Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive energy savings

  1. Setting Goals and Achieving Aggressing Energy Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    Path to a Low Energy Building Typical 90.1 Compliant Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our...flow 1 2 The Path to a Low Energy Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 0 0% 100...to a Low Energy Building National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 0 0% 100% Source Energy

  2. Aggressive Strategies for Residential Energy and Carbon Savings by 2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Energy efficiency technologies and practices have long been recognized as a low-cost, often least cost, option that can be deployed widely throughout the economy (Steve Nadel, 2002; Donald A. Hanson and John A. Laitner, 2003). We are engaged in a review of technology-based energy savings options throughout the U. S. economy with a joint focus on both immediate savings opportunities and long-term strategies for accelerating the innovation process and pipeline. For the near term, we developed scenarios based on available 'off the shelf' technologies and practices for achieving minimum energy consumption in lighting, standby power in electronics, and miscellaneous end-uses in the U.S. residential sector. In the business-as-usual (BAU) case, energy consumption continues to grow despite innovations at a current rate of 1.7 percent/year (Laitner, 2004). Nevertheless, the need for developing new energy supplies can be mitigated through the use of 'best current technologies' as the industry norm in 2025. Figure 1 (see URL below) shows this reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The BAU model corresponds to the current rate of 'decarbonization' in the overall U.S. economy (Energy Information Administration, 2004). Over a twenty-year period, about 2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide and 30 quads of primary fuel could be saved through the introduction of "best current technology" with the greatest reductions in the area of lighting technologies. In 2025, 1.5 quads of primary energy is saved with the breakdown in end-use electricity saved as follows: 113 TWh (0.39 quads), 70.8 TWh (0.24 quads), and 62 TWh (0.21 quads) for residential lighting, appliance standards, and standby power respectively. In addition, there is empirical evidence from specific technology sectors, from statewide programs in California, as well as on theoretical grounds (Laitner, 2004) that innovation and decarbonization rates of 3 to 5 percent/year have at times been, and could

  3. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  4. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  5. Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about Save Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', a national campaign to save energy and ensure energy security.

  6. Save Energy $.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and electricity cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)

  7. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  8. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  9. Retrofitting for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Elshout, R.V.

    1982-07-01

    An energy audit is a useful tool for assessing energy usage within a plant or individual unit. Comparison of measured energy usage with guideline values for the industry or particular processes will indicate energy inefficiency. Energy efficiency is a function of plant age, operating severity, feedstock type and the skill level of the operational personnel. As part of the audit, means for improving energy efficiency should be identified. Both capital costs for process modifications to improve energy usage and resulting operating cost savings can be quantified. With this information, individual energy saving projects can be evaluated along with other capital improvements to determine the merits of implementation. Generally speaking, most energy conservation projects can be justified by operating cost savings, particularly if future energy costs are considered. Physical space limitations within the plant and the cost of downtime for plant modifications must be considered.

  10. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  11. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  12. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Schiller, Steven R.; Todd, Annika; Billingsley, Megan A.; Goldman, Charles A.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  13. Learning about saving energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to save energy in heating and cooling, electric appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.

  14. Comfortably saving energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elich, H. J.

    1984-04-01

    A central heating control system saving energy and improving comfort was digitally implemented. Based on control principles and simulation a control algorithm was determined. Two microcomputers are used to process room and boiler sensor data and are connected with each other by two-wire communication. The system provides a low and constant boiler temperature, an accurately controlled room temperature, a built-in pump switch, and the possibility to adjust the temperature four times a day.

  15. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  16. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  17. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  18. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  19. Four Steps to Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future. (MLH)

  20. Saving Schoolhouse Energy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, John; And Others

    The objective of the Saving Schoolhouse Energy Program was to generate information that school administrators and federal energy/education decision makers could use to identify ways of implementing specific, economical remedies to reduce energy waste in schools. This program was designed to have five phases: (1) Conduct an energy audit of ten…

  1. South Jersey School Saves Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At West Deptford High School in New Jersey, a group of students led by their teacher have developed a number of sound energy-conserving techniques that add up to substantial savings for the school budget. (Author/MLF)

  2. Saving Energy Dollars Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Jim

    1998-01-01

    In many states, electrical energy is moving from being a highly regulated commodity to a competitively priced product with optional associated services. Increased competition should result in lower prices. Schools can stay ahead of the game by initiating an energy-contract review, examining delivery contracts, negotiating rates, examining monthly…

  3. Saving Watts of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raloff, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Presented are different research program developments aimed at reducing the consumption of electrical energy for artificial lights. Explains the idea of the dimmers, where the amount of incoming daylight regulates the current needed for the lamp. (GA)

  4. Designing to Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santamaria, Joseph W.

    1977-01-01

    While tripling the campus size of Alvin Community College in Texas, architects and engineers cut back on nonessential lighting, recaptured waste heat, insulated everything possible, and let energy considerations dictate the size and shape of the building. (Author/MLF)

  5. Save American Energy Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2009-03-09

    04/22/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 111-28. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  7. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  8. Technical Resources for Energy Savings Plus Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page lists additional resources related to Energy Savings Plus Health

  9. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  10. 78 FR 20097 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Savings Performance Contracts AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of request for...

  11. Bringing energy savings to bear.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Harry

    2011-05-01

    Harry Waugh, the Scottish branch member of IHEEM's Council, and a former Health Facilities Scotland energy manager, who now runs his own energy/carbon consultancy, "Call Harry", argues that growing reliance on technology will continue to strengthen the need for effective energy management in the healthcare sphere. In an article that first appeared in the 2010 IFHE Digest, he looks back at previous Government and NHS energy-saving initiatives, and describes a recent Scottish carbon reduction campaign, aimed at health service staff, which used the plight of an imaginary character, Floe Bear, cut off from his natural habitat by melting ice floes, to bring humour to a serious subject and encourage buy-in in from staff.

  12. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  13. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  14. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  15. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  16. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  17. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  18. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  19. Energy savings analysis for energy monitoring and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, Ken; Pierpoint, William

    1995-01-01

    The energy savings analysis report and software was developed to calculate savings when implementing typical energy conservation strategies. The analysis is based on ASHRAE Bin methods. Strategies include: scheduled start/stop, optimized start/stop, and temperature reset.

  20. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC): FEMP Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-01

    An ESPC is a working relationship between a Federal agency and an energy service company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the Federal facility and identifies improvements to save energy. In consultation with the Federal agency, the ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the agency’s needs and arranges the necessary funding. The ESCO guarantees the improvements will generate energy cost savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the contract ends, all additional cost savings accrue to the agency.

  1. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  2. Creative Energy Management Can Save Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Schools can launch energy conservation programs with simple money-saving measures like improving boiler maintenance, recalibrating utility meters, and obtaining preferred utility rates. Becoming more assertive in the marketplace and using "creative financing" when needed, they can then reinvest their savings in more extensive projects. (MCG)

  3. Alternatives for Financing School Energy Savings Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Rich

    1983-01-01

    This report compares shared-savings programs with financing through the use of internal funds, loans, leases, and lease purchase plans for financing energy conservation in nonprofit buildings. The shared savings option was found to offer the greatest benefits to the customer. (MLF)

  4. Millions can be saved through better energy management in federal hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A comparison of the energy savings achieved by hospitals of the Navy, Veterans Administration, and Indian Health service - all of which have energy conservation programs - with that of five non-federal hospitals having aggressive energy management programs indicated that these agencies could save between $16 million and $55 million more each year if additional energy-saving measures were adopted. The investment required to achieve these savings would be quickly recouped. GAO believes that additional energy-saving opportunities also exist at the Army and Air Force hospitals. Two important program elements - technical audits to identify cost-effective energy conservation measures and accountability to ensure that the measures are implemented - are generally missing or incomplete in federal hospitals' energy conservation efforts. By increasing emphasis on these elements, federal agencies could achieve many of the yet unrealized energy savings.

  5. Finding the Savings in Your Energy Bills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a detailed analysis on how to control energy consumption and billing in school systems. Understanding the utility company's rate structure and the uses of demand readings can increase savings. Includes two detailed charts. (MD)

  6. Energy Savings Performance Contract Success Stories

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-27

    Three case study success stories showcasing energy savings performance contract projects at Dyess Air Force Base, Food and Drug Administration White Oaks Campus, and the Harold Washington Social Security Administration Center.

  7. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  8. Behaviour: Seeing heat saves energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint audits.

  9. Seventeen Ways to Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Friends School of Baltimore was one of 20 schools chosen by the Tenneco Corporation to participate in its Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration (SEED). This article reports the recommendations from Tenneco's energy audit of the school and the costs of each suggested energy conservation measure. (Author/SJL)

  10. Energy Management Contract Saves Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An energy service contract offered to educational institutions by a commercial company guarantees a specific reduction in energy consumption over a stated term of years. The company pays for equipment upgrading, staff training, repairs, a maintenance program, and capital improvements. (MLF)

  11. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  12. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  13. Rural Energy Savings Program Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Clyburn, James E. [D-SC-6

    2010-03-09

    09/20/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Rural Energy Savings Program Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2010-03-10

    06/17/2010 Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Use DCF to save energy

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    A profitability analysis can help the process engineer decide among various alternatives in an energy conservation project. This DCF (Discounted Cash Flow) program is written for the TI-59 programmable calculator.

  16. Electric energy savings from new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Harrer, B.J.; Kellogg, M.A.; Lyke, A.J.; Imhoff, K.L.; Fisher, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of the report is to provide information about the electricity-saving potential of new technologies to OCEP that it can use in developing alternative long-term projections of US electricity consumption. Low-, base-, and high-case scenarios of the electricity savings for ten technologies were prepared. The total projected annual savings for the year 2000 for all ten technologies were 137 billion kilowatt hours (BkWh), 279 BkWh, and 470 BkWh, respectively, for the three cases. The magnitude of these savings projections can be gauged by comparing them to the Department's reference case projection for the 1985 National Energy Policy Plan. In the Department's reference case, total consumption in 2000 is projected to be 3319 BkWh. Thus, the savings projected here represent between 4% and 14% of total consumption projected for 2000. Because approximately 75% of the base-case estimate of savings are already incorporated into the reference forecast, reducing projected electricity consumption from what it otherwise would have been, the savings estimated here should not be directly subtracted from the reference forecast.

  17. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  18. Public perceptions of energy consumption and savings

    PubMed Central

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.; DeKay, Michael L.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2010-01-01

    In a national online survey, 505 participants reported their perceptions of energy consumption and savings for a variety of household, transportation, and recycling activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve energy, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., turning off lights, driving less) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., installing more efficient light bulbs and appliances), in contrast to experts’ recommendations. For a sample of 15 activities, participants underestimated energy use and savings by a factor of 2.8 on average, with small overestimates for low-energy activities and large underestimates for high-energy activities. Additional estimation and ranking tasks also yielded relatively flat functions for perceived energy use and savings. Across several tasks, participants with higher numeracy scores and stronger proenvironmental attitudes had more accurate perceptions. The serious deficiencies highlighted by these results suggest that well-designed efforts to improve the public's understanding of energy use and savings could pay large dividends. PMID:20713724

  19. Saving Energy at Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-12

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions essential to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components.

  20. Energy Saving Devices on Gas Furnaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AO-A082 0715 JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORP DENVER CO RESEARCH AND DEV--ETC FIG 1311 ENERGY SAVING DEVICES ON GAS FURNACES.(U) MAR B0 T E BRISBANE, P B...DEVICES FOR GAS FURNACES THOMAS E. BRISBANE ,o"’ P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER KEN-CARYL RANCH, DENVER

  1. Energy Management Can Save More than Wattage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    The value of lighting benefits often exceeds the value of the energy savings. Campus security was enhanced at Central Michigan University by the installation of high pressure sodium lamps with wattages that greatly increased existing lighting levels, which permitted reduced security patrols. (Author/MLF)

  2. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  3. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  4. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  5. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  6. Basic Steps to Using the Energy Savings Plus Health Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    he Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This document describes steps to using the Energy Savings Plus Health guide

  7. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  8. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  9. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  10. Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

  11. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  12. Good practice in saving energy at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  13. Shared Savings Financing for College and University Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Shared savings arrangements for campus energy efficient investments are discussed. Shared savings is a term for an agreement in which a private company offers to implement an energy efficiency program, including capital improvements, in exchange for a portion of the energy cost savings. Attention is directed to: types of shared savings…

  14. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  15. SWEEP - Save Water & Energy Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hillman, Tim C.; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Payson, David R.

    2001-05-03

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits.

  16. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8287) to use an energy-savings performance contract (ESPC), when...

  17. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205 Energy-savings... Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8287) to use an energy-savings performance contract (ESPC), when...

  18. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  19. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  20. Energy saving pump and pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.C.

    1983-08-02

    A centrifugal pump and a pumping system are disclosed that recover hydraulic energy in response to flow capacity reduction and spontaneously provide a recirculating flow at low capacities when pump cooling is needed. From a upstream source the fluid is guided by two suction lines to two parallel pumping mechanisms housed by a common discharge casing. Said pumping mechanisms have a combined hydraulic characteristic that the first pumping mechanism will force a reverse flow through the second pumping mechanism, when pump discharge is reduced by the system below a certain low flow rate. The reverse flow will then return to the upstream fluid source through a suction line. The pump is the protected from overheating by a circulating flow at low flow capacities. At the same time, said reverse flow generates a turbine action on the second pumping mechanism and transmits the contained hydraulic energy back to the rotor and thereby results in power saving at low flow capacities.

  1. Energy Savings by Treating Buildings as Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities for dramatically reducing energy use in buildings by treating buildings as systems, rather than focusing on device efficiencies. Systems-level considerations are relevant for the operation of heat pumps (where the temperatures at which heat or coldness are distributed are particularly important); the joint or separate provision of heating, cooling, and ventilation; the joint or separate removal of sensible heat and moisture; and in the operation of fluid systems having pumps. Passive heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as daylighting (use of sunlight for lighting purposes) also require consideration of buildings as systems. In order to achieve the significant (50-75%) energy savings that are possible through a systems approach, the design process itself has to involve a high degree of integration between the architect and various engineering disciplines (structural, mechanical, electrical), and requires the systematic examination and adjustment of alternative designs using computer simulation models.

  2. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    SciTech Connect

    Trumpy, T.

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  4. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  5. White Nail Radio Transmitter: Billion Dollar Savings through Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    energy consumption ashore by 50 percent CNO, Navy Energy Vision, P 10 White Nail Vision Your Cell Phone Cell ...Greenhouse Gas Power 4 1 Energy Navy Use 7.3 Billion kWh White Nail Cell Phone Savings 11 Billion kWh One and a half times!!! Saves the output of four of...Estimated Total Number of transmitters 3,000,000 Estimated total power saved Watt 1,250,000,000 Cell Phone Transmitter Efficiency 1.25 Gigawatts

  6. Road to trillion dollar energy savings: a safe energy platform

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A challenge to the Reagan administration's view that the energy situation has improved as a result of its policies gives the credit to conservation and solar programs developed under the Carter administration. The authors identify continued dependency upon vulnerable foreign oil imports, the further spread of nuclear technology, the construction of complex centralized energy facilities, and dependence upon fossil and synthetic resources that threaten to alter the global atmosphere as problems which must be addressed if consumers are to avoid a doubling of energy costs in the future. Using policy recommendations, they show how we can shift from a high-cost, high-risk depletable energy system to a low-cost, low-risk, sustainable energy system called for in the National Energy Policy Plan. The Consumer Energy Savings Act, Resource Wars Prevention Act, and Solar Atomic Energy Act will be major vehicles. 373 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Using ITP Decision Tools to Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how the program's software tools and information help manufacturers save energy and money, increase productivity, and improve reliability.

  8. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  9. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves.

  10. Energy savings through improved tractive efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The fuel consumption of farm tractors for 1980 is estimated to be 5.0 billion gallons. Assuming that 75 percent of this amount is used for drawbar or draft loads, then 3.75 billion gallons of fuel energy will be passed through tractive devices, mostly rubber tires, this year. The average tractive efficiency for tractors operating under drawbar or draft loads is estimated to be 46 percent. Each 1-percent increase will bring savings of approximately 75 to 80 million gallons of fuel annually to United States farmers. Tractive efficiency can be increased in several ways. Research has shown that the shape of the ground contact area, or footprint, of a tractive device is important. A footprint that is long and narrow in the direction of travel compacts less of the total soil surface area than one that is short and wide, thereby reducing rolling losses. The front portion of the device establishes a firm travel path for much of the rest of the device, resulting in improved traction. The length/width ratio of tractive devices may be increased by using tracks, tandem drive wheels, large-diameter tires, or radial ply tires.

  11. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Energy Savings Plus Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page asks and answers Frequently-Asked Questions.

  13. Water Conservation Checklist for the Home. Save Water, Save Energy, Save Money. Program Aid No. 1192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Glenda; And Others

    Few people realize that the average person uses about 60 gallons of water each day. Water shortages are already occurring on a regional scale; someday they may become a national problem. Accordingly, this checklist is designed to help house and apartment dwellers determine how efficiently they use water and identify additional ways to save it.…

  14. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This, in

  15. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  16. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-savings performance... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205...

  17. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy-savings performance... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205...

  18. 48 CFR 23.205 - Energy-savings performance contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy-savings performance... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.205...

  19. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  20. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  1. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  2. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  3. Compact cities: energy saving strategies for the eighties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This report is concerned with energy and urban form. One specific focus is on energy-saving land use patterns: how to halt urban sprawl with its excessive energy consumption. The second focus is on appropriate renewable energy sources and conservation incentives for cities.

  4. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    savings for most cities for all measures). Combining many of the re-tuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

  5. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  6. Savings potential of ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.

    1998-06-19

    In 1993 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced ENERGY STAR (registered trademark), a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. Since then EPA, now in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has introduced programs for more than twenty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, new homes, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. We present potential energy, dollar and carbon savings forecasts for these programs for the period 1998 to 2010. Our target market penetration case represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide results under the assumption of 100% market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of our target penetration case forecasts to greater or lesser marketing success by EPA and DOE, lower-than-expected future energy prices, and higher or lower rates of carbon emission by electricity generators. The potential savings of ENERGY STAR are substantial. If all purchasers chose Energy Star-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products over the next 15 years, they would save more than $100 billion on their energy bills during those 15 years. (Bill savings are in 1995 dollars, discounted at a 4% real discount rate.)

  7. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  8. How Sweden Saves So Much Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, James

    1978-01-01

    Swedens necessity for and present efforts toward energy conservation are discussed. The district system for space heating and certain Swedish laws that promote energy conservation are described. (MDR)

  9. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI) of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D) data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit. PMID:24561405

  10. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC): Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-01

    An ESPC is a working relationship between a Federal agency and an energy service company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the Federal facility and identifies improvements to save energy. The following sections present a number of frequently asked questions from ESPC end-users and stakeholders.

  11. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-16

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  12. Energy Crisis, Will Technology Save Us

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Will we run out of certain forms of energy, such as oil, and what are the replacement options? How does hydrogen fit into the future U.S. energy picture? What is carbon sequestration and why does it matter? What about sustainable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal? John Ziagos, Atmospheric, Earth, and Energy Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and high school teacher Dean Reese present the latest information on the earth's total energy budget to see what forms of energy we will be harnessing in the future. Series: Science on Saturday [6/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14494

  13. Energy Savings Performance Contract Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefevre, Jessica S.

    Building owners and managers can use performance-contracting Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to partially or fully fund building renovations that include energy efficiency upgrades. This report provides building owners and managers with an introduction to the energy efficiency and building upgrade services provided by ESCOs. It uses 20 case…

  14. Energy saving ideas for open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Rixen, W.; Benecke, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

  15. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  16. The measured energy savings from two lighting control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.M.; Karayel, M.

    1984-09-01

    The energy-saving benefits of two lighting control strategies--scheduling and daylighting--were investigated at demonstration sites in two large commercial buildings. A continuously dimmable lighting control system was installed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Building in San Francisco, and an on/off switching system was installed at the World Trade Center in New York City. By automatically scheduling the operation of the lighting systems to conform with occupancy patterns, lighting energy consumption was reduced 10-40 percent. Several scheduling techniques were investigated, and the influence of switching the zone size on energy savings was examined. Using photoelectrically controlled lighting systems, which switch or dim lighting in accordance with available daylight, the energy consumed for lighting in daylit areas was reduced to 25-35 percent. The influence of clear and overcast conditions on the energy savings associated with daylight-linked controls is discussed.

  17. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  18. A Save-Energy, Save-Money Program That Pays Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embersits, John F.

    1976-01-01

    Suggested guidelines for energy saving on campus include a 3-phase plan: (1) Quick Fix--effective management of what you already have; (2) Refitting--modification of existing systems and installation of simple controls; (3) Systems Convert--installation of computerized controls, waste-heat recovery, solid-waste recovery utilization and other…

  19. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  20. Residential Energy Savings Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sanders, Bernard [I-VT

    2013-06-20

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  2. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  3. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  4. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  5. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-24

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  6. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  7. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  8. Save Energy in Your School Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipp, Louie

    1978-01-01

    Because food service in schools is responsible for large expenditures of energy, capital, and operational costs, it is a place where administrators must look to engineering as well as management systems to cut costs. (Author/MLF)

  9. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  10. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  11. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  12. The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    Rebuild America is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy that focuses on energy-savings solutions as community solutions. It works with K-12 schools, colleges and universities, state and local governments, public and multifamily housing, and commercial buildings. This guide focuses on colleges and universities. Each chapter spells out options…

  13. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises (International English Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This fact sheet provides information about the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now energy audit process, software tools, training, energy management standards, and energy efficient technologies to help U.S. companies identify energy cost savings.

  14. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  15. Shipboard energy savings with the RACER system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    A current program to design and develop a waste heat recovery gas turbine cruise propulsion plant called RACER is discussed. RACER is an acronym for RAnkine Cycle Energy Recovery which describes the steam bottoming cycle designed to recover waste exhaust heat from LM2500 gas turbines and augment the main propulsion system through a steam turbine. 10 refs.

  16. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different

  17. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  18. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  19. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE`s expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  20. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Yonezawa, Kenzo; Murayama, Dai; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Hanada, Yuuichi; Yamazaki, Kenichi

    The new air-conditioning control technology for the energy saving for buildings is proposed. The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and air-conditioning) system, manipulating the supplying airflow temperature to the rooms, room temperature and the humidity. The comfort is kept by the index (PMV: Predicted Mean Vote) that calculated with room temperature, humidity, radiation temperature, wind velocity and so on. In order to find the HVAC system operation conditions that satisfy the comfort and energy saving at the same time, very large-scale nonlinear programming with nonlinear constraints must be solved on real time basis. To make the programming of the system practical, the driving function loaded onto a control computer is introduced. The function is made by the spline interpolation to achieve calculation stable and to adapt to various HVAC operation modes. The effectiveness of the HVAC control technology is proved through a building HVAC data and the simulations using the data.

  1. Energy saving ideas for open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The use of semi-mobile crushing plants in open pit mines makes a combination of trucks and conveyors economical and energy efficient. The increasing cost of Diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. Combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is made possible by using semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors.

  2. Energy-saving drying and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  3. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  4. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE's expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  5. Energetic and Ecological Analysis of Energy Saving and Passive Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanytsky, Myroslav; Sekret, Robert; Wojcikiewicz, Mariusz

    2012-06-01

    In this paper results of influence of building-installation system parameters on value of energetic coefficients were calculated. Three types of buildings (standard, energy saving and low energy) with heating surface of 100, 150 i 200 m2 were used. The above types of buildings differ on thermal barrier and heating system efficiency. The influence of the gravity and mechanical ventilation systems on the final heat energy of different kinds of houses was shown. Parameters of the certificate for energy characteristics of building were used. Mathematics models of influence of thermal barrier parameters and heating surface on the value of energy characteristics, namely final energy EF, primary energy EP and useful energy EU were established. Influence of such parameters as heating energy factors, ventilation system and energy sources on the energy efficiency improvement of buildings was analyzed. The building environmental assessment system was proposed on the base of energetic and ecological analysis of houses.

  6. Supersonic transport vis-a-vis energy savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormery, G.

    1979-01-01

    The energy and economic saving modifications in supersonic transportation are studied. Modifications in the propulsion systems and in the aerodynamic configurations of the Concorde aircraft to reduce noise generation and increase fuel efficiency are discussed. The conversion of supersonic aircraft from fuel oils to synthetic fuels is examined.

  7. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    DOE PAGES

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; ...

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savingsmore » to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.« less

  8. The silver bullet myth of sustainable energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualetti, Martin J.; Tabbert, Michael K.; Boscamp, Robert L.

    2010-10-15

    Especially in the U.S., people like to think that solving problems just requires finding the proper ''silver bullet.'' Such fixes are not sustainable. Any utility company wanting sustainable long-term savings in personal energy demand requires a more thorough commitment that might be referred to as ''head'' (education), ''heart'' (motivation), and ''hands'' (action). (author)

  9. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  10. Shop Around: High Energy Collaboration Saves California Universities Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Gary C.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on efforts of the University of California and California State University to combine their electrical loads through a joint four-year energy contract and thereby realize significant savings. Recounts difficulties in harmonizing procurement and decision-making processes and the eventual successful outcome. (DB)

  11. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  12. Energy and peak power saved by passively cooled residences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Loxsom, F.; Doderer, E.; Vieira, R.; Fleischhacker, P.

    1983-11-01

    The energy displacement potential of roof pond cooling in humid climates is sensitive to the type of dehumidification equipment employed and the humidity levels allowed. The simulated energy requirements of roof pond residences assisted by two high efficiency dehumidifier options are described. One dehumidifier was a vapor compression air conditioner with sensible cooling recovery by an air-to-air heat exchanger (improved mechanical dehumidification or IMD). The second option was a solar regenerated desiccant dehumidifier (SRDD). An IMD assisted roof pond house had energy savings of 30 to 65% in humid climates compared to the conventional house; an SRDD assisted roof pond house had energy savings of 70 to 75% in humid climates.

  13. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    reduce fuel consumption by 25–50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher... consumption by 25???50% for vessels at a sailing speed of 6 knots. The fuel savings are greater for a lower sailing speed than for a higher sailing...result in 19% reduction of engine power and 27% reduction of energy consumption and therefore reduction inCO2 emissions (IMO, 2010). Weather routing is

  14. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  15. Energy use in Minnesota schools: Aggregate performance and perspectives on energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Hatfield, B.; Lebot, B.; Kammerud, R.; Carroll, W.L.

    1988-07-01

    As part of an extensive and comprehensive evaluation of the US Department of Energy's Institutional Conservation Program (ICP), we present an analysis of the energy performance of Minnesota schools during the 1970s and 1980s. We also estimate energy savings for individual schools and for the entire group of schools participating in the ICP. Finally, we compare estimated energy savings, based on technical audits, with monitored energy reductions. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Quantum Energy Saver design and Fuel-saving application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiong; Mao, Wenwu; Shen, Xisheng; LI, Jianyu; Huang, Wenchao; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-11-01

    In order to reduce the high fuel consumption of the shipping industry, a new type of quantum energy saver device is studied and developed. According to a period of time to use the energy saving device and the users’ feedback, by recording the fuel consumption of diesel engine usage, and comparing the changes in fuel consumption before and after the installation of quantum economizer in the same ship, it can reflected the ability of the fuel consumption. After analyzing the data, it shows that the installation of quantum economizer can significantly reduce the fuel consumption of a diesel engine ship. The analysis and application of this paper can play an important role in saving energy and reducing consumption, and provide a reference for other related research.

  17. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  18. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio-Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly S.; Allan, Shawn M.

    2009-11-11

    This Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate Ceralink's energy saving process for flat glass lamination from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. Radio-frequency heating was any un-explored option for laminating glass prior to this program. With significant commercial success through time and energy savings in the wood, paper, and plastics industries, RF heating was found to have significant promise for the energy intensive glass lamination industry. A major technical goal of the program was to demonstrate RF lamination across a wide range of laminate sizes and materials. This was successfully accomplished, dispelling many skeptics' concerns about the abilities of the technology. Ceralink laminated panels up to 2 ft x 3 ft, with four sets processed simultaneously, in a 3 minute cycle. All major categories of interlayer materials were found to work with RF lamination. In addition to laminating glass, other materials including photovoltaic silicon solar cells, light emitting diodes, metallized glass, plastics (acrylic and polycarbonate), and ceramics (alumina) were found compatible with the RF process. This opens up a wide range of commercial opportunities beyond the initially targeted automotive industry. The dramatic energy savings reported for RF lamination at the bench scale were found to be maintained through the scale up of the process. Even at 2 ft x 3 ft panel sizes, energy savings are estimated to be at least 90% compared to autoclaving or vacuum lamination. With targeted promotion through conference presentations, press releases and internet presence, RF lamination has gained significant attention, drawing large audiences at American Ceramic Society meetings. The commercialization success of the project includes the establishment of a revenue-generating business model for providing process development and demonstrations for potential RF

  19. Maximizing Residential Energy Savings: Net Zero Energy House (ZEH) Technology Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Roberts, D.

    2008-11-01

    To meet current U.S. Department of Energy zero-energy home performance goals, new technologies and solutions must increase whole-house efficiency savings by an additional 40% relative to those provided by best available components and systems.

  20. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  1. Characteristics of Mechanical Pumps and Energy Saving Automatic Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Tadashi; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Shingu, Hiroyasu

    In the 21st century, global warming has become a very serious ecological problem. It is necessary to prevent global warming from increasing the greenhouse effect gas such as carbon dioxide. A new energy saving technique using mechanical pump system is proposed as a solution to this problem. The pump carrying the water, which is the heat source, for the air conditioner has an effect on energy saving by using effective automatic control. Since there is a lack of knowledge related to mechanical pump, effective automatic control systems combined with some pumps are implemented only in a few buildings. In this paper, the machine characteristics of a mechanical pump and a system design combined with some pumps are applied to a decrease in energy consumption. Based on the characteristics of the pump, the automatic control techniques are constant discharged pressure control technique, estimated end pressure control technique and real end pressure control technique. In this paper, the estimated end pressure control technique is recommended as a result of testing the automatic control system combined with the pumps. Also, improvement in conditions of the pump is proposed as a new energy saving technique.

  2. Impact evaluation methods for the energy savings plan

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E. ); Riewer, S. )

    1990-09-01

    The Energy $avings Plan (E$P) is Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville) retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. E$P is an outgrowth of the Industrial Test Program and the Sponsor-Designed Program, two programs offered by Bonneville that involved installing energy conservation measures in industrial firms. This paper will describe the E$P program, discuss the first process evaluation findings, report the findings from a sample of four E$P project impact evaluations, and describe the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits. The impact evaluations will provide a framework for assessing the energy savings achieved by the projects implemented under the E$P. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations will review process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free-riders.'' The four E$P projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, and a sludge screw press for waste water treatment.

  3. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  4. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  5. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  6. New Energy-Saving Technologies Use Induction Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two energy-saving technologies tested recently at Marshall Space Flight Center use an induction motor operated in reverse (as an induction generator). In the first, energy ordinarily dissipated during load testing of machinery is recovered and returned to powerline. In the second, efficiency of wind-driven induction generator is improved, and useful range of windspeed is broadened. Both technologies take advantage of ac voltage developed across terminals of an induction motor when rotated at higher than-synchronous speed in the direction it normally turns when power is appled.

  7. ESPC Overview. Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  8. ESPC Overview: Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  9. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    most cities for all measures). Combining many of the retuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

  10. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under

  11. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  12. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  13. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-05-13

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  15. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  16. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  17. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  18. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings

  19. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  20. Annual energy usage reduction and cost savings of a school: end-use energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Roslizar, Aiman; Alghoul, M A; Bakhtyar, B; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m(2)/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm(2)/year.

  1. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  2. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  3. Electric energy saving two position combination switching device

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.

    1985-10-22

    In one form of the present preferred embodiment of the present invention it relates to a two-position feed-thru electric line cord piercing switching combination, of the rotary and even the rocker type, which saves electric energy by use of a half-wave diode rectifying means. The electric energy saving, two-position, combination switching means having only two electrical passing switching positions and thereby having no electrical ''off'' position. The switch will alternatingly provide either an electrical half-wave ''dim'' or an electrical full-wave ''on'' illumination to a single filament lamp, string of Christmas tree lamps and the like, and will even provide eight separate combinations, of one OFF abd three separate illuminations, when electrically connected ahead of a, for example, conventional LEVITON rotary 4-position lamp socket switching means which uses a conventional 3-way incandescent lamp member which is removable inserted into the lamp socket portion thereof. MICRO, CHERRY, toggle, rocker, push-button and the like, line cord non-piercing two-position switches may be used in other forms of the combination switching device or invention. The half-wave diode rectifying means is electrically connected shuntingly between and/or across substantially to two electrical contact members of the conductor wire-piercing and the wire non-piercing type of switching means. This construction results in automatic elimination of the electrical ''off'' position for generally any type 2 2-position ''off'' and ''on'' switching means.

  4. Walmart - Saving Energy, Saving Money Through Comprehensive Retrofits, Commercial Building Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet); Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Walmart partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 to develop and demonstrate energy retrofits for existing buildings. The goal was to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, as part of DOE's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. The project presented here, the retrofit of a 213,000 square foot store in Centennial, Colorado, withefficiency measures across multiple building systems, is part of Walmart's ongoing environmental sustainability program, which originated in 2005.

  5. Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  6. Energy saving strategies of honeybees in dipping nectar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianing; Yang, Heng; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-01-01

    The honeybee’s drinking process has generally been simplified because of its high speed and small scale. In this study, we clearly observed the drinking cycle of the Italian honeybee using a specially designed high-speed camera system. We analysed the pattern of glossal hair erection and the movement kinematics of the protracting tongue (glossa). Results showed that the honeybee used two special protraction strategies to save energy. First, the glossal hairs remain adpressed until the end of the protraction, which indicates that the hydraulic resistance is reduced to less than 1/3 of that in the case if the hairs remain erect. Second, the glossa protracts with a specific velocity profile and we quantitatively demonstrated that this moving strategy helps reduce the total energy needed for protraction compared with the typical form of protraction with constant acceleration and deceleration. These findings suggest effective methods to optimise the control policies employed by next-generation microfluidic pumps. PMID:26446300

  7. [Energy saving and LED lamp lighting and human health].

    PubMed

    Deĭnego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new sources of high-intensity with large proportion of blue light in the spectrum revealed new risks of their influence on the function of the eye and human health, especially for children and teenagers. There is an urgent need to reconsider the research methods of vision hygiene in conditions of energy-saving and LED bulbs lighting. On the basis of a systematic approach and knowledge of the newly discovered photosensitive receptors there was built hierarchical model of the interaction of "light environment - the eye - the system of formation of visual images - the hormonal system of the person - his psycho-physiological state." This approach allowed us to develop a range of risk for the negative impact of spectrum on the functions of the eye and human health, as well as to formulate the hygiene requirements for energy-efficient high-intensity light sources.

  8. Energy saving strategies of honeybees in dipping nectar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianing; Yang, Heng; Yan, Shaoze

    2015-10-08

    The honeybee's drinking process has generally been simplified because of its high speed and small scale. In this study, we clearly observed the drinking cycle of the Italian honeybee using a specially designed high-speed camera system. We analysed the pattern of glossal hair erection and the movement kinematics of the protracting tongue (glossa). Results showed that the honeybee used two special protraction strategies to save energy. First, the glossal hairs remain adpressed until the end of the protraction, which indicates that the hydraulic resistance is reduced to less than 1/3 of that in the case if the hairs remain erect. Second, the glossa protracts with a specific velocity profile and we quantitatively demonstrated that this moving strategy helps reduce the total energy needed for protraction compared with the typical form of protraction with constant acceleration and deceleration. These findings suggest effective methods to optimise the control policies employed by next-generation microfluidic pumps.

  9. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Barry; Bird, Lori; Barbose, Galen

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  10. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  11. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  12. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  13. Empirical Assessment of Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms Designs under Aggressive Savings Goals: Case Study of a Kansas"Super-Utility"

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2009-08-03

    Achieving significant reductions in retail electric sales is becoming a priority for policymakers in many states and is echoed at the federal level with the introduction of legislation to establish a national energy efficiency resource standard. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. In response to an information request from the Kansas Corporation Commission staff, we conducted a financial analysis to assess the utility business case in Kansas for pursuing more aggressive energy efficiency that complies with recent state legislation. Kansas' utilities are vertically integrated and don't face retail competition. With historically low retail rates and modest experience with energy efficiency, the achievement of rapid and substantial sales reductions from energy efficiency will require a viable utility business model. Using a conglomerate of the three largest utilities in Kansas, we quantitatively illustrate the tradeoff between ratepayer and shareholder interests when a 1percent reduction in incremental sales is achieved through energy efficiency both with and without the impact of future carbon regulation. We then assess if the utility can be compensated in a manner that produces a sufficient business case but leaves an adequate amount of net resource benefits for ratepayers at a cost that is not overly burdensome. Finally, we show how several common shareholder incentive mechanisms would be designed to achieve this balance.

  14. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE SHIVVERS

    2005-09-30

    The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.

  16. Carbon and energy saving markets in compressed air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, R.

    2015-08-01

    CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving represent two of the cornerstones of the environmental commitments of all the countries of the world. The first engagement is of a medium to long term type, and unequivocally calls for a new energetic era. The second delays in time the fossil fuel technologies to favour an energetic transition. In order to sustain the two efforts, new immaterial markets have been established in almost all the countries of the world, whose exchanges (purchases and sales) concern CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuels that have not been emitted or burned. This paper goes deep inside two aspects not yet exploited: specific CO2 emissions and equivalent fossil fuel burned, as a function of compressed air produced. Reference is made to the current compressor technology, carefully analysing CAGI's (Compressed Air Gas Institute) data and integrating it with the PNUEROP (European Association of manufacturers of compressors, vacuum pumps, pneumatic tools and allied equipment) contribution on the compressor European market. On the base of energy saving estimates that could be put in place, this article also estimates the financial value of the CO2 emissions and fossil fuels avoided.

  17. Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  18. Energy Engineering Analysis Program. Energy savings opportunity survey, Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Volume III, programming documents

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Insulation is considered for selected buildings. Energy savings are evaluated using energy simulations employing the Carrier HAP program. Weather data is only available for large cities. El Paso Texas was selected as the closest city with a somewhat similar climate; results are adjusted based on Fort Huachuca and El Paso meteorological data.

  19. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency proj

  20. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency project.

  1. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, Kristen; Regnier, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  2. Energy saving system using by-product hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hirofumi; Yamarnoto, Hirotaka; Ganke, Toshihiko; Satake, Ichirou; Nogi, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    The authors in conjunction with Shikoku Electric Power and Toagosei have been developing a new energy saving system using by-product hydrogen assisted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AISI) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) since 1993. The main unit of the system is a 100-kW class phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) utilizing by-product hydrogen. The development technology of this hydrogen PAFC system include the following items; (1) recycling technology for using unreacted exhaust hydrogen at the anode outlet (2) safe processing technology of exhaust hydrogen. The system was constructed at the Tokushima plant of Toagosei and has operated from December 1996. The total operating time reached over 3000 h as of June 1997. The demonstration test will be conducted from 1996 through FY 1998.

  3. Crystal growth technology CGT for energy: saving energy and renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.

    2005-02-01

    The fast-growing worldwide demand for energy, due to population growth and increasing standard of living, is in contrast with the limited fossil energy resources, with the political problems of nuclear fission energy, with the demand to reduce CO 2 production for climate control (Kyoto protocol), and with the slow advances of renewable energy sources. It will be shown how crystal growth technology (including epitaxy technology) can contribute to reduce the energy problem. CGT is the rate-determining factor for progress in energy-saving electrical technologies with high-temperature/high-power electrical technology and illumination from GaN-based devices as examples. Progress in CGT is also essential for the development of renewable energy sources like economic high-efficiency solar cells and in future laser-fusion energy where large laser and nonlinear-optic crystals of high radiation hardness are required. Education of CGT engineers and scientific development of CGT, using normally one optimum technology for industrial fabrication of specific crystals and one technology for specific epitaxial layers "epilayers", are needed.

  4. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  5. Decomposing Uncertainty in Climate, Socioeconomics and Technological Change for a Decision to Impose Aggressive Building Energy Standards across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. J.; Daly, D. S.; Lansing, C. S.; McJeon, H. C.; Patel, P. L.; Peterson, M. J.; Rice, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This analysis presents quantification and decomposition of key sources of uncertainty associated with state-level decisions on whether to impose aggressive building energy standards. The research compares uncertainty in future climate model projections, national and international emissions policy, population and economic growth, and technology cost and performance across several states and focuses on three decision criteria--energy savings, savings in greenhouse gas emissions, and costs of the standards. The research utilizes a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model that has been regionalized to represent energy demand and supply within each of the 50 U.S. states. A Monte Carlo sampling approach provides 12,000 GCAM runs that are post-processed to provide a rigorous comparison of the relative importance of the modeled sources of uncertainty at the state level when aggressive standards are imposed and identifies the key 'game changers.'

  6. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Air Force Civil Engineer Center Management of Energy Savings Performance Contracts Needs Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-04

    Force Civil Engineer Center Management of Energy Savings Performance Contracts Needs Improvement M A Y 4 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-087 Mission...Management of Energy Savings Performance Contracts Needs Improvement Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective was to determine whether the Air...Force is effectively managing energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). This report is the second in a series of audits on ESPCs. Finding The Air

  8. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  9. Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2011-05-23

    Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

  10. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  11. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  12. 78 FR 24736 - Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Savings Performance Contracts: Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of...), within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides services, tools,...

  13. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present

  14. Efficiency of Energy Use in the United States: Transportation, space heating, and air conditioning provide opportunities for large energy savings.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E; Moyers, J C

    1973-03-30

    We described three uses of energy for which greater efficiency is feasible: transportation, space heating, and air conditioning. Shifts to less energy-intensive transportation modes could substantially reduce energy consumption; the magnitude of such savings would, of course, depend on the extent of such shifts and possible load factor changes. The hypothetical transportation scenario described here results in a 22 percent savings in energy for transportation in 1970, a savings of 2800 trillion Btu. To the homeowner, increasing the amount of building insulation and, in some cases, adding storm windows would reduce energy consumption and provide monetary savings. If all homes in 1970 had the "economic optimum" amount of insulation, energy consumption for residential heating would have been 42 percent less than if the homes were insulated to meet the pre-1971 FHA standards, a savings of 3100 trillion Btu. Increased utilization of energy-efficient air conditioners and of building insulation would provide significant energy savings and help to reduce peak power demands during the summer. A 67 percent increase in energy efficiency for room air conditioners would have saved 15.8 billion kilowatt-hours in 1970. In conclusion, it is possible-from an engineering point of view-to effect considerable energy savings in the United States. Increases in the efficiency of energy use would provide desired end results with smaller energy inputs. Such measures will not reduce the level of energy consumption, but they could slow energy growth rates.

  15. Design and Development of an Affective Interface for Supporting Energy-saving Activities and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kyoko; Tomita, Daisuke; Imaki, Tomotaka; Hongo, Taishiro; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    Toward a sustainable society, energy and environmental issues are very important and controversial problems, and it is expected to support various human activities for the measures by using Information Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an affective interface for supporting people's energy-saving activities. First, a model for supporting people's energy-saving activities involving affective elements has been constructed for supporting people's energy-saving activities, based on social psychological approaches. Based on the proposed model, the requirements on an affective interface for people's energy-saving activities have been considered. In this study, the affective interface presents suitable energy-saving activities and current electric energy consumption by a character agent with a graphical shape and synthesized voice. The character agent recommends people's energy-saving activities, tells the method of energy-saving activities and the effectiveness, and so on. The affective interface for supporting energy-saving activities has been designed in detail and developed. Then, the evaluation experiment of the developed interface has been conducted, and the results of the experiments were analyzed.

  16. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  17. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  18. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  19. Ammonia plant designers talk of big energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, L.C.

    1980-08-27

    The ammonia plant that Pullman Kellogg has designed for Sherritt-Gordon Mines Ltd. in Alberta will require < 27 million Btu/ton of ammonia, and save $8.10/ton in energy costs because of improvements involving increased pressure in the primary reformer; more efficient use of the heat from the secondary reformer; carbon dioxide recovery by Allied Chemical Corp.'s Selexol process; the reduction of power requirements in the synthesis recycle loop; and the use of a horizontal reactor. C. F. Braun and Co. claims that its Purifier process will require < 25 million Btu/ton, due to the use of excess air in the secondary reformer. C-E Lummus offers a 1500 ton/day plant which, incorporating cryogenic recovery of hydrogen from purge gas and operation at a lower steam-to-carbon ratio, would require only 26 million Btu/ton; Haldor Topsoe Inc. offers a design rated at 26.3 million Btu/ton. According to L. C. Axelrod of Pullman Kellogg, ammonia plant construction will shift to gas-rich areas outside the U.S. and Europe. The 3% of the U.S. natural gas used by the fertilizer industry accounts for > 95% of ammonia feedstock.

  20. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  1. Analysis of energy saving lamps for use by photosensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Fenton, L; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2012-08-01

    Due to European legislation, the British government has begun the phase out of incandescent bulbs, to be replaced by energy-saving alternatives. The alternatives that are available on the market are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL), Energy-Efficient Halogens (EEH) and Light Emitting Diodes (LED). Whilst previous research has shown that CFLs emit UVC, UVB and UVA, there is conflicting data available on whether double enveloped CFLs are a safer alternative to single enveloped CFLs for individuals suffering from photosensitivity. The emission spectra of 106 single enveloped CFLs and 65 double enveloped CFLs were measured. There were 17 different models of single enveloped CFLs, including lamps from 6 different manufacturers (ranging from 8-20 W) and 9 models of double enveloped CFLs from 6 different manufacturers (7-15 W). In addition, the emission spectra of 53 LEDs and 56 EEHs were also analysed. The LEDs consisted of 8 different models, from 3 manufacturers, spanning between 2.5 and 12 W. There were 11 models of EEH from 6 different manufacturers with wattages ranging from 28-70 W. In order to reduce sample bias, some bulbs were provided by the lighting industry federation and others were purchased randomly from local retailers. The results validate previous research in that considerable variation exists in the UV emitted from CFLs. This variation in UV levels is true, not only within different makes and models but also, surprisingly, within a box of 8 seemingly identical bulbs supplied by a single manufacturer. It was concluded that double enveloped CFLs do reduce the levels of UVC and UVB and therefore are a safer alternative for photosensitive individuals. However, as some double enveloped CFLs and EEHs do emit UVA at levels that provoke a reaction in the skin of UVA sensitive individuals, newly emerging LEDs that have minimal UV levels may provide a safer alternative.

  2. FLASTAR: Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Energy Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, John R.; Parker, Danny S.

    A study of the Florida Public Building Loan Concept pilot program determined its effectiveness in helping to upgrade building energy systems. The pilot program, termed FLASTAR (Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Resources), involved the comprehensive metering of an elementary school to demonstrate energy savings potential after retrofitting…

  3. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  4. Sensors light the way from security to energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    Developed for the security market, occupancy sensors offer a simple, relatively inexpensive method of lighting control. The systems currently offered are surveyed, the pros and cons of each are discussed, and sample savings statistics are presented.

  5. Making the Business Case for Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page describes the business case for energy savings in schools.

  6. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  7. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  8. Austin, DFW and Houston Businesses Saved $145 Million with Energy Efficient buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March 25, 2015) Three of Texas' major metropolitan areas are embracing energy efficiency to save money and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by meeting EPA's Energy Star requirements. Austin, Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston jointly have over 5

  9. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, (English/Russian Fact Sheet) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Russian brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  10. K2 Urbancorp, LLC.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a community of historically inspired energy efficient homes that met the 40% whole-house source energy savings by focusing primarily on tightening the building envelope and sealing ductwork.

  11. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Quick-Service Restaurants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Schrock, D. W.; Fisher, D. R.; Livchak, A.; Zabrowski, D. A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-09-30

    Document describing PNNL's project to develop a package of energy efficiency measures that demonstrate the feasibility of achieving a 50% energy savings for quick-service restaurants with a simple payback of 5 years or less.

  12. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, International Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This English/Spanish fact sheet describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  13. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  14. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  15. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tooze, David

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  16. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  17. Energy efficiency monitoring and economic analysis for energy saving potential in UNITEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Yew, Kang Chin; Azwa Shaaya, Sharifah

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses on energy efficiency survey for typical buildings in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Undeniably, wastage of energy will cause the increase of operation cost and depletion of fossil fuel resources which contributes to the climate change issue in the world. UNITEN was commenced in the late 1990s and most of the buildings in this university are not equipped with energy management system. Such system is the solution to reduce energy use while maximizing the comfort levels of the occupants. Disregard to the energy management system, the implementation of other energy saving measures is the main objective of this paper. By taking the right measures, the energy wastage in the buildings of this university can be reduced.

  18. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  19. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  20. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  1. Weyerhaeuser: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Sawmill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Weyerhaeuser Company, a U.S. Department of Energy Allied Partner in the Industrial Technologies Program, increased the efficiency of the compressed air system at its sawmill facility in Coburg, Oregon. This improved the system's performance and will save about 1.3 million kWh annually. Total project costs were $55,000; because annual energy cost savings were also $55,000, the simple payback period was only 1 year. Subsequent improvements at six other company plants and mills are yielding 6.8 million kWh in energy savings and reducing annual energy costs by $250,000.

  2. A novel sensor platform matching the improved version of IPMVP option C for measuring energy savings.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-05-22

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  3. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  4. Saving Energy and Money: A Lesson in Computer Power Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Hua, David

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students will develop an understanding of the economic impact of technology by estimating the cost savings of power management strategies in the classroom. Students will learn how to adjust computer display settings to influence the impact that the computer has on the financial burden to the school. They will use mathematics to…

  5. School Reduces Energy Costs 31% with Guaranteed Savings Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An agreement between Johnson Controls and a Maryland school district provided financing for the initial capital expenditure to upgrade and control the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment at a high school and guaranteed savings during the 5-year contract. (MLF)

  6. IMPACT EVALUATION OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS PLAN PROJECT AT THE LINDE DIVISION OF UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G. E.; Sullivan, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corporation (Linde) was conducted far the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Linde as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interviews, and submittal reviews (Linde's Completion Report and Abstract). The ECM itself consists of replacing the plant's nitrogen feed compressor with a larger unit, which allows the plant to meet its argon demand using less compressed air and which results in net energy savings. Energy savings resulting from this ECM were 4,376,500 kWh/yr for the first two years after installation, but, because of a change in Linde's market position, long-term savings are expected to be lower at 2,549,200 kWh/yr. Linde considers energy consumption and savings on a per ton basis to be proprietary, so they are not reported here. The ECM cost $361,4.96 to install, and Linde received payment of $161,426 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. This ECM would not have been implemented without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 4.5 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to th.e region will be 5.9 mills/kWh.

  7. Up Close and Personal: The Value of Feedback in Implementing an Individual Energy-Saving Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Carol Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the drivers of computer-related sustainability behavior at a medium-sized US university and the extent to which an inexpensive energy-saving device installed on 146 administrator, faculty and general staff workstations achieved significant savings in kWh, CO[subscript 2] kg and dollars.…

  8. Using Public-Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets 30 September 2006 by Dr. Joseph G. San... Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts to Fund DoD Mobile Assets 5. FUNDING 6. AUTHOR (S) Dr. Joseph G. San Miguel...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK -vii- ^`nrfpfqflk=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= péçåëçêÉÇ=êÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= = Using Public - Private Partnerships and Energy Savings Contracts

  9. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  10. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  11. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  12. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Lubliner, M.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Martin, E.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  13. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  14. Energy saving in data processing and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Iazeolla, Giuseppe; Pieroni, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp) and telecommunication (Tlc) systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc.) all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc.) and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.). ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS). This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS.

  15. Energy Saving in Data Processing and Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Iazeolla, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp) and telecommunication (Tlc) systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc.) all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc.) and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.). ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS). This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS. PMID:25302326

  16. Application of Genetic Algorithm to the Design Optimization of Complex Energy Saving Glass Coating Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, F. M.; Azmin, F. A.; Shibghatullah, A. S.; Suaidi, M. K.; Ahmad, B. H.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Salleh, S. N.; Shukor, M. Md

    2014-04-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  17. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  18. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-10

    Saint-Gobain developed an approach to help guide other companies on effectively preparing for an Energy Savings Assessment in a manner that will maximize its value and ensure implementation of efficiency improvement recommendations. Learn about Saint-Gobain's approach.

  19. Fan System Optimization Improves Ventilation and Saves Energy at a Computer Chip Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  20. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  1. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  2. Persistence of energy savings: What do we know and how can it be ensured

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing persistence of energy savings, summarizes the limited experience of what we know about persistence, provides guidance for conducting retrospective and prospective persistence studies, and suggests strategies for ensuring persistence. Because this area of research is in its infancy, unequivocal conclusions about persistence would be premature. Accordingly, this paper provides guidance for both conducting research in this area and developing policies and mechanisms to help ensure the persistence of energy savings.

  3. Persistence of energy savings: What do we know and how can it be ensured?

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing persistence of energy savings, summarizes the limited experience of what we know about persistence, provides guidance for conducting retrospective and prospective persistence studies, and suggests strategies for ensuring persistence. Because this area of research is in its infancy, unequivocal conclusions about persistence would be premature. Accordingly, this paper provides guidance for both conducting research in this area and developing policies and mechanisms to help ensure the persistence of energy savings.

  4. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.; Polly, B.

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  5. Save Money and the Planet: Make Your School Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Examines ways in which schools can cut their energy costs. Suggestions are provided for making school lighting more efficient, conducting a life-cycle cost analysis to facilitate energy efficiency, and developing funding for implementing energy-efficient projects. (GLR)

  6. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  7. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  8. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  9. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  10. Go Green, Save Green with ENERGY STAR[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    Did you know that the nation's 17,450 K-12 school districts spend more on energy than on computers and textbooks combined? Energy costs represent a typical school district's second largest operating expense after salaries. Schools that have earned the ENERGY STAR--EPA's mark of superior energy performance--cost 40 cents per square foot less to…

  11. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Puttagunta, S.

    2015-06-05

    This study was intended to validate actual performance of three ZERHs in the Northeast to energy models created in REM/Rate v14.5 (one of the certified software programs used to generate a HERS Index) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) v2.3 E+ (a more sophisticated hourly energy simulation software). This report details the validation methods used to analyze energy consumption at each home.

  12. Designing shared-savings incentive programs for energy efficiency: Balancing carrots and sticks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D. . Div. of Ratepayer Advocates); Eto, J. )

    1990-12-01

    One promising approach for stimulating utility participation in the acquisition of cost-effective demand-side resources is called shared savings. In a shared-savings arrangement, the difference between the cost of a demand-side resource and its value measured in avoided supply-side resources is shared by utility shareholders and ratepayers. A shared-savings incentive mechanism consists of the three major components; the cost of the demand-side program, the amount of energy saved by the program, and the value of the supply-side activities avoided by the program. Measuring energy savings is an imperfect science. In principle, it should be performed after a demand-side program has been put in place and observed for some time. A particularly difficult measurement issue lies in properly accounting for effects that are not within the control of the utility but which affect energy savings (such as weather or occupant behavior). The collaborative decided to rely on prespecified engineering estimates of savings for individual measures, but to base aggregate savings on the actual numbers of installations made by the utility. This decision protects the utilities from uncertainties in the performance of individual measures while providing an incentive to increase program participation. The utilities also agreed to initiate comprehensive measurement programs to improve future estimates of the performance of energy efficiency measures. Avoided costs, like conservation program performance, are a subject to a large number of influences, only some which are under the control of the utility. Recovering the benefits of demand-side programs over a time period that closely parallels the realization of savings, means the utility will have to wait a considerable period of time before recovering its full share. The collaborative resolved this issue in a manner analogous to contractual agreements that pay qualifying facilities for non-utility generated power. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Measured energy savings and performance of power-managed personal computers and monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.

    1996-08-01

    Personal computers and monitors are estimated to use 14 billion kWh/year of electricity, with power management potentially saving $600 million/year by the year 2000. The effort to capture these savings is lead by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Energy Star program, which specifies a 30W maximum demand for the computer and for the monitor when in a {open_quote}sleep{close_quote} or idle mode. In this paper the authors discuss measured energy use and estimated savings for power-managed (Energy Star compliant) PCs and monitors. They collected electricity use measurements of six power-managed PCs and monitors in their office and five from two other research projects. The devices are diverse in machine type, use patterns, and context. The analysis method estimates the time spent in each system operating mode (off, low-, and full-power) and combines these with real power measurements to derive hours of use per mode, energy use, and energy savings. Three schedules are explored in the {open_quotes}As-operated,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Standardized,{close_quotes} and `Maximum` savings estimates. Energy savings are established by comparing the measurements to a baseline with power management disabled. As-operated energy savings for the eleven PCs and monitors ranged from zero to 75 kWh/year. Under the standard operating schedule (on 20% of nights and weekends), the savings are about 200 kWh/year. An audit of power management features and configurations for several dozen Energy Star machines found only 11% of CPU`s fully enabled and about two thirds of monitors were successfully power managed. The highest priority for greater power management savings is to enable monitors, as opposed to CPU`s, since they are generally easier to configure, less likely to interfere with system operation, and have greater savings. The difficulties in properly configuring PCs and monitors is the largest current barrier to achieving the savings potential from power management.

  14. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  15. 76 FR 2029 - Small Business Investment Companies-Energy Saving Qualified Investments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ..., packaged CHP systems, more efficient process heating equipment, more efficient steam generation equipment... other Federal agencies to identify energy efficient products and services and to encourage the provision... energy efficient products and services will ensure that Energy Saving Qualified Investments satisfy...

  16. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  17. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  18. A study on energy saving rate for variable speed condition of multistage centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Sang-Ho; Rakibuzzaman; Kim, Kyung-Wuk; Kim, Hyoung-Ho; Yoon, In Sik; Cho, Min-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being widely used in many industrial and commercial applications. Many of these pumps are being operated at constant speed but could provide energy savings through adjustable speed operations. The purpose of this study was to get the energy saving rates of the multistage centrifugal pump with variable speed conditions. For this investigation an experimental set up of variable flow and pressure system was made to get energy saving rates and numerical analyses are applied to validate the pump performance. The energy saving and therefore the cost saving depends on the specific duty cycle of which the machine operates. Duty cycle is the proportion of time during which a component, device and system is operated. The duty cycle segmented into different flow rates and weighting the average value for each segment by the interval time. The system was operated at 50% or less of the pump capacity. The input power of the system was carried out by pump characteristics curve of each operating point. The energy consumption was done by the product of specific duty cycle and the input power of the system for constant speed and variable speed drive operation. The total energy consumed for constant speed drive pump was 75,770 kW.hr and for variable speed drive pump was 31,700 kW.hr. The total energy saving of the system was 44,070 kW.hr or 58.16% annually. So, this paper suggests a method of implementing an energy saving on variable-flow and pressure system of the multistage centrifugal pump.

  19. Expert Meeting Report. Energy Savings You Can Bank On

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Mark; Springer, Jeremy; Smith, Pepper; Porse, Erik

    2013-02-01

    In October 2011, ARBI organized and conducted an Experts’ Meeting on the topic of performance guarantees and financing vehicles for Energy Efficiency Upgrades. The meeting brought together technical, policy, and financial experts, including researchers, experienced installation contractors, and innovative energy business leaders, in order to discuss the opportunities and challenges for the energy efficiency upgrade industry to increase market uptake of Home Energy Upgrades (HEUs) through innovative offerings, such as performance guarantees.

  20. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Noonan, Christine F.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 15th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 16: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Butner, Ryan S.; Ortiz, Sallie J.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 16th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  2. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have a big impact on energy use. In the United States, 44.6 million small buildings consume 44% of the overall energy used in buildings, presenting an enormous opportunity to cut costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Confused by Energy Saving Claims? Help Is Available.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, D. Gary; Kieley, James D.

    1984-01-01

    Energy engineers can help schools build complete energy conservation systems. These specialists (1) conduct thorough energy audits, (2) design and supervise retrofitting, (3) recommend and supervise preventive maintenance programs, (4) recommend computerized controls, and (5) monitor utility bills. This article includes description of a school…

  4. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Vegetable Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use patterns in vegetable production and gives examples of cutting the cost of energy in fertilization, weed management, insect pest management, irrigation, harvesting, use of equipment, and greenhouses. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  5. A Case Analysis of Energy Savings Performance Contract Projects and Photovoltaic Energy at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Policy Act of 2005 signed in August, 2005 further extended the Energy Savings Performance Contract program until October, 2016 . D. DOE PROGRAM...energy savings performance contract (IDIQ ESPC). 72 The contractor shall provide, at no capital cost to the Government, all labor, material, and...Safety Code (NESC) $ National Fire Protection Association ( NFPA ) Standards including, but not limited to NFPA 101 - Life Safety Code $ National

  6. Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU's energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; Lee, Joohyung; Uddin, Mohammad Rakib; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2015-12-01

    The majority of the traffic over the Internet is TCP based, which is very sensitive to packet loss and delay. Existing research efforts in TDM-Passive Optical Networks (TDM-PONs) mostly evaluate energy saving and traffic delay performances under different energy saving solutions. However, to the best of our knowledge, how energy saving mechanisms could affect TCP traffic performance in TDM-PONs has hardly been studied. In this paper, by means of our state-of-art OPNET Modular based TDM-PON simulator, we evaluate TCP traffic delay, throughput, and Optical Network Unit (ONU) energy consumption performances in a TDM-PON where energy saving mechanisms are employed in ONUs. Here, we study the performances under commonly used energy saving mechanisms defined in standards for TDM-PONs: cyclic sleep and doze mode. In cyclic sleep mode, we evaluate the performances under two well-known sleep interval length deciding algorithms (i.e. fixed sleep interval (FSI) and exponential sleep interval deciding (ESID)) that an OLT uses to decide sleep interval lengths for an ONU. Findings in this paper put forward the strong relationship among TCP traffic delay, throughput and ONU energy consumption under different sleep interval lengths. Moreover, we reveal that under high TCP traffic, both FSI and ESID will end up showing similar delay, energy and throughput performance. Our findings also show that doze mode can offer better TCP throughput and delay performance at the price of consuming more energy than cyclic sleep mode. In addition, our results provide a glimpse on understanding at what point doze mode becomes futile in improving energy saving of an ONU under TCP traffic. Furthermore, in this paper, we highlight important research issues that should be studied in future research to maximize energy saving in TDM-PONs while meeting traffic Quality of Service requirements.

  7. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  8. Denver Federal Center Saves Energy, Forges Partnerships Through Super ESPC. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) ESPC Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    The General Services Administration is not just replacing aging heating and cooling equipment and reducing maintenance costs at the 670-acre Denver Federal Center (DFC). The GSA is also helping the government save about $450,000 in annual energy costs, conserve nearly 11 million gallons of water per year, and reduce annual carbon dioxide emissions by 15.9 million pounds, all by making use of the Department of Energy's Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (Super ESPCs) at the DFC. Under these contracts, an energy services provider pays the up-front project costs and is then repaid over the contracts term out of the resulting energy cost savings. This two-page case study, prepared by NREL for the DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), demonstrates how the GSA forged new project partnerships, improved the DFCs boiler plant, and acquired efficient new chillers, motors, controls, and lighting by placing two delivery orders for this work under FEMPs Central Region Super ESPC.

  9. Hydrodynamics and energy-saving swimming techniques of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tsutomu; Tamura, Yumiko; Weihs, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Weihs theoretically revealed that during the movement of fish with negative buoyancy, more kinetic energy is saved in the glide and upward (GAU) swimming mode than in the continuous horizontal swimming mode. Because kinetic energy saving depends on dynamic parameters such as the drag and lift of the body, the effects of variations in these parameters on energy saving for different species remain unknown. Here, the kinetic energy saving of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, exhibiting the GAU swimming mode was investigated. The dynamic properties of PBT were estimated by carrying out CFD analysis. The CFD model was produced by using a three-dimensional laser surface profiler, and the model was controlled such that it exhibited swimming motion similar to that of a live PBT swimming in a flume tank. The drag generated by tail beating, which significantly affects the kinetic energy during motion, was twice that generated in the glide mode. The faster the upward swimming speed, the lesser is the kinetic energy saving; therefore, when the upward swimming speed is more than twice the glide speed, there is no gain in the GAU mode. However, when SMR (Standard Metabolic Rate) is considered, if the energy based on SMR is assumed to be 30% of the total energy spent during motion, the most efficient upward swimming speed is 1.4 times the glide speed. The GAU swimming mode of PBT leads to energy saving during motion, and the upward swimming speed and the lift force produced by the pectoral fins for the most efficient drive are unique for different species of different sizes.

  10. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Energy Savings You Can Bank On

    SciTech Connect

    Beman, M.; Springer, J.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-02-01

    In October 2011, ARBI organized and conducted an Experts' Meeting on the topic of performance guarantees and financing vehicles for Energy Efficiency Upgrades. The meeting brought together technical, policy, and financial experts, including researchers, experienced installation contractors, and innovative energy business leaders, in order to discuss the opportunities and challenges for the energy efficiency upgrade industry to increase market uptake of Home Energy Upgrades (HEUs) through innovative offerings, such as performance guarantees. The meeting had several primary goals. First, it sought to understand how other industries have developed successful models for financing renewable energy installations while providing performance guarantees. This has been most recently demonstrated by the solar leasing industry. Second, the meeting explored the applicability of such business models to the energy efficiency upgrade industry. Third, the meeting sought to identify technical impediments to performance guarantees for energy efficiency retrofits. Fourth, the meeting sought to provide a common framework for these goals within the context of current financing mechanisms for energy efficiency upgrades.

  12. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  13. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Livestock Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Arsdall, Roy N.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in livestock production and gives examples of cutting costs of field equipment use, grinding and preparing feed, managing range and herd, ventilating and heating, lighting, drying grain, and irrigating with sprinklers. Recordkeeping and estimating energy use is also discussed. (BB)

  14. How to "Kill a Watt" and Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massiha, G. H.; Houston, Shelton; Rawat, Kuldeep S.

    2011-01-01

    Many technology students--and especially those interested in environmental and energy issues--can benefit from learning about power ratings and the energy usage of electrical systems like the electrical equipment and appliances found in most homes. Students enrolled in electronics and construction technology courses learn to determine the power…

  15. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the Small Buildings and Small Portfolios roadmap, which outlines approaches and strategic priorities for the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office to pursue over the next three to five years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for small business and building owners and operators.

  16. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  17. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  18. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  19. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  20. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  1. Save Energy Dollars with DOE Operations and Maintenance Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Margo

    2010-01-01

    At budget-crunching time, school administrators and business officials sometimes find themselves trimming the district's budget for teachers, textbooks, and technology in order to cover ballooning energy costs. Nearly one-third of the energy consumed in the average U.S. school is wasted. The country's least efficient schools use four times more…

  2. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Dairy Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Gary G.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use patterns in a dairy farm and gives tips on cutting costs of water heating, ventilation and supplemental heat, milk cooling, vacuum pumps, electric motors, tractors, trucks, engines, and lighting. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  3. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  4. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  5. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  6. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Lubliner, M.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  7. Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-08-29

    With declining production costs and increasing technical capabilities, LED adoption has recently gained momentum in general illumination applications. This is a positive development for our energy infrastructure, as LEDs use significantly less electricity per lumen produced than many traditional lighting technologies. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications examines the expected market penetration and resulting energy savings of light-emitting diode, or LED, lamps and luminaires from today through 2030.

  8. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofiting Apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  9. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  10. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs.

  11. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  12. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  13. Saving Energy, Water, and Money with Efficient Water Treatment Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-06-01

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a method of purifying water for industrial processes and human consumption; RO can remove mineral salts as well as contaminants such as bacteria and pesticides. Advances in water treatment technologies have enhanced and complemented the conventional RO process, reducing energy and water consumption, lowering capital and operating costs, and producing purer water. This publication of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program introduces RO, describes the benefits of high-efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO), and compares HERO with RO/electrodeionization (EDI) technology.

  14. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  15. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  16. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  17. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Orchard Grower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in orchard crop production, and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilization, irrigation, weed management, pest management, high density crops, frost protection, and equipment use. (BB)

  18. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  19. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Field Crops Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schienbein, Allen

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in field crop production and gives examples of cutting costs of fertilizer use, irrigation, grain drying, tobacco drying, forate production, and tractor and truck use. Recordkeeping is also discussed. (BB)

  20. Design New Buildings To Save Energy -- and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittelmann, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Buildings should be designed so that energy systems function with maximum efficiency. Re-evaluation of standards for ventilation and lighting is recommended. Heat recovery techniques and topography can reduce heating loads. (MF)

  1. Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shaheen, Jeanne [D-NH

    2013-04-18

    06/03/2013 By Senator Wyden from Committee on Energy and Natural Resources filed written report. Report No. 113-37. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  3. Energy saving through redistribution of the transport of goods

    SciTech Connect

    Ormhaug, T.; Svegarden, T.

    1980-12-01

    The possibility for reduction of energy consumption is considered. A redistribution from lorries to railway of a quantity representing approximately 25% of todays tonkilometers on road, might give a yearly reduction of energy consumption equivalent to 48 mill liters diesel oil. The quantity represents about 5% of the fuel consumption in the entire transport field. The 25% represents an expected increase in the interregional transport of goods by lorries and railway towards the turn of this century.

  4. Solar energy and heat pumps: Can this marriage be saved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. W.

    Work on systems for building space and water heating and space cooling which combine vapor compression heat pumps with the use of solar energy led to promising system configurations which portend reasonable cost and beneficial impact on utility load profiles in addition to conserving energy. A historical perspective on this work are presented. The ranges of system possibilities are elucidated and two promising systems are described.

  5. Development of Design Guidance for K-12 Schools from 30% to 50% Energy Savings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the development of energy efficiency recommendations for achieving 30% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1. These design recommendations look at building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems (including electrical lights and daylighting), HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, and service water heating.

  6. 2002 status report: Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) voluntary labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan

    2003-03-03

    ENERGY STAR [registered trademark] is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2001, what we expect in 2002, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2002 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  7. 2007 Status Report: Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)VoluntaryLabeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Homan,Gregory K.

    2007-03-23

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2006, whatwe expect in 2007, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2007 to 2015 and 2007 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  8. 2003 status report savings estimates for the energy star(R)voluntary labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-11-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2002, what we expect in 2003, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2003 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  9. 2006 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla; Homan,Gregory K.

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2005, whatwe expect in 2006, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2006 to 2015 and 2006 to 2025. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  10. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R)Voluntary Labeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-03-07

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Star labels exist for more thanforty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2004, whatwe expect in 2005, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2005 to 2010 and 2005 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  11. Savings estimates for the ENERGY STAR (registered trademark) voluntary labeling program: 2001 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Mahajan, Akshay; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-02-15

    ENERGY STAR(Registered Trademark) is a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating and cooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subset of ENERGY STAR program activities, focused primarily on labeled products. We present estimates of the energy, dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2000, what we expect in 2001, and provide savings forecasts for two market penetration scenarios for the period 2001 to 2020. The target market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of future ENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goals for each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumption of 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasers buy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiency products throughout the analysis period.

  12. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  13. 2004 status report: Savings estimates for the Energy Star(R)voluntarylabeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla

    2004-03-09

    ENERGY STAR(R) is a voluntary labeling program designed toidentify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices.Operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and theU.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ENERGY STAR labels exist for more thanthirty products, spanning office equipment, residential heating andcooling equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics,and major appliances. This report presents savings estimates for a subsetof ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of the energy,dollar and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2003, whatwe expect in 2004, and provide savings forecasts for two marketpenetration scenarios for the periods 2004 to 2010 and 2004 to 2020. Thetarget market penetration forecast represents our best estimate of futureENERGY STAR savings. It is based on realistic market penetration goalsfor each of the products. We also provide a forecast under the assumptionof 100 percent market penetration; that is, we assume that all purchasersbuy ENERGY STAR-compliant products instead of standard efficiencyproducts throughout the analysis period.

  14. Simultaneous Energy Savings and IEQ Improvements in Relocatable Classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hotchi, Toshi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna M.; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2003-05-22

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly used by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. We designed and constructed four energy-efficient RCs for this study to demonstrate technologies with the potential to simultaneously improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two RCs (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each had two HVAC systems, operated on alternate weeks, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The IDEC system provides continuous outside air ventilation at {sup 3}15 CFM (7.5 L s-1) person-1, efficient particle filtration while using significantly less energy for cooling. School year long measurements included: carbon dioxide (CO2), particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. IEQ monitoring results indicate that important ventilation-relevant indoor CO2 and health-relevant VOC concentration reductions were achieved while average cooling and heating energy costs were simultaneously reduced by 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.

  15. Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of ASHRAE 90.1-2004 for New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.

    2007-08-03

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and New York State Department of State (DOS) requested the help of DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) in estimating the annual building energy savings and cost impacts of adopting ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (ASHRAE 2004) requirements. This report summarizes the analysis methodology and results of energy simulation in response to that request.

  16. Analysis of NREL Cold-Drink Vending Machines for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Bottom, K.; Ault, R.

    2003-06-01

    NREL Staff, as part of Sustainable NREL, an initiative to improve the overall energy and environmental performance of the lab, decided to control how its vending machines used energy. The cold-drink vending machines across the lab were analyzed for potential energy savings opportunities. This report gives the monitoring and the analysis of two energy conservation measures applied to the cold-drink vending machines at NREL.

  17. Durability of high-albedo roof coatings and implications for cooling energy savings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, S.E.; Akbari, H.

    1994-06-01

    Twenty-six spot albedo measurements of roofs were made using a calibrated pyranometer. The roofs were surfaced with either an acrylic elastomeric coating, a polymer coating with an acrylic base, or a cementitious coating. Some of the roofs` albedos were measured before and after washing to determine whether the albedo decrease was permanent. Data indicated that most of the albedo degradation occurred within the first year, and even within the first two months. On one roof, 70% of one year`s albedo degradation occurred in the first two months. After the first year, the degradation slowed, with data indicating small losses in albedo after the second year. Measurements of seasonal cooling energy savings by Akbari et al. (1993) included the effects of over two months of albedo degradation. We estimated {approximately}20% loss in cooling-energy savings after the first year because of dirt accumulation. For most of the roofs we cleaned, the albedo was restored to within 90% of its initial value. Although washing is effective at restoring albedo, the increase in energy savings is temporary and labor costs are significant in comparison to savings. By our calculations, it is not cost-effective to hire someone to clean a high-albedo roof only to achieve energy savings. Thus, it would be useful to develop and identify dirt-resistant high-albedo coatings.

  18. Simulation of Energy Savings in Automotive Coatings Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerini Romagnoli, Marco

    Recently, the automakers have become more and more aware of the environmental and economic impact of their manufacturing processes. The paint shop is the largest energy user in a vehicle manufacturing plant, and one way to reduce costs and energy usage is the optimization of this area. This project aims at providing a tool to model and simulate a paint shop, in order to run and analyze some scenarios and case studies, helping to take strategic decisions. Analytical computations and real data were merged to build a tool that can be used by FCA for their Sterling Heights plant. Convection and conduction heat losses were modeled for the dip processes and the ovens. Thermal balances were used to compute the consumptions of booths, decks and ovens, while pump and fan energy consumptions were modeled for each sub-process. The user acts on a calendar, scheduling a year of production, and the model predicts the energy consumption of the paint shop. Five scenarios were run to test different conditions and the influence of scheduling on the energy consumption. Two different sets of production schedules have been evaluated, the first one fulfilling the production requirement in one shift of 10 hours, at high rate, the second one using two 7-hour-long shifts at medium production rate. It was found that the unit cost was minimized in the warmest months of spring and fall, and system shutdown was a crucial factor to reduce energy consumption. A fifth hypothetical scenario was run, with a 4 month continuous production and an 8 month total shutdown, which reduced the energy consumption to a half of the best realistic scenario. When the plant was run in a two-shifts configuration, the cost to coat a vehicle was found to be 29 with weekend shutdown, and 39 without. In the one-shift configuration, the cost was slightly higher, but the difference was less than 5%. While the fifth scenario showed a consistent reduction of the unit cost, inventory and logistic expenses deriving from the

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  20. Energy Savings in School Buildings: A Selected Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Don, Comp.

    The 43 references in this booklet emphasize practical, rather than theoretical, information. They were chosen on that basis from two computer-retrievable data bases maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy. The citations, for the most part, are arranged by source and include industry pamphlets, journal articles, and state and consultant…

  1. Smart thermochromic glazing for energy saving window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutjunjan, Ruben; Markova, Tatiana; Halopenen, Ilya; Maksimov, Ivan; Tutunnikov, Anatolii; Yanush, Oleg

    2005-08-01

    Thermochromic laminated glazing (TLG) aids in reducing the energy needs of a building and providing indoor comfort. The polymeric interlayer of TLG is doped with transition metal (Fe, Cr, W, etc.) complexes, which change their coordination and the transmission or color of TLG under the influence of light and heat fluxes. At present we have conversions fiom light gray or brown to dark gray or brown and fiom rosy or yellow to blue or green at our disposal. TLG is able to sense changes in the light and adjust accordingly. It can block out the sunlight during the brightest parts of the day or capitalize on the available light during overcast days. As evaluated on the basis of tests, TLG has a good UV stability. It offers practical benefits of a low cost and easy fabrication. No electrical or any other driving power is needed to operate TLG. The energy modeling of the heat transfer in ventilated facades showed that TLG can provide a 15-30% decrease of the building energy consumption during the winter heating time in the climatic conditions of some regions in Russia. During the summer season the reduction of the solar energy gain reaches 30-40%; this is enough to give up air- cooling systems altogether.

  2. Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, John H.; Randall, Brad

    2012-01-01

    By now the slogan of the National Trust for Historic Preservation that "the greenest building is the one already built" is widely known. In an era of increased environmental awareness and rising fuel prices, however, the question is how can historic building stock be made more energy efficient in a manner respectful of its historic…

  3. Diesel Goes Digital to Save Energy, Lower Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Forty years ago, actuators requiring constant energy to help power the Apollo spacecraft in space were replaced by magnetically holding and releasing, electronically controlled valves. Today, these same magnetic, electronic valves are on the verge of replacing entire camshaft systems in cars and trucks on Earth, thus leading to a whole new generation of low-emission engines.

  4. Energy in Solid Waste: A Citizen Guide to Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This booklet contains information for citizens on solid wastes. It discusses the possible energy available in combustible and noncombustible trash. It suggests how citizens can reduce waste at home through discriminating buying practices and through recycling and reuse of resources. Recommendations are given for community action along with state…

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  6. Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priarone, A.; Fossa, M.; Paietta, E.; Rolando, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

  7. Energy-saving with low dimensional network in Physarum plasmodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Gomi, Takuma; Endo, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tomo; Sasaki, Takato

    2017-04-01

    An adaptation process in the transportation network of Physarum plasmodium was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption during network formation. Simultaneously, the fractal dimension as a measure of network structure was estimated. Oxygen consumption decreased during the development of the network, whereas the network structure changed from a thin mesh-type to a thick dendritic type. Our data suggested that the morphology of the plasmodial network governed energy consumption; a low dimensional network in the sense of the fractal dimension reduced energy consumption. These data were supported by experimental results excluding biological reasons, such as differences in starvation/nutrient-fullness states, and aspects of mitochondrial distribution. Model analysis using the Physarum algorithm with volume conservation constraints confirmed the above findings.

  8. Use DCF to save energy. [Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) program is written for the TI-59 programmable calculator, and a profitability analysis can help the process engineer decide among various alternatives in an energy conservation project. The objective of the analysis is to determine the following parameters: discounted cash flow rate of return (also called earning power), present value profit (at any specified cost of capital), present value profit as a percent of the capital investment, and the payback period (undiscounted).

  9. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  11. Solar and internal gain adjustments in calculation of energy conservation savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, C.; Wortman, D.

    1983-07-01

    Heating degree days are often used as a climatic measure in building energy calculations. To account for the effects of solar and internal gains, degree days at a lower base temperature are sometimes used, or the number of degree days is adjusted downward by a degree-day correction factor. A theoretical derivation which demonstrates that ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) C sub d factors are not the appropriate correction factors for calculation of energy savings from envelope conservation measures is presented. The results of this derivation can be used to develop new correlation factors appropriate for savings calculations.

  12. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Sutherland, Timothy; Reis, Callie

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  14. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  15. Energy savings opportunity survey, energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Fort Campbell, Kentucky, final report - phase 2; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-24

    Systems Corp surveyed and completed energy analyses for 112 buildings, two generators, four chillers, and roadway lighting. The energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) evaluated were lighting efficiency improvements, peak-shaving generators, chiller replacement, variable speed circulation pumps, EMCS expansion, and Commissary lighting. Cost estimates were prepared using M-CACES. Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project development brochures (PDBs) and DD1391 forms were prepared for Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects. The projects that were developed represent $187,203 in annual savings with favorable simple paybacks and savings to investment ratios (SIRs).

  16. Energy savings opportunity survey, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Fort Campbell, Kentucky, final report - phase I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-12

    Systems Corp surveyed and completed energy analyses for 98 buildings, fifteen chiller plants, and roadway lighting. The energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) evaluated were lighting efficiency improvements, instantaneous water heaters, heat recovery from hot refrigerant gases, absorption chiller replacements, and ground water coupled heat pumps. Cost estimates were prepared using M-CACES. Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project development brochures (PDBs) and DD1391 forms were prepared for Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects. The projects that were developed represent $2,257,000 in annual savings with favorable simple paybacks and saving to investment ratios (SIRs).

  17. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  19. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  20. Extension to phase 2 energy savings evaluation of the commercial direct investment program

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, D.; MacDonald, M.

    1994-08-01

    The results of an analysis of the commercial direct investment program of the Commonwealth Energy System (COM/Electric) is presented. The analysis extends results obtained in a previous impact evaluation of energy savings. The analysis includes over 1,000 buildings that participated in the program. The previous evaluation showed net program savings, using simple, aggregate annual measures of energy use and a control group adjustment, of about 8.7 GWh/yr (14% of pre-retrofit energy use) for an investment of $4.4 million, which leads to an investment cost ratio (investment divided by first year savings) of about $0.50/kWh. Inherent difficulties with simple, aggregate calculations, with the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM), and with econometric approaches for these types of evaluations are discussed and an extension to PRISM proposed as an alternative. Energy savings for this program are estimated using both simple, aggregate data and the extended PRISM approach (two-stage regression modeling). The aggregate data provide important insight about program performance, while the two-stage regression modeling helps reduce variability in results. Overall, the impact evaluation results indicate that the net program investment cost ratio, the ratio of total costs to net electricity savings, is close to $0.60/kWh when weather and cost factors are included. Economic factors were included in savings estimate calculations, but the results indicated either data endogeneity or high variance problems, so economic effects cannot be inferred as being estimable for the data set on this small C/I program with the methods used here. Program performance is at the margin of acceptable performance, and because of this marginality, improvements in program execution are desirable. Program performance at the margin could be improved significantly by controlling for potentially poor retrofit choices.

  1. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  2. Energy Saving in Electric Lighting for the United States Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-05

    none of them is without tradeoffs of some sot,-_or other. This report is designed to augment OCE Technical Note 77-2. It is hoped that it will help the...1977 C) This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the National Ughting Bureau. The Department of Energy provided a technical review of...Final Report DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED; APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 80-- 425 008h lINCI-ASS IF [Fnl SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T141S PAGE (Manie bete

  3. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  4. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Mike

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes – such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study’s results will be used to identify cost-effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  5. Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.

    2013-08-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

  6. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  7. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, T. L.; Hefty, M. G.; Cole, P. C.; Adams, K.; Butner, R. S.; Ortiz, S. J.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  8. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  9. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  10. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    Recent market and environmental forces require the rapid development of better and cheaper separation process solutions. Especially for multicomponent mixtures, there are several feasible separation process solutions differing significantly in cost and energy consumption in spite of carrying out the same overall process. Therefore a systematic method to identify and design optimal multicomponent separation sequences is needed instead of relying on the inventive activity of a few experienced engineers. Even for a commonly perceived "mature" technology such as distillation, until recently there has been an absence of systematic methods to (i) elucidate all possible separation configurations and to (ii) identify energy efficient candidates. This research aims to address these needs. In this work, we focus on the continuous distillation of non-azeotropic mixtures into n distinct composition final product streams. We develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use mathematical framework to generate all the basic distillation configurations that use exactly (n-1) distillation columns to carry out this n-component separation. We extend the framework to generate all the additional distillation configurations with thermal coupling. We observe that the search space of distillation configurations grows very rapidly as the number of product streams increases. For instance, for a mixture to be separated into 4 product streams, we can choose from 18 basic configurations and 134 additional configurations with thermal coupling; while for a mixture to be separated into 8 product streams, we can choose from 15,767,207 basic configurations and 29,006,926,681 additional configurations with thermal coupling. The next challenge for a process engineer is to be able to quickly prune the search space to a handful of attractive energy efficient candidates that can be studied in greater detail. To this effect, we develop a quick screening optimization tool that identifies configurations

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  12. Insulation of batch tanks aids process, saves energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, F.W.; Norman, H.M.

    1983-05-01

    A description of the application of polyurethane foam insulation on a tank type reactor was presented. The particular usage described was for several 18,000 gal. tanks used for soap production. The ingredients entered the tank at 140 degrees F. Steam at 270 degrees F was boiled up through the soap, followed by interval periods of boiling and settling. The entire process takes about a week. Due to common production interruptions, often the finished soap sat in the tank even longer. As the soap cooled (lowest pumping temperature was 140 degrees F), solid build-up on the tank wall reached 12 inches. A polyurethane foam was sprayed on the tank to form a 2 inch rigid coating. The application required no production down-time and took only a few days. The result was easier processing and a conservation of energy.

  13. An Energy Savings Model for the Heat Treatment of Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Rong; R. Sisson; J. Morral; H. Brody

    2006-12-31

    An integrated system of software, databases, and design rules have been developed, verified, and to be marketed to enable quantitative prediction and optimization of the heat treatment of aluminum castings to increase quality, increase productivity, reduce heat treatment cycle times and reduce energy consumption. The software predicts the thermal cycle in critical locations of individual components in a furnace, the evolution of microstructure, and the attainment of properties in heat treatable aluminum alloy castings. The model takes into account the prior casting process and the specific composition of the component. The heat treatment simulation modules can be used in conjunction with software packages for simulation of the casting process. The system is built upon a quantitative understanding of the kinetics of microstructure evolution in complex multicomponent alloys, on a quantitative understanding of the interdependence of microstructure and properties, on validated kinetic and thermodynamic databases, and validated quantitative models.

  14. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  17. Wastewater treatment process impact on energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Mamais, D; Noutsopoulos, C; Dimopoulou, A; Stasinakis, A; Lekkas, T D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the energy consumption of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), to apply a mathematical model to evaluate their carbon footprint, and to propose energy saving strategies that can be implemented to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece. The survey was focused on 10 WWTPs in Greece with a treatment capacity ranging from 10,000 to 4,000,000 population equivalents (PE). Based on the results, annual specific energy consumption ranged from 15 to 86 kWh/PE. The highest energy consumer in all the WWTPs was aeration, accounting for 40-75% of total energy requirements. The annual GHG emissions varied significantly according to the treatment schemes employed and ranged between 61 and 161 kgCO₂e/PE. The highest values of CO₂emissions were obtained in extended aeration systems and the lowest in conventional activated sludge systems. Key strategies that the wastewater industry could adopt to mitigate GHG emissions are identified and discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate potential strategies for energy savings and GHG emission reduction. Given the results, it is postulated that the reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) set points and sludge retention time can provide significant energy savings and decrease GHG emissions.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Development of CCT Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbley, L Scott

    2011-08-20

    goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3McuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). In this way TTT and CCT diagrams could be developed for the matrix of samples chosen. As this study consisted of basic research into the development of TTT and CCT diagrams as an aid to the US steel casting industry, there is no formal commercialization plan associated with this task other than presentations and publications via the Steel Founders Society of America to their members. The author is confident that the data contained in this report can be used by steel foundries to refine their casting procedures in such a way as to reduce the amount of waste produced and energy wasted by significantly reducing or eliminating the need for remelting or recasting of material due to unwanted, premature intermetallic formation. This development of high alloy steel CCT diagrams was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 0.05 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period (with full funding). With 65% of the proposed funding, current (2011) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2011and market penetration of 97% by 2020, is 0.14 trillion BTU's/year. The reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will also result in a reduction of environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the steel. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.003 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE)

  19. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  20. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North

  1. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  2. U.S. Marine Corps Stand at Forefront of Energy and Water Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Located in the heart of South Carolina, the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Beaufort is among the military’s most important installations. Located on 6,900 acres 70 miles southwest of Charleston, the installation has established an energy- and water-saving culture that explores and implements new strategies and management approaches aimed at surpassing presidential mandates.

  3. Aerosol corrosion prevention and energy-saving strategies in the design of green data centers.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Luca; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Ferrini, Barbara S; Perrone, Maria G; Moscatelli, Marco; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Ariatta, Alberto; Truccolo, Redy; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2013-04-16

    The energy demands of data centers (DCs) worldwide are rapidly increasing, as are their environmental and economic costs. This paper presents a study conducted at Sannazzaro de' Burgondi (Po Valley), Italy, specifically aimed at optimizing the operating conditions of a DC designed for the Italian Oil and Gas Company (Eni) (5200 m(2) of Information Technology installed, 30 MW) and based on a direct free cooling (DFC) system. The aim of the study was to save the largest possible quantity of energy, while at the same time preventing aerosol corrosion. The aerosol properties (number size distribution, chemical composition, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), acidity) and meteorological parameters were monitored and utilized to determine the potential levels of aerosol entering the DC (equivalent ISO class), together with its DRH. These data enabled us both to select the DC's filtering system (MERV13 filters) and to optimize the cooling cycle through calculation of the most reliable humidity cycle (60% of maximum allowed RH) applicable to the DFC. A potential energy saving of 81%, compared to a traditional air conditioning cooling system, was estimated: in one year, for 1 kW of installed information technology, the estimated energy saving is 7.4 MWh, resulting in 2.7 fewer tons of CO2 being emitted, and a financial saving of € 1100.

  4. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Robinson, A.

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  5. Innovation & Risk Management Result in Energy and Life-Cycle Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstrand, David E.; Singh, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines a Pennsylvania school's successful planning, design, and bidding process for acquiring a geothermal heat pump (GHP)system whose subsequent efficiency became award-winning for environmental excellence. Charts and statistical tables describe the GHP's energy savings. Concluding comments review the lessons learned from the process. (GR)

  6. The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

    1992-09-01

    This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

  7. Measured Field Performance and Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.; Sherwin, John R.

    A study determined the performance levels, energy savings, and occupant acceptance of occupancy sensors that were installed in a Florida small office building and two elementary schools. Performance data was collected in 15-minute intervals. Aggregate time-of-day lighting load profiles were compared before and after the installation and throughout…

  8. Computer simulation and optimal designing of energy-saving technologies of the induction heating of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidovich, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced energy-saving technologies of induction heating of metals are discussed. The importance of the joint simulation of electromagnetic and temperature fields on induction heating is demonstrated. The package of specialized programs for simulating not only induction heating devices, but also technologies that employ industrial heating has been developed. An intimate connection between optimal design and control of induction heaters is shown.

  9. Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  10. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  11. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  12. National Lighting Bureau Reports Dramatic Energy Savings Possible through Minor Lighting Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Dramatic savings are possible by implementing minor modifications including: energy efficient light bulbs and tubes, ballasts, luminaires (fixtures), controls, operating practices, and revised maintenance. Many different changes can be made without affecting productivity, safety and security, visual comfort, aesthetic appeal, consumer discretion,…

  13. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  14. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  15. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  16. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-03-15

    We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2

  17. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Energy Extra: Energy Savings vs. Comfort - and the Effect of Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Proper humidity will, in a large number of cases, save money for the user. This saving could show up directly because of reduced infiltration and lower thermostat settings. It could show up indirectly in reduced costs for maintenance and preservation and in increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. (Author)

  20. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  1. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  2. Market analysis, energy savings potential, and future development requirements for Radiance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), Building Equipment Division has funded the development of a sophisticated computer rendering program called Radiance at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The project review study included: (1) Surveys of the lighting profession to determine how designers would use an improved, user-friendly Radiance, (2) Elucidation of features, including how Radiance could be used to save energy, which could be incorporated into Radiance to facilitate its more widespread use, (3) Outline of a development plan and determination of what costs the DOE might incur if it were to proceed with the development of an improved version, and (4) Weighing the anticipated development costs against anticipated energy-saving benefits.

  3. Evaluation of the "Lose Your Excuse" public service advertising campaign for tweens to save energy.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Jane T; Goldman, Patty; Zhivan, Natalia; Agyeman, Yaw; Barber, Erin

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the 2008-2009 "Lose your Excuse" public service advertising (PSA) campaign on energy efficiency targeting 8- to 12-year-olds, intended to increase knowledge, foster proactive attitudes, and change energy usage behaviors. Baseline and two follow-up surveys were conducted with online samples representative of the national population of households with kids with online access. Almost half (47%) of the tweens recognized at least one ad from the campaign. Ad recognition was positively associated with knowledge, proactive attitudes, and energy-saving behavior. Propensity score analysis confirmed a small but measurable and statistically significant effect on energy-saving behavior. The discussion section compares these results to public health campaigns in terms of ghost awareness, reach, and effect size.

  4. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  5. Evaluation of aeration energy saving in two modified activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ingyu; Lim, Honglae; Jung, Byunghun; Colosimo, Mark F; Kim, Hyunook

    2015-12-01

    A variety of modified activated sludge processes are widely used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing organics and nutrients (N and P). Since energy consumption in aeration basin accounts for the major part of the overall energy usage in WWTPs, efforts have been made to find ways to reduce aeration energy. In this study, two modified activated sludge processes in a pilot scale designed for nutrient removal were evaluated for the extent of energy saving: (1) ABA(2) process - adjusting air on/off period (i.e., with a temporal change); and (2) MB-A(2)O process - changing volume ratio of aerobic tank to anoxic tank (i.e., with a spatial change). For the 1st process, the air on/off period was fixed at 60min/45min with aerobic fraction being 0.57, while for the 2nd process, the aerobic/anoxic volume ratio was reduced from 0.58 to 0.42. The results demonstrate that the effluent COD, TN, NH4(+) and TP concentrations are acceptable while reduced aeration time/volume certainly saves significant energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is 1st attempt to reduce the aeration period or aeration volume to save the aeration energy in these two modified activated sludge processes. The implication of these observations is further discussed.

  6. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  7. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  8. Analysis of energy-saving dispatch based on energy efficiency for power system with large scale wind power integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Lanqing; Zhou, Peng; Li, Shitong; Lin, Li

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of wind generators and the scale of wind farm, the utilization rate of wind power decreases continually, it is essential to develop an energy-saving dispatching model for the purpose of energy conservation and emission reduction. Firstly, considering some main factors, such as generator operating costs, start-up unit costs, shutdown unit costs, oil consumption and pollutant emission, establish an energy efficiency model. Then, based on the principle of energy-saving dispatch, a model is established which objective is maximizing the energy efficiency. Moreover, in order to realize the priority dispatching of wind power, another model is established which objective is minimizing the wind power shedding. Finally, under the conditions of different installed wind power capacities being integrated into a real region grid, two models are compared and analyzed from perspectives of the society, thermal power enterprise and wind power enterprise.

  9. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the tool to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.

  10. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2007-05-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act and noted in Internal Revenue Service Notice 2006-52. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; and service hot water systems.

  11. Energy Savings Modeling and Inspection Guidelines for Commercial Building Federal Tax Deductions

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2007-02-01

    This document provides guidance for modeling and inspecting energy-efficient property in commercial buildings for certification of the energy and power cost savings related to Section 179D of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in Section 1331 of the 2005 Energy Policy Act and noted in Internal Revenue Service Notice 2006-52. Specifically, Section 179D provides federal tax deductions for energy-efficient property related to a commercial building's envelope; interior lighting; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; and service hot water systems.

  12. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  13. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  14. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  15. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water SavingsTool for the Wine Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-10-15

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or the opportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack of knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an important barrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking has demonstrated to help energy users understand energy use and the potential for energy efficiency improvement, reducing the information barrier. In California, the wine making industry is not only one of the economic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, with a considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed an integrated benchmarking and self-assessment tool for the California wine industry called ''BEST''(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery. BEST Winery enables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practice winery, accounting for differences in product mix and other characteristics of the winery. The tool enables the user to evaluate the impact of implementing energy and water efficiency measures. The tool facilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on the estimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. BEST Winery is available as a software tool in an Excel environment. This report serves as background material, documenting assumptions and information on the included energy and water efficiency measures. It also serves as a user guide for the software package.

  16. Quantifying Energy and Water Savings in the U.S. Residential Sector.

    PubMed

    Chini, Christopher M; Schreiber, Kelsey L; Barker, Zachary A; Stillwell, Ashlynn S

    2016-09-06

    Stress on water and energy utilities, including natural resource depletion, infrastructure deterioration, and growing populations, threatens the ability to provide reliable and sustainable service. This study presents a demand-side management decision-making tool to evaluate energy and water efficiency opportunities at the residential level, including both direct and indirect consumption. The energy-water nexus accounts for indirect resource consumption, including water-for-energy and energy-for-water. We examine the relationship between water and energy in common household appliances and fixtures, comparing baseline appliances to ENERGY STAR or WaterSense appliances, using a cost abatement analysis for the average U.S. household, yielding a potential annual per household savings of 7600 kWh and 39 600 gallons, with most upgrades having negative abatement cost. We refine the national average cost abatement curves to understand regional relationships, specifically for the urban environments of Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. Cost abatement curves display per unit cost savings related to overall direct and indirect energy and water efficiency, allowing utilities, policy makers, and homeowners to consider the relationship between energy and water when making decisions. Our research fills an important gap of the energy-water nexus in a residential unit and provides a decision making tool for policy initiatives.

  17. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  18. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  19. Annual Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort of Autonomously Heated and Cooled Office Chairs

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Scott; Booten, Chuck; Robertson, Joseph; Chin, Justin; Christensen, Dane; Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Doug

    2016-07-01

    Energy use in offices buildings is largely driven by air conditioning demands. But the optimal temperature is not the same for all building occupants, leading to the infamous thermostat war. And many occupants have independently overcome building comfort weaknesses with their own space heaters or fans. NREL tested is a customized office chair that automatically heats and cools the occupant along the seat and chair back according to the occupants' personal preferences. This product is shown to deliver markedly better comfort at room temperatures well above typical office cooling setpoints. Experimental subjects reported satisfaction in these elevated air temperatures, partly because the chair's cooling effect was tuned to their own individual needs. Simulation of the chair in office buildings around the U.S. shows that energy can be saved everywhere, with impacts varying due to the climate. Total building HVAC energy savings exceeded 10% in hot-dry climate zones. Due to high product cost, simple payback for the chair we studied is beyond the expected chair life. We then understood the need to establish cost-performance targets for comfort delivery packages. NREL derived several hypothetical energy/cost/comfort targets for personal comfort product systems. In some climate regions around the U.S., these show the potential for office building HVAC energy savings in excess of 20%. This report documents this research, providing an overview of the research team's methods and results while also identifying areas for future research building upon the findings.

  20. Diffusion Dynamics of Energy Saving Practices in Large Heterogeneous Online Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Neda; Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks are today’s fastest growing communications channel and a popular source of information for many, so understanding their contribution to building awareness and shaping public perceptions of climate change is of utmost importance. Today’s online social networks are composed of complex combinations of entities and communication channels and it is not clear which communicators are the most influential, what the patterns of communication flow are, or even whether the widely accepted two-step flow of communication model applies in this new arena. This study examines the diffusion of energy saving practices in a large online social network across organizations, opinion leaders, and the public by tracking 108,771 communications on energy saving practices among 1,084 communicators, then analyzing the flow of information and influence over a 28 day period. Our findings suggest that diffusion networks of messages advocating energy saving practices are predominantly led by the activities of dedicated organizations but their attempts do not result in substantial public awareness, as most of these communications are effectively trapped in organizational loops in which messages are simply shared between organizations. Despite their comparably significant influential values, opinion leaders played a weak role in diffusing energy saving practices to a wider audience. Thus, the two-step flow of communication model does not appear to describe the sharing of energy conservation practices in large online heterogeneous networks. These results shed new light on the underlying mechanisms driving the diffusion of important societal issues such as energy efficiency, particularly in the context of large online social media outlets. PMID:27736912

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Design Support for Tooling Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongtao

    2011-09-23

    High pressure die casting is an intrinsically efficient net shape process and improvements in energy efficiency are strongly dependent on design and process improvements that reduce scrap rates so that more of the total consumed energy goes into acceptable, usable castings. Computer simulation has become widely used within the industry but use is not universal. Further, many key design decisions must be made before the simulation can be run and expense in terms of money and time often limits the number of decision iterations that can be explored. This work continues several years of work creating simple, very fast, design tools that can assist with the early stage design decisions so that the benefits of simulation can be maximized and, more importantly, so that the chances of first shot success are maximized. First shot success and better running processes contributes to less scrap and significantly better energy utilization by the process. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.83 trillion BTUs/year over a 10 year period. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates over a ten year period, based on commercial introduction in 2012, a market penetration of 30% by 2015 is 1.89 trillion BTUs/year by 2022. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2022 is 0.037 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  2. Impact evaluation of an energy savings plan project at Lamb-Weston, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1990-06-01

    This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Lamb-Weston, Inc. (Lamb-Weston) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program awards cash incentives to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Lamb-Weston as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, submittal reviews (Lamb-Weston's Completion Report, Proposal, and Abstract), and process evaluation reviews. The ECM itself consists of a heat recovery heat exchanger added to the hot drain of a potato blancher to reclaim heat that would otherwise be discarded at Lamb-Weston's Plant 1 in Quincy, Washington. At this facility, Lamb-Weston makes frozen French fried potatoes for institutional and consumer markets. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 4,037,101 kWh per year. The ECM cost $67, 020 to install and Lamb-Weston received an incentive from Bonneville of $40, 212. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 0.83 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 1.50 mills/kWh.

  3. Diffusion Dynamics of Energy Saving Practices in Large Heterogeneous Online Networks.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Neda; Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks are today's fastest growing communications channel and a popular source of information for many, so understanding their contribution to building awareness and shaping public perceptions of climate change is of utmost importance. Today's online social networks are composed of complex combinations of entities and communication channels and it is not clear which communicators are the most influential, what the patterns of communication flow are, or even whether the widely accepted two-step flow of communication model applies in this new arena. This study examines the diffusion of energy saving practices in a large online social network across organizations, opinion leaders, and the public by tracking 108,771 communications on energy saving practices among 1,084 communicators, then analyzing the flow of information and influence over a 28 day period. Our findings suggest that diffusion networks of messages advocating energy saving practices are predominantly led by the activities of dedicated organizations but their attempts do not result in substantial public awareness, as most of these communications are effectively trapped in organizational loops in which messages are simply shared between organizations. Despite their comparably significant influential values, opinion leaders played a weak role in diffusing energy saving practices to a wider audience. Thus, the two-step flow of communication model does not appear to describe the sharing of energy conservation practices in large online heterogeneous networks. These results shed new light on the underlying mechanisms driving the diffusion of important societal issues such as energy efficiency, particularly in the context of large online social media outlets.

  4. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  5. Study on impact of energy price comparison on energy saving benefits of heat pump in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Tian, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Bai, H. F.

    2016-08-01

    As to the heat pump technology applying in the HVAC engineering, the relationship between energy saving rate (ESR) and electricity cost saving rate (ECSR) of heat pump should be a positive correlation in theory. But in the actual energy price system, due to the fluctuating energy price comparison, the relationship between them is of less coordination. Moreover, despite the high ESR, the economic benefit of ECSR is lost. In this paper, via the case analysis under the condition of average technical and economic parameters in North China, the critical point rate of economic benefit of ECSR in energy price comparison among prices of residential electricity, steam-coal, and residential natural gas is found, which is about 2:3:8. Also, a viewpoint as well as method is suggested to promote the wide usage of heat pump, balance energy supply structure, save energy consumption, and reduce emissions by optimizing the energy price comparison, which is feasible and desirable to raise the price comparison between residential electricity and natural gas, and reduce the price comparison between residential electricity and steam-coal in a certain extent.

  6. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  7. Design and Development of an Intelligent Energy Controller for Home Energy Saving in Heating/Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaalkhail, Rana

    Energy is consumed every day at home as we perform simple tasks, such as watching television, washing dishes and heating/cooling home spaces during season of extreme weather conditions, using appliances, or turning on lights. Most often, the energy resources used in residential systems are obtained from natural gas, coal and oil. Moreover, climate change has increased awareness of a need for expendable, energy resources. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions are increasing and creating a negative effect on our environment and on our health. In fact, growing energy demands and limited natural resource might have negative impacts on our future. Therefore, saving energy is becoming an important issue in our society and it is receiving more attention from the research community. This thesis introduces a intelligent energy controller algorithm based on software agent approach that reduce the energy consumption at home for both heating and cooling spaces by considering the user's occupancy, outdoor temperature and user's preferences as input to the system. Thus the proposed approach takes into consideration the occupant's preferred temperature, the occupied and unoccupied spaces, as well as the time spent in each area of the home. A Java based simulator has been implemented to simulate the algorithm for saving energy in heating and cooling systems. The results from the simulator are compared to the results of using HOT2000, which is Canada's leading residential energy analysis and rating software developed by CanmetENERGY's Housing, Buildings, Communities and Simulation (HBCS) group. We have calculated how much energy a home modelled will use under emulated conditions. The results showed that the implementation of the proposed energy controller algorithm can save up to 50% in energy consumption in homes dedicated to heating and cooling systems compared to the results obtained by using HOT2000.

  8. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  9. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Christian, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  10. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Administrators and Board Members Are Improving Learning and Saving Money

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-08-06

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school administrators and board members, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

  11. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-08-06

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

  12. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thornton C

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  13. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  14. Potential energy savings in the residential sector of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art computer program, DOE 2.1, was used to simulate the hour-by-hour thermal performance of residential buildings in the four major climate zones of the United States, and a life-cycle cost analysis was applied to determine the optimal energy requirement of a typical house demonstrate that present levels of energy consumption can be reduced by a factor of two without compromising health and comfort standards. Within present technology, additional energy savings can be achieved but not yet in a cost-effective way.

  15. Canandaigua Wines: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Winery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-03-01

    In June 2004, a U.S. Department of Energy Qualified AIRMaster+ Specialist at Atlas Copco Compressors was asked to review the compressed air system at the Canandaigua Wine Company in Lodi, California, as part of a program to improve industrial energy efficiency. The review prompted a system-level improvement project that enabled the winery to use its compressors more efficiently and to add another, more efficient compressor, saving 218,000 kWh annually and $27,000 in energy and maintenance costs.

  16. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  17. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  18. A Motion Control Method of Multi-joint Robots Utilizing Stiffness Adaptation for Energy Saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Mitsunori; Kawamura, Sadao

    This paper investigates a new motion control method of multi-joint robots utilizing stiffness adjustment of mechanical elastic elements for the purpose of energy saving. This control method is designed to realize a condition similar to resonance of linear systems by the stiffness adjustment, even though the controlled systems have nonlinear dynamics and multi degree-of-freedom. The control method has two control objectives. One is to realize trajectory tracking control. The other is to reduce actuator torque as much as possible by the stiffness adjustment. This controller does not require exact parameter values of the controlled systems. Some fundamental parts of stability analysis and an energy saving effect are discussed mathematically. Some simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  20. Energy-saving EPON Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm Supporting ONU's Sleep Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinfa; Ren, Shuai; Liao, Xiaomin; Fang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    A new bandwidth allocation algorithm was presented by combining merits of the IPACT algorithm and the cyclic DBA algorithm based on the DBA algorithm for ONU's sleep mode. Simulation results indicate that compared with the normal mode ONU, the ONU's sleep mode can save about 74% of energy. The new algorithm has a smaller average packet delay and queue length in the upstream direction. While in the downstream direction, the average packet delay of the new algorithm is less than polling cycle Tcycle and the average queue length is less than the product of Tcycle and the maximum link rate. The new algorithm achieves a better compromise between energy-saving and ensuring quality of service.

  1. Approaches to 30 Percent Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the Building America program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  2. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  3. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  4. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    greenhouse gas HVAC heating, ventilation, air-conditioning IGU insulated glass unit ISO International Organization for Standardization JCI Johnson...from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 24%, representing an annual savings of ~$680M. At the same time, replacing existing...If broadly adopted, View’s dynamic windows technology could reduce global DoD energy consumption from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG

  5. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    SciTech Connect

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  6. Office technology energy use and savings potential in New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A., Cramer, M., Eto, J., Koomey, J.

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses energy use by office equipment in New York State and the energy savings potential of energy-efficient equipment. A model containing equipment densities and energy-use characteristics for major categories of office equipment has been developed. The model specifies power requirements and hours of use for three modes of average operation for each device: active, standby, and suspend. The energy-use intensity for each device is expressed as a function of the average device density (number of units/1,000 sq ft), the hours of operation in each mode, and the average power requirements in each mode. Output includes an estimate of total energy use (GWh) for each device by building type. Three scenarios are developed. First is a business-as-usual efficiency baseline. Second is a future with increased use of power-managed devices projected under the current Energy Star Computers program sponsored by the US EPA. Third is a scenario that examines energy savings from greater use of products that go well beyond the standard Energy Star products. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore uncertainties in model inputs. The business-as-usual baseline forecast confirms that office equipment energy use has been rising over the past decade, and may continue to increase for the next decade and beyond. Office equipment currently consumes about 2,900 GWh/year in the State of New York. Under the business-as-usual baseline forecast, this load may increase to 3,300 GWh/year by the year 2000, and approximately double again before 2010. Widespread use of power management technologies adopted with the promotion of the Energy Star program could reduce this load growth by about 30% by the year 2000. Use of more advanced energy-efficient technology could reduce total energy use by office equipment to about 1,900 GWh/year in 2010, which is less than current consumption.

  7. Measuring energy-saving retrofits: Experiences from the Texas LoanSTAR program

    SciTech Connect

    Haberl, J.S.; Reddy, T.A.; Claridge, D.E.; Turner, W.D.; O`Neal, D.L.; Heffington, W.M.

    1996-02-01

    In 1988 the Governor`s Energy Management Center of Texas received approval from the US Department of Energy to establish a $98.6 million state-wide retrofit demonstration revolving loan program to fund energy-conserving retrofits in state, public school, and local government buildings. As part of this program, a first-of-its-kind, statewide Monitoring and Analysis Program (MAP) was established to verify energy and dollar savings of the retrofits, reduce energy costs by identifying operational and maintenance improvements, improve retrofit selection in future rounds of the LoanSTAR program, and initiate a data base of energy use in institutional and commercial buildings located in Texas. This report discusses the LoanSTAR MAP with an emphasis on the process of acquiring and analyzing data to measure savings from energy conservation retrofits when budgets are a constraint. This report includes a discussion of the program structure, basic measurement techniques, data archiving and handling, data reporting and analysis, and includes selected examples from LoanSTAR agencies. A summary of the program results for the first two years of monitoring is also included.

  8. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  9. Strategies to Save 50% Site Energy in Grocery and General Merchandise Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A.; Hale, E.; Leach, M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology and main results of two recently published Technical Support Documents. These reports explore the feasibility of designing general merchandise and grocery stores that use half the energy of a minimally code-compliant building, as measured on a whole-building basis. We used an optimization algorithm to trace out a minimum cost curve and identify designs that satisfy the 50% energy savings goal. We started from baseline building energy use and progressed to more energy-efficient designs by sequentially adding energy design measures (EDMs). Certain EDMs figured prominently in reaching the 50% energy savings goal for both building types: (1) reduced lighting power density; (2) optimized area fraction and construction of view glass or skylights, or both, as part of a daylighting system tuned to 46.5 fc (500 lux); (3) reduced infiltration with a main entrance vestibule or an envelope air barrier, or both; and (4) energy recovery ventilators, especially in humid and cold climates. In grocery stores, the most effective EDM, which was chosen for all climates, was replacing baseline medium-temperature refrigerated cases with high-efficiency models that have doors.

  10. An energy-saving nonlinear position control strategy for electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    PubMed

    Baghestan, Keivan; Rezaei, Seyed Mehdi; Talebi, Heidar Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates numerous advantages in size and performance compared to other actuation methods. Oftentimes, its utilization in industrial and machinery settings is limited by its inferior efficiency. In this paper, a nonlinear backstepping control algorithm with an energy-saving approach is proposed for position control in the EHSS. To achieve improved efficiency, two control valves including a proportional directional valve (PDV) and a proportional relief valve (PRV) are used to achieve the control objectives. To design the control algorithm, the state space model equations of the system are transformed to their normal form and the control law through the PDV is designed using a backstepping approach for position tracking. Then, another nonlinear set of laws is derived to achieve energy-saving through the PRV input. This control design method, based on the normal form representation, imposes internal dynamics on the closed-loop system. The stability of the internal dynamics is analyzed in special cases of operation. Experimental results verify that both tracking and energy-saving objectives are satisfied for the closed-loop system.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  12. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  13. A case study of energy savings and environmental impact reduction for a textile facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, D.K.; Risi, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    The Industrial Energy Center (IEC) is a university-based energy management group dedicated to improving energy efficiency in industrial facilities throughout Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. The goal of the IEC is to assist area industries by increasing their cost effectiveness and product quality in terms of energy use in manufacturing. The IEC aspires to become the responsive resource for industries who are seeking a manufacturing advantage, or experiencing problems, related to the usage and management of energy. Fulfilling these goals is accomplished through a combination of energy training and education, on-site surveys of various energy-intensive processes, technical assistance, and applied research. The underlying purpose of all the energy-awareness efforts is to motivate the implementation of a formal, permanent, energy management program as an integral part of the client`s operation. The initial survey report is only a partial list of energy-related cost savings opportunities. The IEC will continue to make its services available if more in-depth training or advising is desired to implement an energy management program or the energy conservation measures (ECM) identified in the report, or if, after the facility has acted on the initial recommendations, additional assistance is desired to identify further ECMs. The IEC was invited to performed an energy survey at a textile finishing facility in southwestern Virginia. The remainder of this paper is dedicated to an overview of this energy survey and a discussion of the conservation measures identified.

  14. Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2000-03-01

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'', to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective to investigate the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City. This paper summarizes our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance and annual C02 reduction of HIR strategies in the three initial cities. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer most savings potential: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by old or new construction and with a gas furnace or an electric heat pump. We defined prototypical building characteristics for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.IE model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on building [direct effect], (3) combined strategies I and 2 [direct effect], (4) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (5) combined strategies 1, 2 and 4 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each city using readily obtainable data to calculate the metropolitan-wide impact of HIR strategies. The results show, that in Baton Rouge, potential annual energy savings of $15M could be realized by rate-payers from

  15. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  16. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  17. Cooking behaviours: a user observation study to understand energy use and motivate savings.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luis; Mitchell, Val; Badni, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Electric cookers are one of the highest energy consuming domestic appliances, and there are several aspects that can influence the amount of energy used when preparing a meal. Appliance characteristics are shown to influence consumption, but human factors play an important role in the overall electricity usage. A user observation study was conducted among university students to understand how they use electric cookers. They were asked to perform a specific cooking task, and the electricity usage was measured. Participants' behaviours were analysed and compared with a set of energy saving techniques. Appliance characteristics that influenced how students use energy were also investigated. The results show that users performed the task in several different ways, presenting diverse energy consumption, the average being 3 times above the necessary to complete the task. This information is now informing the design of interventions to motivate people to change their behaviours whilst cooking.

  18. Economic benefits of an economizer system: Energy savings and reduced sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, D.C. with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The annual financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modeling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  19. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  20. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  1. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  2. Energy Savings and Sustainability Opportunities at US Army Corps of Engineers Facilities: A Guide to Identify, Prioritize, and Estimate Projects at Complexes That Have Not Conducted a Facility-Level Energy and Water Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-16

    Energy Cost Savings ($) = Years Example: $150,000 ÷ $50,000 = 3.0 years until costs are recouped (Efficiency Partnership 2012) 3.2.2 Appliance ... Energy saving calculators from ENERGY STAR . Web page, http://www.sba.gov/content/ energy -saving-calculators- energy - star Fisher-Nickel, Inc. 2012a. Life...Small Business Administration (SBA). 2012. Energy saving calculators from ENERGY STAR . Web page, http://www.sba.gov/content/ energy

  3. TASK 2.5.4 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENERGY SAVINGS CALCULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; New, Joshua Ryan; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender; Ronnen, Levinson

    2010-03-01

    California s major energy utilities and the California Energy Commission (CEC) are seeking to allocate capital that yields the greatest return on investment for energy infrastructure that meets any part of the need for reliable supplies of energy. The utilities are keenly interested in knowing the amount of electrical energy savings that would occur if cool roof color materials are adopted in the building market. To meet this need the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have been collaborating on a Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) project to develop an industry-consensus energy-savings calculator. The task was coordinated with an ongoing effort supported by the DOE to develop one calculator to achieve both the DOE and the EPA objectives for deployment of cool roof products. Recent emphasis on domestic building energy use has made the work a top priority by the Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) tool is designed to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and practitioners easily run complex simulations. The latest web technologies and usability design were employed to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on the best available statistical evidence and can provide energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than the building location. A key goal for the tool is to promote the energy benefits of cool color tile, metal and asphalt shingle roof products and other energy saving systems. The RSC tool focuses on applications for the roof and attic; however, the code conducts a whole building simulation that puts the energy and heat flows of the roof and attic into the perspective of the whole house. An annual simulation runs in about 30 sec. In addition to cool

  4. Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in FederalFacilities

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Chillers are a significant component of large facility energy use. The focus of much of the development of chilled water systems in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design to increase efficiency and accommodate chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant replacements. Other improvements have been made by upgrading controls to the latest digital technologies, improving access and monitoring via communications and sophisticated liquid crystal displays (LCD), more robust fault diagnostics and operating and maintenance information logging. Advances have also been made in how chiller plant systems are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovative approaches. As in many industries, these improvements have been facilitated by advances in, and lower costs for, enabling technologies, such as refrigerants, compressor design, electronics for controls and variable frequency drives (VFD). Along with the improvements in electronics one would expect that advances have also been made in the functionality of unit controls included with chillers. Originally, the primary purpose of this project was to investigate the state of practice of chiller unit controllers in terms of their energy saving capabilities. However, early in the study it was discovered that advances in this area did not include incorporation of significantly different capabilities than had existed 10-15 years ago. Thus the scope has been modified to provide an overview of some of the basic controls-related energy saving strategies that are currently available along with guideline estimates of their potential and applicability. We have minimized consideration of strategies that could be primarily implemented via design practices such as chiller selection and plant design, and those that can only be implemented by a building management system (BMS). Also, since most of the floor space of federal buildings

  5. Hands-on solutions to improve your profits and productivity: Energy-saving tips for small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This booklet leads small business owners to examine the energy consumption of their business and implement significant energy saving modifications and practices. The topics of the booklet include evaluating energy use and suggestions for energy conservation in lighting systems, building envelope and materials, space conditioning, equipment and machines, motors, and vehicles.

  6. Excavator energy-saving efficiency based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Quan, Long; Yang, Yang

    2012-09-01

    The hydraulic excavator energy-saving research mainly embodies the following three measures: to improve the performance of diesel engine and hydraulic component, to improve the hydraulic system, and to improve the power matching of diesel-hydraulic system-actuator. Although the above measures have certain energy-saving effect, but because the hydraulic excavator load changes frequently and fluctuates dramatically, so the diesel engine often works in high-speed and light load condition, and the fuel consumption is higher. Therefore, in order to improve the economy of diesel engine in light load, and reduce the fuel consumption of hydraulic excavator, energy management concept is proposed based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology. By comparing the universal characteristic under diesel normal and deactivated cylinder condition, the mechanism that fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by adopting cylinder deactivation technology under part of loads condition can be clarified. The simulation models for hydraulic system and diesel engine are established by using AMESim software, and fuel combustion consumption by using cylinder-deactivation-technology is studied through digital simulation approach. In this way, the zone of cylinder deactivation is specified. The testing system for the excavator with this technology is set up based on simulated results, and the results show that the diesel engine can still work at high efficiency with part of loads after adopting this technology; fuel consumption is dropped down to 11% and 13% under economic and heavy-load mode respectively under the condition of driving requirements. The research provides references to the energy-saving study of the hydraulic excavators.

  7. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  8. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  9. Energy-Saving Tunnel Illumination System Based on LED's Intelligent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanshan; Gu, Hanting; Wu, Lan; Jiang, Shuixiu

    2011-02-01

    At present there is a lot of electric energy wastage in tunnel illumination, whose design is based on the maximum brightness outside and the maximum vehicle speed all year round. LED's energy consumption is low, and the control of its brightness is simple and effective. It can be quickly adjusted between 0-100% of its maximum brightness, and will not affect the service life. Therefore, using LED as tunnel's illumination source, we can achieve a good energy saving effect. According to real-time data acquisition of vehicle speed, traffic flow and brightness outside the tunnel, the auto real-time control of tunnel illumination can be achieved. And the system regulated the LED luminance by means of combination of LED power module and intelligent control module. The tunnel information was detected by inspection equipments, which included luminometer, vehicle detector, and received by RTU(Remote Terminal Unit), then synchronously transmitted to PC. After data processing, RTU emitted the dimming signal to the LED driver to adjust the brightness of LED. Despite the relatively high cost of high-power LED lights, the enormous energy-saving effect and the well-behaved controllability is beyond compare to other lighting devices.

  10. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  11. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant (Steam)

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  12. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  13. Part-load performance characterization and energy savings potential of the RTU challenge unit: Carrier weather expert

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.

    2015-09-29

    This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and there use with the EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from the use of WeatherExpert units compared to other standard options.

  14. Builder System Performance Package Targeting 30% - 40% Savings in Space Conditioning Energy Use: December 2002 - December 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2004-06-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Building (CARB) describes recommended best practices to achieve 30% - 40% energy savings without compromising health or safety in houses built in cold climates, hot-humid climates, and hot-dry climates.

  15. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomastown Mills, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  16. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Doris, E.; Knutson, D.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-07-01

    This document is meant to assist state and local decision makers in understanding how the financing of energy savings performance contract projects can effectively fit into the structure of a revolving loan fund.

  17. Accuracy of automated measurement and verification (M&V) techniques for energy savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael D.; Jump, David; Fernandes, Samuel

    2016-04-16

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming manual data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost, with comparable or improved accuracy. These meter- and software-based approaches, increasingly referred to as “M&V 2.0”, are the subject of surging industry interest, particularly in the context of utility energy efficiency programs. Program administrators, evaluators, and regulators are asking how M&V 2.0 compares with more traditional methods, how proprietary software can be transparently performance tested, how these techniques can be integrated into the next generation of whole-building focused efficiency programs. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel M&V2.0 modeling approaches that are used in commercial technologies, as well as approaches that are documented in the literature, and/or developed by the academic building research community. We present a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of whole-building M&V methods. We then illustrate the test procedure by evaluating the accuracy of ten baseline energy use models, against measured data from a large dataset of 537 buildings. The results of this study show that the already available advanced interval data baseline models hold great promise for scaling the adoption of building measured savings calculations using Advanced Metering

  18. Accuracy of automated measurement and verification (M&V) techniques for energy savings in commercial buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; ...

    2016-04-16

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming manual data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost,more » with comparable or improved accuracy. These meter- and software-based approaches, increasingly referred to as “M&V 2.0”, are the subject of surging industry interest, particularly in the context of utility energy efficiency programs. Program administrators, evaluators, and regulators are asking how M&V 2.0 compares with more traditional methods, how proprietary software can be transparently performance tested, how these techniques can be integrated into the next generation of whole-building focused efficiency programs. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel M&V2.0 modeling approaches that are used in commercial technologies, as well as approaches that are documented in the literature, and/or developed by the academic building research community. We present a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of whole-building M&V methods. We then illustrate the test procedure by evaluating the accuracy of ten baseline energy use models, against measured data from a large dataset of 537 buildings. The results of this study show that the already available advanced interval data baseline models hold great promise for scaling the adoption of building measured savings calculations using Advanced

  19. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  20. Instrumented decomposition: A new method to estimate the net energy savings caused by efficient appliance rebate programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Adrienne Beth

    Most existing statistical methods for estimating net savings from efficient appliance rebate and incentive programs do not fully separate program-induced savings (net savings) from naturally occurring savings. Further, they handle self-selection bias poorly. This paper introduces "Instrumented Decomposition," a two-stage instrumental variables procedure method which estimates net savings consistently because it correctly decomposes energy savings into program-induced, free rider, and other components. The decomposition provides an algebra which reveals the severely limiting assumptions of current methods. Self-selection effects are treated, and choice-based samples are supported. The procedure requires a nonparticipant comparison group containing either buyers or owners of the program-targeted appliance or program-year buyers of a possibly less efficient version. Applied to an evaporative cooler rebate program in a desert climate, the model shows a two-thirds reduction of air conditioning electricity usage, and further shows that the program attracted purchases by higher income households normally uninterested in evaporative cooling. Asymptotic standard error is only about 12% of estimated net savings, and sensitivity to variable choice is low. The model is also applied to an efficient central air conditioning rebate program, where savings of participants replacing their older system outweigh the dis-savings due to 5% of participants being new adopters of central air conditioning who would not have bought central air without the program.

  1. Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

  2. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  3. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  4. Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

  5. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  6. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  7. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  8. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  9. Fungal Quorum Quenching: A Paradigm Shift for Energy Savings in Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kibaek; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Park, Pyung-Kyu; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Yea-Won; Lee, Jung-Kee; Lee, Chung-Hak

    2016-10-18

    In the last 30 years, the use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse have been expanded continuously, but they still suffer from excessive energy consumption resulting from the intrinsic problem of membrane biofouling. One of the major causes of biofouling in MBRs is bacterial quorum sensing (QS) via N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or autoinducer-2 (AI-2), enabling intra- and interspecies communications, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that farnesol can substantially mitigate membrane biofouling in a MBR due to its quorum quenching (QQ) activity. When Candida albicans (a farnesol producing fungus) entrapping polymer beads (AEBs) were placed in the MBR, the rate of transmembrane pressure (TMP) rise-up was substantially decreased, even for lower aeration intensities. This finding corresponds to a specific aeration energy savings of approximately 40% (25% through the physical washing effect and a further 15% through the biological QQ effect of AEBs) compared to conventional MBRs without AEBs. A real-time RT-qPCR analysis revealed that farnesol secreted from C. albicans mitigated the biofilm formation in MBRs via the suppression of AI-2 QS. Successful control of biofouling and energy savings through fungal-to-bacterial QQ could be expanded to the plant scale for MBRs in wastewater treatment with economic feasibility.

  10. Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  11. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  12. Looking past the first year: Do the savings last?. A study of the persistence of energy savings in low-income Wisconsin residences, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Narum, D.; Pigg, S.; Schlegel, J.

    1992-09-01

    Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation (WECC) conducted a Study of the Persistence of Energy Savings in Low-Income Wisconsin Residences for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Existing Buildings Efficiency Program. The study assessed the persistence of energy savings resulting from participation in the Wisconsin Utility Weatherization Assistance Program (UWAP). The study assessed the impact of weatherization and heating system measures up to eight years after the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) in low-income, gas-heated residences, the majority of which are 1- and 2-unit buildings. Primary data for the study came from two utilities, Wisconsin Gas Company and Madison Gas & Electric Company. Both utilities provided WECC with their weatherization program databases, which contained participant information back to 1982. WECC also obtained fuel consumption information for the program participants from each utility. The consumption histories spanned a 6-year period from March 1985 through May 1991 for Wisconsin Gas Company participants, and a 5-year period from October 1986 through August 1991 for Madison Gas & Electric Company participants. After attrition, the study included 5,129 customers from the Wisconsin Gas Company program and 1,553 customers from the Madison Gas & Electric Company program.

  13. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Energy Savings in All-Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy-saving measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, and evaluates those solutions to improve efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing homes. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7.

  14. In the Bank...Or Up the Chimney? A Dollars and Cents Guide to Energy-Saving Home Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Allan D.; And Others

    This book is designed to answer energy conservation questions about the home. It explains what energy conservation procedures are most efficient and under what conditions. Means for estimating the financial cost of these energy-saving home improvements are included. The book is divided into four parts: (1) A quick look at your home; (2) A closer…

  15. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

  16. FEMP fiscal year 1999 ESPC business strategy development summary report[Energy Saving Performance Contract

    SciTech Connect

    KL McMordie-Stoughton; WDM Hunt

    2000-05-04

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to reduce the cost of Government by advancing energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable technologies. This is accomplished by creating partnerships, leveraging resources, transferring technology, and providing training and technical guidance and assistance to agencies. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the goals that have been established in Executive Order 13123 (June 1999), but also those that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the FEMP mission in all activity areas. This responsibility includes working with various Federal energy managers to identify, monitor, and evaluate the performance of new energy efficiency technologies suitable for installation at Federal sites. This report provides the results of a Energy Saving Performance Contracting (ESPC) Business Strategy Development project that PNNL conducted for FEMP. The project provides information regarding the development of Federal market scenarios for FEMP Super-ESPC delivery orders. Two market scenarios were developed. The initial scenario resulted in an estimated delivery order target that was much lower than initially estimated in the spring of 1998. The second scenario yielded a lower estimated number of delivery orders. The main difference between these two scenarios was an estimated increase in utility financed projects in the Federal sector.

  17. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  18. Illumination performance and energy saving of a solar fiber optic lighting system.

    PubMed

    Lingfors, David; Volotinen, Tarja

    2013-07-01

    The illumination performance and energy savings of a solar fiber optic lighting system have been verified in a study hall--corridor interior. The system provides intensive white light with a high luminous flux of 4500 lm under 130000 lx direct sun radiation at a 10 m fiber distance from the sun-tracking light collector. The color temperature that describes the light color perceived is 5800 ± 300 K, i.e. close to the direct sunlight outside, and the color rendering index (86), that describes how well colors are rendered under the light source, is higher for the solar lights than for the supplementary fluorescent lights (77). Thus this high quality solar lighting improves the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to the fluorescent lights. Annual lighting energy savings of 19% in Uppsala, Sweden and 46% in southern Europe were estimated for a study hall interior, as well as 27% and 55% respectively in an interior illuminated 16 h per day all days of a year.

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end

  20. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.