expand long-range regional water planning and management.

  20. A peer education program to promote the use of conflict resolution skills among at-risk school age males.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, J D

    1994-01-01

    Violence is devastating the lives of children in America's major cities. The problem of violence is particularly acute among disadvantaged young urban males. This program focuses on violence prevention in school-age boys using creative educational techniques and community partnership. The goal of this school-based program is to decrease the incidence of violent episodes in the school by teaching conflict resolution skills. Conflict resolution skills are taught in the health education component of the school health program. Skills are taught using a peer education model supervised by the school health nurse and planned in partnership with a Violence Prevention Advisory Board. Peer education teams consisting of fifth and sixth grade boys are trained and serve as peer educators for the boys in grades K-4. The violence prevention peer education program stresses primary prevention and targets at-risk school age males. The proposal uses a model that promotes the development of student leadership skills and self esteem. The proposal suggests ways to promote school and community involvement using an advisory board made up of student, community, and school leaders. The peer education program is cost effective and demonstrates how existing resources can be used creatively within the school setting. PMID:8153266

  1. A Criteria Standard for Conflict Resolution: A Vision for Guaranteeing the Safety of Self-Separation in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky; Narkawicz, Anthony; Maddalon, Jeffrey; Hagen, George

    2010-01-01

    Distributed approaches for conflict resolution rely on analyzing the behavior of each aircraft to ensure that system-wide safety properties are maintained. This paper presents the criteria method, which increases the quality and efficiency of a safety assurance analysis for distributed air traffic concepts. The criteria standard is shown to provide two key safety properties: safe separation when only one aircraft maneuvers and safe separation when both aircraft maneuver at the same time. This approach is complemented with strong guarantees of correct operation through formal verification. To show that an algorithm is correct, i.e., that it always meets its specified safety property, one must only show that the algorithm satisfies the criteria. Once this is done, then the algorithm inherits the safety properties of the criteria. An important consequence of this approach is that there is no requirement that both aircraft execute the same conflict resolution algorithm. Therefore, the criteria approach allows different avionics manufacturers or even different airlines to use different algorithms, each optimized according to their own proprietary concerns.

  2. Effective Tools for Conflict Resolution in Multicultural Teams in Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videnová, Veronika; Beluský, Martin; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the issue of resolving conflicts within multicultural teams in industrial enterprises. The authors build upon the concept of multiculturalism which seeks for possible ways to enable different cultures to coexist and the means of communication between them. In the introduction, the authors explain the importance of increased attention and interest in the area of multiculturalism. Industrial enterprises nowadays are increasingly aware of this issue as they become more open to different cultures and they are confronted with intensive international migration and previously isolated societies become more pluralistic. As a result of these processes, individuals are more frequently in contact with members of different cultures.

  3. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S. ); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. )

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. From Conflict to Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michlowski, Aida A.

    1999-01-01

    Conflict resolution has moved into the classroom. Peaceful conflict resolution includes negotiation, peer mediation, and arbitration. Data on conflict-resolution programs have turned up interesting objectives and outcomes. Curriculum approaches include classroom discipline, peace education, multicultural perspective, and just community. Teaching…

  5. a Continual Engagement Approach Through Gis-Mcda Conflict Resolution of Loggerhead Sea Turtle Bycatch in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continual engagement is an approach that emphasizes of uninterrupted interaction with the stakeholders with the purpose of fully integrating their knowledge into policymaking process. It focuses on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy makers needs, while balancing the power asymmetries among stakeholders. Hence, it presupposes a capacity for a continuous revision and adjustment of the analyses that support the policymaking process. While continual engagement implies a capacity for enabling an effective communication, translation and mediation of knowledge among the diverse stakeholders, experts and policymakers, it also means keeping a close eye out for how knowledge evolves and how new data and information is introduced along a policymaking process. Through a case study, the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) fishing bycatch in Mexico, a geographical information system-multicriteria modeling (GIS-MCDA) approach is presented to address the challenges of implementing continual engagement in conflict resolution processes. The GIS-MCDA combined the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and compromise programming (CP) to generate consensus regarding the spatial pattern of conflicts. The AHP was fundamental for synthesizing the different sources of knowledge into a geospatial model. In particular, the AHP enabled the assess the salience, legitimacy, and credibility of the information produced for all involved. Results enabled the development of specific policies based upon an assessment of the risk of the loggerhead population to different levels of fishing bycatch, and the needs of the fishing communities in the region.

  6. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  7. Tracking the Time Course of Competition During Word Production: Evidence for a Post-Retrieval Mechanism of Conflict Resolution.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Niels; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; van der Meij, Maartje; Barber, Horacio A

    2015-09-01

    Producing a word is often complicated by the fact that there are other words that share meaning with the intended word. The competition between words that arises in such a situation is a well-known phenomenon in the word production literature. An ongoing debate in a number of research domains has concerned the question of how competition between words is resolved. Here, we contributed to the debate by presenting evidence that indicates that resolving competition during word production involves a postretrieval mechanism of conflict resolution. Specifically, we tracked the time course of competition during word production using electroencephalography. In the experiment, participants named pictures in contexts that varied in the strength of competition. The electrophysiological data show that competition is associated with a late, frontally distributed component that arises between 500 and 750 ms after picture presentation. These data are interpreted in terms of a model of word production that relies on a mechanism of cognitive control.

  8. Studies of transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup: cooperative conflict resolution and the mediating roles of job satisfaction and change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    The present paper evaluates the effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and change commitment along with their interconnected effects (mediation) on cooperative conflict resolution (management) in customer service activities in Taiwan. The multi-source samples consist of data from personnel serving at customer centers (workgroups), such as phone service personnel, customer representatives, financial specialists, and front-line salespeople. An empirical study was carried out using a multiple mediation procedure incorporating boot-strapping techniques and PRODCLIN2 with structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. The results indicate that the main effect of the leadership style on cooperative conflict resolution is mediated by change commitment and job satisfaction. PMID:23234098

  9. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    PubMed

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  10. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System

    PubMed Central

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J.; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  11. The evolution of filial cannibalism and female mate choice strategies as resolutions to sexual conflict in fishes.

    PubMed

    Lindström, K

    2000-04-01

    Filial cannibalism (the consumption of one's own viable offspring) is common among fish with paternal care. In this study, I use a computer simulation to study simultaneous evolution of male filial cannibalism and female mate choice. Under certain conditions, selection on parental males favors filial cannibalism. When filial cannibalism increases a male's probability to raise the current brood successfully, filial cannibalism also benefits the female. However, when egg eating is a male investment into future reproduction, a conflict between female and male interests emerges. Here I investigate how female discrimination against filial cannibals affects evolution of filial cannibalism and how different female choice criteria perform against filial cannibalism. The introduction of discriminating females makes the fixation of filial cannibalism less likely. I introduced three different female choice criteria: (1) females who could discern a male's genotype, that is, whether the male was going to eat eggs as an investment in future reproductive events; (2) energy-choosing females that preferred to mate with males who had enough energy reserves to live through the current brood cycle without consuming eggs; and (3) females that preferred to mate with already mated males, that is, males with eggs in their nest. Genotype choice never coexisted with filial cannibals at fixation and filial cannibals were unable to invade a population with genotype-choosing females. Energy choice was successful only when males had high energy reserves and were less dependent on filial cannibalism as an alternative energy source. The egg choosers frequently coexisted with the cannibals at fixation. When the female strategies were entered simultaneously, the most frequent outcome for low mate sampling costs was that both the cannibals and the egg choice was fixed and all other strategies went extinct. These results suggest that sexual conflicts may not always evolve toward a resolution of the

  12. Assessing Peer Conflict and Aggressive Behaviors: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorowicz, Kathleen; Hair, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Peer relations during middle childhood and adolescence are an important part of children's social and emotional development. Children and adolescents pick up essential social and communication skills from their peers as they move into late adolescence and early adulthood. Peer conflict is not necessarily a bad thing; disagreement and conflict are…

  13. Alternative dispute resolution: methods to address workplace conflict in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, J R

    1998-01-01

    As healthcare organizations become increasingly complex, healthcare administrators and human resource managers face the cost and challenges of employment-related disputes. Litigation and legal costs associated with employment disputes are escalating at a significant rate. Additionally, litigation procedures are drawn out and damage the employer-employee relationship. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs such as mediation and arbitration alleviate the burden of litigation and preserve positive employment relationships between the organization and its employees. A proposed ADR program is presented is a guideline for health services organizations considering the adoption of such programs. PMID:10182933

  14. A Conflict-Resolution Model for the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources that Considers Water-Quality Issues: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Mansoori, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is one alternative for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. The optimization models proposed for conjunctive water allocation are often complicated, nonlinear, and computationally intensive, especially when different stakeholders are involved that have conflicting interests. In this article, a new conflict-resolution methodology developed for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Young Conflict-Resolution Theory (YCRT) is presented. The proposed model is applied to the Tehran aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan area of Iran. Stakeholders in the study area have conflicting interests related to water supply with acceptable quality, pumping costs, groundwater quality, and groundwater table fluctuations. In the proposed methodology, MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models are linked with the NSGA-II optimization model to develop Pareto fronts among the objectives. The best solutions on the Pareto fronts are then selected using YCRT. The results of the proposed model show the significance of applying an integrated conflict-resolution approach to conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources in the study area.

  15. A conflict-resolution model for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources that considers water-quality issues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Mansoori, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is one alternative for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. The optimization models proposed for conjunctive water allocation are often complicated, nonlinear, and computationally intensive, especially when different stakeholders are involved that have conflicting interests. In this article, a new conflict-resolution methodology developed for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Young Conflict-Resolution Theory (YCRT) is presented. The proposed model is applied to the Tehran aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan area of Iran. Stakeholders in the study area have conflicting interests related to water supply with acceptable quality, pumping costs, groundwater quality, and groundwater table fluctuations. In the proposed methodology, MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models are linked with the NSGA-II optimization model to develop Pareto fronts among the objectives. The best solutions on the Pareto fronts are then selected using YCRT. The results of the proposed model show the significance of applying an integrated conflict-resolution approach to conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources in the study area. PMID:18773238

  16. A conflict-resolution model for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources that considers water-quality issues: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Mansoori, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is one alternative for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. The optimization models proposed for conjunctive water allocation are often complicated, nonlinear, and computationally intensive, especially when different stakeholders are involved that have conflicting interests. In this article, a new conflict-resolution methodology developed for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Young Conflict-Resolution Theory (YCRT) is presented. The proposed model is applied to the Tehran aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan area of Iran. Stakeholders in the study area have conflicting interests related to water supply with acceptable quality, pumping costs, groundwater quality, and groundwater table fluctuations. In the proposed methodology, MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models are linked with the NSGA-II optimization model to develop Pareto fronts among the objectives. The best solutions on the Pareto fronts are then selected using YCRT. The results of the proposed model show the significance of applying an integrated conflict-resolution approach to conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources in the study area.

  17. Post-mortem pregnancy: a proposed methodology for the resolution of conflicts over whether a brain dead pregnant woman should be maintained on life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines conflicts over whether to maintain a brain dead pregnant woman on life-sustaining treatment. The author cautions that on the rare occasions when courts are confronted with such a conflict, they should employ a consistent methodology for resolution of the conflict and attempt to honor the wishes of the post-mortem mother and her family. The author draws on relevant areas of law to demonstrate the existence of a legal fiction that protects the interests of post-mortem pregnant women in refusing medical treatment. This article then proceeds to propose a methodology that enables courts to account for a post-mortem pregnant woman's interests, her family's interests, and the state's interests in resolving conflicts over whether to remove a post-mortem pregnant woman from life-sustaining treatment. PMID:21443149

  18. Post-mortem pregnancy: a proposed methodology for the resolution of conflicts over whether a brain dead pregnant woman should be maintained on life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines conflicts over whether to maintain a brain dead pregnant woman on life-sustaining treatment. The author cautions that on the rare occasions when courts are confronted with such a conflict, they should employ a consistent methodology for resolution of the conflict and attempt to honor the wishes of the post-mortem mother and her family. The author draws on relevant areas of law to demonstrate the existence of a legal fiction that protects the interests of post-mortem pregnant women in refusing medical treatment. This article then proceeds to propose a methodology that enables courts to account for a post-mortem pregnant woman's interests, her family's interests, and the state's interests in resolving conflicts over whether to remove a post-mortem pregnant woman from life-sustaining treatment.

  19. Using Transformative Models of Adult Literacy in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Processes at Community Level: Examples from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffery, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience in Guinea, Sierra Leone and South Sudan, to explore how the methodology and modalities of community based participatory literacy can interrelate and combine with those of conflict resolution and peacebuilding. The paper considers how transformative models of literacy, such as those of Freire, REFLECT, the…

  20. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Forms of the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities Project for Promoting Cooperative Conflict Resolution Education in Australian Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinder, Margot; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth; Sanson, Ann; Richardson, Shanel; Hunt, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Enhancing Relationships in School Communities (ERIS) Project which aimed to promote constructive conflict resolution (CR) in Australian primary school communities through professional development for core teams of three-five staff (n = 33 teachers). Twelve schools were randomly assigned to a full intervention (FI) group or…

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Conflict Resolution on Urban Children's Violence-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in New Haven, Connecticut, through a Community-Academic Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuval, Kerem; Pillsbury, Charles A.; Cavanaugh, Brenda; McGruder, La'rie; McKinney, Christy M.; Massey, Zohar; Groce, Nora E.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous schools are implementing youth violence prevention interventions aimed at enhancing conflict resolution skills without evaluating their effectiveness. Consequently, we formed a community-academic partnership between a New Haven community-based organization and Yale's School of Public Health and Prevention Research Center to examine the…

  2. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors.

  3. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors. PMID:16782255

  4. Aggression, segregation and stability in a dominance hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tzo Zen; Manica, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Central to our understanding of social group formation and maintenance is the question of how within-group conflict resolution is achieved in the face of asymmetrical competition over resources and reproduction. A crucial yet implicit assumption of many conflict resolution models dealing with reproductive skew is that subordinates have perfect knowledge of the extent of conflict between themselves and their dominants, enabling behavioural responses on an individual rather than evolutionary scale. However, a mechanism enabling subordinates to accurately assess their relative conflict levels has yet to be empirically demonstrated. Here, we show in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor that the rate of overt mild aggression from dominants to subordinates acts as a signal of increasing rank conflict. The clarity of this signal can be reduced by spatial segregation, causing subordinates to be less able to respond appropriately by regulation of their foraging rates. A reduced signal ultimately leads to a less well-defined dominance hierarchy and destabilization of the social group. Our study suggests that, contrary to previous suggestions, dominant aggression rates play a crucial role as an accurate information signal required for the evolutionary stability of skew models. PMID:20053647

  5. Exposure to Violence across the Social Ecosystem and the Development of Aggression: A Test of Ecological Theory in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave…

  6. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  7. Analysis of the effect of conflict-management and resolution training on employee stress at a healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Haraway, Dana L; Haraway, William M

    2005-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable and can be both positive and negative. Although it is impossible, and probably not wise, to eliminate conflict, it is prudent for healthcare organizations to provide direct instruction in conflict-management training. In this study, 23 supervisors and managers in a local healthcare organization participated in two 3-hour sessions designed to teach practical conflict-management strategies immediately applicable to their workplace duties and responsibilities. A comparison of pretest and posttest measures indicates statistically significant differences in four areas and suggests a positive influence of the brief intervention. PMID:16425697

  8. Interparental Violence and Maternal Mood Disorders as Predictors of Adolescent Physical Aggression within the Family

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P.; Gold, Philip W.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents’ physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. PMID:27541378

  9. Aggressive family communication, weight gain, and improved eating attitudes during systemic family therapy for anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shugar, G; Krueger, S

    1995-01-01

    During systemic family therapy with 15 hospitalized anorexics, family communication was evaluated, using a Family Aggression Scale developed by one of the authors. Initially members communicated aggression covertly. This finding may partially explain the common clinical observation that the families of anorexics present a strong facade of togetherness and avoid overt conflict. During therapy members shifted from covert communication of aggression to covert communication of aggression. This shift correlated with improvement in subjects' eating attitudes reflected by their EAT-26 scores. All subjects gained weight. Greater weight gain occurred in subjects whose families had low levels of covert or indirect aggression. A regression analysis showed that 86% of the variance in weight gain was predicted by two leading indicators in the middle phase of treatment. Two other factors accounted for 64% of the variance in EAT scores. The findings of this study suggest that family aggression as measured by the Family Aggression Scale is a significant index of pathology in anorexics' families and is also a clinically meaningful measure of improved conflict resolution during systemic family therapy.

  10. Deeper into divorce: using actor-partner analyses to explore systemic differences in coparenting conflict following custody dispute resolution.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Emery, Robert E

    2008-02-01

    Divorce is an inherently interpersonal experience, yet too often adults' reactions to marital dissolution are investigated as intrapersonal experiences that unfold outside of the relational context in which they exist. This article examines systemic patterns of interpersonal influence between divorced parents who were randomly assigned to either mediate or litigate a child custody dispute in the mid-1980s. Reports of coparenting conflict and nonacceptance of the divorce were assessed 5 weeks after the dispute settlement, 13 months after the settlement, and then again 12 years later. One hundred nine (N = 109) parents provided data over this 12-year period. Fathers reported the highest initial levels of conflict when their ex-partners were more accepting of the divorce. Mediation parents reported decreases in coparenting conflict in the year after dispute settlement, whereas litigation parents reported increases in conflict. Litigation parents evidenced the greatest long-term increases and decreases in coparenting conflict. Mediation is a potent force for reducing postdivorce conflict, and this article highlights the usefulness of adopting a systemic lens for understanding the long-term correlates of marital dissolution.

  11. Water Resource Management Mechanisms for Intrastate Violent Conflict Resolution: the Capacity Gap and What To Do About It.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, M.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Violent conflict and issues surrounding available water resources are both global problems and are connected. Violent conflict is increasingly intrastate in nature and coupled with increased hydrological variability as a function of climate change, there will be increased pressures on water resource use. The majority of mechanisms designed to secure water resources are often based on the presence of a governance framework or another type of institutional capacity, such as offered through a supra- or sub-national organization like the United Nations or a river basin organization. However, institutional frameworks are not present or loose functionality during violent conflict. Therefore, it will likely be extremely difficult to secure water resources for a significant proportion of populations in Fragile and Conflict Affected States. However, the capacity in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations for the appropriate interventions to address this problem is reduced by an increasing reluctance to participate in interventionist operations following a decade of expeditionary warfighting mainly in Iraq and Afghanistan, and related defence cuts. Therefore, future interventions in violent conflict and securing water resources may be more indirect in nature. This paper assesses the state of understanding key areas in the present literature and highlights the gap of securing water resources during violent conflict in the absence of institutional capacity. There is a need to close this gap as a matter of urgency by formulating frameworks to assess the lack of institutional oversight / framework for water resources in areas where violent conflict is prevalent; developing inclusive resource management platforms through transparency and reconciliation mechanisms; and developing endogenous confidence-building measures and evaluate how these may be encouraged by exogenous initiatives including those facilitated by the international community. This effort

  12. The Use of Digital Storytelling to Improve the Effectiveness of Social and Conflict Resolution Skill Training for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschutz, Betsy D.

    2010-01-01

    School safety is one of the most important issues facing administrators, teachers, and parents. Several risk factors have been identified as antecedents to aggression including poor social skills, difficulty dealing with anger and frustration, and inadequate problem solving abilities. "No Child Left Behind" requires all schools receiving Title IV…

  13. 'They Turned Around Like I Wasn't There': An Analysis of Teenage Girls' Letters About Their Peer Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vennessa H.; Owens, Laurence D.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought a clearer understanding of the aggressive behaviours and conflict resolution experiences of teenage girls. The participants were 39 Year 10 girls attending a single-sex school in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The girls participated in a novel letter writing methodology designed to shadow adolescents' existing use of…

  14. Coping with Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1991-01-01

    To make conflict resolution easier, this article advises board members to determine nature of the conflict and choose an appropriate course of action. Situation might call for quick, decisive action; establishing a discussion date; reaching a temporary consensus; or working with involved parties to reach a positive resolution. Sidebar offers tips…

  15. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  16. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  17. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  18. Interdependent Construal of Self and the Endorsement of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Interpersonal, Intergroup, and International Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Cukur, Cem Safak; Kuang, Jenny C. Y.; Forsyth, Donelson R.

    2002-01-01

    College students from countries with collectivistic and individualistic cultures completed a self-construal measure, then identified how they would respond to conflicts with another individual between their group and another group, or between their country and another country. Participants responded more negatively to intergroup and international…

  19. "Of, By, and For Are Not Merely Prepositions": Teaching and Learning Conflict Resolution for a Democratic, Global Citizenry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Andria K.

    2009-01-01

    Universities that promote a liberal education through creative, cross-cultural curriculum nurture the goals of democracy and assist students in becoming "citizens of the world." Democratic education for social justice and global consciousness are necessary tools in the peaceful transformation of today's violent conflicts, which now supersede…

  20. Prayer as a Conflict Resolution Ritual: Clinical Implications of Religious Couples' Report of Relationship Softening, Healing Perspective, and Change Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Mark H.; Stout, Julie A.; Gardner, Brandt C.

    2002-01-01

    For religious couples, Deity's influence in their marriage is often experienced through prayer, and Deity may more significantly influence religious couples' interaction than anyone else. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, spouses completed a Likert-scaled questionnaire pertaining to prayer and marital conflict. Issues surrounding clinical…

  1. An Educology of Peace Education: Formulating a Strategy for the Promotion of Non-Violent Conflict Resolution in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallum, Jane O.

    2002-01-01

    The world today is fraught with violence and conflicts. This state of affairs is made all the more dangerous by the development of nuclear technology and the possibility of dissemination of military applications of this technology to unstable countries and militant terrorists. At the same time, there has been a rapid diffusion of democratization…

  2. How To Resolve Conflicts Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Georgia; Malague, Marianne

    Conflict resolution at community colleges or other organizations requires an analysis of four situational factors: the conflict issues, the organizational setting, hierarchy and role relationships, and the personal styles of the conflicting parties. These factors yield insight into the dynamics of the conflict and provide the groundwork for…

  3. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning.

  4. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. PMID:26829451

  5. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  6. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  7. Intraindividual Variability in Executive Functions but Not Speed of Processing or Conflict Resolution Predicts Performance Differences in Gait Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette; Verghese, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Background. The relationship between executive functions (EF) and gait speed is well established. However, with the exception of dual tasking, the key components of EF that predict differences in gait performance have not been determined. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine whether processing speed, conflict resolution, and intraindividual variability in EF predicted variance in gait performance in single- and dual-task conditions. Methods. Participants were 234 nondemented older adults (mean age 76.48 years; 55% women) enrolled in a community-based cohort study. Gait speed was assessed using an instrumented walkway during single- and dual-task conditions. The flanker task was used to assess EF. Results. Results from the linear mixed effects model showed that (a) dual-task interference caused a significant dual-task cost in gait speed (estimate = 35.99; 95% CI = 33.19–38.80) and (b) of the cognitive predictors, only intraindividual variability was associated with gait speed (estimate = −.606; 95% CI = −1.11 to −.10). In unadjusted analyses, the three EF measures were related to gait speed in single- and dual-task conditions. However, in fully adjusted linear regression analysis, only intraindividual variability predicted performance differences in gait speed during dual tasking (B = −.901; 95% CI = −1.557 to −.245). Conclusion. Among the three EF measures assessed, intraindividual variability but not speed of processing or conflict resolution predicted performance differences in gait speed. PMID:24285744

  8. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  9. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  10. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  11. Differential serotonergic modulation of two types of aggression in weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Zubizarreta, Lucía; Perrone, Rossana; Stoddard, Philip K.; Costa, Gustavo; Silva, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    Agonistic aggression has provided an excellent framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control species-specific and context-dependent behavior. The principal inhibitory control upon aggression is serotonin (5-HT) dependent, and the activation of 5-HT1A receptors is involved in its action. To address whether the serotonergic system differentially regulates different types of aggression, we used two species of weakly electric fish: the solitary Gymnotus omarorum and the gregarious Brachyhypopomus gauderio, which display distinctive types of aggression as part of each species' natural behavioral repertoire. We found that in the reproduction-related aggression displayed by B. gauderio after conflict resolution, the serotonergic activity follows the classic pattern in which subordinates exhibit higher 5-HT levels than controls. After the territorial aggression displayed by G. omarorum, however, both dominants and subordinates show lower 5-HT levels than controls, indicating a different response of the serotonergic system. Further, we found interspecific differences in basal serotonin turnover and in the dynamic profile of the changes in 5-HT levels from pre-contest to post-contest. Finally, we found the expected reduction of aggression and outcome shift in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum after 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A receptor agonist) administration, but no effect in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio. Our results demonstrate the differential participation of the serotonergic system in the modulation of two types of aggression that we speculate may be a general strategy of the neuroendocrine control of aggression across vertebrates. PMID:23181014

  12. Contribution of the Multi-attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Llopis-Albert, C.

    2012-04-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, with consideration of environmental, economic and social objectives, claims for participatory water resource management methods. To deal with different conflicting objectives it is necessary to apply a method for clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying values and opinions of stakeholders, and quantifying their valuations), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from alternatives towards fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach) and valuing trade-offs, facilitating negotiation. The method allows the incorporation of stakeholders in the planning process, which should guarantee a higher acceptance of the policies to be implemented. This research has been conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system Spain, subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. The main goals according to the WFD are: a good qualitative and quantitative status of the aquifer and a good quantitative and ecological status of related surface water resources (mainly the Jucar river and dependent ecosystems). The aim is to analyze the contribution of the MAVT for conflict resolution and a sustainable groundwater management, involving the stakeholders in the valuation process. A complex set of objectives and attributes has been defined. The alternatives have been evaluated according to the compliance of ecological, economic and social interests. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation status. A high conflict potential is expected from alternatives consisting of one unique measure. Uncertainties of the results are notable, but do not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. Different future scenarios also influence on the preference of alternatives. For instance, an expected reduction of future groundwater resources by climate change increases the conflict potential, with two

  13. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  14. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  15. The anthropology of violence: Context, consequences, conflict resolution, healing, and peace-building in Central and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Janzen, John M

    2016-09-01

    This study, with a focus on Central and Southern Africa, offers an overview of best practices and theoretical debates in the anthropology of violence, including the ethnography of situations where violence is pervasive and active efforts are made to deal with it. Although the multiple sites of recent violence in this region are unique in their scale, intensity, and cause, the literature review suggests a typical course of events of patterns of violence and trauma, construction of memory, efforts at mediation and healing, or persisting conflict and confronting the aftermath of violence at home or in exile. The essay suggests that political reconciliation, healing, ritualized memory, and restoration of justice often accompany, singly or in combination, a break in the cycle of violence. Ethnography and anthropological analysis offers tools for policy-makers, therapists, and leaders to deal with the consequences of violence. PMID:27638247

  16. The anthropology of violence: Context, consequences, conflict resolution, healing, and peace-building in Central and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Janzen, John M

    2016-09-01

    This study, with a focus on Central and Southern Africa, offers an overview of best practices and theoretical debates in the anthropology of violence, including the ethnography of situations where violence is pervasive and active efforts are made to deal with it. Although the multiple sites of recent violence in this region are unique in their scale, intensity, and cause, the literature review suggests a typical course of events of patterns of violence and trauma, construction of memory, efforts at mediation and healing, or persisting conflict and confronting the aftermath of violence at home or in exile. The essay suggests that political reconciliation, healing, ritualized memory, and restoration of justice often accompany, singly or in combination, a break in the cycle of violence. Ethnography and anthropological analysis offers tools for policy-makers, therapists, and leaders to deal with the consequences of violence.

  17. Conflict monitoring and resolution: are two languages better than one? Evidence from reaction time and event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Phillips, Natalie A

    2012-03-29

    An advantage for bilingual relative to monolingual young adults has been found for cognitive control tasks, although this finding is not consistent in the literature. The present investigation further examined this advantage using three tasks previously found to be sensitive to the effect. Furthermore, both behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were included. Monolingual (n=25) and highly proficient bilingual (n=26) young adults completed a Stroop, Simon, and Eriksen flanker task while electrophysiological recording took place. Behaviorally there were no language group differences on any of the tasks. The ERP measures demonstrated differences between monolinguals and bilinguals with respect to conflict monitoring, resource allocation, stimulus categorization, and error-processing; however, these differences were not consistent across tasks. Given the similar behavioral performance across the groups the observed differences in brain responses may not represent an advantage for bilinguals. The results are discussed with respect to previous findings.

  18. Conflict management: assessing educational needs.

    PubMed

    Eason, F R; Brown, S T

    1999-01-01

    In today's healthcare environment, the potential for conflict among healthcare providers exists as changes are occurring at a supersonic pace. The outcomes of conflict may affect patient care and are directly related to the effectiveness of the resolution. Clinical educators and staff development educators are essential in resolution if they assess strategies that are currently being used in managing conflict and then offer more effective resolution strategies. PMID:10531894

  19. Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

  20. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  1. High-conflict divorce.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  2. Modelling hen harrier dynamics to inform human-wildlife conflict resolution: a spatially-realistic, individual-based approach.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Johannes P M; Palmer, Stephen C F; Redpath, Steve M; Travis, Justin M J

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based models have gained popularity in ecology, and enable simultaneous incorporation of spatial explicitness and population dynamic processes to understand spatio-temporal patterns of populations. We introduce an individual-based model for understanding and predicting spatial hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) population dynamics in Great Britain. The model uses a landscape with habitat, prey and game management indices. The hen harrier population was initialised according to empirical census estimates for 1988/89 and simulated until 2030, and predictions for 1998, 2004 and 2010 were compared to empirical census estimates for respective years. The model produced a good qualitative match to overall trends between 1989 and 2010. Parameter explorations revealed relatively high elasticity in particular to demographic parameters such as juvenile male mortality. This highlights the need for robust parameter estimates from empirical research. There are clearly challenges for replication of real-world population trends, but this model provides a useful tool for increasing understanding of drivers of hen harrier dynamics and focusing research efforts in order to inform conflict management decisions.

  3. Modelling Hen Harrier Dynamics to Inform Human-Wildlife Conflict Resolution: A Spatially-Realistic, Individual-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Johannes P. M.; Palmer, Stephen C. F.; Redpath, Steve M.; Travis, Justin M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based models have gained popularity in ecology, and enable simultaneous incorporation of spatial explicitness and population dynamic processes to understand spatio-temporal patterns of populations. We introduce an individual-based model for understanding and predicting spatial hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) population dynamics in Great Britain. The model uses a landscape with habitat, prey and game management indices. The hen harrier population was initialised according to empirical census estimates for 1988/89 and simulated until 2030, and predictions for 1998, 2004 and 2010 were compared to empirical census estimates for respective years. The model produced a good qualitative match to overall trends between 1989 and 2010. Parameter explorations revealed relatively high elasticity in particular to demographic parameters such as juvenile male mortality. This highlights the need for robust parameter estimates from empirical research. There are clearly challenges for replication of real-world population trends, but this model provides a useful tool for increasing understanding of drivers of hen harrier dynamics and focusing research efforts in order to inform conflict management decisions. PMID:25405860

  4. Post-conflict affiliation as conflict management in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Furuta, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Taki, Michihiro; Mori, Yoshihisa; Amano, Masao

    2015-09-22

    Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents or between one of the former opponents and bystanders might have the function of conflict management, which reduces the costs associated with aggressions. One of the suggested functions of post-conflict affiliation is decreased renewed aggressions directed from aggressors to victims. However, the effect of post-conflict affiliation on renewed aggressions by victims has not been investigated. We examined whether post-conflict affiliations decreased the number of renewed aggressions initiated by winners or losers in captive bottlenose dolphins. Both winners and losers initiated renewed aggressions. However, these aggressions decreased after post-conflict affiliation between former opponents, initiated by bystanders to winners, initiated by losers to bystanders, and initiated by bystanders to losers. Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents is suggested to function as reconciliation. Post-conflict affiliation initiated by losers to bystanders is suggested to function as the protection of losers. Post-conflict affiliations initiated by bystanders to one of former opponents are suggested to function as both appeasement and protection of the opponent who affiliates with bystanders.

  5. Post-conflict affiliation as conflict management in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Furuta, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Taki, Michihiro; Mori, Yoshihisa; Amano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents or between one of the former opponents and bystanders might have the function of conflict management, which reduces the costs associated with aggressions. One of the suggested functions of post-conflict affiliation is decreased renewed aggressions directed from aggressors to victims. However, the effect of post-conflict affiliation on renewed aggressions by victims has not been investigated. We examined whether post-conflict affiliations decreased the number of renewed aggressions initiated by winners or losers in captive bottlenose dolphins. Both winners and losers initiated renewed aggressions. However, these aggressions decreased after post-conflict affiliation between former opponents, initiated by bystanders to winners, initiated by losers to bystanders, and initiated by bystanders to losers. Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents is suggested to function as reconciliation. Post–conflict affiliation initiated by losers to bystanders is suggested to function as the protection of losers. Post-conflict affiliations initiated by bystanders to one of former opponents are suggested to function as both appeasement and protection of the opponent who affiliates with bystanders. PMID:26392064

  6. The logic-bias effect: The role of effortful processing in the resolution of belief-logic conflict.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Stephanie; Handley, Simon J; Walsh, Clare

    2016-02-01

    According to the default interventionist dual-process account of reasoning, belief-based responses to reasoning tasks are based on Type 1 processes generated by default, which must be inhibited in order to produce an effortful, Type 2 output based on the validity of an argument. However, recent research has indicated that reasoning on the basis of beliefs may not be as fast and automatic as this account claims. In three experiments, we presented participants with a reasoning task that was to be completed while they were generating random numbers (RNG). We used the novel methodology introduced by Handley, Newstead & Trippas (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 28-43, 2011), which required participants to make judgments based upon either the validity of a conditional argument or the believability of its conclusion. The results showed that belief-based judgments produced lower rates of accuracy overall and were influenced to a greater extent than validity judgments by the presence of a conflict between belief and logic for both simple and complex arguments. These findings were replicated in Experiment 3, in which we controlled for switching demands in a blocked design. Across all three experiments, we found a main effect of RNG, implying that both instructional sets require some effortful processing. However, in the blocked design RNG had its greatest impact on logic judgments, suggesting that distinct executive resources may be required for each type of judgment. We discuss the implications of our findings for the default interventionist account and offer a parallel competitive model as an alternative interpretation for our findings.

  7. The logic-bias effect: The role of effortful processing in the resolution of belief-logic conflict.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Stephanie; Handley, Simon J; Walsh, Clare

    2016-02-01

    According to the default interventionist dual-process account of reasoning, belief-based responses to reasoning tasks are based on Type 1 processes generated by default, which must be inhibited in order to produce an effortful, Type 2 output based on the validity of an argument. However, recent research has indicated that reasoning on the basis of beliefs may not be as fast and automatic as this account claims. In three experiments, we presented participants with a reasoning task that was to be completed while they were generating random numbers (RNG). We used the novel methodology introduced by Handley, Newstead & Trippas (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 28-43, 2011), which required participants to make judgments based upon either the validity of a conditional argument or the believability of its conclusion. The results showed that belief-based judgments produced lower rates of accuracy overall and were influenced to a greater extent than validity judgments by the presence of a conflict between belief and logic for both simple and complex arguments. These findings were replicated in Experiment 3, in which we controlled for switching demands in a blocked design. Across all three experiments, we found a main effect of RNG, implying that both instructional sets require some effortful processing. However, in the blocked design RNG had its greatest impact on logic judgments, suggesting that distinct executive resources may be required for each type of judgment. We discuss the implications of our findings for the default interventionist account and offer a parallel competitive model as an alternative interpretation for our findings. PMID:26390872

  8. Age of Carving the Westernmost Grand Canyon: Conflicts and Potential Resolutions that Reconcile Geologic and Thermochronologic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, C.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Kelley, S.; Shuster, D. L.; Fox, M.

    2015-12-01

    Conflicting models for the timing of carving Grand Canyon, especially the westernmost Grand Canyon, involve either a 70 Ma segment of Grand Canyon or a segment that is < 5-6 Ma. Geologic data such as the late Miocene-Pliocene Muddy Creek constraint, the north-derived Paleogene Hindu fanglomerate, and the 19 Ma Separation Point basalt on the south rim favor the young model. However, thermochronologic data do not resolve the controversy. (U-Th)/He (AHe) data combined with 4He/3He modeling of a sample near Separation Canyon suggest river-level rocks cooled from ~100 to 30ºC at 70 Ma. Alternatively, apatite fission track (AFT) combined with AHe data show variable cooling paths in different locations, with some samples cooling steadily since 70 Ma and others remaining at ~40-80ºC until 5-6 Ma. Either model could be compatible with geologic data that show Laramide (90-70 Ma) cooling resulted from northward stripping of the Hualapai Plateau. Variable cooling sample-to-sample is also geologically plausible. This study area offers an important test-bed for interpreting the sensitivity of thermochronologic data in areas of slow cooling at relatively shallow (~ 1 km) burial depths. Recent 4He/3He modeling of Separation Canyon samples suggests a period of 90-70 Ma Laramide cooling, 70-10 Ma post-Laramide residence at ~40-60 ºC, and cooling to surface temperatures at 5-6 Ma. New HeFTy modeling of all available data was done considering the Precambrian age and cooling histories of the apatite, surface residence in the Cambrian and Devonian, and burial to 40-140 ºC during the Laramide. Our models indicate that most grains underwent substantial pre-Laramide radiation damage, and that peak Laramide burial and associated temperatures may not have been high enough to completely reset the AHe age and anneal lattice damage. Our overall conclusion is that published thermochronologic constraints are not yet able to fully resolve the "old" versus "young" canyon models because most AHe

  9. Toward a World of Peace: People Create Alternatives. Proceedings of the International Conference on Conflict Resolution and Peace Studies in the United Nations Year of Peace, 1986 (1st, Suva, Fiji, August 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Jeanette P., Ed.; Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This book is a review of the 1986 United Nations International Year of Peace conducted at an international conference in Fiji. The theme of the conference was "People Create Alternatives," and the issues of conflict resolution and avoiding global destruction were addressed. Specific topics discussed were: (1) "Theories and Techniques of Conflict…

  10. Making amends : Adaptive perspectives on conflict remediation in monkeys, apes, and humans.

    PubMed

    Silk, J B

    1998-12-01

    Conflict is an integral, and potentially disruptive, element in the lives of humans and other group-living animals. But conflicts are often settled, sometimes within minutes after the altercation has ended. The goal of this paper is to understand why primates, including humans, make amends. Primatologists have gathered an impressive body of evidence which demonstrates that monkeys and apes use a variety of behavioral mechanisms to resolve conflicts. Peaceful post-conflict interactions in nonhuman primates, sometimes labeled "reconciliation," have clear and immediate effects upon former adversaries, relieving uncertainty about whether aggression will continue, reducing stress, increasing tolerance, and reducing anxiety about whether aggressors will resume aggression toward former victims. However, the long-term effects of these interactions are less clearly established, leaving room to debate the adaptive function of conflict resolution strategies among primates. It is possible that reconciliatory behavior enhances the quality of valued, long-term social relationships or that reconciliatory interactions are signals that the conflict has ended and the actor's intentions are now benign. Both of these hypotheses may help us to understand how and why monkeys, apes, and humans make amends.

  11. The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Student to Student Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayorga, Mary G.

    2010-01-01

    Conflict in school settings continues to be an area of concern for school administrators, teachers, and parents. Conflict between and among students in their school environment is followed by aggressive behavior that contributes to violent actions. The aggressive behavior may range from verbal attacks to physical attacks that may end up with the…

  12. Post-conflict friendly reunion in a permanent group of horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Alessandro; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo; Nicol, Christine J; Baragli, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Gregarious animals living in permanent social groups experience intra-group competition. Conflicts over resources can escalate into costly aggression and, in some conditions, non-dispersive forms of conflict resolution may be favoured. Post-conflict friendly reunions, hence reconciliation, have been described in a variety of species. The aim of this study was to explore, for the first time, the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of domestic horses (Equus caballus) and learn more about strategies used to maintain group cohesion. The behaviour of seven horses living as permanent group in an enclosure for at least 2 years was observed by video for 108h from June to August 2007. We used a Post-Conflict/Matched Control method to assess the existence of reconciliation and third-party affiliation. Behaviours recorded Post-Conflict, or during Matched Control periods, were classified as affiliative based on previous descriptions of visual communication patterns in horses. The proportion of attracted pairs over total post-conflict situations was significantly greater than the proportion of dispersed pairs, both during dyadic interactions (p<0.001) and during triadic interactions (p=0.002). The results of the present study show that both dyadic reconciliation and third-party post-conflict affiliative interactions form important social mechanisms for managing post-conflict situations in horses. PMID:20659538

  13. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  14. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  15. Selection for alternative male reproductive tactics alters intralocus sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Plesnar Bielak, Agata; Skrzynecka, Anna M; Miler, Krzysztof; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) arises when fitness optima for a shared trait differ between the sexes; such conflict may help maintain genetic variation within populations. Sex-limited expression of sexually antagonistic traits may help resolve the conflict, but the extent of this resolution remains a subject of debate. In species with alternative male reproductive tactics, unresolved conflict should manifest more in a more sexually dimorphic male phenotype. We tested this prediction in the bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), a species in which aggressive fighters coexist with benign scramblers. To do this, we established replicated lines in which we increased the proportion of each of the alternative male morphs using artificial selection. After approximately 40 generations, the proportion of fighters and scramblers stabilized at >0.9 in fighter- and scrambler-selected lines, respectively. We then measured several female fitness components. As predicted by IASC theory, female fecundity and longevity were lower in lines selected for fighters and higher in lines selected for scramblers. This finding indicates that sexually selected phenotypes are associated with an ontogenetic conflict that is not easily resolved. Furthermore, we suggest that IASC may be an important mechanism contributing to the maintenance of genetic variation in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics.

  16. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  17. Different Forms of Aggression among Inner-City African-American Children: Gender, Configurations, and School Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2003-01-01

    Using narrative reports of peer conflicts among a sample of African-American children and adolescents from inner-city schools, investigates the development and social functions of four types of aggressive behaviors. Results showed that low levels of social aggression and high levels of physical aggression were reported in peer conflicts. Distinct…

  18. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  19. Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations. PMID:23494773

  20. Applying evolutionary psychology to a serious game about children's interpersonal conflict.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gordon P D; Campos, Joana; Hondrou, Charline; Vasalou, Asimina; Martinho, Carlos; Joinson, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the use of evolutionary psychology to inform the design of a serious computer game aimed at improving 9-12-year-old children's conflict resolution skills. The design of the game will include dynamic narrative generation and emotional tagging, and there is a strong evolutionary rationale for the effect of both of these on conflict resolution. Gender differences will also be taken into consideration in designing the game. In interview research in schools in three countries (Greece, Portugal, and the UK) aimed at formalizing the game requirements, we found that gender differences varied in the extent to which they applied cross-culturally. Across the three countries, girls were less likely to talk about responding to conflict with physical aggression, talked more about feeling sad about conflict and about conflicts over friendship alliances, and talked less about conflicts in the context of sports or games. Predicted gender differences in anger and reconciliation were not found. Results are interpreted in terms of differing underlying models of friendship that are motivated by parental investment theory. This research will inform the design of the themes that we use in game scenarios for both girls and boys. PMID:23253793

  1. Applying evolutionary psychology to a serious game about children's interpersonal conflict.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gordon P D; Campos, Joana; Hondrou, Charline; Vasalou, Asimina; Martinho, Carlos; Joinson, Adam

    2012-12-20

    This article describes the use of evolutionary psychology to inform the design of a serious computer game aimed at improving 9-12-year-old children's conflict resolution skills. The design of the game will include dynamic narrative generation and emotional tagging, and there is a strong evolutionary rationale for the effect of both of these on conflict resolution. Gender differences will also be taken into consideration in designing the game. In interview research in schools in three countries (Greece, Portugal, and the UK) aimed at formalizing the game requirements, we found that gender differences varied in the extent to which they applied cross-culturally. Across the three countries, girls were less likely to talk about responding to conflict with physical aggression, talked more about feeling sad about conflict and about conflicts over friendship alliances, and talked less about conflicts in the context of sports or games. Predicted gender differences in anger and reconciliation were not found. Results are interpreted in terms of differing underlying models of friendship that are motivated by parental investment theory. This research will inform the design of the themes that we use in game scenarios for both girls and boys.

  2. Key role of social work in effective communication and conflict resolution process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared medical decision making at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Patricia A; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Leven, David C

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates in the health systems and in the communication and conflict resolution process that is integral to health care decision making. The critical importance of ethics and end-of-life training and education for social workers is also addressed. Data from a pilot study evaluating interdisciplinary ethics training on legal and ethical content in communication and conflict resolution skills in health care decision making are reported. Recommendations are made for research on education and training of social workers, and investigation of the role and influence of systems in shaping social work involvement in end-of-life and palliative care.

  3. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  4. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  5. Clinical assessment and management of psychiatric patients' violent and aggressive behaviors in general hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Saladino, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    Patients with co-morbid psychiatric disorders exhibiting violent and aggressive behaviors can be a challenge for nurses in medical-surgical units. They can deliver effective, safe care by assessing risk and building a rapport with the patient during the admission process; utilizing crisis prevention strategies, including appropriate medication administration, environmental, psychobiological, counseling, and health teaching interventions; and employing conflict resolution technique. Utilizing the nursing process, the nurse can provide effective therapeutic interventions to promote safety for both the patient and the nurse. PMID:18072668

  6. Where Does Conflict Management Fit in the System's Leadership Puzzle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vickie S.; Johnston, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    Superintendents are faced with conflicts every day. The conflicts arise around issues of personnel, community roles, funding, politics, and work/life balance. Good leadership involves an understanding of how to deal with conflict, whom to involve in the conflict resolution, how to set up structures and processes that ensure conflict doesn't…

  7. Curriculum on Conflict: Some Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, David N.

    This developmental paper generally describes a task oriented model for teaching about conflict and conflict resolution, using student groups for problem solving, which can be developed in the classroom. The model involves: 1) identification of the issue, topic, or problem by the entire class; 2) identification of ideas, concepts, or facets of…

  8. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  9. Proactive and Reactive Aggression and Boys' Friendship Quality in Mainstream Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Francois; Boivin, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Boys (N=113), participated in a sociometric interview and completed a questionnaire on their best-friend relationships in November and May. Results indicated that boys' proactive aggression was associated with a supportive, satisfying, and low-conflict friendship early but predicted increased conflict later. In contrast, reactive aggression was…

  10. Embracing conflict: building a healthy community.

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim

    2004-01-01

    All human dynamics include the potential for conflict. Communication processes have deeply embedded in them all the elements of essential conflict. The acknowledgment of differences across the human community is a recognition that all conflict is normative. In healthcare systems, leaders must recognize this factor as an essential part of the expression of the leadership role. Therefore, understanding conflict, applying conflict resolution strategies in the leader's role, building approaches to addressing essential conflict, and resolving it are critical to effective leadership. Understanding the elements of conflict, the processes associated with managing conflict, and the characteristics of conflict resolution are outlined here as essential to the exercise of the leadership role at every level of the organization. PMID:15357228

  11. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  12. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  13. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  14. Experiences with Dating Aggression and Sexual Coercion among Polish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2008-01-01

    Dating aggression and sexual coercion were studied in Polish college women (n = 100) and men ( n = 101) using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, & Sugarman, 1996). Rates of psychological and physical aggression, sexual coercion, and injury were compared for men and women. Rates of physical aggression, sexual coercion,…

  15. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    PubMed

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed. PMID:24436688

  16. Methods for Introducing Analysis of Conflict Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Thomas E.; Smith, Robert M.

    Conflict is defined by the authors as a struggle over scarce status, power, and resources. They discuss the role of communication as one of the several strategies leading to conflict and as a potential strategy leading to conflict resolution. First, there is tacit communication, wherein the participants are engaged not in face-to-face interactions…

  17. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed. PMID:24436688

  18. 15 CFR 700.75 - Compliance conflicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance conflicts. 700.75 Section... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.75 Compliance conflicts. If compliance with any... notify the Department of Commerce for resolution of the conflict....

  19. 15 CFR 700.75 - Compliance conflicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... notify the Department of Commerce for resolution of the conflict. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance conflicts. 700.75 Section... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Compliance § 700.75 Compliance conflicts. If compliance with...

  20. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  1. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gavin M.; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good. PMID:26982704

  2. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Gavin M; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  3. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  4. Teaching Young Children in Violent Times: Building a Peaceable Classroom. A Preschool-Grade 3 Violence Prevention and Conflict Resolution Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Noting that peaceable classrooms grow out of understanding how children develop ideas about peace, conflict, and violence, this guide is intended to help early childhood educators create a classroom where preschool through grade 3 children learn peaceful alternatives to the violent behaviors modeled for them in society. The guide is based on the…

  5. Is It Believable When It's Scientific? How Scientific Discourse Style Influences Laypeople's Resolution of Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromme, Rainer; Scharrer, Lisa; Stadtler, Marc; Hömberg, Johanna; Torspecken, Ronja

    2015-01-01

    Scientific texts are a genre in which adherence to specific discourse conventions allows for conclusions on the scientific integrity of the information and thus on its validity. This study examines whether genre-typical features of scientific discourse influence how laypeople handle conflicting science-based knowledge claims. In two experiments…

  6. Reciprocal Psychological Aggression in Couples: A Multi-Level Analysis in a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Cuenca Montesino, María Luisa; Graña Gómez, José Luis; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The present study analyzes reciprocal psychological aggression assessed by the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised (CTS-2) in a sample of 590 adult couples from the Region of Madrid. Psychological aggression is the most frequent form of partner aggression. Results showed high percentages of psychological aggression perpetrated and suffered in men and women and showed significant statistical differences in severe psychological aggression in the case of women. Partner agreement about acts of psychological aggression was significant, albeit at moderate levels. Generalized Hierarchical Linear Models with the HLM-6.0 program were proposed to examine reciprocal psychological aggression. The models confirmed the pattern of reciprocal psychological aggression and also that couples are more aggressive when they are younger. Duration of cohabitation was not a predictor of reciprocal psychological partner aggression.

  7. Reputation systems, aggression, and deterrence in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Benard, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Why do individuals sometimes pursue apparently senseless aggression, whether on the street, in court, at work, or in politics? Past work converges on the idea that individuals do so to establish social rank and deter prospective challengers. However, the fundamental claims of this argument - that concerns for one's reputation cause individuals to behave aggressively, and that a reputation for aggression deters threats from others - remain controversial. This paper offers a theoretical argument linking concern for reputation to aggressive behavior and deterrence. The theory argues that in competitive interactions, determining one's likelihood of prevailing in conflict ("competitive ability") is crucial for deciding whether to pursue conflict, but also rife with uncertainty. This motivates individuals to engage in aggressive behavior to signal to others (perhaps falsely) that they are strong competitors. Two behavioral experiments test this argument, and find that reputation systems motivate aggressive behavior, competitive ability moderates this effect, and reputations for aggressive behavior deter aggression from others. The results contribute to understanding the role reputation systems play in the social organization of aggressive behavior.

  8. Computer Conferencing: Discourse, Education and Conflict Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Computer conferencing can aid in conflict resolution by developing discourse skills. This article examines conflict resolution and computer conferencing as a channel for discourse and describes three computer conferences involving secondary school students, teacher education students, and teachers in Northern Ireland, Europe, and the United…

  9. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  10. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  11. Key role of social work in effective communication and conflict resolution process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared medical decision making at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Patricia A; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Leven, David C

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates in the health systems and in the communication and conflict resolution process that is integral to health care decision making. The critical importance of ethics and end-of-life training and education for social workers is also addressed. Data from a pilot study evaluating interdisciplinary ethics training on legal and ethical content in communication and conflict resolution skills in health care decision making are reported. Recommendations are made for research on education and training of social workers, and investigation of the role and influence of systems in shaping social work involvement in end-of-life and palliative care. PMID:21391078

  12. A Theory of Self Other Orientation and Interpersonal Conflict. A Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Robert C.

    A social psychological theory of self-other orientation provides the basis of a theory of interpersonal conflict and aggression. It is assumed that conflict devolves to aggression toward self or other under conditions of reduction in self esteem and social interest, and the development of an unchanging self-centered theory of behavior. Principles…

  13. Gaming in the Game of Love: Effects of Video Games on Conflict in Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Busby, Dean; Bushman, Brad J.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Ridge, Robert; Stockdale, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent…

  14. Conflict management: a primer for doctors in training.

    PubMed

    Saltman, D C; O'Dea, N A; Kidd, M R

    2006-01-01

    Conflict in the health arena is a growing concern and is well recognised for doctors in training. Its most extreme expression, workplace violence is on the increase. There is evidence that many conflicts remain unsatisfactorily resolved or unresolved, and result in ongoing issues for staff morale. This paper describes the nature of conflict in the health care system and identifies the difference between conflict and disagreement. Using a conflict resolution model, strategies for dealing with conflict as it arises are explored and tips are provided on how to effectively manage conflict to a satisfactory resolution for all parties.

  15. Interpersonal Conflict in Preschoolers: A Naturalistic Observation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shantz, David W.; Schomer, Joyce

    This study of the behavior of a mixed group of male and female preschoolers in an indoor, free-play setting was designed to clarify two general issues: (1) the ratio of aggressive to non-aggressive disputes and the factors in the situation which may be associated with this relationship; and (2) the factors in the conflict episodes themselves which…

  16. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  17. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  18. Too Much of a Good Thing? Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Conflict Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Christin; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the outcomes of interpersonal conflict are determined not only by the conflict itself, but also by the way in which it is handled. Confrontational and domineering tactics have been found to magnify the adverse impact of conflict. Thus, investigations of determinants of aggressive conflict management behaviors are of considerable interest. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between conflict management preferences and conflict management behaviors and by examining how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes this preference-behavior relationship. Individuals' conflict management preferences predicted actual conflict management behaviors. EI was found to moderate this relationship. However, some of these moderating effects run contrary to the popular view of EI as a prosocial concept. Specifically, some EI facets were found to strengthen the link between aggressive conflict management preferences and subsequent conflict management behaviors.

  19. Sexual conflict and speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G A; Partridge, L

    1998-01-01

    relevant to resolution of this conflict. The winning role depends on a balance between the 'value of winning' and 'power' (relating to contest or armament costs): the winning role is likely to correlate with high value of winning and low costs. Sperm-ovum (or sperm-female tract) conflicts (and their plant parallels) are likely to obey the same principles. Males may typically have higher values of winning, but it is difficult to quantify 'power', and females may often be able to resist mating more cheaply than males can force it. We tentatively predict that sexual conflict will typically result in a higher rate of speciation in 'female-win' clades, that females will be responsible for premating isolation through reinforcement, and that 'female-win' populations will be less genetically diverse. PMID:9533125

  20. Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents' aggression: intracultural variations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations.