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Sample records for aggressive environments including

  1. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  2. The role of the school environment in relational aggression and victimization.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2013-02-01

    Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as well as aspects of the school environment, including interpersonal school climate and school responsiveness to violence. A sample of 5,625 primarily urban minority middle school youth (49.2 % female) participating in a violence prevention project completed measures of relational aggression and victimization as well as indicators of individual beliefs about aggression, school norms for aggression, student-teacher and student-student interpersonal climate, and school responsiveness to violence. Unlike results previously found for physical aggression, no school-level indicator of climate was related to relational aggression or victimization. However, individual beliefs about aggression and individual perceptions of the school environment were related strongly to both the perpetration of and victimization by relational aggression. These results suggest not only that individual beliefs and perceptions of the school environment are important in understanding perpetration and victimization of relational aggression, but also that risk for involvement in relational aggression is distinct from that of physical aggression. Implications for school interventions are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  3. Effect of exposure delay of concrete into aggressive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abimouloud, Youcef; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2016-07-01

    Some regions in the world suffered since several years from environmental problems such as underground level water rising. Water table effects durability of concrete implantation in the underground by the ease of luckless chemical elements ingress mainly through concrete the foundations of structures such as sulfate, chloride, and acids. For that reason a lot of foundations structures were made with SRPC (sulfate resisting Portland cement). This study is a contribution to assess the effect of exposure delay of concrete into aggressive fields, as a kind of cure which protects concrete from aggressive factors and allows it to acquire the needed strength. The study has shown that concrete exposure delay into aggressive environment is not a kind of cure mainly for concrete made with SRPC. Concrete with SRPC immediately exposed to aggressive environment shows a better mechanical resistance than concrete that has known exposure delay.

  4. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  5. Gene-environment correlation linking aggression and peer victimization: do classroom behavioral norms matter?

    PubMed

    Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Using a genetically informed design based on 197 Monozygotic and Dizygotic twin pairs assessed in grade 4, this study examined 1) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for physical aggression or relational aggression puts children at risk of being victimized by their classmates, and 2) whether this rGE is moderated by classroom injunctive norm salience in regard to physical or relational aggression. Physical aggression and relational aggression, as well as injunctive classroom norm salience in regard to these behaviors, were measured via peer nominations. Peer victimization was measured via self-reports. Multi-Level Mixed modeling revealed that children with a genetic disposition for either aggressive behavior are at higher risk of being victimized by their peers only when classroom norms are unfavourable toward such behaviors. However, when classroom injunctive norms favor aggressive behaviors, a genetic disposition for physical or relational aggression may actually protect children against peer victimization. These results lend further support to the notion that bullying interventions must include the larger peer context instead of a sole focus on victims and bullies.

  6. Creating your own hostile environment: a laboratory examination of trait aggressiveness and the violence escalation cycle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Buckley, Katherine E; Carnagey, Nicholas L

    2008-04-01

    A dyadic interactive aggression paradigm tested hypotheses from the General Aggression Model about how trait aggressiveness can create behaviorally hostile social environments. Pairs of college student participants competed in a modified reaction time task in which they repeatedly delivered and received each other's punishments. The trait aggressiveness of both participants influenced the punishment intensities (aggression level) set by each member of the dyad on later trials. Furthermore, there was a pattern of escalation from early to later trials. These trait aggressiveness effects (both self and partner) on later aggressive behavior were largely mediated by partner aggression levels during early trials. Results also suggested two aggressive motives--hostile and instrumental--resulted from high partner aggression during early trials and these motives partially mediated the effects of trait aggressiveness and of early trial aggression on later aggressive behavior. PMID:18340032

  7. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  8. Gene-Environment Processes Linking Aggression, Peer Victimization, and the Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Barker, Edward D.; Vitaro, Frank; Girard, Alain; Tremblay, Richard; Perusse, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior in middle childhood is at least partly explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, estimations of simple effects ignore possible gene-environment interactions (G x E) or gene-environment correlations (rGE) in the etiology of aggression. The present study aimed to simultaneously test for G x E and rGE processes between…

  9. Links between Friends' Physical Aggression and Adolescents' Physical Aggression: What Happens If Gene-Environment Correlations are Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…

  10. Studies on wild house mice. VII. Prenatal maternal environment and aggression.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, F; van der Vlugt, J J; van Oortmerssen, G A; Koolhaas, J M; van der Hoeven, F; de Boer, P

    1996-09-01

    The effect of the maternal environment on intermale aggression was studied by means of embryo transfer of genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive wild house mice (LAL), and their reciprocal F1's, to standard (NMR1) females. No effect was found on the attack latency scores (ALS), i.e., aggression: all genotypes born and raised under natural conditions showed an ALS similar that of genotypes born and raised by NMR1 females. Since previous studies on wild house mice failed to demonstrate postnatal effects on aggression, and the present results indicate the absence of prenatal maternal environmental effects on aggression, the primacy of genetic over maternal variance in the development of adult intermale aggression in wild house mice is indicated.

  11. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression (Robinson et al., 2008). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat (Alaux & Robinson, 2007, Couvillon et al., 2008, Hunt et al., 2003). Previous research has demonstrated social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype (Alaux et al., 2009b). For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles (Alaux et al., 2009b, Guzmán-Novoa et al., 2004). We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results demonstrate that bee aggression, and associated molecular processes, are subject to complex social influences. PMID:24034579

  12. Adolescent bystanders' perspectives of aggression in the online versus school environments.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lisa J; Allan, Alfred; Cross, Donna

    2016-06-01

    Researchers' understanding of bystanders' perspectives in the cyber-environment fails to take young people's perceptions into account and remains imperfect. Interventions encouraging adolescents to help targets of cyber-aggression are therefore typically based upon traditional school-based aggression research. Twenty-four in-depth interviews with Australian 13-16 year-olds revealed two themes that reflect how young bystanders perceive differences between aggression online and at school. The physical presence theme suggests that young bystanders struggle to determine online intentions in the absence of body language, leading to hesitancy in reactions and furthermore make it easier for them to ignore online transgressions and avoid becoming involved. The authority theme indicates young bystanders perceive that, compared to the school environment, the online environment lacks clearly established rules, authority figures and formal reporting mechanisms. These differences indicate that unique strategies should be developed to encourage young bystanders to intervene in cyber-aggression situations.

  13. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  14. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  15. Boron nitride coatings and materials for use in aggressive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Lee, W.Y.; Young, J.P.; Xiao, H.

    1997-12-31

    Boron nitride coatings and structures have demonstrated significant resistance to many corrosive environments. These coatings may have application in the protection of sensors needed for measuring a variety of properties such as temperature and chemistry. In addition, boron nitride materials may offer advantages as structural materials in high temperature materials processing. In this study, BN is assessed for use in aluminum smelting.

  16. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  17. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  18. Developmental Differences in Early Adolescent Aggression: A Gene × Environment × Intervention Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-01-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11–16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7−) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

  19. Aggression in Primary Schools: The Predictive Power of the School and Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the predictive power of home and school environment-related factors for determining pupils' aggression. The multiple regression analyses are performed for fourth- and eighth-grade pupils based on the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 (N = 8394) and TIMSS 2011 (N = 9415) databases for Slovenia. At…

  20. Aggressive and Violent Behaviors in the School Environment among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Sonali; Namdar, Rachel; Ruggles, Kelly V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of aggressive and violent behaviors in the context of the school environment in a nationally representative sample of adolescent youth and to illustrate these patterns during 2001-2011. Methods: We analyzed data from 84,734 participants via the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance…

  1. Frequency stabilization of laser diodes in an aggressive thermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minch, J. R.; Walther, F. G.; Savage, S.; Plante, A.; Scalesse, V.

    2015-03-01

    Mobile free-space laser communication systems must reconcile the requirements of low size, weight, and power with the ability to both survive and operate in harsh thermal and mechanical environments. In order to minimize the aperture size and amplifier power requirements of such systems, communication links must exhibit performance near theoretical limits. Such performance requires laser transmitters and receiver filters and interferometers to maintain frequency accuracy to within a couple hundred MHz of the design frequency. We demonstrate an approach to achieving high frequency stability over wide temperature ranges by using conventional DFB lasers, tuned with TEC and current settings, referenced to an HCN molecular frequency standard. A HCN cell absorption line is scanned across the TEC set-point to adjust the DFB laser frequency. Once the center of the line is determined, the TEC set-point is offset as required to obtain frequency agility. To obtain large frequency offsets from an HCN absorption line, as well as continuous laser source operation, a second laser is offset from the reference laser and the resulting beat tone is detected in a photoreceiver and set to the desired offset using a digital frequency-locked loop. Using this arrangement we have demonstrated frequency accuracy and stability of better than 8 MHz RMS over an operational temperature range of 0ºC to 50º C, with operation within minutes following 8 hour soaks at -40º C and 70º C.

  2. The aggressive behavior of Nile tilapia introduced into novel environments with variation in enrichment.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo E; Carvalho, Graziele G Arantes; Volpato, Gilson L

    2011-02-01

    Many studies show environmental enrichment is correlated with benefits to captive animals; however, one should not always assume this positive relationship given that enrichment increases the amount of resources that a territorial animal must defend and possibly affects its aggressive dynamics. In this study, we tested if environmental enrichment affects aggressive interactions in the aggressive fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). We compared fights staged between pairs of male tilapia of similar size (= matched in resource holding potential) in a novel arena that was either barren or enriched, to examine whether enrichment enhances territory value in line with theoretical predictions, with the potential for compromised welfare. We evaluated time elapsed until the first attack (latency), frequency of aggressive interactions and fight duration. We detected fight dynamic differences at the pair level. Higher resource value generated increased aggression but had no effect on fight duration or latency. This conclusion is in line with game theory predictions concerning resource value and contradicts the theory that enrichment of the environment will serve welfare purposes.

  3. Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Prefer and Are Less Aggressive in Darker Environments.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Leigh P; Franks, Becca; Weary, Daniel M; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Fish are capable of excellent vision and can be profoundly influenced by the visual properties of their environment. Ambient colours have been found to affect growth, survival, aggression and reproduction, but the effect of background darkness (i.e., the darkness vs. lightness of the background) on preference and aggression has not been evaluated systematically. One-hundred Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), a species that is increasing in popularity in aquaculture, were randomly assigned to 10 tanks. Using a Latin-square design, every tank was bisected to allow fish in each tank to choose between all the following colour choices (8 choices in total): black vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and a mixed dark grey/black pattern, as well as industry-standard blue vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and black. Fish showed a strong preference for black backgrounds over all other options (p < 0.01). Across tests, preference strength increased with background darkness (p < 0.0001). Moreover, having darker backgrounds in the environment resulted in less aggressive behaviour throughout the tank (p < 0.0001). These results provide the first evidence that darker tanks are preferred by and decrease aggression in salmonids, which points to the welfare benefits of housing farmed salmon in enclosures containing dark backgrounds. PMID:27028731

  4. Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Prefer and Are Less Aggressive in Darker Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Leigh P.; Franks, Becca; Weary, Daniel M.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are capable of excellent vision and can be profoundly influenced by the visual properties of their environment. Ambient colours have been found to affect growth, survival, aggression and reproduction, but the effect of background darkness (i.e., the darkness vs. lightness of the background) on preference and aggression has not been evaluated systematically. One-hundred Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), a species that is increasing in popularity in aquaculture, were randomly assigned to 10 tanks. Using a Latin-square design, every tank was bisected to allow fish in each tank to choose between all the following colour choices (8 choices in total): black vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and a mixed dark grey/black pattern, as well as industry-standard blue vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and black. Fish showed a strong preference for black backgrounds over all other options (p < 0.01). Across tests, preference strength increased with background darkness (p < 0.0001). Moreover, having darker backgrounds in the environment resulted in less aggressive behaviour throughout the tank (p < 0.0001). These results provide the first evidence that darker tanks are preferred by and decrease aggression in salmonids, which points to the welfare benefits of housing farmed salmon in enclosures containing dark backgrounds. PMID:27028731

  5. The Effects of Aggressive Environments on the Properties of Fly Ash based Geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baščarević, Z.; Komljenović, M.; Nikolić, V.; Marjanović, N.

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of two different aggressive environments, concentrated ammonium nitrate solution (480 g/dm3) and sodium sulphate solution (50 g/dm3), on the structure and mechanical strength of fly ash based geopolymers. Geopolymer samples were subjected to the aggressive solutions over a period of 365 days. It was found that exposure to the NH4NO3 and Na2SO4 solutions caused small decrease in geopolymer strength (10-20%). The most valuable insight into the structural changes caused by testing of the geopolymer samples in the aggressive solutions was provided by means of 29Si MAS NMR. It was found that the immersion of geopolymer samples in the NH4NO3 solution caused breaking of Si-O-Al bonds in the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel structure. On the other hand, treatment of the geopolymer samples with the Na2SO4 solution resulted in breaking of Si-O-Si bonds in geopolymer gel structure and leaching of Si. It was concluded that the major changes in the geopolymer structure were associated with the changes in the pH values of aggressive solutions during the testing.

  6. Understanding driver anger and aggression: attributional theory in the driving environment.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Flora, David B; Flett, Gordon L

    2011-12-01

    Two studies tested the applicability of Weiner's (1995, 1996, 2001, 2006) attributional model of social conduct to roadway environments. This model highlights the role of inferences of responsibility after making causal judgments for social transgressions. Study 1 employed written scenarios where participants were asked to imagine themselves driving on a major highway. The degree of controllability and intentionality of the driving act was manipulated experimentally by altering the specific event-related details provided to the participants. Study 2 extended this research to life events by having participants complete online driving diaries every 2 days, identifying their most negative/upsetting encounter with another motorist. The most anger-provoking event was selected from among 4 diary entries and participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire similar to that used in Study 1. Path analyses in both studies generally supported predictions derived from Weiner's model; the association between perceived controllability, intentionality, and dispositional locus of causality of the negative driving event and subsequent anger was mediated by perceptions of responsibility. Additional results in Study 2 suggested that low perceived controllability, intentionality, and dispositional locus of causality were associated with reduced perceived responsibility, which, in turn, facilitated feelings of sympathy. Anger was associated with aggressive responses to the offending driver, whereas sympathy was associated with prosocial responses. Recommendations were offered for improved driver safety, including the development of attributional retraining programs to combat self-serving attributional biases, teaching novice drivers about both formal and informal roadway communication, and the promotion of forgiveness among drivers

  7. Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-03-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8% female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research.

  8. Protection of Conductive and Non-conductive Advanced Polymer-based Paints from Highly Aggressive Oxidative Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudimenko, Y.; Ng, R.; Iskanderova, Z.; Kleiman, J.; Grigorevsky, A.; Kiseleva, L.; Finckenor, M.; Edwards, D.

    2005-01-01

    Research has been continued to further improve the space durability of conductive and non-conductive polymer-based paints and of conductive thermal control paints for space applications. Efforts have been made to enhance the space durability and stability of functional Characteristics in ground-based space environment imitating conditions, using specially developed surface modification treatment. The results of surface modification of new conductive paints, including the ground-based testing in aggressive oxidative environments, such as atomic oxygen/UV and oxygen plasma, and performance evaluation are presented. Functional properties and performance characteristics, such as thermal optical properties (differential solar absorptance and thermal emittance representing the thermal optical performance of thermal control paints) and surface resistivity characteristics of pristine, surface modified, and tested materials were verified. Extensive surface analysis studies have been performed using complementary surface analyses including SEM/EDS and XPS. Test results revealed that the successfully treated materials exhibit reduced mass loss and no surface morphology change, thus indicating good protection from the severe oxidative environment. It was demonstrated that the developed surface modification treatment could be applied successfully to charge dissipative and conductive paints.

  9. Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

    2008-01-01

    In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

  10. Teacher and Staff Perceptions of School Environment as Predictors of Student Aggression, Victimization, and Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Low, Sabina K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who…

  11. Physical punishment and childhood aggression: the role of gender and gene-environment interplay.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Franklin, Cortney A; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research has linked spanking with a range of adverse outcomes in children, including aggression, psychopathology, and criminal involvement. Despite evidence concerning the association of spanking with antisocial behavior, not all children who are spanked develop antisocial traits. Given the heterogeneous effects of spanking on behavior, it is possible that a third variable may condition the influence of corporal punishment on child development. We test this possibility using data drawn from a nationally representative dataset of twin siblings. Our findings suggest that genetic risk factors condition the effects of spanking on antisocial behavior. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the interaction between genetic risk factors and corporal punishment may be particularly salient for males.

  12. The Role of the School Environment in Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as…

  13. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  14. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  15. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  16. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitoni, E.

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: (i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. (ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if compared to the closed box model. (iii) When a galaxy suffers at the same time a primordial infall and a chemically enriched one, the primordial infall always dominates the chemical evolution. (iv) We present new solutions for the metallicity evolution in a galaxy which suffers galactic fountains and an enriched infall from another galaxy at the same time. The analytical solutions presented here can be very important to study the metallicity (oxygen), which is measured in high-redshift objects. These solutions can be very useful: (a) in the context of cosmological semi-analytical models for galaxy formation and evolution, and (b) for the study of compact groups of galaxies.

  17. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  18. Predictors for self-directed aggression in Italian prisoners include externalizing behaviors, childhood trauma and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, E; Carli, V; Sarchiapone, M; Roy, A; Goldman, D; Enoch, M-A

    2016-06-01

    Suicidal behavior and self-mutilation can be regarded as the expression of self-directed aggression and both are common in prison populations. We investigated the influence of externalizing behaviors, depressive symptoms, childhood trauma, 5-HTTLPR variants on self-directed aggression (N = 145) in a group of 702 male Italian prisoners. Participants were comprehensively evaluated, including for psychiatric disorders, impulsive traits, lifetime aggressive behavior [Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (BGHA)], hostility, violent behavior during incarceration, depressive symptomatology [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)], childhood trauma [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)]. Logistic regression analysis showed false discovery rate corrected independent main effects of externalizing behaviors: BGHA (P = 0.001), violent behavior in jail (P = 0.007), extraversion (P = 0.015); HDRS (P = 0.0004), Axis I disorders (P = 0.015), CTQ (P = 0.004) and 5-HTTLPR genotype (P = 0.02). Carriers of 5-HTTLPR high (LA LA ), intermediate (LA LG , SLA ) activity variants were more likely to have exhibited self-directed aggression relative to the low activity (LG LG , SLG , SS) variant: high/low: odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-4.68, P = 0.007; intermediate/low: OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.09-3.68, P = 0.025. The CTQ main effect was driven by physical abuse. There was no interactive effect of 5-HTTLPR and CTQ. Secondary logistic regression analyses in (1) all suicide attempters (N = 88) and (2) all self-mutilators (N = 104), compared with controls showed that in both groups, childhood trauma (P = 0.008-0.01), depression (P = 0.0004-0.001) were strong predictors. BGHA, violent behavior in jail predicted self-mutilation (P = 0.002) but not suicide attempts (P = 0.1). This study was able to distinguish differing influences on self-directed aggression between groups of closely related

  19. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  20. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PMID:25089334

  1. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan.

  2. Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment.

    PubMed

    Poncin, P; Matondo, B Nzau; Termol, C; Kestemont, P; Philippart, J C

    2011-09-01

    In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay procedures. The results revealed that no significant differences were found between circulating testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in territorial and nonterritorial males. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found between circulating androgens, androgens and aggression, androgens and tubercles and breeding tubercles and aggression in common bream by male status. However, territorial fish displayed a significantly higher level of aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles than nonterritorial fish. In natural environments, the occurrence of breeding tubercles during the spawning season could contribute to identifying the behavioural status of common bream males.

  3. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  4. Linkages between Children's and Their Friends' Social and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…

  5. Assessment of risk for in-hospital suicide and aggression in high-dependency care environments.

    PubMed

    Rittenmeyer, Leslie

    2012-03-01

    High-dependency environments are complex both from the standpoint of diversity of patient types and the nature of their functioning. Nurses manage this complexity at many different levels. Being attuned not only to the physical status of the patient but also the emotional/psychological status is paramount in maintaining a safe environment. Staff training and education is paramount in reducing risk. Institutions have a responsibility to provide resources to develop violence prevention programs. PMID:22405711

  6. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  7. Understanding Driver Anger and Aggression: Attributional Theory in the Driving Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christine M.; Wiesenthal, David L.; Flora, David B.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies tested the applicability of Weiner's (1995, 1996, 2001, 2006) attributional model of social conduct to roadway environments. This model highlights the role of inferences of responsibility after making causal judgments for social transgressions. Study 1 employed written scenarios where participants were asked to imagine themselves…

  8. Innovative Approach to Establish Root Causes for Cracking in Aggressive Reactor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.; Vetrano, John S.; Simonen, Edward P.

    2003-10-31

    The research focuses on the high-resolution characterization of degradation microstructures and microchemistries in specimens tested under controlled conditions for the environment and for the material where in-service complexities can be minimized. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of crack-tip processes is employed to analyze corrosion-induced structures and gain insights into degradation mechanisms. Novel mechanistic ''fingerprinting'' of crack-tip structures is used to isolate causes of environmental cracking in tandem with quantitative measurements of crack growth. Sample preparation methods and advanced analytical techniques are used to characterize corrosion/oxidation reactions and crack-tip structures at near atomic dimensions in order to gain insight into fundamental environmental cracking mechanisms. Reactions at buried interfaces, not accessible by conventional approaches, are being systematically interrogated. Crack-growth experiments in high-temperature water environments are evaluating and isolating the effects of material condition (matrix strength, grain boundary composition and precipitation) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The fundamental understanding of crack advance mechanisms will establish the basis to design new corrosion-resistant alloys for current light-water reactors and advanced reactor systems.

  9. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  10. The effect of Al implantation on the thermal oxidation of stainless steel in aggressive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Noli, F.; Misaelides, P.; Giorginis, G.; Baumann, H.; Pavlidou, E.

    2000-04-01

    AISI-321 steel samples were implanted with Al ions (implantation-energy: 40 keV; dose: 2 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}). Thermal oxidation of the samples was performed at 450, 550, 600, and 650 C for periods varying from 1 to 6 days in air and in a corrosive CO{sub 2}-containing environment. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used to investigate the oxidized samples. A significant improvement of the oxidation resistance of the implanted material in comparison to the nonimplanted material was observed. This especially applies for samples oxidized at high temperatures. The aluminum depth distribution determined by NRA [using the resonance at 992keV of the {sup 27}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 28}Si nuclear reaction] and RBS, indicated no variation of the Al profile in the temperature region 450--600 C, whereas at 650 C a slight Al diffusion was observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied to study the surface morphology and the constitution of the oxide scale formed, as well as to explain the influence of Al implantation of the oxidation behavior of AISI-321 austenitic stainless steel.

  11. "An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me": Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Layton, Natasha A; Steel, Emily J

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the "absence of disease" are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization's (WHO) more holistic definition of health as "wellbeing" is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100) living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples' experience of "inclusive community environs" and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing. PMID:26371024

  12. "An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me": Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Layton, Natasha A; Steel, Emily J

    2015-09-08

    Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the "absence of disease" are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization's (WHO) more holistic definition of health as "wellbeing" is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100) living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples' experience of "inclusive community environs" and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  13. ‘LONESOME TOWN’? IS LONELINESS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT, INCLUDING HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOOD FACTORS?

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Tannahill, Carol; Ellaway, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether feelings of loneliness are associated with aspects of the home and neighborhood of residence. Multinominal logistic regression models were used to explore associations between residential environment and loneliness in 4,000 residents across deprived areas of Glasgow. People who rated their neighborhood environment of higher quality and who used more local amenities were less likely to report loneliness. Respondents who knew more people within the local area were less likely to report loneliness. Those who reported more antisocial behavior problems, who had a weak perception of collective efficacy, and who felt unsafe walking alone at nighttime were more likely to report loneliness. Length of residence and dwelling type were not associated with reported loneliness. The findings indicate the potential importance of several dimensions of the neighborhood physical, service, and social environment, including aspects of both quality and trust, in protecting against or reducing loneliness in deprived areas. PMID:26740728

  14. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  15. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  16. Aspects of Juvenile and Adolescent Environment Predict Aggression and Fear in 12-Month-Old Guide Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, James A.; Duffy, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Maturational changes in behavior, and the possible influence of the puppy-raising environment on behavioral development, were investigated in a total sample of 978 prospective guide dogs belonging to four different breeds/crosses. All dogs belonged to the same guide dog organization, and had been exposed to similar early environmental influences prior to being assigned to puppy-raising households at 7–8 weeks of age. Behavioral data were collected from puppy raisers when the dogs were 6 and 12 months old using the C-BARQ©, a standardized, validated, and widely used survey instrument that measures the frequency and/or severity of most common behavior problems in dogs. Information about the puppy-raising environment was obtained from puppy raisers using a standardized questionnaire shortly before the dogs were returned to the guide dog organization for training. Data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate statistics (binary logistic generalized estimating equations modeling and generalized linear modeling). The findings demonstrated specific maturational changes in behavior between 6 and 12 months of age. In particular, German Shepherd dogs displayed an increase in stranger-directed aggression compared with the other breeds/crosses between 6 and 12 months of age. Several aspects of the puppy-raising environment were associated with puppies’ C-BARQ scores at 12 months of age. In particular, growing up in households with more experienced puppy raisers, and in the company of at least one other dog, were both associated with positive effects on a number of puppy behaviors. By contrast, puppies that had been frightened by a person or threatened by another unfamiliar dog showed significantly worse scores for fear of strangers and dogs, respectively. Being frightened by a person, being reared by less experienced puppy raisers, and/or in households without other pets were associated with less successful training outcomes. The relevance of these

  17. Aspects of Juvenile and Adolescent Environment Predict Aggression and Fear in 12-Month-Old Guide Dogs.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A; Duffy, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Maturational changes in behavior, and the possible influence of the puppy-raising environment on behavioral development, were investigated in a total sample of 978 prospective guide dogs belonging to four different breeds/crosses. All dogs belonged to the same guide dog organization, and had been exposed to similar early environmental influences prior to being assigned to puppy-raising households at 7-8 weeks of age. Behavioral data were collected from puppy raisers when the dogs were 6 and 12 months old using the C-BARQ(©), a standardized, validated, and widely used survey instrument that measures the frequency and/or severity of most common behavior problems in dogs. Information about the puppy-raising environment was obtained from puppy raisers using a standardized questionnaire shortly before the dogs were returned to the guide dog organization for training. Data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate statistics (binary logistic generalized estimating equations modeling and generalized linear modeling). The findings demonstrated specific maturational changes in behavior between 6 and 12 months of age. In particular, German Shepherd dogs displayed an increase in stranger-directed aggression compared with the other breeds/crosses between 6 and 12 months of age. Several aspects of the puppy-raising environment were associated with puppies' C-BARQ scores at 12 months of age. In particular, growing up in households with more experienced puppy raisers, and in the company of at least one other dog, were both associated with positive effects on a number of puppy behaviors. By contrast, puppies that had been frightened by a person or threatened by another unfamiliar dog showed significantly worse scores for fear of strangers and dogs, respectively. Being frightened by a person, being reared by less experienced puppy raisers, and/or in households without other pets were associated with less successful training outcomes. The relevance of these

  18. “An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me”: Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Natasha A.; Steel, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100) living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing. PMID:26371024

  19. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  20. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  1. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  2. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  3. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  4. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  5. Aggression at Age 5 as a Function of Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine, Gender, and Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Bennett, David; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood aggression at age 5 in a multiple risk model that includes cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and gender as predictors. Methods Aggression was assessed in 206 children by using multiple methods including teacher report, parent report, child’s response to hypothetical provocations, and child’s observed behavior. Also examined was a composite score that reflected high aggression across contexts. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of variance in each of the aggression measures and the composite was explained by the predictors. The variables that were independently related differed depending on the outcome. Cocaine exposure, gender, and environmental risk were all related to the composite aggression score. Conclusions Cocaine exposure, being male, and a high-risk environment were all predictive of aggressive behavior at 5 years. It is this group of exposed boys at high environmental risk that is most likely to show continued aggression over time. PMID:15827351

  6. Feline aggression toward family members: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bain, Melissa; Stelow, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Feline aggression toward people is a common and potentially dangerous problem. Proper diagnosis of the underlying cause of the aggression is key in effective treatment. A complete history, including information on the people in the home, other pets, and specific incidents, is necessary to make this diagnosis. A comprehensive treatment plan typically includes management, enhancement of the cat's living environment, techniques for replacing the aggressive behavior with more appropriate behaviors, and, potentially, medication. The treatment plan must reflect the abilities and commitment of the owner.

  7. A Conceptual Model of Training Transfer that Includes the Physical Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillsman, Terron L.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the physical environment as an emerging factor impacting training transfer and proposes to position this variable in the Baldwin and Ford (1988) model of the training transfer process. The amended model positions workplace design, one element of the physical environment, as a part of organizational context in the work…

  8. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  9. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. Days 3– 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. Days 1–2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. Day −5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days −4 to −3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. Days −5 to −3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173) PMID:23242601

  10. Prediction of space shuttle fluctuating pressure environments, including rocket plume effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, K. J.; Robertson, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of space shuttle fluctuating pressure environments have been made based on prediction techniques developed by Wyle Laboratories. Particular emphasis has been given to the transonic speed regime during launch of a parallel-burn space shuttle configuration. A baseline configuration consisting of a lightweight orbiter and monolithic SRB, together with a typical flight trajectory, have been used as models for the predictions. Critical fluctuating pressure environments are predicted at transonic Mach numbers. Comparisons between predicted environments and wind tunnel test results, in general, showed good agreement. Predicted one-third octave band spectra for the above environments were generally one of three types: (1) attached turbulent boundary layer spectra (typically high frequencies); (2) homogeneous separated flow and shock-free interference flow spectra (typically intermediate frequencies); and (3) shock-oscillation and shock-induced interference flow spectra (typically low frequencies). Predictions of plume induced separated flow environments were made. Only the SRB plumes are important, with fluctuating levels comparable to compression-corner induced separated flow shock oscillation.

  11. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  12. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee.

  13. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  14. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  15. Spacecraft VHF Radio Propagation Analysis in Ocean Environments Including Atmospheric Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian; Moreno, Gerardo; Desilva, Kanishka; Jih, CIndy

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Johnson Space Center (JSC) is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space/ground environment in which they operate. This paper is to analyze a spacecraft's very high frequency (VHF) radio signal propagation and the impact to performance when landing in an ocean. Very little research work has been done for VHF radio systems in a maritime environment. Rigorous Radio Frequency (RF) modeling/simulation techniques were employed for various environmental effects. The simulation results illustrate the significance of the environmental effects on the VHF radio system performance.

  16. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  17. Clinicopathological features of aggressive B-cell lymphomas including B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphomas: a study of 44 patients from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bürgesser, María Virginia; Gualco, Gabriela; Diller, Ana; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-06-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas incorporate a wide spectrum of lymphomas that pose challenges in diagnosis as well as treatment. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 44 patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas which were classified into 3 groups based on the World Health Organization 2008 classification as follows: including 30 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 8 cases of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 6 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (BCLU). Male predominance was observed in BL and BCLU groups and the mean age varied from 29 years in BL, 61 years in DLBCL and 70 years in BCLU. Patients with BCLU presented at more advanced stages and had a higher international prognostic index. By immunohistochemistry, they shared characteristics of both BL (including more frequent expression of SOX11) and DLBCL. FISH analyses showed three cases with more than one rearrangement: one MYC/BCL2 and two BCL2/BCL6, in addition to which one case with BCL2/IGH translocation and another with MYC rearrangement were also detected. The mean follow-up survival time of BCLU was 6.6 months, which was significantly shorter in comparison to DLBCL (31 months) and BL (30 months), respectively. The importance of recognizing this BCLU group relies on its different clinical course, poor prognosis and shorter survival than DLBCL and BL. An accurate diagnosis is critical for risk stratification and to improve therapeutic approaches and outcomes.

  18. The ghost of social environments past: dominance relationships include current interactions and experience carried over from previous groups.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Colby J; Salali, Gul Deniz; Jackson, Andrew L

    2011-12-23

    Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size and composition are dynamic. Using a fusion-fission protocol, we fused groups of previously isolated shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) into larger groups, and then restored groups to their original size and composition. Pre-fusion hierarchies formed independently of individuals' sizes, and were maintained within a static group via winner/loser effects. Post-fusion hierarchies differed from pre-fusion ones; losing fights during fusion led to a decline in an individual's rank between pre- and post-fusion conditions, while spending time being aggressive during fusion led to an improvement in rank. In post-fusion tanks, larger individuals achieved better ranks than smaller individuals. In conclusion, dominance hierarchies in crabs represent a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, in which experiences from previous groups can carry over to affect current competitive interactions.

  19. Gene by Social-Environment Interaction for Youth Delinquency and Violence: Thirty-Nine Aggression-related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hexuan; Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Complex human traits are likely to be affected by many environmental and genetic factors, and the interactions among them. However, previous gene-environment interaction (G×E) studies have typically focused on one or only a few genetic variants at a time. To provide a broader view of G×E, this study examines the relationship between 403 genetic variants from 39 genes and youth delinquency and violence. We find evidence that low social control is associated with greater genetic risk for delinquency and violence and high/moderate social control with smaller genetic risk for delinquency and violence. Our findings are consistent with prior G×E studies based on a small number of genetic variants, and, more importantly, we show that these findings still hold when a large number of genetic variants are considered simultaneously. A key implication of these findings is that the expression of multiple genes related to delinquency depends on the social environment: gene expression is likely to be amplified in low-social-control environments but, tends to be suppressed in high/moderate-social-control environments. This study not only deepens our understanding of how the social environment shapes individual behavior, but also provides important conceptual and methodological insights for future G×E research on complex human traits. PMID:25755300

  20. Evaluation of the Fracture Toughness of a SMSS Subjected to Common Heat Treatment Cycles in an Aggressive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieta, G.; Leite, R.; Kwietniewski, C.; Clarke, T.; Strohaecker, T.

    2010-12-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) are an alternative to corrosion-prone carbon steels and expensive duplex stainless steels in offshore tubing applications for the oil and gas industry. Due to their differentiated alloying, SMSS exhibit superior toughness, corrosion resistance, and weldability properties when compared with another viable option, conventional martensitic stainless steels. However, when cathodically protected in a seawater environment they can be susceptible to embrittlement due to hydrogen charging. In the present study, SMSS samples were removed from deep water pipelines and their fracture toughness in the as-received condition and with different heat treatments was evaluated. Tests were carried out in air and in harsh environmental and loading conditions, which were ensured by subjecting specimens to cathodic overprotection, simulating effects seen in structures with complex geometries, and to incremental step loads in a synthetic seawater environment, thus favoring hydrogen diffusion to the precrack tip. The fracture surfaces of the specimens were analyzed in order to identify hydrogen-induced embrittlement and fracture toughness values of specimens tested in air were compared to values obtained in environment-assisted experiments. The influence of microstructure was evaluated by control of the retained austenite and δ-ferrite contents of the specimens. The results show a significant drop in the fracture toughness of steel in the studied environment, with a fracture mode which is clearly more brittle and dependent on microstructural characteristics of the samples.

  1. Gene-environment interactions in rare diseases that include common birth defects.

    PubMed

    Graham, John M; Shaw, Gary M

    2005-11-01

    Rare syndromes often feature specific types of birth defects that frequently are major diagnostic clues to the presence of a given disorder. Despite this specificity, not everyone with the same syndrome is equally or comparably affected, and not everyone with a specific birth defect manifests the same syndrome or is affected with all the features of a particular syndrome. A symposium sponsored by the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases, and the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction attempted to explore how much of this variability is due to genetic factors and how much is due to environmental factors. The specific types of birth defects examined included cardiovascular defects, holoprosencephaly, clefts of the lip and/or palate, neural tube defects, and diaphragmatic hernias.

  2. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  3. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  4. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  5. Examining the correlates of aggression among male and female Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Taft, Casey T; Monson, Candice M; Hebenstreit, Claire L; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of general aggression among a nationally representative sample of male and female Vietnam veterans (N = 1,632). Findings indicated that the rates of aggression for men and women were 41% and 32%, respectively, and men appeared to perpetrate relatively more acts of severe aggression. Correlates of aggression for men included lower socioeconomic status and age, minority status, unemployment, degree of exposure to the malevolent war-zone environment and perceived threat in the war zone, posttraumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. For women, only lower age and unemployment were associated with aggression. Findings highlight the importance of developing models for aggression among those experiencing military deployments.

  6. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  7. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  8. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  9. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  10. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  11. Role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    This article critically reviews the evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis and discusses the study approaches commonly used to identify genetic risk factors of this disease. Available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations in multiple genes, combined with environmental effects. Syndromic periodontal diseases include certain monogenic disorders that express phenotypes showing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the genetic triggering factors of most of these syndromes have been identified. Other periodontal disease phenotypes seem to occur through different genetic predisposition patterns. Case-control and genome-wide studies have been used to investigate the association with gene polymorphisms. Association studies and the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis suggest a significant genetic component in the increased predisposition to this disease. There is evidence to support the contribution of a few major genes or of multiple small-effects genes. In addition, there is evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Early studies suggested an X-linked mode of transmission of aggressive periodontitis, and subsequent studies support an autosomal mode. Genetic studies have the potential to improve the screening programs of subjects at risk for developing aggressive periodontitis and may enhance treatment outcome through gene therapy.

  12. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  13. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  14. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study revealed that children's family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child's potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies. PMID:24454423

  16. The Relationship between Motivation, Learning Strategies and Choice of Environment whether Traditional or Including an Online Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Karen; Blumberg, Fran; Auld, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how students' achievement goals, self-efficacy and learning strategies influenced their choice of an online, hybrid or traditional learning environment. One hundred thirty-two post-secondary students completed surveys soliciting their preferences for learning environments, reasons for their preference, their motivational…

  17. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. PMID:26345359

  18. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  19. Studying aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies).

    PubMed

    Mundiyanapurath, Sibu; Certel, Sarah; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    Aggression is an innate behavior that evolved in the framework of defending or obtaining resources. This complex social behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In many organisms, aggression is critical to survival but controlling and suppressing aggression in distinct contexts also has become increasingly important. In recent years, invertebrates have become increasingly useful as model systems for investigating the genetic and systems biological basis of complex social behavior. This is in part due to the diverse repertoire of behaviors exhibited by these organisms. In the accompanying video, we outline a method for analyzing aggression in Drosophila whose design encompasses important eco-ethological constraints. Details include steps for: making a fighting chamber; isolating and painting flies; adding flies to the fight chamber; and video taping fights. This approach is currently being used to identify candidate genes important in aggression and in elaborating the neuronal circuitry that underlies the output of aggression and other social behaviors.

  20. APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS OF POLLUTANT TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION WITHIN AMBIENT URBAN BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS: INCLUDING HOMELAND SECURITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently much focus on Homeland Security and the need to understand how potential sources of toxic material are transported and dispersed in the urban environment. Material transport and dispersion within these urban centers is highly influenced by the buildings. Compu...

  1. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  2. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  3. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  4. The association between forms of aggression, leadership, and social status among urban youth.

    PubMed

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N; Paskewich, Brooke S; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-02-01

    While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted. PMID:23086015

  5. Trajectories of Adolescent Aggression and Family Cohesion: The Potential to Perpetuate or Ameliorate Political Conflict.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Pete; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Correlations between intergroup violence and youth aggression are often reported. Yet longitudinal research is needed to understand the developmental factors underlying this relation, including between-person differences in within-person change in aggression through the adolescent years. Multilevel modeling was used to explore developmental and contextual influences related to risk for youth aggression using 4 waves of a prospective, longitudinal study of adolescent/mother dyad reports (N = 820; 51% female; 10-20 years old) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted political conflict. Experience with sectarian (i.e., intergroup) antisocial behavior predicted greater youth aggression; however, that effect declined with age, and youth were buffered by a cohesive family environment. The trajectory of aggression (i.e., intercepts and linear slopes) related to more youth engagement in sectarian antisocial behavior; however, being female and having a more cohesive family were associated with lower levels of youth participation in sectarian acts. The findings are discussed in terms of protective and risk factors for adolescent aggression, and more specifically, participation in sectarian antisocial behavior. The article concludes with clinical and intervention implications, which may decrease youth aggression and the perpetuation of intergroup violence in contexts of ongoing conflict.

  6. The association between forms of aggression, leadership, and social status among urban youth.

    PubMed

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Baker, Courtney N; Paskewich, Brooke S; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-02-01

    While much prior research has documented the negative associations between aggression, peer relationships, and social skills, other research has begun to examine whether forms of aggression also may be associated with prosocial skills and increased social status. However, few studies have examined these associations within diverse samples of elementary aged youth. The current study examined the associations between aggression, popularity, social preference, and leadership among 227 urban, ethnic minority (74 % African American, 9 % bi-racial including African American, 12 % other ethnic minorities, and 5 % European American) elementary school youth (average age 9.5 years, 48.5 % female). Results indicated that in an urban, high risk environment, displaying aggressive behaviors was associated with increased perceived popularity, decreased social preference, and, in some cases, increased perceived leadership. The results also suggested gender differences in the association between the forms of aggression (i.e. relational and overt) and popularity. The current study underscores the importance of examining youth leadership along with forms of aggression and social status among urban minority youth. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are highlighted.

  7. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  8. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  9. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  10. When David Beats Goliath: The Advantage of Large Size in Interspecific Aggressive Contests Declines over Evolutionary Time

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul R.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.

    2014-01-01

    Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those associated with body size

  11. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-01-01

    Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those associated with body size

  12. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2014-01-01

    Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those associated with body size

  13. Aggressive and nonaggressive children's moral judgments and moral emotion attributions in situations involving retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

  14. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    including physical or psychological annoyance, the other person's disobedience, perceived injustice, and a threat to one's social identity. Whether one's aggression is performed or not depends on a number of intra- and inter-personal determinants, particularly on social cognitive processes such as attribution, inference, prediction and other judgements.

  15. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  16. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  17. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  18. Including parameterization of the discrete ablation process into a planning and simulation environment for robot-assisted laser osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Burgner, Jessica; Kahrs, Lüder Alexander; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Material processing using laser became a widely used method especially in the scope of industrial automation. The systems are mostly based on a precise model of the laser process and the according parameterization. Beside the industrial use the laser as an instrument to treat human tissue has become an integral part in medicine as well. Human tissue as an inhomogeneous material to process, poses the question of how to determine a model, which reflects the interaction processes with a specific laser.Recently it could be shown that the pulsed CO2 laser is suitable to ablate bony and cartilage tissue. Until now this thermo-mechanical bone ablation is not characterized as a discrete process. In order to plan and simulate the ablation process in the correct level of detail, the parameterization is indispensable. We developed a planning and simulation environment, determined parameters by confocal measurements of bony specimen and use these results to transfer planned cutting trajectories into a pulse sequence and corresponding robot locations.

  19. The role of serotonin in impulsive aggression, suicide, and homicide in adolescents and adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Glick, Amy R

    2015-05-01

    This is a literature review discussing previous studies on the associations between impulsive aggression and the serotonergic system in adults, adolescents, and children. The review demonstrates that there is a clear association between low cerebrospinal fluid serotonin and impulsive aggression. However, studies on neurotransmitter receptor profiles, functional imaging, genetics, and epigenetics reviewed in this article suggest a more complicated picture that includes consideration of gene vs. environment in the evaluation of risk. Serotonin supplementation studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce impulsive aggression in some adults but are less effective in adults with pathological aggression and also in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent studies are less conclusive, in part due to the heterogeneous physiologic and psychosocial changes occurring over the course of development. The author thus concludes that psychiatrists can reduce risk in these special patient populations by creating safer environments in the form of changes in policy and increased support services. PMID:25924230

  20. The role of serotonin in impulsive aggression, suicide, and homicide in adolescents and adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Glick, Amy R

    2015-05-01

    This is a literature review discussing previous studies on the associations between impulsive aggression and the serotonergic system in adults, adolescents, and children. The review demonstrates that there is a clear association between low cerebrospinal fluid serotonin and impulsive aggression. However, studies on neurotransmitter receptor profiles, functional imaging, genetics, and epigenetics reviewed in this article suggest a more complicated picture that includes consideration of gene vs. environment in the evaluation of risk. Serotonin supplementation studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce impulsive aggression in some adults but are less effective in adults with pathological aggression and also in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent studies are less conclusive, in part due to the heterogeneous physiologic and psychosocial changes occurring over the course of development. The author thus concludes that psychiatrists can reduce risk in these special patient populations by creating safer environments in the form of changes in policy and increased support services.

  1. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  2. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  3. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  4. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  5. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  6. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  7. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  8. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  9. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  10. Reactive Aggression: Understanding and Helping Children Who Respond to Others with Aggressive Behavior. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Thomas P.

    This Boys' Town paper for parents examines the reactive aggression of children who respond aggressively to what they view as provocation. The paper differentiates between reactive and proactive aggression by presenting examples of each. Factors that can increase aggression in families are noted, including punishment acceleration, crossover,…

  11. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  12. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  13. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  14. Patterns of Interaction and Mathematical Thinking of High School Students in Classroom Environments That Include Use of Java-Based, Curriculum-Embedded Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonkert, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the nature of student interaction and discourse in an environment that includes the use of Java-based, curriculum-embedded mathematical software. The software "CPMP-Tools" was designed as part of the development of the second edition of the "Core-Plus Mathematics" curriculum. The use of the software on…

  15. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  16. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers’ harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers’ harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. PMID:14640808

  17. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  18. An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John; Coyne, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have found that girls may be just as aggressive as boys when manipulative forms of aggression, such as gossiping and spreading rumors, are included. These forms of aggression are known by 3 different names: indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression. This review examines their commonalities and differences, and concludes that they are essentially the same form of aggression. We show that analogous forms are not found in other species. We offer a functional account: indirect aggression is an alternative strategy to direct aggression, enacted when the costs of direct aggression are high, and whose aim is to socially exclude, or harm the social status of, a victim. In this light, we consider sex differences and developmental trends and the impact of this aggression on victims. We conclude that indirect, relational, and social aggression are much more similar than they are different, and we suggest ways in which future research can be facilitated by integrating the three areas under an adaptive framework.

  19. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Twenge, Jean M; Quinlivan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationship between interpersonal rejection and aggression. Four bodies of research are summarized: laboratory experiments that manipulate rejection, rejection among adults in everyday life, rejection in childhood, and individual differences that may moderate the relationship. The theoretical mechanisms behind the effect are then explored. Possible explanations for why rejection leads to anger and aggression include: rejection as a source of pain, rejection as a source of frustration, rejection as a threat to self-esteem, mood improvement following aggression, aggression as social influence, aggression as a means of reestablishing control, retribution, disinhibition, and loss of self-control. PMID:16768650

  20. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  1. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  2. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  3. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  4. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  5. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  6. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Reactive versus Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Perusse, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the contribution of genes and environment to teacher-rated reactive and proactive aggression in 6-year-old twin pairs (172 pairs: 55 monozygotic girls, 48 monozygotic boys, 33 dizygotic girls, 36 dizygotic boys). Genetic effects accounted for 39% of the variance of reactive aggression and for 41% of the variance of proactive…

  7. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  8. Controlling Aggressive Students. Fastback Series, No. 387.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blendinger, Jack; And Others

    Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…

  9. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  10. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  11. Substance use, aggression perpetration, and victimization: temporal co-occurrence in college males and females.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L

    2013-09-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression.

  12. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  13. Service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health care: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    Gudde, Camilla Buch; Olsø, Turid Møller; Whittington, Richard; Vatne, Solfrid

    2015-01-01

    Background Aggressive situations occurring within mental health services can harm service users, staff, and the therapeutic environment. There is a consensus that the aggression phenomenon is multidimensional, but the picture is still unclear concerning the complex interplay of causal variables and their respective impact. To date, only a small number of empirical studies include users’ views of relevant factors. The main objective of this review is to identify and synthesize evidence relating to service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health settings. Methods We included qualitative studies of any design reporting on service users’ own experiences of conditions contributing to aggressive situations in mental health care and their views on preventative strategies. Eligible articles were identified through an electronic database search (PsycINFO, PubMed, Ovid Nursing Database, Embase, and CINAHL), hand search, and cross-referencing. Extracted data were combined and interpreted using aspects of thematic synthesis. Results We reviewed 5,566 records and included 13 studies (ten qualitative and three mixed methods). Service users recognized that both their own mental state and negative aspects of the treatment environment affected the development of aggressive situations. Themes were derived from experiential knowledge and included calls to be involved in questions regarding how to define aggression and relevant triggers, and how to prevent aggressive encounters effectively. The findings suggest that incidents are triggered when users experience staff behavior as custodial rather than caring and when they feel ignored. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of staffs’ knowledge and skills in communication for developing relationships based on sensitivity, respect, and collaboration with service users in order to prevent aggressive situations. An important factor is a treatment environment with opportunities for

  14. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  15. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  16. Psychoanalytic views of aggression: some theoretical problems.

    PubMed

    Pedder, J

    1992-06-01

    Various problems in relation to psychoanalytic theories of aggression are considered in a review which is by no means exhaustive but includes areas which have puzzled and interested the author. First to be considered is why the concept of aggression as a major drive was a relative late-comer in psychoanalysis; next the contentious concept of a 'death instinct' and some of the factors in Freud's lifetime which may have contributed to both. Then it is suggested that we seem to have theories of aggression which might be called primary or secondary in two different senses. First is the question whether aggression is innate or secondary to frustration. In another sense, primary and secondary theories of aggression seem to survive paralleling Freud's original primary and secondary theories of anxiety. In this sense the primary theory survives as an explanation of psychosomatic disorder. Lastly, the link between suicide and murder is considered and the turning of aggression against the self in depression and self-destructive attacks. PMID:1633126

  17. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  18. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  19. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  20. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  1. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  2. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  3. Sex differences in aggression: a rejoinder and reprise.

    PubMed

    Maccoby, E E; Jacklin, C N

    1980-12-01

    A meta analysis of observational studies of peer-directed aggression by children aged 6 and younger yields a highly significant sex difference. Out of 32 studies, z values reflected higher male aggression in 24, no difference in 8, higher female aggression in none. Furthermore, boys' aggression is most often displayed in the presence of male partners. Evidence is presented that the sex difference is probably not merely an artifact of higher rates of male activity or social interaction. Existing cross-cultural evidence also shows higher rates of male aggression, as does most of the work on free-living primates. Specifically, the 3 observational studies of chimpanzees show considerably more aggression in males. Evidence for a hormonal contribution to male aggression is clear in animals and inconclusive in human beings, although the existing human findings are consistent with such a contribution. Recent evidence on the differential socialization of boys and girls supports our earlier view: that boys do not receive more reinforcement for aggression than girls, and that rates of punishment are also similar once the differential base rates in aggression are taken into account. The role of self-socialization (including choice of same-sex models) is discussed, and the view is expressed that this probably depends upon the development of certain cognitions about sex identity which normally do not develop until a later age than the age at which a consistent sex difference in aggression first appears.

  4. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  6. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  7. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  8. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  9. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  10. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  11. Aggressive Behavior in the Pre-Verbal Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Georgia

    Directors, teachers, parents, and mental health professionals in child care centers were interviewed about aggressive behavior of preverbal children to determine the caregivers' level of understanding about children's emotional development. The definition of aggressive behavior included hitting, biting, pushing, scratching, pinching, grabbing,…

  12. Management of Aggressive and Violent Behavior in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Antisocial behavior patterns and the assessment and management of aggressive and violent behavior in the schools are discussed. Behavioral analysis of aggression should identify its antecedents and consequences to provide the basis for intervention. Intervention strategies include behavior enhancement contingencies, behavior reduction…

  13. Environmental enrichment in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hatcheries: Field evaluation of aggression, foraging, and territoriality in natural and hatchery fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Reforms for salmonid hatcheries include production of hatchery fish with behavioral characteristics similar to wild conspecifics. Enrichment of the hatchery environment has been proposed to achieve this goal. Field experiments of steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry from a common stock reared under natural (i.e., stream), enriched hatchery, and conventional hatchery conditions indicated no significant differences in the rates of foraging or aggression between rearing treatments. However, the rates of foraging and aggression of natural fry were significantly affected by the type of hatchery fry stocked with them. Natural steelhead fry fed at lower rates and exhibited higher rates of aggression when stocked with steelhead fry raised in enriched hatchery environments. Territory sizes of steelhead fry ranged from 0.015 to 0.801 m2; were significantly, positively related to body length; and were not significantly different between rearing treatments. We conclude that hatchery steelhead fry released into streams establish territories that are proportional to their body length and similar in size to territories of natural steelhead fry. Our results indicate that both conventional and enriched hatchery environments produce natural social behaviors in steelhead released as fry and that fry from enriched hatchery environments may alter the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural, resident steelhead fry. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  15. Aggression as positive reinforcement in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in the behavior-analytic literature, a label that bares a striking resemblance to biobehavioral explanations of reward-seeking behaviors. Biobehavioral studies have revealed that aggression activates the same endogenous brain mechanisms as primary reinforcers like food. Therefore, integrating brain-environment explanations would result in a better understanding of the functional mechanisms associated with nonsocial aggression. The purpose of this paper was to explore aggression as a reinforcing consequence for reinforcement-seeking behaviors in people with intellectual disabilities. First, the literature establishing aggression as reinforcement for arbitrary responding will be reviewed. Next, the reward-related biological process associated with aggression was described. Finally, the paper discusses what might be done to assess and treat aggression maintained by nonsocial reinforcement.

  16. Aggression as positive reinforcement in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in the behavior-analytic literature, a label that bares a striking resemblance to biobehavioral explanations of reward-seeking behaviors. Biobehavioral studies have revealed that aggression activates the same endogenous brain mechanisms as primary reinforcers like food. Therefore, integrating brain-environment explanations would result in a better understanding of the functional mechanisms associated with nonsocial aggression. The purpose of this paper was to explore aggression as a reinforcing consequence for reinforcement-seeking behaviors in people with intellectual disabilities. First, the literature establishing aggression as reinforcement for arbitrary responding will be reviewed. Next, the reward-related biological process associated with aggression was described. Finally, the paper discusses what might be done to assess and treat aggression maintained by nonsocial reinforcement. PMID:21700420

  17. Predicting Change in Children’s Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-level Descriptive Norms of Aggression and Pro-social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed. PMID:19480888

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on intimate partner aggression: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2004-12-01

    Social learning theory posits that, because aggression against intimates runs in families, children learn how to behave aggressively through watching their parents and being reinforced for their own aggression. This theory considers only environmental influences on familial resemblance; however, familial resemblance could also be due to genetic factors. The current study uses a twin design (134 monozygotic, 41 dizygotic) to examine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in intimate aggression. Model-fitting analyses consistently showed that shared genes explained the familial resemblance in psychological and physical intimate partner aggression; the remaining variance was explained by unique environments. Multivariate model-fitting analyses showed that most of the genetic influences responsible for the receipt of aggression were also responsible for its use, suggesting that there is a genetic predisposition to get involved in aggressive relationships. These results challenge the prevailing theory to explain familial resemblance in intimate aggression.

  19. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  20. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  1. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J; Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2016-07-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  2. Human Aggression Across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects—all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment. PMID:22078481

  3. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases.

  4. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  5. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  6. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  7. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  8. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  9. Maintained aggressive behavior in gonadectomized male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Weiss, C S; Coughlin, J P

    1979-07-01

    Adult male Betta splendens were gonadectomized and tested twice for aggressive behavior two weeks later. In a mutual viewing test environment, it was found that gonadectomized animals maintained their aggressive behavior on all six indices of aggression at a level equal to controls. Animals that showed some testis regeneration and sham operated fish were also equal to controls. The results are interpreted to mean that adult aggressive behavior in male B. splendens may not be under the control of gonadal hormones. Pituitary gonadotropins, interrenal gland, and critical period hypotheses are given as possible explanations of the maintained aggressiveness following castration.

  10. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  11. Managing Irritability and Aggression in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Adelaide S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism and autism spectrum disorders have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. In one study up to 20% of children with autism have symptoms of irritability and aggression including aggression, severe tantrums, and deliberate self injurious behavior (Lecavalier [2006] "J. Autism Dev. Disord." 36:1101-1114.). These…

  12. "And Then a Huge, Huge Giant Grabbed Me!" Aggression in Children's Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacigalupa, Chiara; Wright, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Children's stories, like children's play, often contain aggressive elements. This research study identified the themes and ideas that children between the ages of 2 and 6 years old included in 290 dictated stories with aggressive elements. Among the stories that contained aggressive elements, 42% were dictated by girls, and 57% were dictated by…

  13. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  14. Neurotransmitters regulating feline aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A; Schubert, K

    1995-01-01

    The experiments described in this review reveal that the expression and modulation of aggressive responses in the cat are organized by two distinct sets of pathways. One set of pathways is associated with the elicitation of a specific form of attack behavior. It includes the medial hypothalamus and its projections to the PAG for the expression of defensive rage behavior and the lateral hypothalamus and its descending projections for the expression of predatory attack behavior. The primary focus of the present review is upon the analysis of defensive rage behavior. It was demonstrated that the pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the PAG, which appears to be essential for elicitation of defensive rage, is powerfully excitatory and utilizes excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The other pathways examined in this review arise from different nuclei of the amygdala and are modulatory in nature. Here, two facilitatory systems have been identified. The first involves a projection system from the basal complex of amygdala that projects directly to the PAG. Its excitatory effects are manifest through excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The second facilitatory pathway arises from the medial nucleus of the amygdala. However, its projection system is directed to the medial hypothalamus rather than the PAG. Its neurotransmitter appears to be substance P that acts upon NK1 receptors within the medial hypothalamus (see Figure 10). It has yet to be determined whether substance P acts upon any of the other neurokinin receptor subtypes. It should also be pointed out that the substance P pathway from the medial amygdala to the medial hypothalamus functions to suppress predatory attack behavior elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. In this network, it is likely that the modulatory effects of the medial amygdala require the presence of a second, inhibitory pathway from the medial hypothalamus that innervates the

  15. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  16. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  17. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.

  18. Executive Functions in Children: Associations with Aggressive Behavior and Appraisal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Mesha L.; Weiss, Bahr; Lochman, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how deficits in executive functioning and distortions in appraisal processing are related to subtypes of aggressive behavior. The sample included 83 boys assessed using multi-informant reports and performance measures. Deficits in two executive functions, response inhibition and planning ability were related primarily to reactive aggression. Hostile attributional biases moderated relations between planning ability and proactive and reactive aggression subtypes, with minimal relations between planning deficits and aggression at low levels of hostile attributional bias. As the level of hostile attributional bias increased, the relation between planning deficits and reactive aggression became increasingly large in a positive direction whereas the relation between planning deficits and proactive aggression became increasingly negative. Additionally, hostile encoding moderated the relation between behavioral inhibition and reactive aggressive behavior. Results also suggested a mediational role for response inhibition in the relation between planning ability and reactive aggression. PMID:19408113

  19. Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Changtae; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidences indicate that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has a higher risk of developing aggression and violent behavior. A few correlation studies between IAD and aggression have implicated a common biological mechanism. However, neurobiological approaches to IAD and aggression have not yet been studied. Methods: A literature search for studies for Internet addiction disorder or aggression was performed in the PubMed database and we selected articles about neurobiology of IAD or aggression. Results: This review includes (a) common neural substrates such as the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system between aggression and IAD; (b) common neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, opiate and nicotine between aggression and IAD. Conclusions: Through reviewing the relevant literature, we suggested the possibility of common neurobiology between the two psychiatric phenomena and direction of research on aggression in IAD. PMID:25215210

  20. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  1. Online Moral Disengagement, Cyberbullying, and Cyber-Aggression.

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    The study of moral disengagement has greatly informed research on aggression and bullying. There has been some debate on whether cyberbullies and other cyber-aggressors show more or less of a tendency for moral disengagement than traditional aggressors and bullies. However, according to the triadic model of reciprocal determinism, an individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both personal factors and his/her social environment. This article reviews the literature to propose a new conceptual framework addressing how features of the online context may enable specific mechanisms that facilitate moral disengagement. Specific affordances for moral disengagement proposed here include the paucity of social-emotional cues, the ease of disseminating communication via social networks, and the media attention on cyberbullying, which may elicit moral justification, euphemistic labeling, palliative comparison, diffusion and displacement of responsibility, minimizing and disregarding the consequences for others, dehumanization, and attribution of blame. These ideas suggest that by providing affordances for these mechanisms of moral disengagement, online settings may facilitate cyber-aggression and cyberbullying.

  2. Online Moral Disengagement, Cyberbullying, and Cyber-Aggression.

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    The study of moral disengagement has greatly informed research on aggression and bullying. There has been some debate on whether cyberbullies and other cyber-aggressors show more or less of a tendency for moral disengagement than traditional aggressors and bullies. However, according to the triadic model of reciprocal determinism, an individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both personal factors and his/her social environment. This article reviews the literature to propose a new conceptual framework addressing how features of the online context may enable specific mechanisms that facilitate moral disengagement. Specific affordances for moral disengagement proposed here include the paucity of social-emotional cues, the ease of disseminating communication via social networks, and the media attention on cyberbullying, which may elicit moral justification, euphemistic labeling, palliative comparison, diffusion and displacement of responsibility, minimizing and disregarding the consequences for others, dehumanization, and attribution of blame. These ideas suggest that by providing affordances for these mechanisms of moral disengagement, online settings may facilitate cyber-aggression and cyberbullying. PMID:26167839

  3. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C; Massey, Jonathan H; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-08-26

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity.

  4. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C; Massey, Jonathan H; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-08-26

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  5. Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Rittschof, Clare C.; Massey, Jonathan H.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing high energetic demands, brains do not always use glucose and oxygen in a ratio that produces maximal ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In some cases glucose consumption exceeds oxygen use despite adequate oxygen availability, a phenomenon known as aerobic glycolysis. Although metabolic plasticity seems essential for normal cognition, studying its functional significance has been challenging because few experimental systems link brain metabolic patterns to distinct behavioral states. Our recent transcriptomic analysis established a correlation between aggression and decreased whole-brain oxidative phosphorylation activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera), suggesting that brain metabolic plasticity may modulate this naturally occurring behavior. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between brain metabolism and aggression is causal, conserved over evolutionary time, cell type-specific, and modulated by the social environment. Pharmacologically treating honey bees to inhibit complexes I or V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway resulted in increased aggression. In addition, transgenic RNAi lines and genetic manipulation to knock down gene expression in complex I in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) neurons resulted in increased aggression, but knockdown in glia had no effect. Finally, honey bee colony-level social manipulations that decrease individual aggression attenuated the effects of oxidative phosphorylation inhibition on aggression, demonstrating a specific effect of the social environment on brain function. Because decreased neuronal oxidative phosphorylation is usually associated with brain disease, these findings provide a powerful context for understanding brain metabolic plasticity and naturally occurring behavioral plasticity. PMID:25092297

  6. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  7. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Antisocial aggression is a widespread and expensive social problem. Although aggressive behaviors and temperament are highly heritable, clinical and trait associations for the most promising candidate gene for aggression, MAOA, have been largely inconsistent. We suggest that limitations inherent to that approach might be overcome by using multimodal neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of genetic risk. Herein, we detail functional, structural and connectivity findings implicating the low-expressing allele of the MAOA u-VNTR (MAOA-L) in adversely prejudicing information processing within a corticolimbic circuit composed of amygdala, rostral cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. We propose that the MAOA-L, by causing an ontogenic excess of 5-hydroxytryptamine, labilizes critical neural circuitry for social evaluation and emotion regulation (the 'socioaffective scaffold'), thereby amplifying the effects of adverse early-life experience and creating deleterious sociocognitive biases. Our construct provides a neurobiologically consistent model for gene-environment interactions in impulsive aggression.

  9. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  10. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G

    2008-01-01

    Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin

  11. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  12. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  13. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. PMID:25496506

  14. The (non)relation between empathy and aggression: surprising results from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Johnson, Jarrod A

    2014-05-01

    Assumptions regarding the importance of empathy are pervasive. Given the impact these assumptions have on research, assessment, and treatment, it is imperative to know whether they are valid. Of particular interest is a basic question: Are deficits in empathy associated with aggressive behavior? Previous attempts to review the relation between empathy and aggression yielded inconsistent results and generally included a small number of studies. To clarify these divergent findings, we comprehensively reviewed the relation of empathy to aggression in adults, including community, student, and criminal samples. A mixed effects meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies involving 106 effect sizes revealed that the relation between empathy and aggression was surprisingly weak (r = -.11). This finding was fairly consistent across specific types of aggression, including verbal aggression (r = -.20), physical aggression (r = -.12), and sexual aggression (r = -.09). Several potentially important moderators were examined, although they had little impact on the total effect size. The results of this study are particularly surprising given that empathy is a core component of many treatments for aggressive offenders and that most psychological disorders of aggression include diagnostic criteria specific to deficient empathic responding. We discuss broad conclusions, consider implications for theory, and address current limitations in the field, such as reliance on a small number of self-report measures of empathy. We highlight the need for diversity in measurement and suggest a new operationalization of empathy that may allow it to synchronize with contemporary thinking regarding its role in aggressive behavior. PMID:24364745

  15. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  16. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  17. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  18. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  19. The relation between poor sleep, impulsivity and aggression in forensic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Spreen, Marinus; Lancel, Marike

    2014-01-17

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with disturbed sleep. Poor sleep can attenuate emotional control, including the regulation of aggression, and thus, may increase the risk of impulsive, aggressive acts. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of sleep problems to subjective and objective aggressiveness and impulsivity in a forensic psychiatric population. Questionnaires on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), chronic severe insomnia (Sleep Diagnosis List), aggressiveness (Aggression Questionnaire) and impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) were completed by 96 forensic psychiatric inpatients, admitted to two forensic facilities in the Netherlands. To obtain more objective measurements of aggression and impulsivity, observational scores on a professional instrument to assess the risk of future aggression (Historical Clinical Future-30) and reported aggressive incidents were collected from files. Results showed that a worse sleep quality and higher insomnia scores were significantly associated with self-reported aggression and impulsivity, clinician-rated hostility and involvement in aggressive incidents within the facility. Whether a participant was professionally judged as impulsive could not be predicted by sleep quality or the insomnia score. To a large extent the results of this study support the hypothesis that poor sleep is related to impulsive, aggressive behavior in forensic psychiatric patients. It is worthwhile to examine the protective effect of treatment of sleep difficulties on aggressive reactivity in (forensic) psychiatric populations. PMID:24184508

  20. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed.

  1. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  2. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping.

    PubMed

    Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression.

  3. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  4. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  5. Mediators of Aggression Among Young Adult Offspring of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the connection between maternal depression and offspring aggression during the transition to adulthood, expanding the scope of prior research on this topic. Both family-level factors (including parent-child relationship quality and maternal relationship quality) and youth factors (including depression history and social functioning in mid-adolescence) were tested as potential mediators in a longitudinal community sample of 710 youth at ages 15 and 20. The results suggest that maternal depression confers a risk for higher levels of aggressive behavior by offspring at age 20. Structural Equation Models suggested that the association between maternal depression and youth aggression is fully mediated by youth history of depression by mid-adolescence, even when accounting for the stability of aggression between ages 15 and 20. Parent-child relationship quality, youth social functioning, and maternal relationship quality were not unique mediators of this association. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:20919790

  6. A comparison of methodologies to test aggression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Way, Gregory P; Ruhl, Nathan; Snekser, Jennifer L; Kiesel, Alexis L; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-04-01

    Aggression is a psychological construct that is commonly used to classify zebrafish behavior. Aggression is a complex trait that can be difficult to accurately measure. The literature on fish behavior describes many different methodologies to examine aggression, which, we believe, have not been compared in a formal manner. In this study we observed 19 individual zebrafish (Danio rerio) and quantified bites, lateral displays, charges, darts, and time near the stimulus in six common assays used to measure aggression. The methodologies included an inclined mirror assay, two flat mirror assays with different acclimation periods, a live conspecific assay, a clay model stimulus assay, and a video recording assay. Our results indicate high repeatability in most aggressive behaviors over time, which confirms the value of each assay to measure personality. However, our results also indicate significant differences between the assays. Specifically, assays using a flat mirror or live conspecific as a stimulus for aggression elicited more attempted bites than an inclined mirror, a clay model stimulus, or a video recording stimulus. Furthermore, the inclined mirror stimulus provoked more darts than any other assay. The results suggest the need for researchers to consider specific research goals when selecting the appropriate stimulus to provoke aggression in zebrafish.

  7. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics. PMID:26100892

  8. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Aggression in Personality Disordered Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Royce; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurochemical studies have pointed to a modulatory role in human aggression for a variety of central neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as cytokines. While animal studies of cytokines suggest an aggression-facilitating role for central cytokines, especially for interleukin-1β and other cytokines, no cerebrospinal fluid studies of cytokines have yet been reported in regard to human aggression. Methods: Basal lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from 38 physically healthy subjects with DSM-5 Personality Disorder and assayed for cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 (log IL-6) and cerebrospinal fluid soluble IL-1 Receptor II protein in the context of their relationship with measures of aggression. Results: Cerebrospinal fluid soluble interleukin-1 Receptor II (r=.35, r2 = .12, P= .03), but not log interleukin-6 (r = -.05, r2 = .00, P= .76), levels were positively correlated with a composite measure of aggression. Adding relevant covariates, including cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, to the statistical model doubled the strength of this relationship (partial r = .54, r2 = .29, P= .002). No relationship was seen with history of suicidal behavior or with any measure of impulsivity, negative affectivity, or of general dimensions of personality. Conclusion: These data suggest a positive relationship between at least one inflammatory cytokine in the central nervous system and aggression in human subjects. This finding adds to the complex picture of the central neurochemistry of impulsive aggression in human subjects. PMID:25650410

  10. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  12. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  13. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  14. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  15. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  16. Moderating Effects of Autism on Parent Views of Genetic Screening for Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Brandt, Rachel C.; Bohannan, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in gene-environment interaction research have revealed genes that are associated with aggression. However, little is known about parent perceptions of genetic screening for behavioral symptoms like aggression as opposed to diagnosing disabilities. These perceptions may influence future research endeavors involving genetic linkage studies…

  17. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  18. The prevalence of aggression in genetic syndromes: a review.

    PubMed

    Powis, Laurie; Oliver, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Research into behavioural phenotypes identifies both environmental and organic factors as influencing aggression in children and adults with genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability. However, in contrast to self-injury there is a paucity of research that compares aggression across relevant syndromes. The primary aim of this review is to examine the association between aggression and genetic syndromes by analysis of prevalence studies. The review also examines the literature on the form of the behaviour and influence of environmental factors. Results imply that certain syndrome groups (Cri du Chat, Smith-Magenis, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Fragile X syndromes; estimates over 70%) evidence a stronger association with aggression than others (e.g. Williams and Down syndromes; estimates below 15%). However, the strength of association is difficult to quantify due to methodological differences between studies. The results from examining form and environmental influences highlight the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. Research employing group comparison designs is warranted and future work on the assessment and intervention of aggression in genetic syndromes should consider the importance of phenotype-environment interactions. PMID:24594523

  19. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  20. Tachykinin-expressing neurons control male-specific aggressive arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-16

    Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. PMID:24439378

  1. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Lazebny, Oleg E; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A; Dronova, Daria A; Karelin, Dmitri V; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Shibalev, Dmitri V; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)--the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17-70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born.

  2. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies.

  3. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies. PMID:24411982

  4. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  5. The Relation Between Trait Mindfulness and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  6. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  7. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  8. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  9. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-09-22

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild. PMID:26378216

  10. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  11. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-09-22

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild.

  12. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  13. Online Mate-Retention Tactics on Facebook Are Associated With Relationship Aggression.

    PubMed

    Brem, Meagan J; Spiller, Laura C; Vandehey, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    A measure of Facebook-related mate-retention tactics was developed to investigate the relationship between online behaviors and intimate partner aggression. One hundred and seventy-seven young adults (65 men, 112 women) completed questionnaires that included measures of online and offline mate-retention tactics, Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and intimate partner violence. A factor analysis yielded four subscales for the Facebook Mate-Retention Tactic Inventory (FMRTI): Care and Affection, Jealousy and Surveillance, Possession Signals, and Punishment of Infidelity Threat. The FMRTI total scores were positively correlated with Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and use of offline mate-retention tactics. The Jealousy and Surveillance subscale uniquely predicted intimate partner psychological and physical aggression over and above existing measures. Facebook mate-retention tactics fully mediated the relation between Facebook jealousy and both intimate partner psychological and physical aggression. The current study provides preliminary evidence for conceptualizing Facebook as an environment for the use of mate-retention tactics that have real-life implications for intimate partner violence. PMID:25339609

  14. Online Mate-Retention Tactics on Facebook Are Associated With Relationship Aggression.

    PubMed

    Brem, Meagan J; Spiller, Laura C; Vandehey, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    A measure of Facebook-related mate-retention tactics was developed to investigate the relationship between online behaviors and intimate partner aggression. One hundred and seventy-seven young adults (65 men, 112 women) completed questionnaires that included measures of online and offline mate-retention tactics, Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and intimate partner violence. A factor analysis yielded four subscales for the Facebook Mate-Retention Tactic Inventory (FMRTI): Care and Affection, Jealousy and Surveillance, Possession Signals, and Punishment of Infidelity Threat. The FMRTI total scores were positively correlated with Facebook jealousy, Facebook surveillance, and use of offline mate-retention tactics. The Jealousy and Surveillance subscale uniquely predicted intimate partner psychological and physical aggression over and above existing measures. Facebook mate-retention tactics fully mediated the relation between Facebook jealousy and both intimate partner psychological and physical aggression. The current study provides preliminary evidence for conceptualizing Facebook as an environment for the use of mate-retention tactics that have real-life implications for intimate partner violence.

  15. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  16. Serotonin depletion-induced maladaptive aggression requires the presence of androgens.

    PubMed

    Studer, Erik; Näslund, Jakob; Andersson, Erik; Nilsson, Staffan; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as well as the percentage amount of social behavior spent on attack but not that spent on threat - i.e. that it induces a pattern of unrestricted, maladaptive aggression - in gonadectomized C57Bl/6 male mice receiving testosterone replacement; in contrast, it failed to reinstate aggression in those not given testosterone. Whereas these results suggest the pro-aggressive effect of testosterone to be independent of serotonin, and not caused by an inhibition of serotonergic activity, the pCPA-induced induction of maladaptive aggression appears to require the presence of the hormone. In line with these findings, pCPA enhanced the total time of attack as well the relative time spent on attacks but not threats also in wild-type gonadally intact male C57Bl/6 mice, but failed to reinstate aggression in mice rendered hypo-aggressive by early knock-out of androgen receptors in the brain (ARNesDel mice). We conclude that androgenic deficiency does not dampen aggression by unleashing an anti-aggressive serotonergic influence; instead serotonin seems to modulate aggressive behavior by exerting a parallel-coupled inhibitory role on androgen-driven aggression, which is irrelevant in the absence of the hormone, and the arresting of which leads to enhanced maladaptive aggression.

  17. Serotonin Depletion-Induced Maladaptive Aggression Requires the Presence of Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Erik; Näslund, Jakob; Andersson, Erik; Nilsson, Staffan; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as well as the percentage amount of social behavior spent on attack but not that spent on threat – i.e. that it induces a pattern of unrestricted, maladaptive aggression – in gonadectomized C57Bl/6 male mice receiving testosterone replacement; in contrast, it failed to reinstate aggression in those not given testosterone. Whereas these results suggest the pro-aggressive effect of testosterone to be independent of serotonin, and not caused by an inhibition of serotonergic activity, the pCPA-induced induction of maladaptive aggression appears to require the presence of the hormone. In line with these findings, pCPA enhanced the total time of attack as well the relative time spent on attacks but not threats also in wild-type gonadally intact male C57Bl/6 mice, but failed to reinstate aggression in mice rendered hypo-aggressive by early knock-out of androgen receptors in the brain (ARNesDel mice). We conclude that androgenic deficiency does not dampen aggression by unleashing an anti-aggressive serotonergic influence; instead serotonin seems to modulate aggressive behavior by exerting a parallel-coupled inhibitory role on androgen-driven aggression, which is irrelevant in the absence of the hormone, and the arresting of which leads to enhanced maladaptive aggression. PMID:25978464

  18. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  19. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  20. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  1. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  2. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  3. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  4. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  5. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  6. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  7. Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2008-08-12

    This paper reviews existing psychophysiological studies of aggression and violent behaviour including research employing autonomic, electrocortical and neuroimaging measures. Robust physiological correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour evident in this literature include low baseline heart rate, enhanced autonomic reactivity to stressful or aversive stimuli, enhanced EEG slow wave activity, reduced P300 brain potential response and indications from structural and functional neuroimaging studies of dysfunction in frontocortical and limbic brain regions that mediate emotional processing and regulation. The findings are interpreted within a conceptual framework that draws on two integrative models in the literature. The first is a recently developed hierarchical model of impulse control (externalizing) problems, in which various disinhibitory syndromes including aggressive and addictive behaviours of different kinds are seen as arising from common as well as distinctive aetiologic factors. This model represents an approach to organizing these various interrelated phenotypes and investigating their common and distinctive aetiologic substrates. The other is a neurobiological model that posits impairments in affective regulatory circuits in the brain as a key mechanism for impulsive aggressive behaviour. This model provides a perspective for integrating findings from studies employing different measures that have implicated varying brain structures and physiological systems in violent and aggressive behaviour. PMID:18434285

  8. Variance components of aggressive behavior in genetically highly connected Pietrain populations kept under two different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Appel, Anne K; Voß, Barbara; Tönepöhl, Björn; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is a standard management procedure in commercial pig production and is often associated with a period of intense and physically damaging aggression. Aggression is considered a problem for animal welfare and production. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the genetic background of aggressive behavior traits at mixing of unfamiliar gilts under 2 different housing conditions. Therefore, a total of 543 purebred Pietrain gilts, from 2 nucleus farms (farm A: n = 302; farm B: n = 241) of 1 breeding company, were tested at an average age of 214 d (SD 12.2 d) for aggressive behavior by 1 observer. Observations included the frequencies of aggressive attack and reciprocal fighting during mixing with unfamiliar gilts. On farm A 41% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, whereas 59% were purebred Landrace or Duroc gilts. On the farm B 42% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, and 58% purebred Large White gilts. The average size of the newly mixed groups of gilts was 28 animals on farm A and 18 animals on farm B. The Pietrain gilts from the 2 herds were genetically closely linked. They were the offspring of 96 sires, with 64% of these sires having tested progeny in both farms. There were clear differences in the housing of the animals between the 2 farms. The test pen on farm A had a solid concrete floor littered with wooden shavings and was equipped with a dry feeder. On farm B there was a partly slatted floor, and the gilts were fed by an electronic sow feeder. Mean space allowance was 2.6 m(2)/gilt on farm A and 3.9 m(2)/gilt on farm B. Although large interindividual differences existed, gilts from farm B performed numerically more aggressive attack (mean 1.12, SD 1.42 vs. mean 0.71, SD 1.20) and reciprocal fighting (mean 0.78, SD 0.98 vs. mean 0.44, SD 0.82) when compared with gilts from farm A. The heritabilities and additive genetic variances for behavioral traits were estimated with a linear animal model and were on a low level

  9. Child exposure to serious life events, COMT, and aggression: Testing differential susceptibility theory.

    PubMed

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events.

  10. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  11. Looking for reward in all the wrong places: dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms indirectly affect aggression through sensation-seeking.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Lynam, Donald R; Peters, Jessica R; Jiang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with genotypes that code for reduced dopaminergic brain activity often exhibit a predisposition toward aggression. However, it remains largely unknown how dopaminergic genotypes may increase aggression. Lower-functioning dopamine systems motivate individuals to seek reward from external sources such as illicit drugs and other risky experiences. Based on emerging evidence that aggression is a rewarding experience, we predicted that the effect of lower-functioning dopaminergic functioning on aggression would be mediated by tendencies to seek the environment for rewards. Caucasian female and male undergraduates (N = 277) were genotyped for five polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene; they reported their previous history of aggression and their dispositional reward-seeking. Lower-functioning DRD2 profiles were associated with greater sensation-seeking, which then predicted greater aggression. Our findings suggest that lower-functioning dopaminergic activity puts individuals at risk for violence because it motivates them to experience aggression's hedonically rewarding qualities.

  12. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e. g., communication training) and psychological coping (e. g., resilience enhancement).

  13. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

  14. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  15. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  16. Ventral premammillary nucleus as a critical sensory relay to the maternal aggression network

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Simone C.; Guimarães, Cibele Carla; Furigo, Isadora Clivatti; Sukikara, Marcia Harumi; Baldo, Marcus V. C.; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Canteras, Newton S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal aggression is under the control of a wide variety of factors that prime the females for aggression or trigger the aggressive event. Maternal attacks are triggered by the perception of sensory cues from the intruder, and here we have identified a site in the hypothalamus of lactating rats that is highly responsive to the male intruder—the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv). The PMv is heavily targeted by the medial amygdalar nucleus, and we used lesion and immediate-early gene studies to test our working hypothesis that the PMv signals the presence of a male intruder and transfers this information to the network organizing maternal aggression. PMv-lesioned dams exhibit significantly reduced maternal aggression, without affecting maternal care. The Fos analysis revealed that PMv influences the activation of hypothalamic and septal sites shown to be mobilized during maternal aggression, including the medial preoptic nucleus (likely to represent an important locus to integrate priming stimuli critical for maternal aggression), the caudal two-thirds of the hypothalamic attack area (comprising the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent tuberal region of the lateral hypothalamic area, critical for the expression of maternal aggression), and the ventral part of the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (presently discussed as being involved in controlling neuroendocrine and autonomic responses accompanying maternal aggression). These findings reveal an important role for the PMv in detecting the male intruder and how this nucleus modulates the network controlling maternal aggression. PMID:23918394

  17. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  18. The neurobiological basis of human aggression: A review on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Waltes, Regina; Chiocchetti, Andreas G; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Aggression is an evolutionary conserved behavior present in most species including humans. Inadequate aggression can lead to long-term detrimental personal and societal effects. Here, we differentiate between proactive and reactive forms of aggression and review the genetic determinants of it. Heritability estimates of aggression in general vary between studies due to differing assessment instruments for aggressive behavior (AB) as well as age and gender of study participants. In addition, especially non-shared environmental factors shape AB. Current hypotheses suggest that environmental effects such as early life stress or chronic psychosocial risk factors (e.g., maltreatment) and variation in genes related to neuroendocrine, dopaminergic as well as serotonergic systems increase the risk to develop AB. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the genetics of human aggression based on twin studies, genetic association studies, animal models, and epigenetic analyses with the aim to differentiate between mechanisms associated with proactive or reactive aggression. We hypothesize that from a genetic perspective, the aminergic systems are likely to regulate both reactive and proactive aggression, whereas the endocrine pathways seem to be more involved in regulation of reactive aggression through modulation of impulsivity. Epigenetic studies on aggression have associated non-genetic risk factors with modifications of the stress response and the immune system. Finally, we point to the urgent need for further genome-wide analyses and the integration of genetic and epigenetic information to understand individual differences in reactive and proactive AB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men’s Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-01-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their post-incident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol’s influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work. PMID:20939645

  20. Psychopathy and aggression: when paralimbic dysfunction leads to violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models, which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  1. Psychopathy & Aggression: When Paralimbic Dysfunction Leads to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  2. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. PMID:24748546

  3. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Chester, David S.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants’ aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. PMID:24748546

  4. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  5. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  6. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  7. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  8. A Comparison of Passive Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) has historically played an important role in clinical theorizing and was diagnosable prior to the DSM-IV, in which the construct was relabeled ‘negativistic’, expanded to include negative affective symptoms, and appendicized. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the expansion of PAPD to include content related to negative moods and non-specific personality pathology compromised its discriminant validity. In an undergraduate sample (N = 1215), a self-report measure of PAPD was only moderately related to NEGPD and showed less diagnostic overlap with other PDs than NEGPD. Furthermore, a conjoint factor analysis yielded a strong first factor (moodiness) which appeared less specific to passive aggressive behavior than three other factors (irresponsibility, inadequacy and contempt). We conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the DSM. PMID:22329420

  9. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  10. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  11. Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

  12. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

  13. Molecular Profiling of Aggressive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Gazzola, Anna; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Pileri, Stefano A.; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, several studies of molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas were performed. In particular, it was shown that DLBCL can be distinguished in two different entities according to GEP. Specifically, ABC and GCB subtypes were characterized by having different pathogenetic and clinical features. In addition, it was demonstrated that DLBCLs are distinct from BL. Indeed, the latter is a unique molecular entity. However, relevant pathological differences emerged among the clinical subtypes. More recently, microRNA profiling provided further information concerning BL-DLBCL distinction as well as for their subclassification. In this paper, the authors based on their own experience and the most updated literature review, the main concept on molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:22190944

  14. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  15. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  16. Neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic.

  17. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  18. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  19. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  20. Neighborhood as a predictor of non-aggressive, but not aggressive, antisocial behaviors in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior meta-analytic work has highlighted important etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior. Among these is the finding that RB is influenced by the environment more than is AGG. Relatively little research, however, has sought to identify the specific environmental experiences that contribute to this effect. Method The current study examined whether adults residing in the same neighborhood (N = 1,915 participants in 501 neighborhoods) were more similar in their AGG and RB than would be expected by chance. Analyses focused on simple multi-level models, with the participant as the lower-level unit and the neighborhood as the upper-level unit. Results Results revealed little-to-no evidence of neighborhood-level variance in AGG. By contrast, 11+% of the variance in RB could be predicted from participant neighborhood, results that persisted even when considering the possibility of genetic relatedness across participants and neighborhood selection effects. Moreover, 17% of this neighborhood-level variance in RB was accounted for by neighborhood structural characteristics and social processes. Discussion Findings bolster prior suggestions that broader contextual experiences, like the structural and social characteristics of one's neighborhood, contribute in a meaningful way to RB in particular. Our results also tentatively imply that this association may be environmental in origin. Future work should seek to develop additional, stronger designs capable of more clearly leveraging genetic un-relatedness to improve causal inferences regarding the environment. PMID:26040779

  1. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  2. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  3. Mindfulness-Based Program for Management of Aggression Among Youth: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth have shown indulgence in various high-risk behaviors and violent activities. Yoga-based approaches have been used for the management of psychological problems. The present work explores the role of mindfulness-based program in the management of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic information schedule, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and World Health Organization quality of life were administered on 50 subjects in the age range of 18-25 years at pre- and post-mindfulness-based program level. Results: It revealed the presence of feeling of well-being and ability to relax themselves; changes in score of anger, hostility, physical, and verbal aggression; and enhancement of quality of life in the physical and environment domains at 1 month follow-up. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based program has shown changes in aggression expression/control and implies integration of it in available program for the management of aggression among youth. PMID:27335516

  4. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  5. Adolescent disclosure and concealment: longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls.

  6. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  7. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide. PMID:26202623

  8. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  9. Brain Serotonin Receptors and Transporters: Initiation vs. Termination of Escalated Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recent findings have shown a complexly regulated 5-HT system as it is linked to different kinds of aggression. Objective We focus on (1) phasic and tonic changes of 5-HT and (2) state and trait of aggression, and emphasize the different receptor subtypes, their role in specific brain regions, feed-back regulation and modulation by other amines, acids and peptides. Results New pharmacological tools differentiate the first three 5-HT receptor families and their modulation by GABA, glutamate and CRF. Activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A/2C receptors in mesocorticolimbic areas, reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors. In contrast, agonists at 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area can increase aggressive behavior under specific conditions. Activation of serotonin transporters reduce mainly pathological aggression. Genetic analyses of aggressive individuals have identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly (e.g., Neuropeptide Y, αCaMKII, NOS, BDNF). Dysfunction in genes for MAOA escalates pathological aggression in rodents and humans, particularly in interaction with specific experiences. Conclusions Feedback to autoreceptors of the 5-HT1 family and modulation via heteroreceptors are important in the expression of aggressive behavior. Tonic increase of the 5-HT2 family expression may cause escalated aggression, whereas the phasic increase of 5-HT2 receptors inhibits aggressive behaviors. Polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT modulate aggression, often requiring interaction with the rearing environment. PMID:20938650

  10. “Blurred Lines?”1 Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    patrons and staff that support sexual aggression and better management of the highly sexualized and sexist environments of most bars. PMID:24588839

  11. Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Attributes of Aggressive Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toblin, R.L.; Schwartz, D.; Hopmeyer Gorman, A.; Abou-ezzeddine, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of children who are concurrently aggressive and victimized by their peers. The characteristics of these ''aggressive victims'' were examined in comparison to bullies, passive victims, and normative comparison children. The sample included 240 urban Los Angeles elementary school…

  12. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  13. Effectiveness, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Aggressive Children with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Reed, Michael D.; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; McNamara, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide an initial description of the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics (PK) of quetiapine in aggressive children with conduct disorder (CD). Method: This 8-week, open-label outpatient trial, enrolled patients ages 6 to 12 years with CD. Outcome measures included the Rating of Aggression Against People and/or Property Scale…

  14. Youth Aggression and Violence: Risk, Resilience, and Prevention. ERIC Digest #E602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christle, Christine A.; Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    This brief paper summarizes the current literature concerning youth aggression and violence especially risk, resilience, and prevention. It summarizes risk factors for aggression and violence including child characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity, risk-taking, emotional disturbance), home conditions (e.g., harsh and ineffective parental discipline,…

  15. Neuropsychological Factors in the Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper addresses the neuropsychological evaluation of impulsive aggression in emotionally disturbed students. Specific complications of organic aggressive syndrome include its unpredictable nature and basis in organic etiology. Characteristically, there is a sudden onset of unprovoked rage and violence accompanied by a drastic change in…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Distinction between Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W.; Merk, Welmoet W.

    2007-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation…

  18. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  19. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt, 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome. PMID:24906982

  20. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome.

  1. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Foon, Kenneth A.; Takeshita, Kenichi; Zinzani, Pier L.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL) comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence, there is a need for more effective therapies for all three diseases. Increased understanding of the molecular features of aggressive BCL has led to the development of a range of novel therapies, many of which target the tumor in a tailored manner and are summarized in this paper. PMID:22536253

  2. Association between childhood trauma and aggression in male prisoners.

    PubMed

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Cuomo, Chiara; Marchetti, Marco; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-30

    Childhood trauma and aggression were examined in 540 male prisoners. The Thus 540 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview, completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (BGHA) interview. There were significant correlations between CTQ scores and BGHA scores. Also prisoners with CTQ scores above the median had significantly higher BGHA scores than prisoners with CTQ scores below the median. Significantly more of the prisoners with CTQ scores above the median had more than one conviction, and significantly more had convictions as minors, and had exhibited violent behavior in prison. However, in logistic regression analyses that included possible confounding variables, CTQ scores related only to violence in prison while BGHA scores related to violent crime, having more than one conviction, conviction as a minor, and violence in prison. The relationship between CTQ and BGHA scores suggests the possibility that childhood trauma may be one determinant of aggression in prisoners. PMID:18976816

  3. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J

    1995-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 2, participants reported their mood before and after the showing of a violet or nonviolent videotape. High trait aggressive individuals felt more angry after viewing the violent videotape than did low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 3, participants first viewed either a violent or a nonviolent videotape and then competed with an "opponent" on a reaction time task in which the loser received a blast of unpleasant noise. Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low trait aggressive individuals.

  4. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  5. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  6. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  7. Think First: Addressing Aggressive Behavior in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This highly practical book presents a complete anger and aggression management training program for middle and high school students. The volume incorporates a newly revised version of the author's proven "Think First" manual, which includes step-by-step skills training guidelines and 20 reproducible handouts and forms. Also provided are a clear…

  8. A Social Cognitive Learning Theory of Homophobic Aggression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The current study used social cognitive theory as a framework to investigate self-reported homophobic aggressive behavior at school. Participants included 863 students of 49 classes, enrolled in Grades 9-13 in 10 Italian public high schools. The results from the multilevel mediation model (1-2-1) showed that class-level homophobic attitudes toward…

  9. Schizophrenia and impulsive aggression: a heuristic inquiry with forensic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of a violent act committed by an offender with schizophrenia typically focuses on whether the act was due to distortions in thought or perception, i.e., delusions or hallucination. An important but less appreciated feature is the impulsivity of the act, which can have forensic and therapeutic implications. Here a modification of Barratt's classification of aggressive behavior is presented that includes premeditated (instrumental), medical (secondary), impulsive (expressive), and compulsive (instrumental and expressive) aggression. Violence due to a mental condition such as schizophrenia is considered medical, but even aggression motivated by delusions or hallucinations can also be characterized as impulsive, premeditated, or compulsive.Although research on aggression and schizophrenia is limited with regard to the impulsivity-premeditation dimension and difficult to compare, current evidence suggests this to be an important consideration in the assessment of aggression in individuals with schizophrenia, important both forensically and therapeutically. Future research on the impulsive-premeditated quality of aggressive acts by offenders with schizophrenia--research wherein aggressive behavior is defined, situational context is clarified, and diagnostic criteria are explicitly followed--should further refine our understanding of the nature of aggressive acts associated with schizophrenia. Findings from such research will undoubtedly inform assessment, treatment, and forensic relevance of schizophrenia-related physical aggression.

  10. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z=2.35, p=0.019) and stressful life events (z=2.32, p=0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  11. The Role of Executive Functions in the Control of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Ulrike M.; Kopyciok, Robert P. J.; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people. PMID:21747775

  12. Gene expression and variation in social aggression by queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    PubMed

    Helmkampf, Martin; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Kang, Yun; Fewell, Jennifer; Gadau, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A key requirement for social cooperation is the mitigation and/or social regulation of aggression towards other group members. Populations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus show the alternate social phenotypes of queens founding nests alone (haplometrosis) or in groups of unrelated yet cooperative individuals (pleometrosis). Pleometrotic queens display an associated reduction in aggression. To understand the proximate drivers behind this variation, we placed foundresses of the two populations into social environments with queens from the same or the alternate population, and measured their behaviour and head gene expression profiles. A proportion of queens from both populations behaved aggressively, but haplometrotic queens were significantly more likely to perform aggressive acts, and conflict escalated more frequently in pairs of haplometrotic queens. Whole-head RNA sequencing revealed variation in gene expression patterns, with the two populations showing moderate differentiation in overall transcriptional profile, suggesting that genetic differences underlie the two founding strategies. The largest detected difference, however, was associated with aggression, regardless of queen founding type. Several modules of coregulated genes, involved in metabolism, immune system and neuronal function, were found to be upregulated in highly aggressive queens. Conversely, nonaggressive queens exhibited a striking pattern of upregulation in chemosensory genes. Our results highlight that the social phenotypes of cooperative vs. solitary nest founding tap into a set of gene regulatory networks that seem to govern aggression level. We also present a number of highly connected hub genes associated with aggression, providing opportunity to further study the genetic underpinnings of social conflict and tolerance.

  13. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.

  14. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  15. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  16. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Rose; Tingley, Dustin; Cowden, Jonathan; Frazzetto, Giovanni; Johnson, Dominic D P

    2009-02-17

    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname "warrior gene" because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies. We report an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects. In this study, subjects paid to punish those they believed had taken money from them by administering varying amounts of unpleasantly hot (spicy) sauce to their opponent. There is some evidence of a main effect for genotype and some evidence for a gene by environment interaction, such that MAOA is less associated with the occurrence of aggression in a low provocation condition, but significantly predicts such behavior in a high provocation situation. This new evidence for genetic influences on aggression and punishment behavior complicates characterizations of humans as "altruistic" punishers and supports theories of cooperation that propose mixed strategies in the population. It also suggests important implications for the role of individual variance in genetic factors contributing to everyday behaviors and decisions.

  17. Short-day aggression is independent of changes in cortisol or glucocorticoid receptors in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Rendon, Nikki M; Greives, Timothy J; Romeo, Russell D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Testosterone mediates aggression in many vertebrates. In some species, aggression remains high during the non-breeding season (e.g., winter), when testosterone levels are low. In Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we have demonstrated photoperiodic changes in aggression with hamsters housed in short, "winter-like" days displaying significantly more territorial aggression than long-day animals, despite low levels of testosterone. The mechanisms by which photoperiod regulates aggression, however, remain largely unknown. Adrenocortical hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) have been implicated in mediating seasonal aggression; circulating concentrations of these hormones have been correlated with aggression in some species. The goal of this study was to examine the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors in mediating photoperiodic changes in aggression in male Siberian hamsters. Males were housed in long or short days and treated with either exogenous cortisol or vehicle. Circulating levels of cortisol, adrenal cortisol content, and aggression were quantified. Lastly, photoperiodic effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were quantified in limbic brain regions associated with aggression, including medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Short-day hamsters were more aggressive than long-day hamsters, however cortisol treatment did not affect aggression. Photoperiod had no effect on serum or adrenal cortisol or GR levels in the brain regions examined. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in cortisol levels do not cause increases associated with short-day aggression, and further that GR protein levels are not associated with photoperiodic changes in aggression. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role of adrenocortical steroids in mediating seasonal aggression.

  18. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  19. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure.

  20. The social status of aggressive students across contexts: the role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade.

    PubMed

    Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Aggressive and impulsive behavior in Alzheimer’s disease and progression of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola; Pąchalska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are numerous, including worsening of mood, psychotic symptoms, aggressive and impulsive behaviours, and many others. It is generally assumed that there exists a relationship between the severity of dementia and aggressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aggressive and impulsive behaviours and cognitive function disorders in AD patients. Material/Methods Forty-eight AD patients living in a nursing home were included in the research group on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The subjects underwent two years of naturalistic observation. The intensity of agitation and aggressive behaviours was assessed on the basis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cog (ADAS-cog) was used to assess cognitive function. Pharmacotherapy administered during the observation period was also taken into account. Results Thirty-one patients completed the two year long observation. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficiencies demonstrated a greater intensity of aggressive and impulsive behaviours, as assessed using the CMAI scale. Aggression escalated together with the development of dementia disorders. The intensity of dementia disorders was most significantly connected with physical agitation and verbal aggression. The use of neuroleptics and mood stabilisers decreased the progression of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Conclusions There is a relationship between cognitive functioning disorders and the intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. More severe forms of dementia are connected with greater intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours as the disease progresses. Periodical administration of pharmacotherapy may reduce the development of aggressive behaviours. PMID:22367129

  2. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. PMID:25910418

  3. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  4. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  5. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness.

  6. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  7. Single dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Li, Ran; Kravitz, Edward A

    2013-04-01

    Monoamines, including dopamine (DA), have been linked to aggression in various species. However, the precise role or roles served by the amine in aggression have been difficult to define because dopaminergic systems influence many behaviors, and all can be altered by changing the function of dopaminergic neurons. In the fruit fly, with the powerful genetic tools available, small subsets of brain cells can be reliably manipulated, offering enormous advantages for exploration of how and where amine neurons fit into the circuits involved with aggression. By combining the GAL4/upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system with the Flippase (FLP) recombination technique, we were able to restrict the numbers of targeted DA neurons down to a single-cell level. To explore the function of these individual dopaminergic neurons, we inactivated them with the tetanus toxin light chain, a genetically encoded inhibitor of neurotransmitter release, or activated them with dTrpA1, a temperature-sensitive cation channel. We found two sets of dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression, one from the T1 cluster and another from the PPM3 cluster. Both activation and inactivation of these neurons resulted in an increase in aggression. We demonstrate that the presynaptic terminals of the identified T1 and PPM3 dopaminergic neurons project to different parts of the central complex, overlapping with the receptor fields of DD2R and DopR DA receptor subtypes, respectively. These data suggest that the two types of dopaminergic neurons may influence aggression through interactions in the central complex region of the brain involving two different DA receptor subtypes. PMID:23530210

  8. Src: Marker or Actor in Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Gillet, Germain; Rimokh, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological, or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolent PCas in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a PCa is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in PCa aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in PCa. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways [including androgen receptor (AR), TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK, and ERK …], and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in PCa initiation in coordination with the AR. The aim of this review is to gather data that explore the links between the Src kinase family and PCa progression and aggressiveness. PMID:25184116

  9. Asymmetry in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressive behavior: a continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Perach-Barzilay, N; Tauber, A; Klein, E; Chistyakov, A; Ne'eman, R; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is aimed at causing damage or pain to another individual. Aggression has been associated with structural and functional deficits in numerous brain areas, including the dorsolateral region of the prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), typically related to inhibition and impulse control. In this study, we used inhibitory continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation (cTBS) to explore the role of the right and left DLPFC in aggression. Sixteen healthy right-handed volunteers underwent two sessions involving random, real and sham, right and left DLPFC stimulations. These sessions were followed by the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary task that was specially designed to assess participants' aggressive tendencies by measuring the patterns of their reactive aggression (a response to a perceived provocation) and proactive aggression (an aggressive act with goal-oriented purposes). Results indicate that using cTBS to target the left DLPFC was associated with a greater increase in aggressive responses than right DLPFC stimulation. This pattern of results was found for both reactive and proactive types of aggressive reactions. It is concluded that DLPFC asymmetry is involved in modulating reactive and proactive aggression. Our results are in line with recent studies suggesting that the left DLPFC plays a major role in aggressive behavior. PMID:22963204

  10. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26837478

  12. Excessive Aggression as Model of Violence: A Critical Evaluation of Current Preclinical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. Objectives How valid, reliable, productive and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? Methods The rationale, key methodological features, supporting data and arguments as well as their disadvantages and limitations of the most frequently used animal models for excessive aggressive behavior are summarized and their validity and reliability are evaluated. Results Excessive aggressive behavior is validly and reliably seen in (1) a proportion of feral-derived rats and selectively bred mice, (2) rats with compromised adrenal function resulting in a hypoglucocorticoid state, (3) a significant minority of mice, rats and monkeys after consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol, and (4) resident animals of various species after social instigation. Limitations of these procedures include restrictive animal research regulations, the requirement of expertise in surgical, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, and the behaviorally impoverished mouse strains that are used in molecular genetics research. Promising recent initiatives for novel experimental models include aggressive behaviors that are evoked by optogenetic stimulation and induced by the manipulation of early social experiences such as isolation rearing or social stress. Conclusions One of the most significant challenges for animal models of excessive, potentially abnormal aggressive behavior is the characterization of distinctive neurobiological mechanisms that differ from those governing species-typical aggressive behavior. Identifying novel targets for effective intervention requires increased understanding of the distinctive molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms for each type of abnormal aggressive behavior. PMID:23430160

  13. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  14. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others. PMID:23627957

  15. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  16. [Aggressive clients in Dutch veterinary practice].

    PubMed

    Barbonis, T S A E; Endenburg, N

    2007-05-15

    Aggressive clients seem to be becoming more common. This article describes a study in which questionnaires on client behaviour were sent to veterinary assistants and veterinarians in randomly selected practices in the Netherlands. Results showed that 26.4% of the veterinarians and 29.3% of the assistants had experienced aggressive clients in the last year. Age, experience, and sex of the veterinarian or assistant did not influence the frequency with which aggressive clients were encountered. The same was true for the type of veterinary practice (companion animals, farm animals, horses, etc). The risk of encountering aggressive clients was higher among practices in large towns and in practices with a small turnover Of the veterinarians who had encountered aggressive clients at least once in their career, 31% has taken some kind of action after the aggressive encounter Nearly a quarter (24.9%) of veterinary practices have adopted a Risk Inventarization and Evaluation (RI&E) approach to preventing client aggression and 26.6% of practices have adopted another approach. While veterinarians tend not to consider aggression a big problem, they are often open to the suggestion that more attention should be paid to aggression in veterinary practice. PMID:17578228

  17. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  18. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  19. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  20. Effects of sex, status, and mating cues on expected aggressive responses.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Heather K; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Nagoshi, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sex, status, and mating cues on expected aggression was examined via three scenario-based studies in which participants imagined themselves in a situation with a same-sex instigator of a provocation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a scenario, which included one of two levels of status of instigator (high, low), one of two levels of attractiveness of the instigator (unattractive, attractive), and one of two levels of provocation (apology, insult). Sex and dispositional aggressivity were also included in a full factorial design. Based on evolutionary psychology ideas, we anticipated that status and attractiveness would differentially influence expected aggression for men vs. women. Participants in Experiment 1 were instructed to imagine that they were alone, whereas participants in Experiments 2 and 3 imagined themselves in a situation that included mating-related primes. In general expected aggression was greater for aggression-prone participants and under conditions of provocation and/or a high-status instigator. Experiments 2 and 3 found that, in the context of mate competition, sex differences in the effects of instigator provocation, status, and attractiveness emerged: greater aggressivity now only predicted more aggression for males but not females who were insulted; aggression was highest for females confronting an unattractive, high-status instigator and for males confronting an attractive, high-status instigator; females were more likely to aggress against a high-status instigator, regardless of being in a steady relationship or a first date situation, but males were only more likely to aggress against a high-status instigator in a first date situation.

  1. Threatened Retaliation as an Inhibitor of Human Aggression: Mediating Effects of the Instrumental Value of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    Whereas threatened punishment proves effective under conditions where the instrumental value of aggressive behavior is quite low, the following techniques of control may work better in situations where the value of aggression is relatively high: (1) the use of restrained, non-aggressive models; (2) empathic arousal among aggressors; or (3)…

  2. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  3. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  4. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  5. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    1982-01-01

    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  6. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  7. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  8. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  9. Arginine vasotocin activates aggressive calls during paternal care in the Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    PubMed

    Ten Eyck, Gary R; ul Haq, Aazaz

    2012-09-13

    The Puerto Rican coquí frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, is a directly developing frog that exhibits male territoriality and paternal behaviors. Male frogs also produce advertisement and aggressive vocalizations or calls. Territorial males emit advertisement calls to delineate territories and attract mates. Paternal males guard and brood the directly developing embryos during embryogenesis and up to five days after hatching; advertisement calling is normally absent or infrequent during paternal care. Territorial and paternal males commonly produce aggressive calls during agonistic situations. The neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT), has been shown to promote calling in anurans, including E. coqui. The objective of this study was to determine if exogenous AVT promotes calling and territorial behavior in paternal males and if it promotes males to abandon their offspring. Injections (IP) of AVT were given to paternal males immediately before the scotoperiod. Frogs were monitored for at least four hours after the injection and the following morning for calling activity and abandonment of egg clutches. AVT-injected males showed a dramatic and significant increase in aggressive calls compared to control males (saline injections). Exogenous AVT did induce advertisement calling in some paternal males but did not significantly elevate paternal males to territorial status nor did it significantly induce abandonment of eggs/embryos. In conclusion, the type of vocalization that AVT activates in E. coqui depends upon the reproductive state of the male and the social environment that surrounds the male. PMID:22884614

  10. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

  12. A meta-analysis of the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polman, Hanneke; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W; Merk, Welmoet W

    2007-08-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation varied considerably between studies, from -.10 to .89. Observational assessment and tilt/noise tasks were associated with smaller correlations than questionnaires. Within the large group of questionnaire studies, studies disentangling the form and function of aggression found lower correlations than studies that did not disentangle form and function. Among questionnaire studies, higher reliability was associated with larger correlations. Effect size did not depend on other study characteristics such as sample type, age, and informant type. It is concluded that reactive and proactive aggression are most clearly distinguished with behavioral observations and questionnaires that unravel form and functions of aggression.

  13. Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through mindfulness training.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Adkins, Angela D; Wahler, Robert G; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training; no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4 years of follow-up in the community.

  14. Toward a Relationship Perspective on Aggression among Schoolchildren: Integrating Social Cognitive and Interdependence Theories

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional psychological approach of studying aggression among schoolchildren in terms of individual differences in aggression and in victimization has been valuable in identifying prevalence rates, risk, and consequences of involvement in aggression. However, it is argued that a focus on aggressor-victim relationships is warranted based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Such a shift in focus requires modification and integration of existing theories of aggression, and this paper integrates social cognitive theory and interdependence theory to suggest a new, interdependent social cognitive theory of aggression. Specifically, this paper identifies points of overlap and different foci between these theories, and it illustrates their integration through a proposed model of the emergence of aggressor-victim interactions and relationships. The paper concludes that expanding consideration to include aggressor-victim relationships among schoolchildren offers considerable theoretical, empirical, and intervention opportunities. PMID:26985397

  15. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging nature of relationally aggressive behavior, this research has only recently begun to be used to inform school-based prevention and intervention programming. This article reviews the developmental research related to relational aggression and presents a systematic examination of nine published school-based prevention and intervention programs to prevent relational aggression. Programs reviewed target preschool through eighth-grade students. Strengths and limitations of each program are discussed. Recommendations are offered for future research to develop and validate school-based programming for relational aggression, and implications for school psychologists are discussed. PMID:21666876

  16. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control. PMID:22242256

  17. Repulsed by violence: disgust sensitivity buffers trait, behavioral, and daily aggression.

    PubMed

    Pond, Richard S; Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Deckman, Timothy; Bonser, Ian M; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Many models of aggression include negatively valenced emotions as common elicitors of aggressive behavior. Yet, the motivational direction of these emotions is not taken into account. The current work explored whether sensitivity to a negative emotion associated with behavioral avoidance-disgust-will predict lower levels of aggression. Five studies tested the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity predicts less aggression. In Study 1 (N = 92), disgust sensitivity predicted less trait physical and verbal aggression. In Study 2 (N = 268), participants high in disgust sensitivity were less likely to behave aggressively towards a stranger on a reaction-time task. In Study 3 (N = 51), disgust sensitivity was associated with less intimate partner violence inclinations. Study 4 (N = 247) replicated this effect longitudinally. In Study 5 (N = 166), each domain of disgust (i.e., moral, sexual, and pathogen disgust) had a buffering effect on daily aggression when daily experiences activated those specific domains. These results highlight the usefulness of considering the motivational direction of an emotion when examining its influence on aggression. PMID:21707194

  18. The interplay between values and aggression in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Benish-Weisman, Maya

    2015-05-01

    Values, or the guiding standards of adolescents' lives, influence which behaviors are considered more justified than others. The relationship between values and social behavior has been established across many studies including the relationship of values and aggression. But only a few studies have examined these relationships among youth. Moreover, a question that remains open is the direction of these relationships. The present study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations between values and peer nominated aggression in 3 time points with a 1-year interval (8th grade-10th grade) in a sample of 678 Israeli adolescents (51.2% girls). Students completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001) and 6 items of peer nominations of aggression. As hypothesized, I found positive associations between aggression and self-enhancement and openness to change values concurrently. Similarly, I obtained negative associations between aggression and self-transcendence and conservation values. Moreover, crossed-lagged models revealed that self-enhancement values were positively associated with aggression 1 year later. The association between aggression and future self-enhancement values, however, was not significant. Finally, I found mutual associations between self-transcendence values and aggression across time.

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  20. Does Gender Moderate the Relationship between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Physical Aggression?

    PubMed

    Nwafor, Chidozie E; Onyeizugbo, Euckay U; Anazonwu, Charles O

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the interaction effect of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and gender on physical aggression among Nigerian adolescents. Two hundred and ninety five (295) senior secondary school students who were between 14-16 years of age participated in the study. These participants included boys (152) and girls (143). They were selected from a public senior secondary school in Anambra a South Eastern State of Nigeria and all the participants were of Igbo ethnic group. The raw data for Callous-unemotional traits and Physical Aggression were collected using Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) by Frick (2004) and Aggression Scale by Orpinas and Frankowski (2001) respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, and conditional process analysis (model number 1; Hayes, 2013). The results showed that gender correlated significantly with uncaring and physical aggression but did not correlate significantly with CU and callousness. The results further showed that gender, CU traits, uncaring and callousness subscales significantly predicted physical aggression. Gender also moderated the effect of CU traits and uncaring on physical aggression, but did not moderate the effect of callousness on physical aggression. The discussion focused on the ways of helping individuals with high level of CU traits to reduce aggression, also the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies and the implications of the finding were highlighted.

  1. Impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia: a neural circuitry perspective with implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often, multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors; however, more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy.

  2. Impulsivity and Aggression in Schizophrenia: A Neural Circuitry Perspective with Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I will discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors, but more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy. PMID:25900066

  3. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  4. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  6. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  7. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  8. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  9. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  10. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  11. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  12. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  13. Human Aggression: Current Theories and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    The literature on human aggression is large and diverse. Some of it is theory-driven, but much of it dwells on solving social problems rather than on building general models and research paradigms. This paper examines some of the research programs and theoretical emphases in aggression research and presents theory convergences to see how these…

  14. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  15. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  16. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  17. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively.

  18. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  19. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  20. A Price Paid for Our Internal Strife: Escalated Intragroup Aggression and the Evolution of Ingroup Derogation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Liu, Wang; Li, Chen; Li, Xiongfeng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    From evolutionary reasoning, we derived a novel hypothesis that ingroup derogation is an adaptation to a special ecological condition in which the greater threat of aggression is incurred by ingroup members. This hypothesis was tested and supported across five studies. Specifically, the computational modeling found that ingroup derogation could easily evolve if the chance of death incurred by intragroup conflicts was no less than 10%. Further behavioral experiments on Chinese participants showed that the ingroup derogation mechanism responded to heuristic social category cues and it responded more strongly when participants subjectively felt more vulnerable to interpersonal aggression, or when there were contextual cues of aggression in the immediate environment. Additional results showed that Chinese participants responded more strongly to aggression cues originating from ingroup members and that they endorsed more ingroup derogation attitudes even when the ingroup and outgroup members were both displaying cues of aggression. In addition, the results also revealed that the Chinese participants perceived more intentions of aggression from ingroup members than from outgroup members even in the absence of any clear signs of those intentions, and such a bias was positively correlated with ingroup derogation attitudes. Taken together, these results suggest that ingroup derogation is related to the evolved response of intragroup aggression management system. PMID:27713725

  1. Inter- and intraspecific aggression in the invasive longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is a highly invasive species that can aggressively displace other ant species. We conducted laboratory assays to examine interspecies aggression of A. gracilipes versus 15 sympatric ant species found in the urban environment and disturbed habitat in Malaysia: Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Pheidole parva Mayr, Crematogaster sp., Solenopsis geminata (F.), Tapinoma indicum (Forel), Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.), Technomyrmnex butteli Forel, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), Oecophylla smaragdina (F), Camponotus sp., and Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon). A. gracilipes showed aggressive behavior toward all opponent species, except the smallest M. orientale. Opponent species size (body size, head width, and mandible width) was significantly correlated with A. gracilipes aggression level and mortality rate. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. gracilipes aggression level and the mortality of the opponent species. The results suggest that invasive populations of A. gracilipes would have the greatest impact on larger ant species. In addition, we examined the intraspecific aggression of A. gracilipes. We found that A. gracilipes from different localities in Malaysia showed intraspecific aggression toward one another. This finding differs from the results of studies conducted in Christmas Island earlier. Differences in the genetic variability among populations may explain these differing results.

  2. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases. PMID:24142292

  3. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  4. Decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, A E; Page, D T

    2015-02-01

    Aggression is an aspect of social behavior that can be elevated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a concern for peers and caregivers. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), one of several ASD risk factors encoding negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, have been reported in individuals with ASD and comorbid macrocephaly. We previously showed that a mouse model of Pten germline haploinsufficiency (Pten(+/-) ) has selective deficits, primarily in social behavior, along with broad overgrowth of the brain. Here, we further examine the social behavior of Pten(+/-) male mice in the resident-intruder test of aggression, using a comprehensive behavioral analysis to obtain an overall picture of the agonistic, non-agonistic and non-social behavior patterns of Pten(+/-) mice during a free interaction with a novel conspecific. Pten(+/-) male mice were involved in less aggression than their wild-type littermates. Pten(+/-) mice also performed less social investigation, including anogenital investigation and approaching and/or attending to the intruder, which is consistent with our previous finding of decreased sociability in the social approach test. In contrast to these decreases in social behaviors, Pten(+/-) mice showed increased digging. In summary, we report decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten(+/-) mice, thus extending our characterization of this model of an ASD risk factor that features brain overgrowth and social deficits.

  5. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.

  6. Adult Attachment and Male Aggression in Couple Relationships: The Demand-Withdraw Communication Pattern and Relationship Satisfaction as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Benoit; Brassard, Audrey; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines men's domestic aggression as a function of attachment insecurities, considering the mediating roles of the demand-withdraw communication pattern and relationship satisfaction. The sample included 55 Canadian men undergoing counseling for relationship difficulties including aggression. The men completed questionnaires assessing…

  7. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  8. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  9. Natural genetic variation in social niche construction: social effects of aggression drive disruptive sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Saltz, Julia B; Foley, Brad R

    2011-05-01

    Social niche construction (SNC) occurs when animals actively shape their social environments. Currently the fitness consequences of SNC are poorly understood, and no study has examined whether variation in SNC has a genetic basis. Here we report the first instance of genetic variation in SNC by showing that Drosophila male aggression shapes the social environment. We allowed flies of different genotypes to interact in complex arenas; we measured the number and sex of individuals in the groups that formed and counted instances of mating. Arenas containing more aggressive male genotypes formed groups with fewer males, demonstrating that aggressive male genotypes experienced different social environments than nonaggressive genotypes. Further, genotypes with highest mating success were those whose SNC behavior generated the social environment in which they were most adept at mating: genotypes who mate most often after winning aggressive encounters benefit from aggressive SNC, while genotypes who mate most often after losing achieve high mating rates by forgoing aggression. The presence of these alternative strategies-which were robust across eight population densities-revealed that selection on aggression and context-dependent mating was disruptive, consistent with the hypothesis that SNC can maintain genetic variation in multiple behaviors.

  10. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  11. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  12. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests.

  13. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  14. Cortical thinning, functional connectivity, and mood-related impulsivity in schizophrenia: relations to aggressive attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21< Cohen’s ds < 1.50). Positive and negative urgency significantly correlated with Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506

  15. Maternal rank influences the outcome of aggressive interactions between immature chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A. Catherine; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    For many long-lived mammalian species, extended maternal investment has a profound effect on offspring integration in complex social environments. One component of this investment may be aiding young in aggressive interactions, which can set the stage for offspring social position later in life. Here we examined maternal effects on dyadic aggressive interactions between immature (<12 years) chimpanzees. Specifically, we tested whether relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning an aggressive interaction. We also examined maternal responses to aggressive interactions to determine whether maternal interventions explain interaction outcomes. Using a 12-year behavioural data set (2000–2011) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, we found that relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning aggressive interactions in male–male and male–female aggressive interactions: offspring were more likely to win if their mother outranked their opponent’s mother. Female–female aggressive interactions occurred infrequently (two interactions), so could not be analysed. The probability of winning was also higher for relatively older individuals in male–male interactions, and for males in male–female interactions. Maternal interventions were rare (7.3% of 137 interactions), suggesting that direct involvement does not explain the outcome for the vast majority of aggressive interactions. These findings provide important insight into the ontogeny of aggressive behaviour and early dominance relationships in wild apes and highlight a potential social advantage for offspring of higher-ranking mothers. This advantage may be particularly pronounced for sons, given male philopatry in chimpanzees and the potential for social status early in life to translate more directly to adult rank. PMID:25624528

  16. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    PubMed Central

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA), the invertebrate analog of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS) alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display). The efficacy of AS as an aggression releasing stimulus was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR) agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5HT). In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA's natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here. PMID:25954171

  17. DNA Methylation Signature of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression in T Cells of Both Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Claire; Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males. Methodology/Principal Findings Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males. Conclusions This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females. PMID:24475181

  18. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association. PMID:22040315

  19. Bobo Clown Aggression in Childhood: Environment, Not Genes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Twin children were videotaped hitting an inflated clown figure. Three behaviors (number of hits, intensity of hits, and number of quadrants hit) showed adequate response characteristics, rater reliability, and test-retest reliability. Twin analyses of the three behavioral ratings yielded no evidence of hereditary influence. (Author)

  20. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  1. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  2. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  3. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  4. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  5. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  6. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression.

  7. Escalation of aggression: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J H; Davis, R W; Herman, D

    1975-01-01

    A finding commonly obtained in research using the Buss "aggression machine" is a main effect for trail blocks, indicating an escalation in shock intensity over trails. Theoretical explanations for this effect were tested in a modified verbal operant-conditioning situation. In Experiment 1, subjects could administer any of 10 levels of positive reinforcement to a "learner" for correct verbal responses or any of 10 levels of negative reinforcement to a learner for incorrect responses. Half of the subjects were required to begin with weak, half with strong, reinforcements. Results indicated that, regardless of condition, subjects gave more intense reinforcements as the learning trails progressed. Those who administered negative reinforcements devalued the learner relative to those who administered positive reinforcements. In Experiment 2, a role-playing procedure was used in which subjects administered either positive or negative reinforcements to a learner whose performance either did or did not improve over trials. Again, in all experimental groups, subjects administered increasingly intense reinforcements over trials. The results are interpreted as supporting a disinhibition theory of anti- and prosocial behavior.

  8. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  9. Cooperative games: a way to modify aggressive and cooperative behaviors in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Hinitz, A K; Peterson, R F; Quilitch, H R

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the effects of competitive and cooperative games on aggressive and cooperative behaviors of 70 children (4 to 5 years old) from four classes in three preschools. The experimental design included both multiple baseline and reversal components. Behaviors were measured during game conditions and in subsequent free-play periods. Results showed that cooperative behavior increased and aggression decreased during cooperative games; conversely, competitive games were followed by increases in aggressive behavior and decreases in cooperative behavior. Similar effects were also found during free-play periods. PMID:7928788

  10. Intercat aggression: restoring harmony in the home: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pachel, Christopher L

    2014-05-01

    Intercat aggression is a common problem within multicat households. Diagnosis and treatment requires an understanding of the social structure of free-living cats and of how those interactions are impacted by confinement and household management practices. There are multiple causes of aggression between cats within a home, and treatment plans should be customized to account for the diagnosis and behavior pattern identified. Some cases of intercat aggression can be treated successfully without requiring full separation of the involved cats. In cases where separation is required, treatment includes steps for successful reintroduction and reintegration. Several situational and maintenance medication options can be used to improve the response to treatment.

  11. A model parent group for enhancing aggressive children's social competence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hui

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a semi-structured psychoeducational model of group work for parents of aggressive children based on concepts of co-parenting and bidirectionality. The group was developed for enhancing five Taiwanese aggressive children's social competence by promoting positive interactions within family. Topics covered in the group included identifying parenting styles, forming parental alliances, fostering parent-child mutual initiations/mutual compliances, establishing parent-child co-regulation, and responding to aggressive children's negative emotions. Pre- and post-group comparisons suggested the effectiveness of the group model.

  12. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence.

  13. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... net/ Back to top Adapting the Environment Making adaptations to the environment where a child with a ... or school personnel to decide what kinds of adaptations are necessary to ensure the child’s safety while ...

  14. The aggression paradox: understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences.

    PubMed

    Joireman, Jeff; Anderson, Jonathan; Strathman, Alan

    2003-06-01

    Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C.A. Anderson & B.J. Bushman. 2002), positing that hostile cognition and negative affect mediate the relationships between the aforementioned individual differences and aggression. Sensation seeking also predicted a desire to engage in physical and verbal aggression. The final study demonstrated that relative to those scoring low, individuals scoring high on the consideration of future consequences are only less aggressive when aggression is likely to carry future costs. PMID:12793590

  15. Violated expectancies: Cause and function of exploration, fear, and aggression.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Hendrik S

    2015-08-01

    To be able to reproduce, animals need to survive and interact with an ever changing environment. Therefore, they create a cognitive representation of that environment, from which they derive expectancies regarding current and future events. These expected events are compared continuously with information gathered through exploration, to guide behaviour and update the existing representation. When a moderate discrepancy between perceived and expected events is detected, exploration is employed to update the internal representation so as to alter the expectancy and make it match the perceived event. When the discrepancy is relatively large, exploration is inhibited, and animals will try to alter the perceived event utilizing aggression or fear. The largest discrepancies are associated with a tendency to flee. When an exploratory, fear, or aggressive behaviour pattern proofs to be the optimal solution for a particular discrepancy, the response will become conditioned to events that previously preceded the occurrence of that discrepancy. When primary needs are relatively low, animals will actively look for or create moderately violated expectancies in order to learn about objects, behaviour patterns, and the environment. In those situations, exploratory tendencies will summate with ongoing behaviour and, when all primary needs are satiated, may even be performed exclusively. This results in behavioural variability, play, and active information-seeking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  16. Aggressive dogs: assessment and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2008-05-01

    The question of what to do with an aggressive dog involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This first column on the subject addresses the clinical aspects from the standpoint of the general veterinarian. PMID:18581290

  17. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  18. [Mobbing, bullying and other forms of aggression among pupils as a source of stress in school. How far the "victims" are involved?].

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Welter, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Aggression among pupils is one of the frequent sources of stress in school. Aggression among pupils can display diverse forms and also has different origins. In this contribution, bullying, mobbing and relational aggression as different forms of aggression were described, based on recent research. In addition, a psychoanalytic treatment of a female adolescent is presented who suffered from mobbing. The treatment includes 70 hours work with the female patient and additional work with her parents. Based on this case study, it became obvious that it necessary to precisely analyse the own contribution for eliciting and maintaining aggression. PMID:18361185

  19. Personality correlates of aggression: evidence from measures of the five-factor model, UPPS model of impulsivity, and BIS/BAS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F

    2012-09-01

    Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower order personality traits in relation to three forms of aggression: reactive, proactive, and relational. Traits related to interpersonal antagonism and impulsivity, especially impulsive behavior in the context of negative affect, were consistently related to aggression across multiple indices. These findings suggest that certain lower order traits are of critical importance to understanding who engages in aggressive behavior and why this behavior occurs. PMID:22610830

  20. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed.

  1. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed. PMID:27131453

  2. Interparental Violence and Maternal Mood Disorders as Predictors of Adolescent Physical Aggression within the Family

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P.; Gold, Philip W.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents’ physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. PMID:27541378

  3. Aggressive behavior in children: the role of temperament and family socialization.

    PubMed

    González-Peña, Paloma; Egido, Begoña Delgado; Carrasco, Miguel Á; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    This study's objective is to analyze temperament and parenting variables as they relate to proactive and reactive aggression in children. To be specific, profiles based on these variables were analyzed in children with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression. The sample was made up of two groups: 482 children (52.3% boys) between 1 and 3 years-old, and 422 children (42.42% boys) 3 to 6 years-old. Statistical analyses of the two age groups included: Pearson's correlations to explore the relationships among variables, Cluster Analysis to create groups with different levels of aggression, and finally discriminant analysis to determine which variables discriminate between groups. The results show that high levels of frustration/negative affect in the 1-3 year-old group and low effortful control in children 3 to 6 years old are the most relevant variables in differentiating between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects. Nevertheless, differential profiles of subjects with high levels of proactive versus reactive aggression were not observed. The implications of these different types of aggression in terms of development and prevention are discussed.

  4. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. PMID:26208081

  5. Peer Victimization and Forms of Aggression During Middle Childhood: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Cooley, John L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-04-01

    The current short-term longitudinal study evaluated whether anger and sadness regulation moderated the associations between peer victimization and physical and relational forms of aggression over a 6-month period. Participants included 278 predominantly Caucasian children (51.8% female) between 8 and 12 years of age (M = 9.33, SD = 0.99). Peer victimization was assessed at Time 1 using child- and teacher-reports, and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. Children also completed self-report measures of anger and sadness regulation at Time 1. Results from multilevel models provided support for the notion that children's ability to effectively regulate their feelings of anger and sadness influences the relations among peer victimization and forms of aggression over time. As anticipated, high levels of anger regulation attenuated the link between child-reported peer victimization and physical aggression. Further, when levels of anger regulation were high, teacher-reported peer victimization predicted subsequent decreases in physical aggression. Contrary to expectations, however, high levels of anger and sadness regulation exacerbated the association between child-reported peer victimization and relational aggression, and teacher-reported peer victimization predicted decreases in relational aggression over time when levels of anger regulation were low. Directions for future research and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26168955

  6. Social support as a moderator for alcohol-related partner aggression during the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol-related partner aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the moderating effects of general social support and partner-specific support on the association between prepregnancy alcohol use and recent partner physical aggression are investigated using a community sample of 98 pregnant couples. For men, high levels of general appraisal social support (i.e., someone to talk to about one's problems) increases the strength of the association between alcohol use and aggression perpetration, whereas partner-specific emotional support serves as a buffer. For women, general social support is not a significant moderator, but high levels of partner-specific instrumental support strengthens the association between alcohol use and aggression. These results can be applied to prevention and treatment programs for alcohol-related partner aggression. PMID:22279125

  7. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans. PMID:26453051

  8. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders.

  9. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.

  10. Androgen receptors, sex behavior, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviors is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens' effects on behaviors through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behavior repertoires.

  11. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  12. Near-earth radiation environment including time variations and secondary radiation; Meetings F2.6 and F2.7, COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 30th, Hamburg, Germany, July 11-21, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, M. A. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor); Badhwar, G. D. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Both man and technological equipment must survive the near-earth space radiation environment, which can, under specific conditions, be extremely severe. This conference produced 17 papers on the dynamic space radiation environment covering: galactic, solar and trapped particles; nuclear fragmentation; nuclear interactions and transport theory; solar proton events; radiation shielding; and heavy ion fluences. Several papers present results from the recent SAMPEX mission.

  13. Hormone-dependent aggression in female rats: testosterone implants attenuate the decline in aggression following ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1990-04-01

    Female rats were individually housed with a sterile male for a 4- to 5-week period. Each female was then tested for aggression toward an unfamiliar female intruder at weekly intervals. Those females that displayed a high level of aggression on each of three weekly tests were ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of testosterone-filled tubes, ovariectomized and given subcutaneous implants of empty tubes, or sham-ovariectomized and implanted with empty tubes. These implants should produce a serum testosterone concentration of about 0.6 ng/ml, compared to 0.17 ng/ml in intact females. Beginning 1 week postoperatively, the aggression of each female was tested weekly for 4 weeks. Ovariectomized females with testosterone implants displayed a level of aggression significantly higher than that of ovariectomized females with empty implants on 3 of 4 weekly tests. The level of aggression by females with testosterone implants was not significantly different from that of sham-ovariectomized females on the first postoperative test. Additional observations showed that testosterone implants did not produce an increase in aggression in females whose preoperative level of aggression was low. Further, Silastic implants containing estrogen (1 to 2 mm long) sufficient to maintain a serum estrogen level of 20 to 30 pg/ml also attenuated the decline of aggression following ovariectomy. These results suggest that testosterone and estrogen may both contribute to the biological substrate of hormone-dependent aggression in female rats.

  14. Children's Patterns of Emotional Reactivity to Conflict as Explanatory Mechanisms in Links between Interpartner Aggression and Child Physiological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.; Zale, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Background: This paper examined children's fearful, sad, and angry reactivity to interparental conflict as mediators of associations between their exposure to interparental aggression and physiological functioning. Methods: Participants included 200 toddlers and their mothers. Assessments of interparental aggression and children's emotional…

  15. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  16. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  17. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  18. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  19. Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race

    PubMed Central

    SHORT, LINDSEY A.; MONDLOCH, CATHERINE J.; MCCORMICK, CHERYL M.; CARRÉ, JUSTIN M.; MA, RUQIAN; FU, GENYUE; LEE, KANG

    2011-01-01

    The human face provides a wealth of information pertaining to the internal state and life-stage history of an individual. Facial width-to-height ratio is a size-independent sexually dimorphic trait, and estimates of aggression made by untrained adults judging own-race faces were positively associated with both facial width-to-height ratio and actual aggressive behavior. Given the significant adaptive value of accurately detecting aggressiveness based on facial appearance, we hypothesized that aggression estimates made by adults and 8-year-olds would be highly correlated with male facial width-to-height ratio even for a face category with which they had minimal experience—other-race faces. For each of the four race and age groups, estimates of aggression were positively correlated with facial width-to-height ratio irrespective of rating own-or other-race faces. Overall, the correlations between facial width-to-height ratio and ratings of aggression were stronger for adults than for children. Sensitivity to facial width-to-height ratio appears to be part of an evolved mechanism designed to detect threats in the external environment. This mechanism is likely broadly tuned and functions independently of experience. PMID:22611331

  20. Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Uriarte, R

    1999-01-01

    Avoiding predators may conflict with territorial defence because a hiding territorial resident is unable to monitor its territory or defend it from conspecific intrusions. With persistent intruders, the presence of an intruder in the near past can indicate an increased probability of future intrusions. Therefore, following a conspecific-intrusion, territorial residents should minimize costs from future intrusions at the cost of higher predation risks. I conducted experiments with males of the territorial lizard Tropidurus hispidus recording approach distance (distance between predator and prey when the prey escapes) and time to re-emergence from a refuge after hiding. Past aggressive interactions affected anti-predator behaviour: lizards re-emerged sooner (compared to a control) when the predator attacked 5 min after an aggressive encounter. If the predator attacked while an aggressive encounter was ongoing, there was also a reduction in approach distance. The results are consistent with an economic hypothesis which predicts that T. hispidus incur greater predation risks to minimize future territorial intrusion; additionally they show that the effects of past and ongoing aggressive interactions are different, consistent with the minimization of present intrusion costs. These results are relevant for studies of the changes in aggressive behaviour due to changes in the social environment and for studies of the costs and (co) evolution of aggressive and anti-predator strategies. PMID:10693815

  1. Variation in aggressive behaviour in the poeciliid fish Brachyrhaphis episcopi: population and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Archard, Gabrielle A; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2011-01-01

    Aggression is often positively correlated with other behavioural traits such as boldness and activity levels. Comparisons across populations can help to determine factors that promote the evolution of such traits. We quantified these behaviours by testing the responses of wild-caught poeciliid fish, Brachyrhaphis episcopi, to mirror image stimuli. This species occurs in populations that experience either high or low levels of predation pressure. Previous studies have shown that B. episcopi from low predation environments are less bold than those that occur with many predators. We therefore predicted that fish from high predation populations would be more aggressive and more active than fish from low predation populations. However, we found the opposite - low predation fish approached a mirror and a novel object more frequently than high predation fish suggesting that 'boldness' and aggression were higher in low predation populations, and that population-level boldness measures may vary depending on context. When tested individually, low predation fish inspected their mirror image more frequently. Females, but not males, from low predation sites were also more aggressive towards their mirror image. Variation in female aggression may be driven by a trade-off between food availability and predation risk. This suggests that the relationship between aggression and boldness has been shaped by adaptation to environmental conditions, and not genetic constraints.

  2. Aggressive Extraocular Sebaceous Carcinoma Recurring after Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Konstantin V.; Leithauser, Laurel; Gloster, Hugh M.

    2015-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinomas (SC) are rare adnexal tumors with possible aggressive behavior usually arising in the head and neck region of adults in the seventh decade of life. Treatment has traditionally been with surgical excision with 5-6 mm wide margins but Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has also been reported as an effective treatment modality. We present a case of a Caucasian female renal transplant patient with a rapidly enlarging nodule on the left preauricular cheek that was excised with MMS with negative margins. The tumor recurred rapidly and metastasized ultimately leading to the death of the patient. There was some disagreement amongst pathologists as to the possible nature of the diagnosis with the original biopsy being labeled as a poorly differentiated carcinoma. We aim to highlight the potential aggressive nature of SC and review the features of the neoplasm including histological features that help in making the diagnosis. PMID:25685571

  3. Role of Radiotherapy in Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Laurence; Prieto, Victor G; Ivan, Doina; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Curry, Jonathan L; Bell, Diana; Moon, Bryan S; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Aung, Phyu P

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare and often misdiagnosed malignant tumor of the sweat glands, most commonly encountered on the extremities. Due to the relatively high metastatic potential of the tumor, aggressive surgical treatment, including amputation, is generally recommended. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with an over 10-year history of a skin lesion on the right hand in the web space between the index and the middle finger. Histologically, the lesion revealed a malignant epithelioid neoplasm with features consistent with ADPA. The lesion was treated with 5-weeks preoperative radiation (total 5000 cGy) followed by surgical resection. There was no evidence of residual disease confirmed by pathological study of re-excision specimen as well as imaging studies. This is, to the best of knowledge, the first report of complete regression of an ADPA after radiotherapy. PMID:27098633

  4. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group.

  5. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-01-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  6. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  7. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  8. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  9. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  10. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  11. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth. PMID:25047297

  12. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  13. Associations of neighborhood and family factors with trajectories of physical and social aggression during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence.

  14. Associations of Neighborhood and Family Factors with Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding and parental control with trajectories of physical and social aggression. The sample included 5,118 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (50% female, 52% Caucasian) living in predominantly rural areas. Multilevel growth curve models showed an interaction between neighborhood disadvantage, family conflict and gender on the physical aggression trajectories. The interaction suggested more rapid processes of both increase in and desistance from physical aggression over time for boys with high neighborhood disadvantage and high family conflict, as well as a higher starting point, more gradual increase and slower process of desistance over time for girls in similar neighborhood and family contexts. Less parent-child bonding and less parental control also were associated with higher initial levels of physical aggression. For social aggression, an interaction between family conflict and gender showed girls with high family conflict had the highest initial levels of social aggression, with a more gradual increase over time for these girls compared to their male counterparts in high-conflict families or their female counterparts in low-conflict families. Less parent-child bonding was associated with higher initial levels and a faster increase over time of social aggression, and less parental control was associated with higher initial levels of social aggression. The findings suggest early family-based interventions may help prevent perpetration of both physical and social aggression during adolescence. PMID:23054352

  15. Cyproterone to treat aggressivity in dementia: a clinical case and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca M; Davies, Simon J C; Christmas, David M; Baxter, Hazel; Cullum, Sarah; Nutt, David J

    2011-01-01

    Aggressivity is a common problem in the management of elderly patients with dementia. Medications currently used to diminish aggressive behaviour in dementia can have problematic side effects. We present a case and systematic review of the current knowledge about the use of cyproterone acetate to treat aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality related behaviours) in dementia. An 82-year-old man required psychiatric inpatient admission due to agitation and aggressivity and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. After failed trials of atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine 100 mg/day and risperidone 1 mg/day), drugs for dementia (memantine 20 mg/day and rivastigmine 9 mg/day) and benzodiazepines (lorazepam 0.5-1 mg prn) he was started on cyproterone acetate titrated up to 50 mg twice daily. After two weeks he was calmer and did not express aggressivity. Two months later he was discharged to a community placement where he subsequently remained settled on cyproterone. We reviewed literature on the use of cyproterone in aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality) associated with dementia. We searched the main medical databases including articles in English, Spanish, French and Italian. Only one randomized double-blind trial was found, comparing cyproterone with haloperidol (n = 27). Cyproterone was more effective controlling aggressivity and had lower incidence of side effects. In the one uncontrolled naturalistic observational study identified (n = 19), cyproterone was associated with significant reductions in aggressivity without causing major side effects. Further literature was limited to theoretical discussions. Despite there being evidence to support our observations of a useful role for cyproterone in aggressivity in dementia, further studies are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic option.

  16. Perceptions of low agency and high sexual openness mediate the relationship between sexualization and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Blake, Khandis R; Bastian, Brock; Denson, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the saturation of popular Western culture by female hypersexualization. We provide data showing that men have more sexually aggressive intentions toward women who self-sexualize, and that self-sexualized women are vulnerable to sexual aggression if two qualifying conditions are met. Specifically, if perceivers view self-sexualized women as sexually open and lacking agency (i.e., the ability to influence one's environment), they harbor more sexually aggressive intentions and view women as easier to sexually victimize. In Experiment 1, male participants viewed a photograph of a woman whose self-sexualization was manipulated through revealing versus non-revealing clothing. In subsequent experiments, men and women (Experiment 2) and men only (Experiment 3) viewed a photograph of a woman dressed in non-revealing clothing but depicted as open or closed to sexual activity. Participants rated their perceptions of the woman's agency, then judged how vulnerable she was to sexual aggression (Experiments 1 and 2) or completed a sexually aggressive intentions measure (Experiment 3). Results indicated that both men and women perceived self-sexualized women as more vulnerable to sexual aggression because they assumed those women were highly sexually open and lacked agency. Perceptions of low agency also mediated the relationship between women's perceived sexual openness and men's intentions to sexually aggress. These effects persisted even when we described the self-sexualized woman as possessing highly agentic personality traits and controlled for individual differences related to sexual offending. The current work suggests that perceived agency and sexual openness may inform perpetrator decision-making and that cultural hypersexualization may facilitate sexual aggression. Aggr. Behav. 42:483-497, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848102

  17. Correlates and outcomes associated with aggression and victimization among elementary-school children in a low-income urban context.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-02-01

    Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This study examined the correlates, interplay, and consequences of aggression and victimization among children in a low-income urban context. Data were collected in the spring of grades 1, 2, and 3. The final sample included 333 children (59.5 % girls, M = 6.46 years). Each year, children completed sociometric and peer assessments in their classrooms. A cross-lagged panel model with extended effects showed that aggression was relatively stable over time, whereas victimization was less stable. Aggression and victimization became increasingly less correlated over time. Further, early victimization negatively predicted later aggression for boys, but positively for girls. Growth curve modeling showed that initial aggression and victimization were associated with initial behavioral and relational problems. Early aggression, but not victimization, predicted relative stable or increasing in behavioral and relational problems over time. The results underscore the importance of a developmental perspective on early childhood aggression and victimization in high-risk contexts, in order to understand their implications for adjustment in adolescence.

  18. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.

  19. Psychosis, aggression, and self-destructive behavior in hospitalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Delga, I; Heinssen, R K; Fritsch, R C; Goodrich, W; Yates, B T

    1989-04-01

    The authors studied the history of aggressive and self-destructive behaviors in psychotic and nonpsychotic hospitalized adolescents (N = 137). A multidimensional measure of self- and other-directed aggression was retrospectively applied to each patient's social and developmental history. Nonsignificant gender and diagnostic differences were obtained on ratings of violence and suicide. Broader definitions of internal and external aggression yielded nonsignificant diagnostic differences, but gender differences were observed on both internal and external aggression measures. Females displayed greater internal aggression, and males reported higher external aggression scores. These results, compared to those of other investigators, suggest the importance of social and cultural variables in understanding adolescent psychosis and aggression.

  20. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  1. FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Flavia M.; Tinoco, Eduardo M. B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Duarte, Poliana M.; Faveri, Marcelo; Marques, Marcelo R.; Mendonça, Adriana C.; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03) was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009). Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:20383335

  2. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats. PMID:7195585

  3. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  4. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  5. Aggression in humans: what is its biological foundation?

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1993-01-01

    Although human aggression is frequently inferred to parallel aggression based on testosterone in nonprimate mammals, there is little concrete support for this position. High- and low-aggression individuals do not consistently differ in serum testosterone. Aggression does not change at puberty when testosterone levels increase. Aggression does not increase in hypogonadal males (or females) when exogenous testosterone is administered to support sexual activity. Similarly, there are no reports that aggression increases in hirsute females even though testosterone levels may rise to 200% above normal. Conversely, castration or antiandrogen administration to human males is not associated with a consistent decrease in aggression. Finally, changes in human aggression associated with neuropathology are not consistent with current knowledge of the neural basis of testosterone-dependent aggression. In contrast, human aggression does have a substantial number of features in common with defensive aggression seen in nonprimate mammals. It is present at all age levels, is displayed by both males and females, is directed at both males and females, and is not dependent on seasonal changes in hormone levels or experiential events such as sexual activity. As would be expected from current knowledge of the neural system controlling defensive aggression, aggression in humans increases with tumors in the medial hypothalamus and septal region, and with seizure activity in the amygdala. It decreases with lesions in the amygdala. The inference that human aggression has its roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate mammals is in general agreement with evidence on the consistency of human aggressiveness over age, with similarities in male and female aggressiveness in laboratory studies, and with observations that some neurological disturbances contribute to criminal violence. This evidence suggests that human aggression has its biological roots in the defensive aggression of nonprimate

  6. The Role of Parenting Styles in the Relation Between Functions of Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.

  7. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  8. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals. PMID:24862880

  9. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  10. Empathy, target distress, and neurohormone genes interact to predict aggression for others-even without provocation.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Anneke E K; Poulin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Can empathy for others motivate aggression on their behalf? This research examined potential predictors of empathy-linked aggression including the emotional state of empathy, an empathy target's distress state, and the function of the social anxiety-modulating neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. In Study 1 (N = 69), self-reported empathy combined with threat to a close other and individual differences in genes for the vasopressin receptor (AVPR1a rs3) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576) to predict self-reported aggression against a person who threatened a close other. In Study 2 (N = 162), induced empathy for a person combined with OXTR variation or with that person's distress and AVPR1a variation led to increased amount of hot sauce assigned to that person's competitor. Empathy uniquely predicts aggression and may do so by way of aspects of the human caregiving system in the form of oxytocin and vasopressin. PMID:25287464

  11. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  12. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals.

  13. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

  14. Aggression and hostility in substance abusers: the relationship to abuse patterns, coping style, and relapse triggers.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R A; Smith, M

    1995-01-01

    A cohort of 3,367 substance abusers seeking treatment were administered measures of aggression and hostility including the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory Hostility Scale. Polysubstance abusers scored significantly higher on all measures of hostility and aggression, regardless of whether they abused cocaine or not. Subjects scoring higher on aggression and hostility utilized escape-avoidance, distancing, and confrontational coping styles more regularly. Subjects scoring higher on measures of aggression and hostility reported more situations that triggered their use of substances and less confidence that they could resist using when faced with such situations in the future. This was especially true for situations involving unpleasant internal states, situations involving rejection, and situations involving conflict with family and friends. The implications of these findings for clinical assessment and treatment planning are discussed.

  15. Empathy, target distress, and neurohormone genes interact to predict aggression for others-even without provocation.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Anneke E K; Poulin, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Can empathy for others motivate aggression on their behalf? This research examined potential predictors of empathy-linked aggression including the emotional state of empathy, an empathy target's distress state, and the function of the social anxiety-modulating neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. In Study 1 (N = 69), self-reported empathy combined with threat to a close other and individual differences in genes for the vasopressin receptor (AVPR1a rs3) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576) to predict self-reported aggression against a person who threatened a close other. In Study 2 (N = 162), induced empathy for a person combined with OXTR variation or with that person's distress and AVPR1a variation led to increased amount of hot sauce assigned to that person's competitor. Empathy uniquely predicts aggression and may do so by way of aspects of the human caregiving system in the form of oxytocin and vasopressin.

  16. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  17. Witnessed aggression: influence of an observer's sex and values on aggressive responding.

    PubMed

    Borden, R J

    1975-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of the presence of an observer on aggressive responding. In one experiment, male subjects observed by a male aggressed more than those observed by a female. When the male observer was removed from the situation, subjects' level of aggressiveness more closely matched the level manifested by the opponent. The removal of the female observer had little effect on the subjects' behavior. In the second experiment, the male or female observer of the subject's behavior was disguised as a member of an organization with explicit values (aggressive or pacifistic) regarding the use of aggression. In this case, significant differences in aggression were associated with the observer's values but not the observer's sex. Following the departure of the observer, the shock settings of subjects in the two aggressive-value observer groups showed a signifcant decrease. The average shock setting of subjects in the two pacifistic-value observer groups remained at about the same level. In sum, the results indicated that the subjects' aggressive behavior was apparently a function of their expectations of approval for such behavior, based on the inferred or explicit values of the observer. The results were further discussed in terms of social learning theory.

  18. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  19. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components.

  20. Beliefs about Aggression and Submissiveness: A Comparison of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jamie; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relevance of the social information processing model of aggression to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated the "response access" and "response decision" steps of this model. Photo stories were used to compare aggressive and nonaggressive individuals' beliefs about the outcomes of…