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Sample records for aggressive human malignancies

  1. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  2. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  3. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  4. Aggression: the dominant psychological response in children with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Kvist, S B; Rajantie, J; Kvist, M; Siimes, M A

    1991-06-01

    During the 11-yr. period of 1976 to 1986 leukemia or lymphoma treatment at the Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki was electively discontinued for the children in 90 different families. Of the 53 (59%) patients (mean age 6.4 yr. at diagnosis and 12.8 yr. at completion of questionnaires) who agreed to participate in the present study, 48 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and five nonHodgkin lymphoma. Patients' and parents' impressions of the patients' psychological reactions during patients' prior chemotherapy were evaluated on parental and self-ratings. Also, knowledge of and presumed causes of the malignancy were studied. Patients' reactions of aggression, depression, eating disorders, hypersensitivity, phobic anxiety, death anxiety, and night terror were examined using factor analysis. Aggression, in the form of irritation and anger, was displayed more often by girls than by boys. Patients of families suffering from stress were prone to exhibit aggression in the form of mood changes, irritation, and anger. Patients with disease-related knowledge, as opposed to those less well informed, were less depressed. Discrepancies between parents' and patients' thoughts about the origin of the malignancy were noted.

  5. Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kenneth C; Willert, Jennifer; Meltzer, Hal; Roberts, William; Kerlin, Bryce; Kadota, Richard; Levy, Michael; White, Greg; Geddis, Amy; Schiff, Deborah; Martin, Laura; Yu, Alice; Kung, Faith; Spear, Matthew A

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the outcomes of children treated with combinations of temozolomide and radiation therapy for various aggressive central nervous system malignancies. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 1 to 15 years. Patients with focal disease were treated with concomitant temozolomide (daily 75 mg/m) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in a dose that ranged from 50 to 54 Gy, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m/d x 5 days/month in three patients, 150 mg/m x 5 days/ month in one patient). Patients with disseminated disease were treated with craniospinal radiation (39.6 Gy) before conformal boost. One patient received temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month) before craniospinal radiation, and one patient received temozolomide (daily 95 mg/m) concomitant with craniospinal radiation and a radiosurgical boost, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month). Three patients achieved a partial response during treatment, with two of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. One patient has no evidence of disease. Three patients achieved stable disease, with one of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. Toxicities observed included low-grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia. The combination of temozolomide and radiotherapy appears to be well tolerated in a variety of treatment schemas for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. This information is of particular use in designing future studies, given the recent positive results in a randomized study examining the use of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of adult glioblastoma.

  6. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  7. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  8. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  9. Human aggression and the lunar synodic cycle.

    PubMed

    Lieber, A L

    1978-05-01

    Data on five aggressive and/or violent human behaviors were examined by computer to determine whether a relationship exists between the lunar syndoic cycle and human aggression. Homicides, suicides, fatal traffic accidents, aggravated assaults and psychiatric emergency room visits occurring in Dade County, Florida all show lunar periodicities. Homicides and aggravated assaults demonstrate statistically significant clustering of cases around full moon. Psychiatric emergency room visits cluster around first quarter and shows a significantly decreased frequency around new and full moon. The suicide curve shows correlations with both aggravated assaults and fatal traffic accidents, suggesting a self-destructive component for each of these behaviors. The existence of a biological rhythm of human aggression which resonates with the lunar synodic cycle is postulated.

  10. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

  11. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors.

  12. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  13. Association between sleep disordered breathing and aggressiveness markers of malignant cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Nagore, Eduardo; Valero, Irene; Selma, Maria Jose; Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Montserrat, Josep-Maria; Carrera, Cristina; Pérez-Gil, Amalia; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Farré, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    Some recent studies have shown an association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and cancer mortality and incidence but no study has focused on a specific type of cancer. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between the severity of SDB and factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) aggressiveness. We performed a multicentre observational study in 82 consecutive patients diagnosed with CMM. 56 patients in whom melanoma measurements were available were finally included in the study. Melanoma measurements of aggressiveness included: tumour mitotic rate, Breslow index, presence of ulceration, stage of disease and growth rate of melanoma. A sleep study was performed in all the included patients. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the independent relationship between SDB severity (apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nocturnal oxygen desaturation indexes (ODI3% and ODI4%)) and measures of CMM aggressiveness. 60.7% of patients had SDB (AHI ≥ 5) and 14.3% severe obstructive sleep apnoea (AHI ≥ 30). In fully adjusted multivariate analyses, AHI (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), ODI3% (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) and ODI4% (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02-1.2) were independently associated with an increased melanoma growth rate. Furthermore, AHI, ODI4% and ODI3% were significantly correlated with other aggressiveness factors of CMM, such as Breslow index, presence of ulceration and mitotic index. SDB severity markers are associated with some aggressiveness markers of CMM.

  14. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  15. The role of alcohol and steroid hormones in human aggression.

    PubMed

    von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.

  16. Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0176 TITLE: Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 July 2015 Annual 01-July 2014 -- 30 Jun 2015 Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem...induced pluripotent stem cells by Atoh1 induction can be efficiently transformed by MYC oncogene to form aggressive brain tumors that recapitulate human

  17. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  18. [Molecular psychogenetics of deviant aggressive behavior in humans].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, V A

    2011-09-01

    The review considers the known candidate gene loci that are involved in the dopamine, serotonin, and androgen systems and are associated with human deviant aggressive behavior. Both positive and negative correlations with deviant aggressive behavior have been observed for almost all of the candidate gene loci. Many genes of the neurotransmitter and androgen system and intricate interactions among them may influence the propensity to aggression. Further studies should focus not only on individual gene polymorphisms, but also on complex interactions among the alleles of all candidate genes that have functionally important polymorphisms affecting their expression and function. A complex analysis should be performed to study the association of the homozygous genotypes at all candidate gene markers with various forms of human deviant aggressive behavior. The approach will make it possible to assess the individual reactivity to various environmental stimuli that provoke aggression and to develop a means of predicting and preventing deviant aggressive behavior in humans.

  19. Primary Pure Keratinising Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Malignancy with Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Leela; Garg, Malini; Singh, Garima; Singh, Sompal

    2016-01-01

    Primary well differentiated keratinising Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a rare gall bladder malignancy accounting for 3.3% of all gall bladder carcinomas. Here we present a case of a 70-year-old female with complaints of dyspepsia and right upper quadrant pain for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed gall stones along with thickened and irregular gall bladder wall. Grossly an exophytic growth was noted involving large part of the body of gall bladder. Histological features were of well differentiated SCC with extensive keratinisation involving full thickness of the wall. No glandular component was seen. Metastasis from other primary was ruled out after thorough work-up. SCC of gall bladder has an infiltrative growth pattern and behaves aggressively. Early diagnosis plays the most important role in increasing the survival. PMID:27790451

  20. Gall bladder carcinoma: Aggressive malignancy with protean loco-regional and distant spread.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Amit Nandan Dhar; Jain, Shivi; Dixit, Ruhi

    2015-03-16

    The most common malignancy of biliary tract is gallbladder cancer (GBC) which is the third most common cancer in gastrointestinal tract. It is a lethal disease for most patients in spite of growing awareness and improved diagnostic techniques. GBC has a very poor prognosis and the 5 year survival rate is < 10%. Although etiology of the carcinoma of the gallbladder is still obscure, various factors have been implicated, cholelithiasis being the most frequent. The incidence of GBC worldwide is based on the gender, geography and ethnicity which suggest that both genetic and environmental factors can cause GBC. The major route of spread of gallbladder cancer (GC) is loco-regional rather than distant. It spreads by lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal routes. Sonography is usually the most common imaging test to evaluate symptoms of biliary tract disease including suspected GC. With recent advances in imaging modalities like multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging-positron emission tomography/CT diagnosis of gallbladder cancer has improved. Studies have also targeted molecular and genetic pathways. Treatment options have included extended and radical surgeries and adjuvant chemotherapy. This review article deals in detail with important aspects of carcinoma gallbladder and its manifestations and challenges. Role of various imaging modalities in characterization and accurate staging has been discussed. The loco-regional spread of this aggressive malignancy is dealt explicitly.

  1. Preclinical targeting of aggressive T-cell malignancies using anti-CD5 chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, K H; Wada, M; Pinz, K G; Liu, H; Lin, K-W; Jares, A; Firor, A E; Shuai, X; Salman, H; Golightly, M; Lan, F; Senzel, L; Leung, E L; Jiang, X; Ma, Y

    2017-02-10

    The outlook for T-cell malignancies remain poor due to the lack of effective therapeutic options. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy has recently shown promise in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies, however, designing CARs for T-cell based disease remain a challenge due to the shared surface antigen pool between normal and malignant T-cells. Normal T-cells express CD5 but NK (natural killer) cells do not, positioning NK cells as attractive cytotoxicity cells for CD5CAR design. Additionally, CD5 is highly expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). Here, we report a robust anti-CD5 CAR (CD5CAR) transduced into a human NK cell line NK-92 that can undergo stable expansion ex vivo. We found that CD5CAR NK-92 cells possessed consistent, specific, and potent anti-tumor activity against a variety of T-cell leukemia and lymphoma cell lines as well as primary tumor cells. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate significant inhibition and control of disease progression in xenograft mouse models of T-ALL. The data suggest that CAR redirected targeting for T-cell malignancies using NK cells may be a viable method for new and complementary therapeutic approaches that could improve the current outcome for patients.Leukemia advance online publication, 10 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.8.

  2. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  3. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    PubMed

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other.

  4. Human Breast Cancer Invasion and Aggression Correlates with ECM Stiffening and Immune Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, I; Cassereau, L; Dean, I; Shi, Q; Au, A; Park, C; Chen, YY; Liphardt, J; Hwang, ES; Weaver, VM

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are stiff and data suggest that the extracellular matrix stiffening that correlates with experimental mammary malignancy drives tumor invasion and metastasis. Nevertheless, the relationship between tissue and extracellular matrix stiffness and human breast cancer progression and aggression remains unclear. We undertook a biophysical and biochemical assessment of stromal-epithelial interactions in noninvasive, invasive and normal adjacent human breast tissue and in breast cancers of increasingly aggressive subtype. Our analysis revealed that human breast cancer transformation is accompanied by an incremental increase in collagen deposition and a progressive linearization and thickening of interstitial collagen. The linearization of collagen was visualized as an overall increase in tissue birefringence and was most striking at the invasive front of the tumor where the stiffness of the stroma and cellular mechanosignaling were the highest. Amongst breast cancer subtypes we found that the stroma at the invasive region of the more aggressive Basal-like and Her2 tumor subtypes was the most heterogeneous and the stiffest when compared to the less aggressive Luminal A and B subtypes. Intriguingly, we quantified the greatest number of infiltrating macrophages and the highest level of TGF beta signaling within the cells at the invasive front. We also established that stroma stiffness and the level of cellular TGF beta signaling positively correlated with each other and with the number of infiltrating tumor-activated, macrophages, which was highest in the more aggressive tumor subtypes. These findings indicate that human breast cancer progression and aggression, collagen linearization and stromal stiffening are linked and implicate tissue inflammation and TGF beta. PMID:25959051

  5. Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects-all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment.

  6. Human Aggression Across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects—all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment. PMID:22078481

  7. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  8. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidermal specific ablation of Trp53 gene leads to the spontaneous development of aggressive tumors in mice through a process that is accelerated by the simultaneous ablation of Rb gene. Since alterations of p53-dependent pathway are common hallmarks of aggressive, poor prognostic human cancers, these mouse models can recapitulate the molecular features of some of these human malignancies. Results To evaluate this possibility, gene expression microarray analysis was performed in mouse samples. The mouse tumors display increased expression of cell cycle and chromosomal instability associated genes. Remarkably, they are also enriched in human embryonic stem cell gene signatures, a characteristic feature of human aggressive tumors. Using cross-species comparison and meta-analytical approaches, we also observed that spontaneous mouse tumors display robust similarities with gene expression profiles of human tumors bearing mutated TP53, or displaying poor prognostic outcome, from multiple body tissues. We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma. This signature was consistently overexpressed in additional mouse tumors using microarray analysis. Two of the genes of this signature, AURKA and UBE2C, were validated in human breast and cervical cancer as potential biomarkers of malignancy. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that these mouse models are promising preclinical tools aimed to search for malignancy biomarkers and to test targeted therapies of prospective use in human aggressive tumors and/or with p53 mutation or inactivation. PMID:20630075

  10. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  11. Human herpesvirus 6 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenetic roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 in lymphoproliferative diseases have been of continued interest. Many molecular studies have tried to establish a pathogenic role for HHV-6 in lymphoid malignancies. However, whether HHV-6 plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear, as positive polymerase chain reaction results for HHV-6 in those studies may reflect latent infection or reactivation rather than presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic cells. A small number of studies have investigated HHV-6 antigen expression in pathologic specimens. As a result, the lack of HHV-6 antigen expression on neoplastic cells argues against any major pathogenic role of HHV-6. The role of HHV-6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has also been of interest but remains controversial, with 2 studies documenting higher levels of HHV-6 antibody in ALL patients, and another 2 large-scale studies finding no significant differences in HHV-6 seroprevalences between ALL patients and controls. Alternatively, HHV-6 is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. HHV-6 reactivation is common among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and is linked to various clinical manifestations. In particular, HHV-6 encephalitis appears to be significant, life-threatening complication. Most HHV-6 encephalitis develops in patients receiving transplant from an unrelated donor, particularly cord blood, typically around the time of engraftment. Symptoms are characterized by short-term memory loss and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows limbic encephalitis. Prognosis for HHV-6 encephalitis is poor, but appropriate prophylactic measures have not been established. Establishment of preventive strategies against HHV-6 encephalitis represents an important challenge for physicians involved with SCT.

  12. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  13. A comparison of vitamin D activity in paired non-malignant and malignant human breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Rachel J; Ho, Kristen; Jindal, Shalini; Manavis, Jim; Neilsen, Paul M; Pishas, Kathleen I; Rippy, Elisabeth; Bochner, Melissa; Kollias, James; Gill, P Grantley; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2012-10-15

    Links between a low vitamin D status and an increased risk of breast cancer have been observed in epidemiological studies. These links have been investigated in human tissue homogenates and cultured cell lines. We have used non-malignant, malignant and normal reduction mammoplasty breast tissues to investigate the biological and metabolic consequences of the application of vitamin D to intact ex vivo human breast tissue. Tissues were exposed to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (1,25D; active metabolite) and 25(OH)D (25D; pre-metabolite). Changes in mRNA expression and protein expression after vitamin D exposure were analysed. Results indicate that while responses in normal and non-malignant breast tissues are similar between individuals, different tumour tissues are highly variable with regards to their gene expression and biological response. Collectively, malignant breast tissue responds well to active 1,25D, but not to the inactive pre-metabolite 25D. This may have consequences for the recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in breast cancer patients.

  14. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.

  15. Human malignant mesothelioma is recapitulated in immunocompetent BALB/c mice injected with murine AB cells

    PubMed Central

    Mezzapelle, Rosanna; Rrapaj, Eltjona; Gatti, Elena; Ceriotti, Chiara; Marchis, Francesco De; Preti, Alessandro; Spinelli, Antonello E.; Perani, Laura; Venturini, Massimo; Valtorta, Silvia; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Frenquelli, Michela; Crippa, Luca; Recordati, Camilla; Scanziani, Eugenio; de Vries, Hilda; Berns, Anton; Frapolli, Roberta; Boldorini, Renzo; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Bianchi, Marco E.; Crippa, Massimo P.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer, which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Here we describe the molecular, cellular and morphological characterization of a syngeneic system consisting of murine AB1, AB12 and AB22 mesothelioma cells injected in immunocompetent BALB/c mice, which allows the study of the interplay of tumor cells with the immune system. Murine mesothelioma cells, like human ones, respond to exogenous High Mobility Group Box 1 protein, a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern that acts as a chemoattractant for leukocytes and as a proinflammatory mediator. The tumors derived from AB cells are morphologically and histologically similar to human MM tumors, and respond to treatments used for MM patients. Our system largely recapitulates human mesothelioma, and we advocate its use for the study of MM development and treatment. PMID:26961782

  16. Clinical aggressiveness of malignant gliomas is linked to augmented metabolism of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Joseph L.; Lin, Henry J.; Lai, Albert; Hai, Yang; Guo, Xiuqing; Quinn, Michael; Nelson, Stanley F.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Nghiemphu, P. Leia

    2017-01-01

    Glutamine, glutamate, asparagine, and aspartate are involved in an enzyme-network that controls nitrogen metabolism. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase-1 (BCAT1) promotes proliferation of gliomas with wild-type IDH1 and is closely connected to the network. We hypothesized that metabolism of asparagine, glutamine, and branched-chain-amino-acids is associated with progression of malignant gliomas. Gene expression for asparagine synthetase (ASNS), glutaminase (GLS), and BCAT1 were analyzed in 164 gliomas from 156 patients [33-anaplastic gliomas (AG) and 131-glioblastomas (GBM), 64 of which were recurrent GBMs]. ASNS and GLS were twofold higher in GBMs versus AGs. BCAT1 was also higher in GBMs. ASNS expression was twofold higher in recurrent versus new GBMs. Five patients had serial samples: 4-showed higher ASNS and 3-higher GLS at recurrence. We analyzed grade and treatment in 4 groups: (1) low ASNS, GLS, and BCAT1 (n = 96); (2) low ASNS and GLS, but high BCAT1 (n = 26); (3) high ASNS or GLS, but low BCAT1 (n = 25); and (4) high ASNS or GLS and high BCAT1 (n = 17). Ninety-one % of patients (29/32) with grade-III lesions were in group 1. In contrast, 95 % of patients (62/65) in groups 2–4 had GBMs. Treatment was similar in 4 groups (radiotherapy-80 %; temozolomide-30 %; other chemotherapy-50 %). High expression of ASNS, GLS, and BCAT1 were each associated with poor survival in the entire group. The combination of lower ASNS, GLS, and BCAT1 levels correlated with better survival for newly diagnosed GBMs (66 patients; P = 0.0039). Only tumors with lower enzymes showed improved outcome with temozolomide. IDH1WT gliomas had higher expression of these genes. Manipulation of amino acid metabolism in malignant gliomas may be further studied for therapeutics development. PMID:26922345

  17. Genetic architecture for human aggression: A study of gene-phenotype relationship in OMIM.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-07-01

    Genetic studies of human aggression have mainly focused on known candidate genes and pathways regulating serotonin and dopamine signaling and hormonal functions. These studies have taught us much about the genetics of human aggression, but no genetic locus has yet achieved genome-significance. We here present a review based on a paradoxical hypothesis that studies of rare, functional genetic variations can lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex multifactorial disorders such as aggression. We examined all aggression phenotypes catalogued in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), an Online Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. We identified 95 human disorders that have documented aggressive symptoms in at least one individual with a well-defined genetic variant. Altogether, we retrieved 86 causal genes. Although most of these genes had not been implicated in human aggression by previous studies, the most significantly enriched canonical pathways had been previously implicated in aggression (e.g., serotonin and dopamine signaling). Our findings provide strong evidence to support the causal role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of aggression. In addition, the novel genes and pathways we identified suggest additional mechanisms underlying the origins of human aggression. Genome-wide association studies with very large samples will be needed to determine if common variants in these genes are risk factors for aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS) anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM) on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3) and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration. Conclusions Our

  19. Relevance of lipids to heterotransplantation of human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Perez, R L; Mitchell, J R; Lozzio, B B

    1982-01-01

    Although the transplantation of human neoplasms in immunodeficient mice is now a well-established procedure, the majority of primary malignancies cannot be successfully maintained for long periods of time in adult athymic (nude) and asplenic-athymic (lasat) mice. Various lipids such as cholesterol, cholesterol oleate, stearic and palmitic acid esters markedly depress the RES phagocytic activity and immunocompetence of mammals. In view of the immunosuppressive properties of certain lipids and in order to graft and grow as many tumors as possible, further studies into the effects of lipids on the growth of heterotransplanted human tumors is warranted. Lipids may enhance local growth and facilitate the development of metastases rarely seen in nude and lasat mice bearing xenogeneic cancer cells. Lipids may accelerate human malignant cell proliferation in mice by both depressing further the defense of host and modifying the cancer cell membrane. The relationship of lipids to the onset and progression of 'spontaneous' tumors in humans is not known.

  20. DNA content and chromosomal composition of malignant human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bigner, S H; Bjerkvig, R; Laerum, O D

    1985-11-01

    A short review is given on DNA aberrations and chromosomal composition of malignant human gliomas. By flow cytometric DNA analysis, a wide range of different ploidies has been reported in biopsied gliomas, from diploid to strongly aneuploid nuclear DNA. However, with the preparation and analysis methods used so far, no clear relationship between the type of ploidy and histology or prognosis has been established. A high proportion of glioblastomas is near-diploid, indicating a high degree of biologic malignancy is not necessarily connected to aberration of the nuclear DNA content. It is possible that improved methods giving a higher degree of resolution will allow separation of the near-diploid populations of malignant human gliomas from normal diploid cells and permit the detection of subpopulations with small differences from the dominant DNA mode. Chromosomal studies of malignant gliomas have confirmed that the majority of them have near-diploid stemlines. These populations are seldom normal diploid, however, as both numerical and structural abnormalities are usually present. In addition, chromosomal analyses have shown that when gliomas are bimodal, the polyploid populations are usually doubled versions of the near-diploid ones. In contrast to the near-diploid populations that characterize biopsied malignant gliomas, both FCM studies and karyotyping have demonstrated that permanent cultured cell lines derived from malignant gliomas are usually near-triploid or near-tetraploid. Sequential karyotypic studies of these tumors from biopsy through establishment in vitro have shown an evolutionary pattern consisting of doubling of the original stemline, followed by gains or losses of individual chromosomes with new marker formation in late culture. Evaluation of biopsied malignant gliomas by karyotyping has also demonstrated that subgroups of them are characterized by specific numerical and structural deviations. These groupings may prove useful in predicting prognosis

  1. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  2. Inhibition of hedgehog signaling reduces the side population in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-A; Kim, M-C; Kim, N-Y; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    Deregulation of crucial embryonic pathways, including hedgehog signaling, has been frequently implicated in a variety of human cancers and is emerging as an important target for anticancer therapy. This study evaluated the potential anticancer effects of cyclopamine, a chemical inhibitor of hedgehog signaling, in human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cell lines. Cyclopamine treatment significantly decreased the proliferation of HMM cells by promoting apoptosis and shifting the cell cycle toward dormant phase. The clonogenicity and mobility of HMM cells were significantly decreased by cyclopamine treatment. Treatment of HMM cells with cyclopamine significantly reduced the abundance of side population cells, which were measured using an assay composed of Hoechst 33342 dye staining and subsequent flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression levels of stemness-related genes were significantly affected by cyclopamine treatment. Taken together, the present study showed that targeting hedgehog signaling could reduce a more aggressive subpopulation of the cancer cells, suggesting an alternative approach for HMM therapy.

  3. Inhibition of hedgehog signaling reduces the side population in human malignant mesothelioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H-A; Kim, M-C; Kim, N-Y; Kim, Y

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of crucial embryonic pathways, including hedgehog signaling, has been frequently implicated in a variety of human cancers and is emerging as an important target for anticancer therapy. This study evaluated the potential anticancer effects of cyclopamine, a chemical inhibitor of hedgehog signaling, in human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cell lines. Cyclopamine treatment significantly decreased the proliferation of HMM cells by promoting apoptosis and shifting the cell cycle toward dormant phase. The clonogenicity and mobility of HMM cells were significantly decreased by cyclopamine treatment. Treatment of HMM cells with cyclopamine significantly reduced the abundance of side population cells, which were measured using an assay composed of Hoechst 33342 dye staining and subsequent flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression levels of stemness-related genes were significantly affected by cyclopamine treatment. Taken together, the present study showed that targeting hedgehog signaling could reduce a more aggressive subpopulation of the cancer cells, suggesting an alternative approach for HMM therapy. PMID:26206198

  4. Localisation of malignant glioma by a radiolabelled human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J; Alderson, T; Sikora, K; Watson, J

    1983-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing intratumoral lymphocytes from patients with malignant gliomas with a human myeloma line. One antibody was selected for further study after screening for binding activity to glioma cell lines. The patient from whom it was derived developed recurrent glioma. 1 mg of antibody was purified, radiolabelled with 131I, and administered intravenously. The distribution of antibody was determined in the blood, CSF and tumour cyst fluid and compared with that of a control human monoclonal immunoglobulin. Antibody localisation in the tumour was observed and confirmed by external scintiscanning. Images PMID:6101173

  5. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  6. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob; Beisner, Brianne; Hill, Ashley; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-02

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  7. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  8. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  9. Vocalization toward conspecifics in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tame or aggressive behavior toward humans.

    PubMed

    Gogoleva, S S; Volodin, I A; Volodina, E V; Kharlamova, A V; Trut, L N

    2010-06-01

    We examined the production of different vocalizations in three strains of silver fox (unselected, aggressive, and tame) attending three kinds of behavior (aggressive, affiliative, and neutral) in response to their same-strain conspecifics. This is a follow-up to previous experiments which demonstrated that in the presence of humans, tame foxes produced cackles and pants but never coughed or snorted, whilst aggressive foxes produced coughs and snorts but never cackled or panted. Thus, cackle/pant and cough/snort were indicative of the tame and aggressive fox strains respectively toward humans. Wild-type unselected foxes produced cough and snort toward humans similarly to aggressive foxes. Here, we found that vocal responses to conspecifics were similar in tame, aggressive and unselected fox strains. Both cackle/pant and cough/snort occurred in foxes of all strains. The difference in the use of cackle/pant and cough/snort among these strains toward humans and toward conspecifics suggest that silver foxes do not perceive humans as their conspecifics. We speculate that these vocalizations are produced in response to a triggering internal state, affiliative or aggressive, that is suppressed by default in these fox strains toward humans as a result of their strict selection for tame or aggressive behavior, whilst still remaining flexible toward conspecifics.

  10. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. PMID:20422010

  11. Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Ilana R

    2003-03-01

    Canine aggression directed to human beings is a common presenting complaint and requires attention to safety issues and behavior modification to minimize the risks of future aggression. Dogs may bite familiar people, including family members, or unfamiliar people for a variety of reasons. Anxiety plays an important role in aggression regardless of its target or circumstances. Effective management of aggression may include education and safety counseling for owners, lifestyle changes for dogs and owners, avoidance of provocations when possible, and behavior modification to minimize the risk of future bites. Drug therapy may be indicated to facilitate behavior modification or to reduce reactivity in the dog.

  12. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability) while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships). Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females. PMID:23864299

  13. The embryonic morphogen, Nodal, is associated with channel-like structures in human malignant melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Josephine C; Zhan, Qian; Weishaupt, Carsten; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Murphy, George F

    2010-04-01

    Formation of channel-like structures, also termed vasculogenic mimicry (VM), describes the ability of aggressive melanoma cells to form PAS-positive anastomosing structures that correlate with tumor virulence. This phenomenon may indicate differentiation plasticity, a feature melanoma cells may share with stem cells in the developing embryo. Recent studies have indicated that VM and tumorigenicity of human malignant melanoma may depend on the signaling pathways of an embryonic morphogen, Nodal. However, given the secretory nature of Nodal protein and melanoma cell heterogeneity, it remains unclear whether the Nodal-expressing cells participate directly or indirectly in VM that is potentially related to tumorigenic growth. We have developed a humanized murine xenograft model in which developing human melanomas may be sequentially studied during early stages of tumorigenic growth within a physiological human dermal microenvironment. Nodal protein localized diffusely to melanoma cell membranes, with occasional foci of accentuated reactivity in patterns suggestive of channel formation. Similar findings were detected in a limited number of patient-derived tumors. In situ hybridization confirmed Nodal mRNA to be restricted to tumor cells within xenografts that formed arborizing networks in patterns consistent with VM. These data indicate that Nodal gene expression is associated with formation of VM-like structures in a physiologically relevant model of human melanoma tumorigenesis, and further support a key role for Nodal expression in the formation of channel-like structures. The humanized xenograft model should be useful in future studies to define the mechanistic pathways responsible for VM and melanoma progression.

  14. Inhibition of cathepsin proteases attenuates migration and sensitizes aggressive N-Myc amplified human neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Gangoda, Lahiru; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Fonseka, Pamali; Edgington, Laura E; Ang, Ching-Seng; Ozcitti, Cemil; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-05-10

    Neuroblastoma arises from the sympathetic nervous system and accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. Amplification of the oncogene N-Myc is reported to occur in more than 20% of patients. While N-Myc amplification status strongly correlates with higher tumour aggression and resistance to treatment, the role of N-Myc in the aggressive progression of the disease is poorly understood. N-Myc being a transcription factor can modulate the secretion of key proteins that may play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Characterising the soluble secreted proteins or secretome will aid in understanding their role in the tumour microenvironment, such as promoting cancer cell invasion and resistance to treatment. The aim of this study is to characterise the secretome of human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 (N-Myc amplified, more aggressive) and SH-SY5Y (N-Myc non-amplified, less aggressive) cells. Conditioned media from SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines were subjected to proteomics analysis. We report a catalogue of 894 proteins identified in the secretome isolated from the two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y. Functional enrichment analysis using FunRich software identified enhanced secretion of proteins implicated in cysteine peptidase activity in the aggressive N-Myc amplified SK-N-BE2 secretome compared to the less tumorigenic SH-SY5Y cells. Protein-protein interaction-based network analysis highlighted the enrichment of cathepsin and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition sub-networks. For the first time, inhibition of cathepsins by inhibitors sensitized the resistant SK-N-BE2 cells to doxorubicin as well as decreased its migratory potential. The dataset of secretome proteins of N-Myc amplified (more aggressive) and non-amplified (less aggressive) neuroblastoma cells represent the first inventory of neuroblastoma secretome. The study also highlights the prominent role of cathepsins in the N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma pathogenesis. As N-Myc amplification

  15. Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-08-01

    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.

  16. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion-2 (AMPLE-2) trial: a multicentre randomised study of aggressive versus symptom-guided drainage via indwelling pleural catheters

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, Maree; Thomas, Rajesh; Muruganandan, Sanjeevan; Lam, David C L; Garske, Luke A; Kwan, Benjamin C H; Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S; Nguyen, Phan T; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Ritchie, Alexander J; Bint, Michael; Tobin, Claire L; Shrestha, Ranjan; Piccolo, Francesco; De Chaneet, Christian C; Creaney, Jenette; Newton, Robert U; Hendrie, Delia; Murray, Kevin; Read, Catherine A; Feller-Kopman, David; Maskell, Nick A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) can complicate most cancers, causing dyspnoea and impairing quality of life (QoL). Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are a novel management approach allowing ambulatory fluid drainage and are increasingly used as an alternative to pleurodesis. IPC drainage approaches vary greatly between centres. Some advocate aggressive (usually daily) removal of fluid to provide best symptom control and chance of spontaneous pleurodesis. Daily drainages however demand considerably more resources and may increase risks of complications. Others believe that MPE care is palliative and drainage should be performed only when patients become symptomatic (often weekly to monthly). Identifying the best drainage approach will optimise patient care and healthcare resource utilisation. Methods and analysis A multicentre, open-label randomised trial. Patients with MPE will be randomised 1:1 to daily or symptom-guided drainage regimes after IPC insertion. Patient allocation to groups will be stratified for the cancer type (mesothelioma vs others), performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0–1 vs ≥2), presence of trapped lung (vs not) and prior pleurodesis (vs not). The primary outcome is the mean daily dyspnoea score, measured by a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) over the first 60 days. Secondary outcomes include benefits on physical activity levels, rate of spontaneous pleurodesis, complications, hospital admission days, healthcare costs and QoL measures. Enrolment of 86 participants will detect a mean difference of VAS score of 14 mm between the treatment arms (5% significance, 90% power) assuming a common between-group SD of 18.9 mm and a 10% lost to follow-up rate. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study (number 2015-043). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. Trial registration

  17. Anticancer activity of glucomoringin isothiocyanate in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) released from their glucosinolate precursors have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and they have received significant attention as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Astrocytoma grade IV is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults without any curative treatment. New therapeutic drugs are therefore urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor activity of the glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin [4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate] produced from quantitative myrosinase-induced hydrolysis of glucomoringin (GMG) under neutral pH value. We have evaluated the potency of moringin on apoptosis induction and cell death in human astrocytoma grade IV CCF-STTG1 cells. Moringin showed to be effective in inducing apoptosis through p53 and Bax activation and Bcl-2 inhibition. In addition, oxidative stress related Nrf2 transcription factor and its upstream regulator CK2 alpha expressions were modulated at higher doses, which indicated the involvement of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by moringin. Moreover, significant reduction in 5S rRNA was noticed with moringin treatment. Our in vitro results demonstrated the antitumor efficacy of moringin derived from myrosinase-hydrolysis of GMG in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

  18. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.

  19. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  20. The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Borena, Wegene; Pichler, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. However, the role of HPV infection in urological tumors is not yet clarified. HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies. This short review provides an update regarding recent literature on HPV in urological malignancies, thereby, also discussing possible limitations on HPV detection in urological cancer.

  1. A quick assessment tool for human-directed aggression in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Klausz, Barbara; Kis, Anna; Persa, Eszter; Miklósi, Adám; Gácsi, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Many test series have been developed to assess dog temperament and aggressive behavior, but most of them have been criticized for their relatively low predictive validity or being too long, stressful, and/or problematic to carry out. We aimed to develop a short and effective series of tests that corresponds with (a) the dog's bite history, and (b) owner evaluation of the dog's aggressive tendencies. Seventy-three pet dogs were divided into three groups by their biting history; non-biter, bit once, and multiple biter. All dogs were exposed to a short test series modeling five real-life situations: friendly greeting, take away bone, threatening approach, tug-of-war, and roll over. We found strong correlations between the in-test behavior and owner reports of dogs' aggressive tendencies towards strangers; however, the test results did not mirror the reported owner-directed aggressive tendencies. Three test situations (friendly greeting, take-away bone, threatening approach) proved to be effective in evoking specific behavioral differences according to dog biting history. Non-biters differed from biters, and there were also specific differences related to aggression and fear between the two biter groups. When a subsample of dogs was retested, the test revealed consistent results over time. We suggest that our test is adequate for a quick, general assessment of human-directed aggression in dogs, particularly to evaluate their tendency for aggressive behaviors towards strangers. Identifying important behavioral indicators of aggressive tendencies, this test can serve as a useful tool to study the genetic or neural correlates of human-directed aggression in dogs.

  2. Violence among peoples in the light of human frustration and aggression.

    PubMed

    de Gaay Fortman, Bas

    2005-12-05

    This article sets out to provide a general background to the study of aggression in the social sciences, with a particular focus on its link to collective violence. While the study of what happens in the human brain appears to be already highly complex, analysis of violent behavior appears to be even more intricate. A deductive system in the sense of a general and clear system of propositions logically connected to one another is not feasible, principally because contrary to the natural sciences there are no verities but merely "stylized facts." One of these concerns the setting of human aggression in the light of frustration, as argued in the frustration-aggression hypothesis developed by Dollard et al. in 1939. Apart from conceiving of aggression as a pure human instinct, it may also be seen as externally driven, while a third possibility concerns culturally "learned" aggression. Proof of the latter is that the strongest correlation appears to be that between current violence and previous manifestations thereof. Attention is paid to the way in which Gurr has rooted his relative deprivation theory on causes of collective violence among peoples in mechanisms of frustration and aggression. That theory is taken a bit further in terms of "perceived acquirement failure," which appears to be highly connected to the role of the state. Based on certain observations by Hannah Arendt, the argument then proceeds to violence as a manifestation of powerlessness. Finally, this leads to a discussion of justice as a crucial factor in what Durkheim used to call a "right to conflict." In this way, human aggression is placed in a broad socio-economic context.

  3. Reduced-intensity conditioning followed by related allografts in hematologic malignancies: long-term outcomes most successful in indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Warlick, Erica D; Tomblyn, Marcie; Cao, Qing; Defor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R; Macmillan, Margaret; Verneris, Michael; Wagner, John; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Aurora, Mukta; Bachanova, Veronika; Brunstein, Claudio; Burns, Linda; Cooley, Sarah; Kaufman, Dan; Majhail, Navneet S; McClune, Brian; McGlave, Philip; Miller, Jeffrey; Oran, Betul; Slungaard, Arne; Vercellotti, Gregory; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients (median age, 57 years; range, 23-70 years) with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total-body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without antithymocyte globulin followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota between 2002 and 2008. The cohort included 45 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 with indolent NHL, 10 with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 10 with myeloma, and 23 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. The probability of 4-year overall survival was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for those with aggressive NHL, 67% for those with HL, 30% for those with AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse in these patients were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38%, and those for progression-free survival were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%. The incidence of treatment-related mortality was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 38% at day +100, and that of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 50% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed superior overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with those with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1-year treatment-related mortality was observed in patients with a Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3 and in cytomegalovirus-seropositive recipients. These results suggest that (1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pretreated

  4. REDUCED INTENSITY CONDITIONING FOLLOWED BY RELATED ALLOGRAFTS IN HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: LONG TERM OUTCOMES MOST SUCCESSFUL IN INDOLENT AND AGGRESSIVE NON-HODGKINS LYMPHOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Erica D; Tomblyn, Marcie; Cao, Qing; DeFor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R; MacMillan, Margaret; Verneris, Michael; Wagner, John; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Aurora, Mukta; Bachanova, Veronika; Brunstein, Claudio; Burns, Linda; Cooley, Sarah; Kaufman, Dan; Majhail, Navneet S; McClune, Brian; McGlave, Philip; Miller, Jeffrey; Oran, Betul; Slungaard, Arne; Vercellotti, Gregory; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients, median age of 57 (range 23-70), with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota from 2002-2008. Forty-five patients had acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 patients had aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 indolent NHL, 10 Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL), 10 myeloma and the remaining 23 had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. Probability of four year overall survival (OS) was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for aggressive NHL, 67% for HL, 30% for AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38% and for progression free survival (PFS) were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%, respectively. The incidence of treatment related mortality (TRM) was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at day +100 was 38% and chronic GVHD at 2 years was 50%. Multivariate analysis revealed superior OS and PFS in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1 year TRM was observed with hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) score ≥ 3 and CMV seropositive recipients. These results suggest that: 1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pre-treated population; 2) indolent and aggressive NHLs respond well to RIC conditioning highlighting the importance of the graft versus lymphoma (GVL) effect; and 3

  5. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  6. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-02-28

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Together with the thalamus, the ACC was seen activated in response to threat-related words (p<.001). Chemosensory priming and habituation to body odor signals are discussed.

  7. The motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of the human behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-02-01

    According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour.

  8. Metabolomics of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Identifies Signatures of Malignant Glioma*

    PubMed Central

    Locasale, Jason W.; Melman, Tamar; Song, Susan; Yang, Xuemei; Swanson, Kenneth D.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wong, Eric T.; Asara, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid is routinely collected for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurological malignancies. However, little is known as to how its constituents may change in a patient when presented with a malignant glioma. Here, we used a targeted mass-spectrometry based metabolomics platform using selected reaction monitoring with positive/negative switching and profiled the relative levels of over 124 polar metabolites present in patient cerebrospinal fluid. We analyzed the metabolic profiles from 10 patients presenting malignant gliomas and seven control patients that did not present malignancy to test whether a small sample size could provide statistically significant signatures. We carried out multiple unbiased forms of classification using a series of unsupervised techniques and identified metabolic signatures that distinguish malignant glioma patients from the control patients. One subtype identified contained metabolites enriched in citric acid cycle components. Newly diagnosed patients segregated into a different subtype and exhibited low levels of metabolites involved in tryptophan metabolism, which may indicate the absence of an inflammatory signature. Together our results provide the first global assessment of the polar metabolic composition in cerebrospinal fluid that accompanies malignancy, and demonstrate that data obtained from high throughput mass spectrometry technology may have suitable predictive capabilities for the identification of biomarkers and classification of neurological diseases. PMID:22240505

  9. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = −.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = −.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = −.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  10. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    for CB was added to the wells. Following several washes to remove unbound antibody-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution HRP (horse- radish ...prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 6: 3430-3433, 2000. 8 Guo Y, Sigman DB, Borkowski A and Kyprianou N: Racial differences in prostate cancer growth ...cystatins in tumor growth and progression. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 1990;371 Suppl:193-198. 39. Yan S, Sloane BF. Molecular regulation of human cathepsin B

  11. Microenvironment-dependent growth of pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rituparna; Strowig, Till; Verma, Rakesh; Koduru, Srinivas; Hafemann, Anja; Hopf, Stephanie; Kocoglu, Mehmet H.; Borsotti, Chiara; Zhang, Lin; Branagan, Andrew; Eynon, Elizabeth; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2016-01-01

    Most human cancers including myeloma are preceded by a precursor state. There is an unmet need for in vivo models to study the interaction of human preneoplastic cells in the bone marrow microenvironment with non-malignant cells. Here, we genetically humanized mice to permit the growth of primary human pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells together with non-malignant cells in vivo [?]. Growth was largely restricted to the bone marrow, mirroring the pattern in patients. Xenografts captured the genomic complexity of parental tumors and revealed additional somatic changes. Moreover, xenografts from patients with preneoplastic gammopathy showed progressive growth, suggesting that the clinical stability of these lesions may in part be due to growth controls extrinsic to tumor cells. These data demonstrate a new approach to investigate the entire spectrum of human plasma cell neoplasia and illustrate the utility of humanized models for understanding the functional diversity of human tumors [?]. PMID:27723723

  12. A Potential Role for a Genetic Variation of AKAP5 in Human Aggression and Anger Control

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Sylvia; Gorny, Xenia; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Machts, Judith; Barman, Adriana; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Schüle, Rebecca; Schöls, Ludger; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Reissner, Carsten; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Düzel, Emrah; Münte, Thomas F.; Seidenbecher, Constanze I.; Schott, Björn H.

    2011-01-01

    The A-kinase-anchoring protein 5 (AKAP5), a post-synaptic multi-adaptor molecule that binds G-protein-coupled receptors and intracellular signaling molecules has been implicated in emotional processing in rodents, but its role in human emotion and behavior is up to now still not quite clear. Here, we report an association of individual differences in aggressive behavior and anger expression with a functional genetic polymorphism (Pro100Leu) in the human AKAP5 gene. Among a cohort of 527 young, healthy individuals, carriers of the less common Leu allele (15.6% allele frequency) scored significantly lower in the physical aggression domain of the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire and higher in the anger control dimension of the state-trait anger expression inventory. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment we could further demonstrate that AKAP5 Pro100Leu modulates the interaction of negative emotional processing and executive functions. In order to investigate implicit processes of anger control, we used the well-known flanker task to evoke processes of action monitoring and error processing and added task-irrelevant neutral or angry faces in the background of the flanker stimuli. In line with our predictions, Leu carriers showed increased activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during emotional interference, which in turn predicted shorter reaction times and might be related to stronger control of emotional interference. Conversely, Pro homozygotes exhibited increased orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation during emotional interference, with no behavioral advantage. Immunohistochemistry revealed AKAP5 expression in post mortem human ACC and OFC. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu contributes to individual differences in human aggression and anger control. Further research is warranted to explore the detailed role of AKAP5 and its gene product in human emotion processing. PMID:22232585

  13. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun; Kim, Kee-Hong; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Chu, Wei-Sing; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv; Ewing, Charles M.; Isaacs, William B.; Rhim, Johng S. . E-mail: jrhim@cpdr.org

    2006-04-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferative capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  14. [The archeology of human aggressiveness: violence from a paleo-epidemiological perspective].

    PubMed

    Lessa, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Acute traumatic injuries provide direct evidence that is used in studies of violence in the past. When analyzed from a paleo-epidemiological perspective and in conjunction with data from the material culture, these injuries are an important tool in the interpretation of human aggressive behavior. The latter, which seems to underlie human nature itself, has been recorded as far back as the remote time of man's ancestral hominids and in any type of social organization. By studying the pattern and distribution of blow marks and other signs of physical aggression, we contribute to our understanding not only of the emergence, use, motives, and impact of violence down through time but also of its continuance today.

  15. Diverse research on alcohol and aggression in humans: in memory of John A. Carpenter.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; White, Helene Raskin; Berman, Mitchell E; McCloskey, Michael S; Greer, Tammy F; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Chermack, Stephen T; Leonard, Kenneth E; Collins, R Lorraine; Quigley, Brian M

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium, chaired and co-organized by Helene Raskin White and co-organized by Peter R. Giancola, that was presented at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco. The goal of this symposium was to integrate findings from methodologically divergent studies on the topic of alcohol-related aggression in humans. The investigators focused on isolating mediators and moderators of the alcohol-aggression relationship. Peter R. Giancola presented laboratory data demonstrating how alcohol's acute effects on aggression are moderated by individual difference and contextual factors. Mitchell E. Berman presented laboratory data on alcohol's acute effects on self-induced aggression. Helene Raskin White reviewed prospective data on how alcohol affects the intergenerational transmission of family violence. Stephen Chermack reviewed data on the impact of a family history of alcoholism and a family history of violence on the development of childhood behavioral problems and adult problems with drugs, alcohol, and violence. Finally, Kenneth E. Leonard presented data on personal and contextual factors influencing alcohol-related barroom violence.

  16. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM.

  17. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM. PMID:27512676

  18. Pleiotropic roles of Notch signaling in normal, malignant, and developmental hematopoiesis in the human

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Guezguez, Borhane; Lee, Jung Bok; Hopkins, Claudia I; Bhatia, Mickie

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across species and plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. It has been implicated in several different hematopoietic processes including early hematopoietic development as well as adult hematological malignancies in humans. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the role of Notch signaling in the human hematopoietic system with an emphasis on hematopoietic initiation from human pluripotent stem cells and regulation within the bone marrow. Based on recent insights, we summarize potential strategies for treatment of human hematological malignancies toward the concept of targeting Notch signaling for fate regulation. PMID:25252682

  19. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B.; da Motta, Leonardo L.; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L.; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy. PMID:27206672

  20. Human tumors instigate granulin-expressing hematopoietic cells that promote malignancy by activating stromal fibroblasts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Elkabets, Moshe; Gifford, Ann M.; Scheel, Christina; Nilsson, Bjorn; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Carpenter, Anne E.; Jirström, Karin; Magnusson, Kristina; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Pontén, Fredrik; Weinberg, Robert A.; McAllister, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic instigation is a process by which endocrine signals sent from certain tumors (instigators) stimulate BM cells (BMCs), which are mobilized into the circulation and subsequently foster the growth of otherwise indolent carcinoma cells (responders) residing at distant anatomical sites. The identity of the BMCs and their specific contribution or contributions to responder tumor growth have been elusive. Here, we have demonstrated that Sca1+cKit– hematopoietic BMCs of mouse hosts bearing instigating tumors promote the growth of responding tumors that form with a myofibroblast-rich, desmoplastic stroma. Such stroma is almost always observed in malignant human adenocarcinomas and is an indicator of poor prognosis. We then identified granulin (GRN) as the most upregulated gene in instigating Sca1+cKit– BMCs relative to counterpart control cells. The GRN+ BMCs that were recruited to the responding tumors induced resident tissue fibroblasts to express genes that promoted malignant tumor progression; indeed, treatment with recombinant GRN alone was sufficient to promote desmoplastic responding tumor growth. Further, analysis of tumor tissues from a cohort of breast cancer patients revealed that high GRN expression correlated with the most aggressive triple-negative, basal-like tumor subtype and reduced patient survival. Our data suggest that GRN and the unique hematopoietic BMCs that produce it might serve as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:21266779

  1. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation. PMID:28072762

  2. PTHrP promotes malignancy of human oral cancer cell downstream of the EGFR signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tamaki; Tsuda, Masumi; Ohba, Yusuke Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2008-04-11

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is detected in many aggressive tumors and involved in malignant conversion; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we identified PTHrP as a mediator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to promote the malignancies of oral cancers. PTHrP mRNA was abundantly expressed in most of the quiescent oral cancer cells, and was significantly upregulated by EGF stimulation via ERK and p38 MAPK. PTHrP silencing by RNA interference, as well as EGFR inhibitor AG1478 treatment, significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, combined treatment of AG1478 and PTHrP knockdown achieved synergistic inhibition of malignant phenotypes. Recombinant PTHrP substantially promoted cell motility, and rescued the inhibition by PTHrP knockdown, suggesting the paracrine/autocrine function of PTHrP. These data indicate that PTHrP contributes to the malignancy of oral cancers downstream of EGFR signaling, and may thus provide a therapeutic target for oral cancer.

  3. Oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes associated with malignant transformation of human kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2016-09-17

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in humans is positively influenced by oxidative stress status in kidneys. We recently reported that adaptive response to low level of chronic oxidative stress induces malignant transformation of immortalized human renal tubular epithelial cells. Epigenetic alterations in human RCC are well documented, but its role in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of kidney cells is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of epigenetic changes in chronic oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of HK-2, human renal tubular epithelial cells. The results revealed aberrant expression of epigenetic regulatory genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3a and MBD4) and histone modifications (HDAC1, HMT1 and HAT1) in HK-2 cells malignantly transformed by chronic oxidative stress. Additionally, both in vitro soft agar assay and in vivo nude mice study showing decreased tumorigenic potential of malignantly transformed HK-2 cells following treatment with DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza 2' dC further confirmed the crucial role of DNA hypermethyaltion in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation. Changes observed in global histone H3 acetylation (H3K9, H3K18, H3K27 and H3K14) and decrease in phospho-H2AX (Ser139) also suggest potential role of histone modifications in increased survival and malignant transformation of HK-2 cells by oxidative stress. In summary, the results of this study suggest that epigenetic reprogramming induced by low levels of oxidative stress act as driver for malignant transformation of kidney epithelial cells. Findings of this study are highly relevant in potential clinical application of epigenetic-based therapeutics for treatments of kidney cancers.

  4. The Appetitive Aggression Scale—development of an instrument for the assessment of human's attraction to violence.

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Several instruments, notably Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire, have been developed for the assessment of aggressive behavior. However, in these instruments, the focus has been on reactive rather than instrumental forms of aggression, even though men in particular may find aggressive behavior attractive. A questionnaire or structured interview for the systematic assessment of the attraction to violence is not yet available. Objective We, therefore, developed a freely available short form for the assessment of a person's attraction to violent and planned forms of aggression based on reports of former combatants on the attraction to violence and the characteristics of instrumental aggression described in the literature. Method The Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) was administered to nine samples drawn from different populations, with a total of 1,632 former combatants and participants from war-affected regions (1,193 male and 439 female respondents). Results From the initial set of 31 items, a selection of 15 items was extracted to improve the scale's psychometric properties and assess the construct of appetitive aggression validly with respect to content. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.85 was appropriate. All items loaded significantly on a single factor accounting for 32% of the total variance. Further analysis revealed that the scale measures a specific construct that can be distinguished from other concepts of human aggression. Conclusions With the AAS, we present an easily administrable tool for the assessment of the attraction to violence. PMID:22893817

  5. REIC/Dkk-3 induces cell death in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Kitazato, Keiko; Mure, Hideo; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2008-06-01

    The progression of glioma to more malignant phenotypes results from the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and the consequent disruption of the apoptotic pathway and augmentation of survival signaling. REIC/Dkk-3, a member of the human Dickkopf (Dkk) family, plays a role as a suppressor of the growth of several human cancers; however, to date it has not been identified in brain tumors. We compared the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 in human malignant glioma and normal brain tissues using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. We also performed small interfering REIC/Dkk-3 (siREIC/Dkk-3) knockdown and REIC/Dkk-3 overexpression experiments to examine the role of REIC/Dkk-3 in human malignant glioma cells in vitro. In brain tissue from patients with malignant glioma, the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 was lower than in normal brain tissue and was related to the malignancy grade. In the primary glioblastoma cell line, REIC/Dkk-3 transfection led to apoptosis owing to the activation of phosphorylated JUN, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and the reduction of beta-catenin; in REIC/Dkk-3 knockdown experiments, cell growth was augmented. Our results suggest that REIC/Dkk-3 regulates the growth and survival of these cells in a caspase-dependent and -independent way via modification of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our work is the first documentation that the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 is down-regulated in human malignant glioma. Our demonstration of the mechanisms underlying REIC/Dkk-3-induced cell death indicates that REIC/Dkk-3 plays a pivotal role in the biology of human malignant glioma and suggests that REIC/Dkk-3 is a promising candidate for molecular target therapy.

  6. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  7. CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qianqian; Yang, Gang; Zheng, Lianfang; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin–proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies. PMID:27007160

  8. In vitro expansion of human glioblastoma cells at non-physiological oxygen tension irreversibly alters subsequent in vivo aggressiveness and AC133 expression

    PubMed Central

    BOURSEAU-GUILMAIN, ERIKA; LEMAIRE, LAURENT; GRIVEAU, AUDREY; HERVOUET, ERIC; VALLETTE, FRANÇOIS; BERGER, FRANÇOIS; MENEI, PHILIPPE; BENOIT, JEAN-PIERRE; WION, DIDIER; GARCION, EMMANUEL

    2012-01-01

    Among markers of glioblastoma initiating cells, AC133 has been shown to be associated with glioblastoma resistance and malignancy. Recently, it was demonstrated that increasing oxygen tension (pO2) down-regulated AC133 expression in glioblastoma cells in vitro. In order to better understand extrinsic factor regulation of AC133, this work aimed to investigate the relationship between cell culture pO2, AC133 expression, and tumor development and phenotype. Using treatments with CoCl2 and HIF-1α shRNA knockdowns on non-sorted human primary glioblastoma cells cultured at low (3%) versus high (21%) oxygen tension, we established a responsibility for low pO2 in the maintenance of high levels of AC133 expression, with a major but non-exclusive role for HIF-1α. We also demonstrated that human glioblastoma cells previously cultured under high oxygen tension can lose part of their aggressiveness when orthotopically engrafted in SCID mice or lead to tumors with distinct phenotypes and no re-expression of AC133. These observations showed that the specific pO2 microenvironment irreversibly impacts glioblastoma cell phenotypes, highlighting the pertinence of culture conditions when extrapolating data from xenogenic models to human cells in their source environment. They also raised AC133 as a marker of non-exposure to oxygenated areas rather than a marker of aggressiveness or low pO2 niches. PMID:22134773

  9. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Michael T.; Yu, Evan Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR) has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types. PMID:28085048

  10. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Michael T; Yu, Evan Y

    2017-01-11

    In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR) has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types.

  11. Combined cord blood and bone marrow transplantation from the same human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor for children with malignant and non-malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, Luciana; Volt, Fernanda; Cunha, Renato; Locatelli, Franco; Zecca, Marco; Yesilipek, Akif; Caniglia, Maurizio; Güngör, Tayfun; Aksoylar, Serap; Fagioli, Franca; Bertrand, Yves; Addari, Maria Carmen; de la Fuente, Josu; Winiarski, Jacek; Biondi, Andrea; Sengeloev, Henrik; Badell, Isabel; Mellgren, Karin; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Sedlacek, Petr; Vora, Ajay; Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) from an human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling can be used for transplantation of patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, the low cellular content of most UCB units represents a limitation to this approach. An option to increase cell dose is to harvest bone marrow (BM) cells from the same donor and infuse them along with the UCB. We studied 156 children who received such a combined graft between 1992 and 2011. Median age was 7 years and 78% of patients (n = 122) were transplanted for non-malignant diseases, mainly haemoglobinopathies. Acute leukaemia (n = 26) was the most frequent malignant diagnosis. Most patients (91%) received myeloablative conditioning. Median donor age was 1·7 years, median infused nucleated cell dose was 24·4 × 10(7) /kg and median follow-up was 41 months. Sixty-days neutrophil recovery occurred in 96% of patients at a median of 17 d. The probabilities of grade-II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 19% and 10%, respectively. Four-year overall survival was 90% (68% malignant; 97% non-malignant diseases) with 3% probability of death. In conclusion, combined UCB and BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor is an effective treatment for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders with high overall survival and low incidence of GVHD.

  12. Immature mesenchymal stem cell-like pericytes as mediators of immunosuppression in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Katharina; Sahm, Felix; Opitz, Christiane A; Lanz, Tobias V; Oezen, Iris; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2013-12-15

    Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by profound local immunosuppression. While the remarkable plasticity of perivascular cells - resembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) - in malignant gliomas and their contribution to angiogenesis is increasingly recognized, their role as potential mediators of immunosuppression is unknown. Here we demonstrate that FACS-sorted malignant glioma-derived pericytes (HMGP) were characterized by the expression of CD90, CD248, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β). HMGP shared this expression profile with human brain vascular pericytes (HBVP) and human MSC (HMSC) but not human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC). CD90+PDGFR-β+perivascular cells distinct from CD31+ endothelial cells accumulated in human gliomas with increasing degree of malignancy and negatively correlated with the presence of blood vessel-associated leukocytes and CD8+ T cells. Cultured CD90+PDGFR-β+HBVP were equally capable of suppressing allogeneic or mitogen-activated T cell responses as human MSC. HMGP, HBVP and HMSC expressed prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These factors but not indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine functionally contributed to immunosuppression of immature pericytes. Our data provide evidence that human cerebral CD90+ perivascular cells possess T cell inhibitory capability comparable to human MSC and suggest that these cells, besides their critical role in tumor vascularization, also promote local immunosuppression in malignant gliomas and possibly other brain diseases.

  13. Inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of human malignant cells by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Ray, M; Basu, N; Ray, S

    1997-12-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) of several normal human tissues and benign and malignant tumors has been tested. Methylglyoxal inactivated GA3PD of all the malignant cells (47 samples) and the degree of inactivation was in the range of 25-90%, but it had no inhibitory effect on this enzyme from several normal cells (24 samples) and benign tumors (13 samples). When the effect of methylglyoxal on other two dehydrogenases namely glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) of similar cells was tested as controls it has been observed that methylglyoxal has some inactivating effect on G6PD of all the normal, benign and malignant samples tested, whereas, LDH remained completely unaffected. These studies indicate that the inactivating effect of methylglyoxal on GA3PD specifically of the malignant cells may be a common feature of all the malignant cells, and this phenomenon can be used as a simple and rapid device for the detection of malignancy.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  15. Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Craik, Charles S

    2013-04-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system, which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared imaging and (111)In single-photon emission computed tomography. Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. In addition, a radioimmunotherapy study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope (177)Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology.

  16. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  17. Preferential cytotoxicity of bortezomib toward highly malignant human liposarcoma cells via suppression of MDR1 expression and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yamei; Wang, Lingxian; Wang, Lu; Wu, Xuefeng; Wu, Xudong; Gu, Yanhong; Shu, Yongqian; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-02-15

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma with a high risk of relapse. Few therapeutic options are available for the aggressive local or metastatic disease. Here, we report that the clinically used proteasome inhibitor bortezomib exhibits significantly stronger cytotoxicity toward highly malignant human liposarcoma SW872-S cells compared with its parental SW872 cells, which is accompanied by enhanced activation of apoptotic signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of cells with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP60015 or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide ameliorated this enhanced apoptosis. Bortezomib inhibited MDR1 expression and function more effectively in SW872-S cells than in SW872 cells, indicating that the increased cytotoxicity relies on the degree of proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2, which is highly expressed in SW872-S cells, resulted in partial reversal of cell growth inhibition and increase of MDR1 expression in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. These results show that bortezomib exhibits preferential cytotoxicity toward SW872-S cells possibly via highly expressed SERCA2-associated MDR1 suppression and suggest that bortezomib may serve as a potent agent for treating advanced liposarcoma. - Highlights: • We compare the cytotoxicity of different drugs between SW872-S and SW872 cells. • Highly malignant liposarcoma cells SW872-S show hypersensitivity to bortezomib. • Apoptotic signaling is robustly enhanced in bortezomib-treated SW872-S cells. • Bortezomib has strong suppression on MDR1 expression and function in SW872-S cells. • Inhibition of SERCA2 protects SW872-S cells from bortezomib.

  18. Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Agudelo, Carlos A; Hidron, Alicia; Eberhard, Mark L; Mathison, Blaine A; Frace, Michael A; Ito, Akira; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Rollin, Dominique C; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Pham, Cau D; Jones, Tara L; Greer, Patricia W; Vélez Hoyos, Alejandro; Olson, Peter D; Diazgranados, Lucy R; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-11-05

    Neoplasms occur naturally in invertebrates but are not known to develop in tapeworms. We observed nests of monomorphic, undifferentiated cells in samples from lymph-node and lung biopsies in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morphologic features and invasive behavior of the cells were characteristic of cancer, but their small size suggested a nonhuman origin. A polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay targeting eukaryotes identified Hymenolepis nana DNA. Although the cells were unrecognizable as tapeworm tissue, immunohistochemical staining and probe hybridization labeled the cells in situ. Comparative deep sequencing identified H. nana structural genomic variants that are compatible with mutations described in cancer. Invasion of human tissue by abnormal, proliferating, genetically altered tapeworm cells is a novel disease mechanism that links infection and cancer.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance in cancer, XII: Application of NMR malignancy index to human lung tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, M.; Koutcher, J. A.; Damadian, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty specimens of human lung tissue from 52 individuals were inspected at 22.5 MHz by proton magnetic resonance techniques. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique for the diagnosis of malignancy. The combination of two NMR parameters (spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times) into a malignancy index yielded 3 cases of overlap between the two populations of tissue. The mean and standard deviations obtained were 1.966 +/- 0.262 for normal tissue, and 2.925 +/- 0.864 for malignant specimens. In addition, analysis of the electrolyte and water content of the tissues confirm that factors other than specimen water content influence the relaxation time. PMID:911662

  20. Big bad wolf or man's best friend? Unmasking a false wolf aggression on humans.

    PubMed

    Caniglia, R; Galaverni, M; Delogu, M; Fabbri, E; Musto, C; Randi, E

    2016-09-01

    The return of the wolf in its historical range is raising social conflicts with local communities for the perceived potential threat to people safety. In this study we applied molecular methods to solve an unusual case of wolf attack towards a man in the Northern Italian Apennines. We analysed seven biological samples, collected from the clothes of the injured man, using mtDNA sequences, the Amelogenin gene, 39 unlinked autosomal and four Y-linked microsatellites. Results indicated that the aggression was conducted by a male dog and not by a wolf nor a wolf x dog hybrid. Our findings were later confirmed by the victim, who confessed he had been attacked by the guard dog of a neighbour. The genetic profile of the owned dog perfectly matched with that identified from the samples previously collected. Our results prove once again that the wolf does not currently represent a risk for human safety in developed countries, whereas most animal aggressions are carried out by its domestic relative, the dog.

  1. Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

  2. Serious outbreak of human metapneumovirus in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hoellein, Alexander; Hecker, Judith; Hoffmann, Dieter; Göttle, Franziska; Protzer, Ulrike; Peschel, Christian; Götze, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infection. In healthy subjects infections are usually mild and rarely necessitate hospitalization. However, more serious outcomes have been described for allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. This study reports an outbreak of hMPV A2 infection in severely immunocompromised adult hematologic cancer patients in a tertiary care unit. HMPV RNA was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage or produced sputum from patients presenting with typical clinical features. A total of 15 patients were diagnosed in a period of 7 weeks. Molecular subtyping revealed infection with genotype A2a virus, implicating nosocomial transmission. Eleven patients (73%) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and ribavirin. Ten patients (65%) presented with severe dyspnea, five (33%) required mechanical ventilation. Four patients (26.6%) died from hMPV-associated pneumonia and consequent multi-organ failure. Thus, hMPV is a critical pathogen for patients with hematologic cancers warranting early detection.

  3. CDK4 coexpression with Ras generates malignant human epidermal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Mirella; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Cai, Ti; Dajee, Maya; Tarutani, Masahito; Lin, Qun; Fang, Min; Tao, Shiying; Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2002-10-01

    Ras acts with other proteins to induce neoplasia. By itself, however, strong Ras signaling can suppress proliferation of normal cells. In primary epidermal cells, we found that oncogenic Ras transiently decreases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 expression in association with cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. CDK4 co-expression circumvents Ras growth suppression and induces invasive human neoplasia resembling squamous cell carcinoma. Tumorigenesis is dependent on CDK4 kinase function, with cyclin D1 required but not sufficient for this process. In facilitating escape from G1 growth restraints, Ras and CDK4 alter the composition of cyclin D and cyclin E complexes and promote resistance to growth inhibition by INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. These data identify a new role for oncogenic Ras in CDK4 regulation and highlight the functional importance of CDK4 suppression in preventing uncontrolled growth.

  4. p120 GAP requirement in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the p120 GAP (GAP), originally described as an inhibitor of p21ras, may also serve as a downstream effector of ras-regulated signal transduction. To determine whether GAP expression is required for the growth of human normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells, we used GAP antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to inhibit it and analyzed the effects of this inhibition on the colony- forming ability of nonadherent, T lymphocyte-depleted mononuclear cells and of highly purified progenitors (CD34+ MNC) obtained from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy volunteers or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, bcr-abl-positive) patients. The acute myelogenous leukemia cell line MO7, the Philadelphia BV173 cell line, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 and HL-60 cell lines were similarly examined. GAP antisense treatment inhibited colony formation from normal myelo-, erythro-, and megakaryopoietic progenitor cells as well as from CML progenitor cells. Proliferation of MO7 (growth factor- dependent) and BV173 (bcr-abl-dependent) cells, but not that of NB4 and HL-60 (growth factor-independent) cells, was also inhibited, even though a specific downregulation of GAP was observed in each cell line, as analyzed by either or both mRNA and protein expression. Stimulation of MO7 cells with hematopoietic growth factors increased the expression of GAP as well as the levels of active GTP-bound p21ras. Stimulation of GAP expression was inhibited upon GAP antisense treatment. These data indicate that p120 GAP is involved in human normal and leukemic hemopoiesis and strongly suggest that GAP is not only a p21ras inhibitor (signal terminator), but also a positive signal transducer. PMID:8245773

  5. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  6. O6.09PROSTAGLANDIN E RECEPTOR-4 ACTIVATION REGULATES TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM IN HUMAN MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, K.; Ott, M.; Rauschenbach, K.J.; Sahm, F.; Opitz, C.A.; von Deimling, A.; Wick, W.; Platten, M.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment as well as systemic immunosuppression. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)-mediated tryptophan metabolism and the production of immunosuppressive prostaglandins relevantly contribute to this inhibition of anti-glioma immune responses. We now connect these two critical immunosuppressive pathways by demonstrating that prostaglandins enhance TDO expression and enzymatic activity in malignant gliomas via activation of prostaglandin E receptor-4 (EP4). Stimulation with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration-dependently upregulates TDO-mediated kynurenine release in human glioma cell lines, while knockdown of the PGE2 receptor EP4 inhibits TDO expression and activity. In tissue of human malignant gliomas expression of the PGE2-producing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its receptor EP4 are associated with TDO expression both on transcript and protein level. Of clinical relevance, high expression of EP4 correlates with poor survival in patients with gliomas of the WHO grades III and IV. Importantly, treatment of glioma cells with an EP4 inhibitor decreased TDO expression and activity. In summary targeting EP4 may inhibit both immunosuppressive COX-2 signaling as well as tryptophan degradation and thus could provide a novel immunotherapeutic avenue for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  7. Aberrant Cytokeratin Expression During Arsenic-induced Acquired Malignant Phenotype in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes Consistent with Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Pi, Jingbo; Wang, Xueqian; Tokar, Erik J.; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various human skin lesions, including hyperkeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both characterized by distorted cytokeratin (CK) production. Prior work shows the human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cell line, when exposed chronically for >25 weeks to a low level of inorganic arsenite (100 nM) results in cells able to produce aggressive SCC upon inoculation into nude mice. In the present study, CK expression analysis was performed in arsenic-exposed HaCaT cells during the progressive acquisition of this malignant phenotype (0 to 20 weeks) to further validate this model as relevant to epidermal carcinogenesis induced by arsenic in humans. Indeed, we observed clear evidence of acquired cancer phenotype by 20 weeks of arsenite exposure including the formation of giant cells, a >4-fold increase in colony formation in soft agar and a ∼2.5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, an enzyme often secreted by cancer cells to help invade through the local extra-cellular matrix. During this acquired malignant phenotype, various CK genes showed markedly altered expression at the transcript and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. For example, CK1, a marker of hyperkeratosis, increased up to 34-fold during arsenic-induced transformation, while CK13, a marker for dermal cancer progression, increased up to 45-fold. The stem cell marker, CK15, increased up to 7-fold, particularly during the later stages of arsenic exposure, indicating a potential emergence of cancer stem-like cells with arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype. The expression of involucrin and loricrin, markers for keratinocyte differentiation, increased up to 9-fold. Thus, during arsenic-induced acquired cancer phenotype in human keratinocytes, dramatic and dynamic alterations in CK expression occur which are consistent with the process of epidermal carcinogenesis helping validate this as an

  8. Aberrant cytokeratin expression during arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype in human HaCaT keratinocytes consistent with epidermal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Pi, Jingbo; Wang, Xueqian; Tokar, Erik J; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2009-08-03

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various human skin lesions, including hyperkeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both characterized by distorted cytokeratin (CK) production. Prior work shows the human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cell line, when exposed chronically for >25 weeks to a low level of inorganic arsenite (100nM) results in cells able to produce aggressive SCC upon inoculation into nude mice. In the present study, CK expression analysis was performed in arsenic-exposed HaCaT cells during the progressive acquisition of this malignant phenotype (0-20 weeks) to further validate this model as relevant to epidermal carcinogenesis induced by arsenic in humans. Indeed, we observed clear evidence of acquired cancer phenotype by 20 weeks of arsenite exposure including the formation of giant cells, a >4-fold increase in colony formation in soft agar and a approximately 2.5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, an enzyme often secreted by cancer cells to help invade through the local extra-cellular matrix. During this acquired malignant phenotype, various CK genes showed markedly altered expression at the transcript and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. For example, CK1, a marker of hyperkeratosis, increased up to 34-fold during arsenic-induced transformation, while CK13, a marker for dermal cancer progression, increased up to 45-fold. The stem cell marker, CK15, increased up to 7-fold, particularly during the later stages of arsenic exposure, indicating a potential emergence of cancer stem-like cells with arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype. The expression of involucrin and loricrin, markers for keratinocyte differentiation, increased up to 9-fold. Thus, during arsenic-induced acquired cancer phenotype in human keratinocytes, dramatic and dynamic alterations in CK expression occur which are consistent with the process of epidermal carcinogenesis helping validate this as an

  9. Motivational and situational factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2010-05-01

    Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value.

  10. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Makoto; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1‑positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells.

  11. From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2004-04-01

    The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

  12. Modeling normal and malignant human hematopoiesis in vivo through newborn NSG xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiko

    2013-12-01

    Various strains of immune-compromised mice have been developed to investigate human normal and malignant stem cells in vivo. NOD/SCID mice harboring complete null mutation of Il2rg (NSG mice) lack T cells, B cells, and NK cells, and support high levels of engraftment by human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (CB HSCs) and acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs). In addition to achieving high levels of human hematopoietic cell engraftment, use of newborn NSG mice as recipients has enabled the investigation into how human CB HSCs generate mature immune subsets in vivo. Moreover, through establishing an in vivo model of human primary AML by xenotransplantation of human LSCs into newborn NSG mice, functional properties of human AML such as cell cycle, location, and self-renewal capacity can be examined in vivo. Newborn NSG xenogeneic transplantation model may facilitate the understanding of human normal and malignant hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of novel therapies against hematologic diseases.

  13. Inhibition of WNT signaling reduces differentiation and induces sensitivity to doxorubicin in human malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Suebsoonthron, Junjira; Jaroonwitchawan, Thiranut; Yamabhai, Montarop; Noisa, Parinya

    2017-02-24

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common cancers in infancy, arising from the neuroblasts during embryonic development. This cancer is difficult to treat and resistance to chemotherapy is often found; therefore, clinical trials of novel therapeutic approaches, such as targeted-cancer signaling, could be an alternative for a better treatment. WNT signaling plays significant roles in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human neuroblastoma. In this report, WNT signaling of a malignant human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells, was inhibited by XAV939, a specific inhibitor of the Tankyrase enzyme. XAV939 treatment led to the reduction of β-catenin within the cells, confirming its inhibitory effect of WNT. The inhibition of WNT signaling by XAV939 did not affect cell morphology, survival, and proliferation; however, the differentiation and sensitivity to anticancer drugs of human neuroblastoma cells were altered. The treatment of XAV939 resulted in the downregulation of mature neuronal markers, including β-tubulin III, PHOX2A, and PHOX2B, whereas neural progenitor markers (PAX6, TFAP2α, and SLUG) were upregulated. In addition, the combination of XAV939 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells to doxorubicin in both 2D and 3D culture systems. Microarray gene expression profiling suggested numbers of candidate target genes of WNT inhibition by XAV939, in particular, p21, p53, ubiquitin C, ZBED8, MDM2, CASP3, and FZD1, and this explained the enhanced sensitivity of SH-SY5Y cells to doxorubicin. Altogether, these results proposed that the altered differentiation of human malignant neuroblastoma cells by inhibiting WNT signaling sensitized the cells to anticancer drugs. This approach could thus serve as an effective treatment option for aggressive brain malignancy.

  14. The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge R; Pabijan, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young’s modulus) than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines). However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force. PMID:24778971

  15. Regulatory landscape and clinical implication of MBD3 in human malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ling; Wirbisky, Sara E.; Freeman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Jingping; Liu, Qing; Yuan, Xianrui; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this article we inspect the roles and functions of the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3 (MBD3) in human malignant glioma, to assess its potential as an epigenetic biomarker for prognosis. The regulatory effects of MBD3 on glioma transcriptome were first profiled by high-throughput microarray. Our results indicate that MBD3 is involved in both transcriptional activation and repression. Furthermore, MBD3 fine-controls a spectrum of proteins critical for cellular metabolism and proliferation, thereby contributing to an exquisite anti-glioma network. Specifically, the expression of MHC class II molecules was found to positively correlate with MBD3, which provides new insight into the immune escape of gliomagenesis. In addition, MBD3 participates in constraining a number of oncogenic non-coding RNAs whose over-activation could drive cells into excessive growth and higher malignancy. Having followed up a pilot cohort, we noted that the survival of malignant glioma patients was proportional to the content of MBD3 and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in their tumor cells. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were relatively poor for patients with lower amount of MBD3 and 5hmC in the tissue biopsies. Taken together, this work enriches our understanding of the mechanistic involvement of MBD3 in malignant glioma. PMID:27835581

  16. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment.

  17. Enhancement of drug sensitivity of human malignancies by epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kröning, R.; Jones, J. A.; Hom, D. K.; Chuang, C. C.; Sanga, R.; Los, G.; Howell, S. B.; Christen, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells to cisplatin. EGF was found to enhance selectively the in vivo toxicity of cisplatin to 2008 cell xenografts without altering the toxicity of cisplatin to non-malignant target tissues such as the kidney or bone marrow. We now show that recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) enhances the cisplatin sensitivity of cell lines representative of many other types of malignancies in addition to ovarian carcinoma, including cancers of the head and neck, cervix, colon, pancreas and prostate, as well as non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. In addition, rhEGF was found to sensitise cells to other platinum-containing drugs and several other classes of chemotherapeutic agents. rhEGF sensitised 2008 cells not only to cisplatin, but also to carboplatin and tetraplatin, as well as taxol, melphalan and 5-fluorouracil. We conclude that modulation of drug sensitivity by rhEGF is observed in cell lines representative of many human malignancies and for multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents, indicating that it alters one or more components of the cellular damage response that are both common between cell lines and classes of drugs and fundamental to survival. Images Figure 2 PMID:7669570

  18. Treatment of human aggression with major tranquilizers, antidepressants, and newer psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Wadud, A

    1975-02-01

    Most of the drugs used in the treatment of aggressive syndromes have originally been developed for other clinical applications. Despite significant differences in the pathogenesis of various aggressive disorders, the frequently used "antiaggression" drugs are the major tranquilizers (neuroleptics). If the aggresstion is associated with psychosis, chlorpromazine or haloperidol are the drugs of choice. Aggressive disorders within the acute and chronic brain syndromes are best treated with pericyazine, thioridazine, and thiothixene. In aggressive symptoms of mentally retarded patients, particularly with epileptic syndromes, a new benzazepine (SCH12,679)was found to be very effective. Aggression associated with alcoholism or narcotic addiction showed best response to chlorpormazine and haloperidol. As a general rule, in aggressive patients with clinically known epilepsy, or with abnormal electroencephalographic findings, the major tranquilizers with potent sedative properties should be given with great caution.

  19. Overabundance of Putative Cancer Stem Cells in Human Skin Keratinocyte Cells Malignantly Transformed by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a human skin carcinogen. Cancer is probably a disease driven by stem cells (SCs), and SCs are likely a key target during arsenic oncogenesis. In utero arsenic exposure predisposes mice to skin cancers that overproduce cancer SCs (CSCs) and have distorted CSC signaling and population dynamics. Therefore, we hypothesized CSC accumulation may occur during arsenic-induced malignant transformation in vitro of human skin keratinocytes. Thus, the HaCaT cell line, malignantly transformed by arsenite (100nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) in prior work, was further studied for the quantity and nature of SCs after this transformation. SCs were isolated from passage-matched control and As-TM cells by a magnetic bead system that enriches for CD34-positive cells. There were 2.5 times more SCs isolated from As-TM cells than control. Holoclone production from As-TM putative CSCs was 2.5-fold higher by 1 week and 3.5-fold higher by 2 weeks than control SCs. Potential malignant phenotype was assessed in isolated SC/CSCs. Transcript level of SC/CSC markers were elevated in both isolated As-TM CSCs and control SCs compared with parental cells, but compared with control SCs, As-TM putative CSCs had elevated CD34, K5, K14, K15, and K19 transcripts and dramatically stronger staining for p63, Rac1, K5, Notch1, and K19. As-TM putative CSCs also showed markedly elevated MMP-9 secretion and colony formation, indicators of cancer phenotype, even compared with total population of As-TM cells. Thus, malignant phenotype is particularly pronounced in CSCs after arsenic-induced transformation of human skin cells and occurs concurrently with a potential overproduction of these cells. PMID:22011395

  20. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with progression to a clonally related, Epstein Barr virus+, cytotoxic aggressive T-cell lymphoma: evidence for secondary EBV infection of an established malignant T-cell clone.

    PubMed

    Langer, Rupert; Geissinger, Eva; Rüdiger, Thomas; von Schilling, Christoph; Ott, German; Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Fend, Falko

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV) negative peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) NOS in a 56-year-old female who-after an initially indolent course - simultaneously developed an aggressive, EBV+ cytotoxic large T-cell lymphoma, clonally related to the primary PTCL, and an EBV+, clonal large B-cell lymphoproliferation. The initial, EBV-negative PTCL had shown some features of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and had responded well to steroid therapy. Two years later, rapidly fatal, progressive disease with multivisceral involvement developed. Histologically, extensive infiltrates of EBV+, CD8+ large cells were present, in addition to areas of the initial PTCL. Extensive comparative phenotypic and molecular analyses confirmed the presence of an identical CD8+ T-cell clone in the initial EBV-negative PTCL and the EBV+, CD8+ large cell lymphoma at the time of aggressive transformation. These results also justified the retrospective classification of PTCL, NOS for the initial lymphoma. This case shows that secondary EBV infection of an established malignant T-cell clone can occur and may contribute to aggressive transformation of PTCL.

  1. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  2. Dielectric spectroscopy of normal and malignant human lung cells at ultra-high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Egot-Lemaire, S; Pijanka, J; Sulé-Suso, J; Semenov, S

    2009-04-21

    Microwave techniques for biomedical applications aimed at cancer treatment or diagnosis, either by imaging or spectroscopy, are promising. Their use relies on knowledge of the dielectric properties of tissues, especially on a detectable difference between malignant and normal tissues. As most studies investigated the dielectric properties of ex vivo tissues, there is a need for better biophysical understanding of human tissues in their living state. As an essential component of tissues, cells represent valuable objects of analysis. The approach developed in this study is an investigation at cell level. Its aim was to compare human lung normal and malignant cells by dielectric spectroscopy in the beginning of the microwave range, where such information is of substantial biomedical importance. These cells were embedded in small and low-conductivity agarose hydrogels and laid on an open-ended coaxial probe connected to a vector network analyser operated from 200 MHz to 2 GHz. The comparison between normal and malignant cells was drawn using the variation of measured dielectric properties and fitting the measurements using the Maxwell-Wagner equation. Both methods revealed slight differences between the two cell lines, which were statistically significant regarding conductivities of composite gels and cells.

  3. Pregnane X receptor activation induces FGF19-dependent tumor aggressiveness in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Li, Hao; Goetz, Regina; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Biswas, Arunima; Zhu, Liang; Kaubisch, Andreas; Wang, Lei; Pullman, James; Whitney, Kathleen; Kuro-o, Makoto; Roig, Andres I; Shay, Jerry W; Mohammadi, Moosa; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is activated by a range of xenochemicals, including chemotherapeutic drugs, and has been suggested to play a role in the development of tumor cell resistance to anticancer drugs. PXR also has been implicated as a regulator of the growth and apoptosis of colon tumors. Here, we have used a xenograft model of colon cancer to define a molecular mechanism that might underlie PXR-driven colon tumor growth and malignancy. Activation of PXR was found to be sufficient to enhance the neoplastic characteristics, including cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, of both human colon tumor cell lines and primary human colon cancer tissue xenografted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, we were able to show that this PXR-mediated phenotype required FGF19 signaling. PXR bound to the FGF19 promoter in both human colon tumor cells and "normal" intestinal crypt cells. However, while both cell types proliferated in response to PXR ligands, the FGF19 promoter was activated by PXR only in cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicate that colon cancer growth in the presence of a specific PXR ligand results from tumor-specific induction of FGF19. These observations may lead to improved therapeutic regimens for colon carcinomas.

  4. Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Aoe, Keisuke; Okabe, Kazunori; Mimura, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kishimoto, Takumi; Yamada, Taketo; Xu, C. Wilson; Morimoto, Chikao

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. {yields} SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. {yields} SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. {yields} The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.

  5. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  6. MiR-205 and MiR-373 Are Associated with Aggressive Human Mucinous Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eyking, Annette; Reis, Henning; Frank, Magdalena; Gerken, Guido; Schmid, Kurt W.; Cario, Elke

    2016-01-01

    . Reversely, inhibition of miR-373 allowed mesenchymal IEC to regain epithelial properties, which correlated with absence of neoplastic progression. Using xenografts in mice demonstrated miR-373-mediated acceleration of malignant intestinal tumor growth. In conclusion, our results provide first evidence that miR-205 and miR-373 may differentially contribute to the aggressive phenotype of MAC in CRC. PMID:27271572

  7. Fluoro-edenite induces fibulin-3 overexpression in non-malignant human mesothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Salemi, Rossella; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Graziano, Adriana C.; Cardile, Venera; Basile, Maria S.; Candido, Saverio; Falzone, Luca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with the development of mesothelioma. In addition to asbestos, other fibers have been identified as risk factors for malignant and non-malignant diseases of the lungs. Among these, fluoro-edenite (FE) was found in patients from Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) with pleural and lung disease, suggesting its role for tumor expansion. In this context, the identification of early biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of cancer is mandatory. Fibulin-3 represents an important marker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. However, it remains to be determined whether it is directly associated with exposure to asbestos-like fibers. In the present study, peripheral blood levels of fibulin-3 from 40 asbestos-exposed workers were compared with those detected in 27 street cleaners from Biancavilla. Intriguingly, the results showed that fibulin-3 levels were higher in the group of street cleaners compared with those of the asbestos-exposed workers, suggesting that these workers used the personal protective equipment according to the current regulations. These data suggest that subjects exposed to FE should be monitored for the risk of mesothelioma. FE and volcanic particulates are probably contained within dust inhaled by street cleaners from Biancavilla during their work activities. Based on these criteria, in this study, such fibers were used to treat mesothelial cells (MeT5A) in order to verify whether fibulin-3 levels are affected by these treatments. The results showed that only treatment with FE was associated with fibulin-3 overexpression at both the transcript and protein levels. It was previously demonstrated that mesothelial cells exhibited low levels of p27 following treatment with FE. Notably, p27 downregulation is associated with stathmin upregulation in cancer, conferring an aggressive phenotype of tumor cells. This observation prompted us to perform a computational evaluation demonstrating the activation of stathmin in lung cancer in

  8. Differential expression of two fibroblast growth factor-receptor genes is associated with malignant progression in human astrocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, F.; Saya, H.; Bruner, J.M.; Morrison, R.S. )

    1994-01-18

    Malignant astrocytomas, which are highly invasive, vascular neoplasms, compose the majority of nervous system tumors in humans. Elevated expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in astrocytomas has implicated the FGF family of mitogens in the initiation and progression of astrocyte-derived tumors. In this study, the authors demonstrated that human astrocytomas undergo parallel changes in FGF-receptor (FGFR) expression during their progression from a benign to a malignant phenotype. FGFR type 2 (BEK) expression was abundant in normal white matter and in all low-grade astrocytomas but was not seen in malignant astrocytomas. Conversely, FGFR type 1 (FLG) expression was absent or barely detectable in normal white matter but was significantly elevated in malignant astrocytomas. Malignant astrocytomas also expressed an alternatively spliced form of FGFR-1 (FGFR-1[beta]) containing two immunoglobulin-like disulfide loops, whereas normal human adult and fetal brains expressed a receptor form (FGFR-1[alpha]) containing three immunoglobulin-like disulfide loops. Intermediate grades of astrocytic tumors exhibited a gradual loss of FGFR-2 and a shift in expression from FGFR-1[alpha] to FGFR-2 and a shift in expression from FGFR-1[alpha] to FGFR-1[beta] as they progressed from benign to malignant phenotype. These results suggest that differential expression and alternative splicing of FGFRs may be critical in the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors.

  9. Neo-epitopes on methylglyoxal modified human serum albumin lead to aggressive autoimmune response in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jyoti; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Habib, Safia; Siddiqui, Sheelu Shafiq; Ali, Asif; Moinuddin

    2016-05-01

    Glyco-oxidation of proteins has implications in the progression of diabetes type 2. Human serum albumin is prone to glyco-oxidative attack by sugars and methylglyoxal being a strong glycating agent may have severe impact on its structure and consequent role in diabetes. This study has probed the methylglyoxal mediated modifications of HSA, the alterations in its immunological characteristics and possible role in autoantibody induction. We observed an exposure of chromophoric groups, loss in the fluorescence intensity, generation of AGEs, formation of cross-linked products, decrease in α-helical content, increase in hydrophobic clusters, FTIR band shift, attachment of methylglyoxal to HSA and the formation of N(ε)-(carboxyethyl) lysine in the modified HSA, when compared to the native albumin. MG-HSA was found to be highly immunogenic with additional immunogenicity invoking a highly specific immune response than its native counterpart. The binding characteristics of circulating autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients showed the generation of anti-MG-HSA auto-antibodies in the these patients, that are preferentially recognized by the modified albumin. We propose that MG induced structural perturbations in HSA, result in the generation of neo-epitopes leading to an aggressive auto-immune response and may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of diabetes type 2 associated complications.

  10. Prognostic significance of AMPK in human malignancies: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Cai, Ming; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-01-01

    Background AMPK is a well-investigated kinase mediating cellular metabolism and stress responses. However, its indicative role in survival prognosis remains ill-defined. Therefore we performed this meta-analysis in order to clarify the prognostic impact of AMPK expression in human malignancies. Methods Literatures were retrieved via searching databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. Studies comparing the prognostic significance between different AMPK levels among human malignancies were included into the pooled analysis. The statistical procedures were conducted by Review Manager 5.3 and the effect size was displayed by model of odds ratio. Subgroup analyses were additionally implemented to disclose the potential confounding elements. The outcome stability was examined by sensitivity analysis, and both Begg's test and Egger's test were utilized to detect the publication bias across the included studies. Results 21 retrospective cohorts were eventually obtained with a total sample-size of 9987 participants. Patients with higher AMPK expression had better outcomes of 3-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 5-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 10-year overall survival (P<0.0001), 3-year disease free survival (P<0.0001), 5-year disease free survival (P=0.002) and 10-year disease free survival (P=0.0004). Moreover, the majority of subgroup results also verified the favorably prognostic significance of AMPK over-expression. The outcome stability was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Results of Begg's (P=0.76) and Egger's test (P=0.09) suggested that there was no publication bias within the included trials. Conclusions Higher expression of AMPK significantly indicates better prognosis in human malignancies. PMID:27716618

  11. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  12. [Principles of functioning of various systems of the human body in the post-aggressive period].

    PubMed

    Chumakov, V I; Soldatov, A A; Goncharov, V G; Kuts, M Iu; Dymochkin, V N

    1998-01-01

    The authors' investigations provide the conclusion that in a post-aggressive period there are organized cyclic fluctuations in the body hormones, penetrability of vessels, electrolytes and blood cells. The cycle takes 48 hours.

  13. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P < 0.05), the decreases were not consistent with the degree of periodontitis. Furthermore, the cells did not necessarily show significantly diminished in vitro multi-differentiation potential. Only DPSCs from Group A and the Control group formed dentin-like matrix in vivo when cell-seeded biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the

  14. Examining Human Behavior in Video Games: The Development of a Computational Model to Measure Aggression.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Hoston, Douglas; Shapiro, Marina; Matthews, Benjamin

    2017-04-11

    Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question; is there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games. A secondary purpose is to provide a method of measuring and examining individual aggression arising from video game play. Total participants examined for this study are N=1065. This study occurs in three phases. Phase 1 is the development and quantification of the profile combination of traits via latent class profile analysis. Phase 2 is the training of the artificial neural network. Phase 3 is the comparison of each model as a computational model with and without the presence of video game violence. Results suggest that a combination of environmental factors and genetic predispositions trigger aggression related to video games.

  15. ETM study of electroporation influence on cell morphology in human malignant melanoma and human primary gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Skolucka, Nina; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Saczko, Jolanta; Chwilkowska, Agnieszka; Choromanska, Anna; Kotulska, Malgorzata; Kaminska, Iwona; Kulbacka, Julita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate electroporation (EP) influence on malignant and normal cells. Methods Two cell lines including human malignant melanoma (Me-45) and normal human gingival fibroblast (HGFs) were used. EP parameters were the following: 250, 1 000, 1 750, 2 500 V/cm; 50 µs by 5 impulses for every case. The viability of cells after EP was estimated by MTT assay. The ultrastructural analysis was observed by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss EM 900). Results In the current study we observed the intracellular effect following EP on Me-45 and HGF cells. At the conditions applied, we did not observe any significant damage of mitochondrial activity in both cell lines treated by EP. Conversely, we showed that EP in some conditions can stimulate cells to proliferation. Some changes induced by EP were only visible in electron microscopy. In fibroblast cells we observed significant changes in lower parameters of EP (250 and 1 000 V/cm). After applying higher electric field intensities (2 500 V/cm) we detected many vacuoles, myelin-like bodies and swallowed endoplasmic reticulum. In melanoma cells such strong pathological modifications after EP were not observed, in comparison with control cells. The ultrastructure of both treated cell lines was changed according to the applied parameters of EP. Conclusions We can claim that EP conditions are cell line dependent. In terms of the intracellular morphology, human fibroblasts are more sensitive to electric field as compared with melanoma cells. Optimal conditions should be determined for each cell line. Summarizing our study, we can conclude that EP is not an invasive method for human normal and malignant cells. This technique can be safely applied in chemotherapy for delivering drugs into tumor cells. PMID:23569735

  16. MicroRNAs Induce Epigenetic Reprogramming and Suppress Malignant Phenotypes of Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hisataka; Wu, Xin; Kawamoto, Koichi; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Koseki, Jun; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Noguchi, Kozou; Gotoh, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Nagano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Obika, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer is a genetic disease, epigenetic alterations are involved in its initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown that reprogramming of colon cancer cells using Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reduces cancer malignancy. Therefore, cancer reprogramming may be a useful treatment for chemo- or radiotherapy-resistant cancer cells. It was also reported that the introduction of endogenous small-sized, non-coding ribonucleotides such as microRNA (miR) 302s and miR-369-3p or -5p resulted in the induction of cellular reprogramming. miRs are smaller than the genes of transcription factors, making them possibly suitable for use in clinical strategies. Therefore, we reprogrammed colon cancer cells using miR-302s and miR-369-3p or -5p. This resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion and the stimulation of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype in colon cancer cells. Importantly, the introduction of the ribonucleotides resulted in epigenetic reprogramming of DNA demethylation and histone modification events. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the ribonucleotides in mice elicited the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, which involves the mitochondrial Bcl2 protein family. The present study shows that the introduction of miR-302s and miR-369s could induce cellular reprogramming and modulate malignant phenotypes of human colorectal cancer, suggesting that the appropriate delivery of functional small-sized ribonucleotides may open a new avenue for therapy against human malignant tumors. PMID:25970424

  17. Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

  18. Expression of p21/sup ras/ in normal and malignant human tissues: lack of association with proliferation and malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Chesa, P.G.; Rettig, W.J.; Melamed, M.R.; Old, L.J.; Niman, H.L.

    1987-05-01

    Proteins encoded by cellular ras oncogenes (p21/sup ras) are expressed in a wide variety of malignant tumors, including carcinomas, lymphomas, and neuroectodermal tumors. The function of p21/sup ras/ in these tumors and the distribution and role of p21/sup ras/ in corresponding normal tissues are unclear. This immunohistochemical study examined the relationship between p21/sup ras/ expression and malignant transformation, cellular differentiation, and proliferative activity in vivo. p21/sup ras/ was found to be widely expressed in normal tissues, but within those tissues expression was often sharply restricted to cells at specific stages of differentiation; terminally differentiated cells generally showed stronger reactivity with antibodies to p21/sup ras/ than did rapidly proliferating cells. Fetal and adult tissues had corresponding patterns of p21/sup ras/ expression, and the distribution of p21/sup ras/ in neoplasms paralleled the pattern in normal tissue from which they were derived. Thus, p21/ras/ seems to play a role in many fully differentiated cell types, and levels of p21/sup ras/ expression do not correlate with proliferative activity in normal cells or, in contrast to past reports, with the transformed phenotype.

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with malignant phenotypes in human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiying; Yue, Wentao; Wang, Hui; Lai, Baitang; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Yue; Gu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is associated with malignancy, and to investigate its molecular mechanisms in human lung cancer tumor malignancy. The present study used RNA interference (RNAi) methodology and celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, to investigate the effect of COX-2 knockdown on the proliferation and invasion abilities of lung cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms involved. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549-si10 and LTEP-A2 cells transfected with a specific small interfering RNA (A549-si10 and LTEP-A2-si10, respectively) grew more slowly compared with parental cell lines and cells transfected with pU6. The colony formation of A549-si10 and LTEP-A2-si10 cells was also reduced. In addition, A549-si10 and LTEP-A2-si10 cells were characterized by decreased metastatic and invasive abilities. The proliferation and invasive potential of parental A549 and LTEP-A2 cells was inhibited following treatment with celecoxib. In vivo, a COX-2 knockdown resulted in a decrease of proliferation and reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in A549 xenografts. In conclusion, the present study revealed that COX-2 plays a extremely important role in tumor growth, infiltration and metastasis via the regulation of VEGF, MMP-2 and EGRF expression. Therefore, COX-2 is a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:27895738

  20. Cofilin-1 and Other ADF/Cofilin Superfamily Members in Human Malignant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shishkin, Sergey; Eremina, Lidia; Pashintseva, Natalya; Kovalev, Leonid; Kovaleva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Identification of actin-depolymerizing factor homology (ADF-H) domains in the structures of several related proteins led first to the formation of the ADF/cofilin family, which then expanded to the ADF/cofilin superfamily. This superfamily includes the well-studied cofilin-1 (Cfl-1) and about a dozen different human proteins that interact directly or indirectly with the actin cytoskeleton, provide its remodeling, and alter cell motility. According to some data, Cfl-1 is contained in various human malignant cells (HMCs) and is involved in the formation of malignant properties, including invasiveness, metastatic potential, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The presence of other ADF/cofilin superfamily proteins in HMCs and their involvement in the regulation of cell motility were discovered with the use of various OMICS technologies. In our review, we discuss the results of the study of Cfl-1 and other ADF/cofilin superfamily proteins, which may be of interest for solving different problems of molecular oncology, as well as for the prospects of further investigations of these proteins in HMCs. PMID:28025492

  1. Overexpression of leucine aminopeptidase 3 contributes to malignant development of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Yang, Xiaojing; Shi, Hui; Li, Mei; Xue, Qun; Ren, Hanru; Yao, Li; Chen, Xueyu; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Huijie

    2014-06-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) were associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and/or angiogenesis. We aimed to examine the biological function of LAP3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). LAP3 expressions were examined in human ESCC tissue and cell lines ECA109 and TE1 cells. Recombinant pSilencer4.1-LAP3-shRNA was transfected into ECA109 cells to silence LAP3 expression. The effects of LAP3 silencing on ECA109 cell proliferation in vitro were evaluated. Flow cytometry profiling was used to detect the differentiate cell cycle distribution in LAP3-silenced ECA109 cells. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to examine the activities of migration and invasion in LAP3-silenced ECA109 cells. We overexpressed LAP3 in TE1 cells to find out the corresponding results. LAP3 expression level was abundance in ESCC tissue. LAP3 silencing significantly reduced ECA109 cell proliferation and colony formation. The knockdown of LAP3 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1-phase. Moreover, over expression of LAP3 favors TE1 cell proliferation and invasiveness which also confirms its contribution in malignant development. We came to the conclusion that LAP3 contributed to ESCC progression by overcoming cell cycle arrest. The proliferative and migration effects of LAP3 might contribute to malignant development of human ESCC.

  2. The expression of P-glycoprotein is causally related to a less aggressive phenotype in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Scotlandi, K; Manara, M C; Serra, M; Benini, S; Maurici, D; Caputo, A; De Giovanni, C; Lollini, P L; Nanni, P; Picci, P; Campanacci, M; Baldini, N

    1999-01-21

    The relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and malignancy is controversial. We have recently found that, in osteosarcoma, multidrug resistance (MDR) is associated with a less aggressive behavior, both in vitro and in clinical settings. In this study, we evaluated whether P-glycoprotein overexpression has a cause-effect relationship with the reduced metastatic potential of MDR cells, or rather reflects a more complex phenotype. MDR1 gene-transfected osteosarcoma cell clones, showing different levels of P-glycoprotein expression, were analysed for their in vitro characteristics and their tumorigenic and metastatic ability in athymic mice. Apart from the different levels of P-glycoprotein, no significant change in the expression of surface antigens or in the differentiative features were observed in the MDR1 gene transfectants compared to the parental cell lines or control clones, obtained by transfection with neo gene alone. In contrast to controls, however, MDR1 transfectants showed a significantly lower ability to grow in semi-solid medium and were completely unable to grow and give lung metastases in athymic mice. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein overexpression is causally associated with a low malignant potential of osteosarcoma cells, and open new insights on the role and functions of P-glycoprotein activity.

  3. Association of Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression with a DNA Methylation Signature in Adult Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Claire; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic physical aggression (CPA) is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity. Aims To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood. Methods We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays. Results In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome. Conclusions This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression. PMID:24691403

  4. Attenuated expression of menin and p27 (Kip1) in an aggressive case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) associated with an atypical prolactinoma and a malignant pancreatic endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Emi; Yamada, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Yokota, Machiko; Tosaka, Masahiko; Hirato, Junko; Yamada, Shozo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-01-01

    Tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are generally benign. Since information on the pathogenesis of MEN1 in malignant cases is limited, we conducted genetic analysis and compared the expression of menin, p27(Kip1)(p27)/CDKN1B and p18(Ink4C)(p18)/CDKN2C with levels in benign cases. We describe the case of a 56 year-old male with an atypical prolactinoma and malignant pancreatic neuroenocrine tumor. At age 50, he had undergone transsphenoidal surgery to remove a prolactinoma. However, the tumor relapsed twice. Histological analysis of the recurrent prolactinoma revealed the presence of prolactin, a high MIB-1 index (32.1 %), p53-positive cells (0.2%), and an unusual association with FSH-positive cells. A few years later, he was also found to have a non-functioning pancreatic tumor with probable metastasis to the extradullar region. The metastatic region tested positive for chromogranin and CD56, and negative for prolactin, with 1.2 % of cells p53-positive. Although genetic analyses of the MEN1, p27, and p18 genes demonstrated no mutation, numbers of menin, p27 and p18 immuno-positive cells were significantly down-regulated in the recurrent prolactinoma, but that of p18 was intact in the metastatic region. Furthermore, MEN1 and p27 mRNA levels of the recurrent prolactinoma were down-regulated, particularly the MEN1 mRNA level, compared to levels in 10 cases of benign prolactinoma, while the p18 mRNA level was similar to that of normal pituitary. The tumor in this case may be a subtype of MEN1 showing more aggressive and malignant features probably induced by low levels of menin and p27.

  5. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  6. SlgA, the homologue of the human schizophrenia associated PRODH gene, acts in clock neurons to regulate Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Vulsteke, Veerle; Buhl, Edgar; Hodge, James J L; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-03-22

    Mutations in proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) are linked to behavioral alterations in schizophrenia and as part of DiGeorge and velo-cardio-facial syndromes, but the role of PRODH in their etiology remains unclear. We here establish a Drosophila model to study the role of PRODH in behavioral disorders. We determine the distribution of the Drosophila PRODH homolog slgA in the brain and show that knock-down and overexpression of human PRODH and slgA in the lateral neurons ventral (LNv) lead to altered aggressive behavior. SlgA acts in an isoform-specific manner and is regulated by casein kinase II (CkII). Our data suggest that these effects are, at least partially, due to effects on mitochondrial function. We thus show that precise regulation of proline metabolism is essential to drive normal behavior and we identify Drosophila aggression as a model behavior relevant for the study of mechanisms impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Expression of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (insulysin) in normal and malignant human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yfanti, Christina; Mengele, Karin; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Weirich, Gregor; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Tang, Wei-Jen; Rosner, Marsha; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin, insulinase; EC 3.4.22.11), a thiol metalloendopeptidase, is involved in intracellular degradation of insulin, thereby inhibiting its translocation and accumulation to the nucleus. Recently, protein expression of IDE has been demonstrated in the epithelial ducts of normal breast and in breast cancer tissue (Radulescu et al., Int J Oncol 30:73; 2007). Materials and Methods Utilizing four different antibodies generated against different epitopes of the IDE molecule, we performed western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining on several normal human tissues, on a plethora of tumor cell lines of different tissue origin, and on malignant breast and ovarian tissue. Results Applying the four IDE-directed antibodies, we demonstrate IDE expression at the protein level, both by means of immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry, in all of the tumor cell lines analyzed. Besides, IDE protein expression was found in normal tissues of the kidney, liver, lung, brain, breast and skeletal muscle, as well as in breast and ovarian cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical visualization of IDE indicated cytoplasmic localization of IDE in all of the cell lines and tissues assessed. Conclusions We performed for the first time a wide-ranging survey on IDE protein expression in normal and malignant tissues and cells and thus extend knowledge about cellular and tissue distribution of IDE, an enzyme which so far has mainly been studied in connection with Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes but not in cancer. PMID:18813847

  8. Human pregnane X receptor compromises the function of p53 and promotes malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, D; Cherian, M; Wu, J; Chen, T

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is well established as a nuclear receptor that has a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. However, emerging evidence suggests that PXR is also a regulator of apoptosis, promoting a malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. The tumor suppressor p53 can be activated in the presence of DNA damage and induce cell cycle arrest to allow for DNA repair or, ultimately, apoptosis to suppress tumor formation. We previously identified p53 as a novel PXR-associated protein by using a mass spectrometric approach. In the current study, we identified a novel inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, revealing an anti-apoptotic function of PXR in colon carcinogenesis. PXR expression reduced p53 transactivation and the expression of its downstream target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing p53 recruitment to the promoter regions of these genes. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of PXR on p53, elevated PXR levels decreased doxorubicin- or nutlin-3a-mediated toxicity and promoted malignant transformation in colon cancer cells. Our findings show for the first time that PXR expression modulates p53 target gene promoter binding and contributes to the downregulation of p53 function in human colon cancer cells. These results define the functional significance of PXR expression in modulating p53-mediated mechanisms of tumor suppression. PMID:27547448

  9. Intracellular ionized calcium concentration in muscles from humans with malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    López, J R; Alamo, L; Caputo, C; Wikinski, J; Ledezma, D

    1985-06-01

    Ca2+ selective microelectrodes have been used to determine the free myoplasmic [Ca2+] in human skeletal muscle obtained from patients who had developed early signs associated with malignant hyperthermia (MH) during anesthesia. Intercostal muscle biopsies were performed under local anesthesia in four MH patients 15 days to 4 months after developing the MH crisis and in three control subjects. We used only microelectrodes that showed a Nernstian response between pCa3 and pCa7 (30.5 mV per decade at 37 degrees C). Membrane resting potential (V(m)) and calcium potential (V(Ca)) were obtained from superficial fibers. The free cytosolic [Ca2+] was 0.39 +/- 0.1 microM (mean +/- SEM, n = 18) in muscle fibers obtained from malignant hyperthermic patients, whereas in control subjects it was 0.11 +/- 0.02 microM (n = 10). These results suggest that this syndrome might be related to an abnormally high myoplasmic free resting calcium concentration, probably due to a defective function of the plasma membrane or the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  10. p16(INK4a) -mediated suppression of telomerase in normal and malignant human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Bazarov, Alexey V; Van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, William C; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) (CDKN2A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal.

  11. P16INK4a MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF TELOMERASE IN NORMAL AND MALIGNANT HUMAN BREAST CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bazarov, Alexey V.; van Sluis, Marjolein; Hines, Curtis; Bassett, Ekaterina; Beliveau, Alain; Campeau, Eric; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lee, Won Jae; Melodyev, Sonya; Zaslavsky, Yuri; Lee, Leonard; Rodier, Francis; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W.; Benhattar, Jean; Ren, Bing; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (CDKN2A) is an important tumor-suppressor gene frequently inactivated in human tumors. p16 suppresses the development of cancer by triggering an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation termed cellular senescence. Here, we describe another anti-oncogenic function of p16 in addition to its ability to halt cell cycle progression. We show that transient expression of p16 stably represses the hTERT gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in both normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. Short-term p16 expression increases the amount of histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27) bound to the hTERT promoter, resulting in transcriptional silencing, likely mediated by polycomb complexes. Our results indicate that transient p16 exposure may prevent malignant progression in dividing cells by irreversible repression of genes, such as hTERT, whose activity is necessary for extensive self-renewal. PMID:20569236

  12. Genetic modification of human T lymphocytes for the treatment of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, Valentina; Savoldo, Barbara; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2012-01-01

    Modern chemotherapy regimens and supportive care have produced remarkable improvements in the overall survival of patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the development of targeted small molecules, monoclonal antibodies, and biological therapies that demonstrate greater efficacy and lower toxicity remains highly desirable in hematology, and oncology in general. In the context of biological therapies, T-lymphocyte based treatments have enormous potential. Donor lymphocyte infusion in patients relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant pioneered the concept that T lymphocytes can effectively control tumor growth, and this was then followed by the development of cell culture strategies to generate T lymphocytes with selective activity against tumor cells. Over the past decade, it has become clear that the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes promotes sustained antitumor effects in patients with virus-associated lymphomas, such as Epstein-Barr virus related post-transplant lymphomas and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Because of this compelling clinical evidence and the concomitant development of methodologies for robust gene transfer to human T lymphocytes, the field has rapidly evolved, offering new opportunities to extend T-cell based therapies. This review summarizes the most recent biological and clinical developments using genetically manipulated T cells for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:22929977

  13. [A reflection about prevention of violence based on a study on human aggressiveness].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Elaine Vasconcelos; Bezerra, Benilton

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to offer a tool to enlighten the comprehension of aggressive behavior and violent situations often found in educational institutions. The words 'violence' and 'aggressiveness' are not used in an unequivocal way, and the establishment of a map showing this fact allows designating places and ways of treatment specific for the phenomena. Following the theoretical model of the psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott, we will discuss the differences between aggressiveness and violence, illustrating them through the presentation of a case experienced by our health team in a public school in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In face of the difficulties found and the questions raised, we sought to show that the denaturalization of violence and the depathologization of aggressiveness offer us the possibility to propose actions which are not restricted to the control and correction of such manifestations, but can be more efficient in preventing the irruption and reproduction of violent situations for considering the social context in which they emerge and the subjective experiences involved.

  14. Frequency analysis of multispectral photoacoustic images for differentiating malignant region from normal region in excised human prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Saugata; Rao, Navalgund A.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Dogra, Vikram S.; Helguera, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Frequency domain analysis of the photoacoustic (PA) radio frequency signals can potentially be used as a tool for characterizing microstructure of absorbers in tissue. This study investigates the feasibility of analyzing the spectrum of multiwavelength PA signals generated by excised human prostate tissue samples to differentiate between malignant and normal prostate regions. Photoacoustic imaging at five different wavelengths, corresponding to peak absorption coefficients of deoxyhemoglobin, whole blood, oxyhemoglobin, water and lipid in the near infrared (NIR) (700 nm - 1000 nm) region, was performed on freshly excised prostate specimens taken from patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. The PA images were co-registered with the histopathology images of the prostate specimens to determine the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant and normal tissue. The calibrated power spectrum of each PA signal from a selected ROI was fit to a linear model to extract the corresponding slope, midband fit and intercept parameters. The mean value of each parameter corresponding to malignant and adjacent normal prostate ROI was calculated for each of the five wavelengths. The results obtained for 9 different human prostate specimens, show that the mean values of midband fit and intercept are significantly different between malignant and normal regions. In addition, the average midband fit and intercept values show a decreasing trend with increasing wavelength. These preliminary results suggest that frequency analysis of multispectral PA signals can be used to differentiate malignant region from the adjacent normal region in human prostate tissue.

  15. FTIR microscopic comparative study on normal, premalignant, and malignant tissues of human intenstine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordechai, Shaul; Argov, Shmuel; Salman, Ahmad O.; Cohen, Beny; Ramesh, Jagannathan; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Goldstein, Jed; Sinelnikov, Igor

    2000-07-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) employs a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathology based on the characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the tissue. The architectural changes in the cellular and sub-cellular levels developing in abnormal tissue, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest themselves in different optical signatures, which can be detected in infrared spectroscopy. The biological systems we have studied include normal, premalignant (polyp) and malignant human colonic tissues from three patients. Our method is based on microscopic infrared study (FTIR-microscopy) of thin tissue specimens and a direct comparison with normal histopathological analysis, which serves as a `gold' reference. The normal intestine tissue has a stronger absorption than polyp and cancerous types over a wide region in all three cases. The detailed analysis showed that there is a significant decrease in total phosphate and creatine contents for polyp and cancerous tissue types in comparison to the controls.

  16. A B-Cell Superantigen Induces the Apoptosis of Murine and Human Malignant B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Daniela; Duarte, Alejandra; Mundiñano, Juliana; Berguer, Paula; Nepomnaschy, Irene; Piazzon, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    B-cell superantigens (Sags) bind to conserved sites of the VH or VL regions of immunoglobulin molecules outside their complementarity-determining regions causing the apoptosis of normal cognate B cells. No attempts to investigate whether B-cell Sags are able to induce the apoptosis of cognate malignant B cells were reported. In the present study we show that protein L (PpL), secreted by Finegoldia magna, a B-cell Sag which interacts with κ+ bearing cells, induces the apoptosis of murine and human κ+ lymphoma B cells both in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis was not altered by caspase-8 inhibitor. No alterations in the levels of Bid, Fas and Fas-L were found suggesting that PpL does not activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The involvement of the intrinsic pathway was clearly indicated by: i) alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) both in murine and human lymphoma cells exposed to PpL; ii) decreased levels of apoptosis in the presence of caspase-9 inhibitor; iii) significant increases of Bim and Bax protein levels and downregulation of Bcl-2; iv) the translocation from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria of Bax and Bim pro-apoptotic proteins and its inhibition by caspase-9 inhibitor but not by caspase-8 inhibitor and v) the translocation of Bcl-2 protein from the mitochondria to the cytosol and its inhibition by caspase-9 inhibitor but not by caspase-8 inhibitor. The possibility of a therapeutic use of Sags in lymphoma/leukemia B cell malignancies is discussed. PMID:27603942

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in archival samples obtained from patients with cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions from Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is considered as a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV in a series of pre-malignant and malignant cervical lesion cases, to identify the virus genotypes, and to assess their distribution pattern according to lesion type, age range, and other considered variables. The samples were submitted to histopathological revision examination and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of HPV DNA, followed by HPV typing by dot blot hybridisation. Findings Of the analysed samples, 53.7% showed pre-malignant cervical lesions, and 46.3% presented with cervical cancer. Most cancer samples (84.1%) were classified as invasive carcinoma. The mean age of these cancer patients was 47.3 years. The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cancer patients. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58, including both single and double infections. Double infection was detected in 11.6% of the samples, and the most common combination was HPV 16+18. Conclusions Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the studied area, compared to the situation in other Brazilian regions. Furthermore, among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher proportion of married women, women with more than one sexual partner, smokers, and individuals with less than an elementary education, relative to their counterparts. Findings The overall HPV prevalence was 82.4% in patients with pre-malignant lesions and 92.0% in the cervical cancer patients from Northeast Brazil. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type, followed by HPV 18 and 58. The most common double infection was HPV 16+18. Cervical cancer appears to occur in women in a lower age range in the Northeast Brazil. Among the patients with CIN 3 and those with cancer, we observed a higher proportion of married women, women

  18. Malignant progression of an SV40-transformed human epidermal keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K. W.; Gallimore, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    Human foetal keratinocytes were transfected with a recombinant plasmid (pSV6-1) which contained an origin defective SV40 genome. The resulting transformed cell line had many properties in common with previously described SV40-transformed keratinocytes, including expression of simple epithelial-type keratins. It was non-tumourigenic in nude mice at early passages, forming small benign cysts, however, after approximately 46 in vitro passages, these transformed keratinocytes formed invasive squamous cell carcinomas in athymic nude mice. Several in vitro changes were associated with this acquisition of tumourigenicity (a) an alteration in cellular morphology, (b) development of a cytogenetically marked clone and (c) loss of cell surface fibronectin. The loss of fibronectin was also observed in vivo; cysts formed by SV6-1 Bam/HFK produced human fibronectin whereas tumours did not, although both tumours and cysts were laminin- and keratin-positive. These results indicate that the spontaneous development of secondary events in immortalised human cells may lead to the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2447927

  19. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Raquel G; Calaça, Isadora C; Celestrini, Deborah M; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P; Costa, Mauricio M; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-10-06

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis.

  20. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Raquel G.; Calaça, Isadora C.; Celestrini, Deborah M.; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P.; Costa, Mauricio M.; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26320188

  1. Malignant progression to anaplastic meningioma: Neuropathology, molecular pathology, and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    Meningioma is a common adult intracranial tumor, and while several cases are considered benign, a subset is malignant with biologically aggressive behavior and is refractory to current treatment strategies of combined surgery and radiotherapy. Anaplastic meningiomas are quite aggressive and correspond to a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade III tumor. This highly aggressive phenotype mandates the need for more efficacious therapies. Designing rational therapies for treatment will have its foundation in the biologic understanding of involved genes and molecular pathways in these types of tumors. Anaplastic meningiomas (WHO Grade III) can arise from malignant transformation of lower grade (WHO Grade I/II) tumors, however there is an incomplete understanding of specific genetic drivers of malignant transformation in these tumors. Here, the current understanding of anaplastic meningiomas is reviewed in the context of human neuropathologic specimens and small animal models.

  2. Reprogramming Malignant Cancer Cells toward a Benign Phenotype following Exposure to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins. However, the possibility that these embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes might be the main effectors of the anti-tumor effect mediated by the embryonic stem cells has not been explored yet. The present study aims to investigate whether exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells can reprogram malignant cancer cells to a benign stage and reduce their tumorigenicity. We show that the embryonic stem cell-conditioned medium contains factors that inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells display anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects, and decrease tumor size in a xenograft model. These exosomes are also able to transfer their cargo into target cancer cells, inducing a dose-dependent increase in SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog proteins, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. This study shows for the first time that human embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity displayed by human embryonic stem cells. PMID:28068409

  3. Reprogramming Malignant Cancer Cells toward a Benign Phenotype following Exposure to Human Embryonic Stem Cell Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Abdouh, Mohamed; Arena, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo Orazio

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic microenvironment is well known to be non-permissive for tumor development because early developmental signals naturally suppress the expression of proto-oncogenes. In an analogous manner, mimicking an early embryonic environment during embryonic stem cell culture has been shown to suppress oncogenic phenotypes of cancer cells. Exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells harbor substances that mirror the content of the cells of origin and have been reported to reprogram hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells via horizontal transfer of mRNA and proteins. However, the possibility that these embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes might be the main effectors of the anti-tumor effect mediated by the embryonic stem cells has not been explored yet. The present study aims to investigate whether exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells can reprogram malignant cancer cells to a benign stage and reduce their tumorigenicity. We show that the embryonic stem cell-conditioned medium contains factors that inhibit cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that exosomes derived from human embryonic stem cells display anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects, and decrease tumor size in a xenograft model. These exosomes are also able to transfer their cargo into target cancer cells, inducing a dose-dependent increase in SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog proteins, leading to a dose-dependent decrease of cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity. This study shows for the first time that human embryonic stem cell-derived exosomes play an important role in the tumor suppressive activity displayed by human embryonic stem cells.

  4. Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

  5. Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. PMID:22289125

  6. Single-unit analysis of the human posterior hypothalamus and red nucleus during deep brain stimulation for aggressivity.

    PubMed

    Micieli, Robert; Rios, Adriana Lucia Lopez; Aguilar, Ricardo Plata; Posada, Luis Fernando Botero; Hutchison, William D

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior hypothalamus (PH) has been reported to be effective for aggressive behavior in a number of isolated cases. Few of these case studies have analyzed single-unit recordings in the human PH and none have quantitatively analyzed single units in the red nucleus (RN). The authors report on the properties of ongoing neuronal discharges in bilateral trajectories targeting the PH and the effectiveness of DBS of the PH as a treatment for aggressive behavior. METHODS DBS electrodes were surgically implanted in the PH of 1 awake patient with Sotos syndrome and 3 other anesthetized patients with treatment-resistant aggressivity. Intraoperative extracellular recordings were obtained from the ventral thalamus, PH, and RN and analyzed offline to discriminate single units and measure firing rates and firing patterns. Target location was based on the stereotactic coordinates used by Sano et al. in their 1970 study and the location of the dorsal border of the RN. RESULTS A total of 138 units were analyzed from the 4 patients. Most of the PH units had a slow, irregular discharge (mean [± SD] 4.5 ± 2.7 Hz, n = 68) but some units also had a higher discharge rate (16.7 ± 4.7 Hz, n = 15). Two populations of neurons were observed in the ventral thalamic region as well, one with a high firing rate (mean 16.5 ± 6.5 Hz, n = 5) and one with a low firing rate (mean 4.6 ± 2.8 Hz, n = 6). RN units had a regular firing rate with a mean of 20.4 ± 9.9 Hz and displayed periods of oscillatory activity in the beta range. PH units displayed a prolonged period of inhibition following microstimulation compared with RN units that were not inhibited. Patients under anesthesia showed a trend for lower firing rates in the PH but not in the RN. All 4 patients displayed a reduction in their aggressive behavior after surgery. CONCLUSIONS During PH DBS, microelectrode recordings can provide an additional mechanism to help identify the PH target and

  7. Involvement of F-BOX proteins in progression and development of human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahab; Bhat, Ajaz A; Krishnankutty, Roopesh; Mir, Fayaz; Kulinski, Michal; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-02-01

    The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is a core regulator with various protein components (ubiquitin-activating E1 enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes, ubiquitin-protein E3 ligases, and the 26S proteasome) which work together in a coordinated fashion to ensure the appropriate and efficient proteolysis of target substrates. E3 ubiquitin ligases are essential components of the UPS machinery, working with E1 and E2 enzymes to bind substrates and assist the transport of ubiquitin molecules onto the target protein. As the UPS controls the degradation of several oncogenes and tumor suppressors, dysregulation of this pathway leads to several human malignancies. A major category of E3 Ub ligases, the SCF (Skp-Cullin-F-box) complex, is composed of four principal components: Skp1, Cul1/Cdc53, Roc1/Rbx1/Hrt1, and an F-box protein (FBP). FBPs are the substrate recognition components of SCF complexes and function as adaptors that bring substrates into physical proximity with the rest of the SCF. Besides acting as a component of SCF complexes, FBPs are involved in DNA replication, transcription, cell differentiation and cell death. This review will highlight the recent literature on three well characterized FBPs SKP2, Fbw7, and beta-TRCP. In particular, we will focus on the involvement of these deregulated FBPs in the progression and development of various human cancers. We will also highlight some novel substrates recently identified for these FBPs.

  8. Ectopic over-expression of oncogene Pim-2 induce malignant transformation of nontumorous human liver cell line L02.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Duan, Wentao; Shi, Yujun; Li, Bo; Liu, Zuojin; Gong, Jiangping

    2010-07-01

    In order to prove that ectopic over-expression of Pim-2 could induce malignant transformation of human liver cell line L02, three groups of cells were set up including human liver cell line L02 (L02), L02 cells transfected with Pim-2 gene (L02/Pim-2) and L02 cells transfected with empty-vector (L02/Vector). Pim-2 expression levels were detected. The morphology, proliferation level, apoptosis rate and migration ability of the cells were detected respectively. Then the cells were subcutaneously inoculated into athymic mice and the microstructures of the neoplasm were observed. Compared with the controls, Pim-2 expression levels were significantly higher in L02/Pim-2 cells (P<0.05), and their morphology had obvious malignant changes. They also showed a significantly increased proliferation rate (P<0.05) and migration capacity (P<0.05), as well as a significantly decreased apoptosis rate (P<0.05). Only the athymic mice inoculated with L02/Pim-2 cells could generate neoplasm, and the morphology of the neoplasm coincided with that of the hepatoma. The results manifest that ectopic Pim-2 gene could be stably expressed in L02/Pim-2 cells. Both the morphological and biological changes of L02/Pim-2 cells demonstrate the trend of malignant transformation. L02/Pim-2 cells could generate hepatoma in athymic mice. In conclusion, Pim-2 could induce malignant transformation of human liver cell line L02.

  9. Reward vs. Retaliation—the Role of the Mesocorticolimbic Salience Network in Human Reactive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Preston-Campbell, Rebecca N.; Moeller, Scott J.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Lane, Scott D.; Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings. Across all fMRI-PSAP runs, RA individuals vs. controls chose to work harder to earn money but not to retaliate. When engaging in such reward-seeking behavior vs. retaliation in a single fMRI-PSAP run, RA individuals exhibited increased activation in the insular-striatal part of the mesocorticolimbic salience network, and decreased precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation compared to controls. Enhanced overall reward-seeking behavior along with an up-regulation of the mesocorticolimbic salience network and a down-regulation of the default-mode network in RA individuals indicate that RA individuals are willing to work more for monetary reward than for retaliation when presented with a choice. Our findings may suggest that the use of positive reinforcement might represent an efficacious intervention approach for the potential reduction of retaliatory behavior in clinically significant RA. PMID:27729852

  10. Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkin, J.B.; Coquoz, O.; Anderson, E.R.; Brenner, M.; Tromberg, B.J. |

    1997-01-01

    A 1-GHz multifrequency, multiwavelength frequency-domain photon migration instrument is used to measure quantitatively the optical absorption ({mu}{sub a}) and effective optical scattering ({mu}{sub s}{sup {prime}}) of normal and malignant tissues in a human subject. Large ellipsoidal ({approximately}10-cm major axis, {approximately}6-cm minor axes) subcutaneous malignant lesions were compared with adjacent normal sites in the abdomen and back. Absorption coefficients recorded at 674, 811, 849, and 956 nm were used to calculate tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total), water concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and blood volume fraction {ital in vivo}. Our results show that the normal and the malignant tissues measured in the patient have clearly resolvable optical and physiological property differences that may be broadly useful in identifying and characterizing tumors.{copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  11. Emerging Role and Targeting of Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 (CEACAM6) in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Benny; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is a member of the CEA family of cell adhesion proteins that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CEACAM6 is normally expressed on the surface of myeloid (CD66c) and epithelial surfaces. Stiochiomertic expression of members of the CEA family (CEACAM1, 5, 6, 7) on epithelia maintains normal tissue architecture through homo-and hetero-philic interactions. Dysregulated over-expression of CEACAM6 is oncogenic, is associated with anoikis resistance and an invasive phenotype mediated by excessive TGFβ, AKT, FAK and SRC signaling in human malignancies. Methods: Extensive literature review through PubMed was conducted to identify relevant preclinical and clinical research publications regarding CEACAM6 over the last decade and was summarized in this manuscript. Results: CEACAM5 and 6 are over-expressed in nearly 70% of epithelial malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), hepatobiliary, gastric, breast, non-small cell lung and head/neck cancers. Importantly, CEACAM6 is a poor prognostic marker in CRC, while its expression correlates with tumor stage, metastasis and post-operative survival in PDA. CEACAM6 appears to be an immune checkpoint suppressor in hematologic malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments targeting CEACAM6 have been designed and developed as a targeted therapy for human malignancies. A Llama antibody targeting CEACAM6 is being evaluated in early phase clinical trials. Conclusion: This review focuses on the role of CEACAM6 in the pathogenesis and signaling of the malignant phenotype in solid and hematologic malignancies and highlights its potential as a therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27595061

  12. On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Friberg, S; Mattson, S

    1997-08-01

    Testicular carcinomas, pediatric tumors, and some mesenchymal tumors are examples of rapidly proliferating cell populations, for which the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) can be counted in days. Cancers from the breast, prostate, and colon are frequently slow-growing, displaying a TVDT of months or years. Irrespective of their growth rates, most human tumors have been found: to start from one single cell, to have a long subclinical period, to grow at constant rates for long periods of time, to start to metastasize often even before the primary is detected, and to have metastases that often grow at approximately the same rate as the primary tumor. The recognition of basic facts in tumor cell kinetics is essential in the evaluation of important present-day strategies in oncology. Among the facts emphasized in this review are: (1) Screening programs. Most tumors are several years old when detectable by present-day diagnostic methods. This makes the term "early detection" questionable. (2) Legal trials. The importance of so-called doctor's delay is often discussed, but the prognostic value of "early" detection is overestimated. (3) Analyses of clinical trials. Such analysis may be differentiated depending on the growth rates of the type of tumor studied. Furthermore, uncritical analysis of survival data may be misleading if the TVDT is not taken into consideration. (4) Analyses of epidemiological data. If causes of malignant tumors in humans are searched for, the time of exposure must be extended far back in the subject's history. (5) Risk estimations by insurance companies. For the majority of human cancers, the 5-year survival rate is not a valid measurement for cure. Thus, basic knowledge of tumor kinetics may have important implications for political health programs, legal trials, medical science, and insurance policies.

  13. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  14. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  15. A hypermutation phenotype and somatic MSH6 mutations in recurrent human malignant gliomas after alkylator chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chris; Smith, Raffaella; Cahill, Daniel P; Stephens, Philip; Stevens, Claire; Teague, Jon; Greenman, Chris; Edkins, Sarah; Bignell, Graham; Davies, Helen; O'Meara, Sarah; Parker, Adrian; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Brackenbury, Lisa; Buck, Gemma; Butler, Adam; Clements, Jody; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Forbes, Simon; Gorton, Matthew; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jenkinson, Andy; Jones, David; Kosmidou, Vivienne; Laman, Ross; Lugg, Richard; Menzies, Andrew; Perry, Janet; Petty, Robert; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Solomon, Helen; Tofts, Calli; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Yates, Andy; Easton, Douglas F; Riggins, Gregory; Roy, Jennifer E; Levine, Kymberly K; Mueller, Wolf; Batchelor, Tracy T; Louis, David N; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Wooster, Richard

    2006-04-15

    Malignant gliomas have a very poor prognosis. The current standard of care for these cancers consists of extended adjuvant treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Although a statistically significant increase in survival has been reported with this regimen, nearly all gliomas recur and become insensitive to further treatment with this class of agents. We sequenced 500 kb of genomic DNA corresponding to the kinase domains of 518 protein kinases in each of nine gliomas. Large numbers of somatic mutations were observed in two gliomas recurrent after alkylating agent treatment. The pattern of mutations in these cases showed strong similarity to that induced by alkylating agents in experimental systems. Further investigation revealed inactivating somatic mutations of the mismatch repair gene MSH6 in each case. We propose that inactivating somatic mutations of MSH6 confer resistance to alkylating agents in gliomas in vivo and concurrently unleash accelerated mutagenesis in resistant clones as a consequence of continued exposure to alkylating agents in the presence of defective mismatch repair. The evidence therefore suggests that when MSH6 is inactivated in gliomas, alkylating agents convert from induction of tumor cell death to promotion of neoplastic progression. These observations highlight the potential of large scale sequencing for revealing and elucidating mutagenic processes operative in individual human cancers.

  16. Characterization of Two Human Skeletal Calsequestrin Mutants Implicated in Malignant Hyperthermia and Vacuolar Aggregate Myopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin M.; Ronish, Leslie A.; Ríos, Eduardo; Kang, ChulHee

    2015-01-01

    Calsequestrin 1 is the principal Ca2+ storage protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. Its inheritable D244G mutation causes a myopathy with vacuolar aggregates, whereas its M87T “variant” is weakly associated with malignant hyperthermia. We characterized the consequences of these mutations with studies of the human proteins in vitro. Equilibrium dialysis and turbidity measurements showed that D244G and, to a lesser extent, M87T partially lose Ca2+ binding exhibited by wild type calsequestrin 1 at high Ca2+ concentrations. D244G aggregates abruptly and abnormally, a property that fully explains the protein inclusions that characterize its phenotype. D244G crystallized in low Ca2+ concentrations lacks two Ca2+ ions normally present in wild type that weakens the hydrophobic core of Domain II. D244G crystallized in high Ca2+ concentrations regains its missing ions and Domain II order but shows a novel dimeric interaction. The M87T mutation causes a major shift of the α-helix bearing the mutated residue, significantly weakening the back-to-back interface essential for tetramerization. D244G exhibited the more severe structural and biophysical property changes, which matches the different pathophysiological impacts of these mutations. PMID:26416891

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  18. Preliminary micro-Raman images of normal and malignant human skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Michael X.

    2006-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy covering a frequency range from 200 to 4000 cm -1 was used to image human skin melanocytes and keratinocytes with a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. The cells were either cultivated on glass microscope slides or were located within thin sections of skin biopsies mounted on low fluorescence BaF II. A commercially available system was used to obtain the spectra utilizing a x100 long working distance objective with a numerical aperture of 0.8, and a cooled CCD. Both 633 and 515 nm excitations were tried, although the latter proved to be more effcient at producing Raman emission mostly due to the 1/λ 4 dependence in light scattering. Fluorescence emission from the cells was surprisingly low. The excitation power at the sample was kept below about 2 mW to avoid damaging the cells; this was the limiting factor on how quickly a Raman image could be obtained. Despite this diffculty we were able to obtain Raman images with rich information about the spectroscopic and structural features within the cytoplasm and cell nuclei. Differences were observed between the Raman images of normal and malignant cells. Spectra from purified DNA, RNA, lipids, proteins and melanin were obtained and these spectra were compared with the skin cell spectra with the aim of understanding how they are distributed over a cell and how the distribution changes between different cells.

  19. Evaluation of discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) expression level in normal, benign, and malignant human prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Azemikhah, Mitra; Ashtiani, Hamidreza Ahmadi; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) is a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. There are two isoforms of discoidin domain receptor (DDR), DDR1 and DDR2. These receptors play a major role in the adhesion, motility and cell proliferation. Due to the important role of DDR2 in the development of tumor extension, this receptor is pivotal in the field of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of DDR2, in the malignant, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal tissues of patients with prostate cancer. In this study the gene and protein expression of DDR2 in adjacent normal (n=40), BPH (n=40), and malignant (n=40) prostate tissue were measured using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Then, the correlation of DDR2 gene and protein expression with prognostic factors such as age, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration were evaluated. The relative mRNA and protein expression level of DDR2 in malignant and benign prostate tissue was significantly higher than those of adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). This expression was found to increase approximately 3.5 and 2.1 fold for mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Spearman test indicated a significant correlation between DDR2 mRNA and protein expression with prognostic factors such as tumor grade, stage, lymph node involvement, and serum PSA concentration. However, significant correlation with age was not observed. These findings suggest that DDR2 is a cancer-related gene associated with the aggressive progression of prostate cancer patients.

  20. Decrease of miR-146a is associated with the aggressiveness of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zonggao; Johnson, Jeffrey J.; Jiang, Rong; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to identify microRNAs that may contribute to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression, we compared the microRNA expression profiles of two related cell lines that form tumors with differential aggressiveness. A panel of 28 microRNAs was found to be more than 1.5-fold altered, among which miR-146a was the most significantly changed (-4.6-fold). Loss of miR-146a expression was validated in human high-grade tumors, while normal oral mucosa retained expression, using fluorescence in situ hybridization on a tissue microarray. Restoration of miR-146a in SCC25 and UMSCC1 cells decreased in vitro invasive activity, suppressed tumor growth in vivo, and decreased the incidence of UMSCC1 lung metastasis. The transcription factor Sox2 was found to be a putative target of miR-146a. In conclusion, the loss or decrease of miR-146a is a new feature that is associated with more aggressive behavior in oral squamous carcinoma. PMID:26159827

  1. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  2. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  3. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  4. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  5. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  6. Aggressive restenosis after percutaneous intervention in two coronary loci in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alkhalil, Mohammad; Conlon, Christopher P; Ashrafian, Houman; Choudhury, Robin P

    2017-02-16

    A 54-year-old black African woman, 22 years human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, presented with an acute coronary syndrome. She was taking two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and two protease inhibitors. Viral load and CD4 count were stable. Angiography revealed a right coronary artery lesion, which was treated with everolimus eluting stent. She also underwent balloon angioplasty to the first diagonal. She re-presented on three different occasions and technically successful coronary intervention was performed. The patient has reported satisfactory compliance with dual anti platelet therapy throughout. She was successfully treated with surgical revascularisation. The patient did not experience any clinical recurrence on follow up. This case demonstrates exceptionally aggressive multifocal and recurrent instent restenosis in a patient treated for HIV infection, raising the possibility of an association with HIV infection or potentially components of retro viral therapy.

  7. Aggressive restenosis after percutaneous intervention in two coronary loci in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalil, Mohammad; Conlon, Christopher P; Ashrafian, Houman; Choudhury, Robin P

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old black African woman, 22 years human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, presented with an acute coronary syndrome. She was taking two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and two protease inhibitors. Viral load and CD4 count were stable. Angiography revealed a right coronary artery lesion, which was treated with everolimus eluting stent. She also underwent balloon angioplasty to the first diagonal. She re-presented on three different occasions and technically successful coronary intervention was performed. The patient has reported satisfactory compliance with dual anti platelet therapy throughout. She was successfully treated with surgical revascularisation. The patient did not experience any clinical recurrence on follow up. This case demonstrates exceptionally aggressive multifocal and recurrent instent restenosis in a patient treated for HIV infection, raising the possibility of an association with HIV infection or potentially components of retro viral therapy. PMID:28255546

  8. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of adenosine receptors in the human malignant melanoma A375 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Cattabriga, Elena; Iannotta, Valeria; Ulouglu, Canan; Leung, Edward; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2001-01-01

    The present work characterizes, from a pharmacological and biochemical point of view, adenosine receptors in the human malignant melanoma A375 cell line. Adenosine receptors were detected by RT – PCR experiments. A1 receptors were characterized using [3H]-DPCPX binding with a KD of 1.9±0.2 nM and Bmax of 23±7 fmol mg−1 of protein. A2A receptors were studied with [3H]-SCH 58261 binding and revealed a KD of 5.1±0.2 nM and a Bmax of 220±7 fmol mg−1 of protein. A3 receptors were studied with the new A3 adenosine receptor antagonist [3H]-MRE 3008F20, the only A3 selective radioligand currently available. Saturation experiments revealed a single high affinity binding site with KD of 3.3±0.7 nM and Bmax of 291±50 fmol mg−1 of protein. The pharmacological profile of radioligand binding on A375 cells was established using typical adenosine ligands which displayed a rank order of potency typical of the different adenosine receptor subtype. Thermodynamic data indicated that radioligand binding to adenosine receptor subtypes in A375 cells was entropy- and enthalpy-driven. In functional assays the high affinity A2A agonists HE-NECA, CGS 21680 and A2A – A2B agonist NECA were able to increase cyclic AMP accumulation in A375 cells whereas A3 agonists Cl-IB-MECA, IB-MECA and NECA were able to stimulate Ca2+ mobilization. In conclusion, all these data indicate, for the first time, that adenosine receptors with a pharmacological and biochemical profile typical of the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptor subtype are present on A375 melanoma cell line. PMID:11704641

  9. Altered expression of G/sub 1/-specific genes in human malignant myeloid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Calabretta, B.; Venturelli, D.; Kaczmarek, L.; Narni, F.; Talpaz, M.; Anderson, B.; Beran, M.; Baserga, R.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have studied the expression of cell-cycle genes specific to the G/sub 1/ (2A9, 2F1, 4F1, c-myc) and S (histone H3) phases of the cell cycle in normal and malignant human myeloid cycling cells. The levels of expression were determined by measuring the amounts of specific RNA in blot hybridization assays. Levels of expression of the G/sub 1/ genes were compared to the level of expression of the S-phase-specific H3 gene. In a normal asynchronous system provided by the bone marrow cells of three normal donors, the expressions of the four G/sub 1/-specific genes 2A9, 2F1, 4F1, and c-myc, and of the S-phase-specific gene H3 were in ratios that differed little from one individual to another. In the total RNA of eight patients in the chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, a high level of expression of G/sub 1/ cell-cycle genes was paralleled by a high level of expression of the S-phase H3 gene, simply reflecting and increase in the fraction of proliferating cells. In patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the RNA levels of 2F1 and 4F1 paralleled the expression of H3. However, in 9 of 10 patients with AML they found that the expression of c-myc was elevated with respect to H3 expression. Two important conclusions can be drawn from these findings: (i) increased levels of a G/sub 1/-specific RNA in a tumor may not indicate overexpression of that gene but may instead simply reflect the fraction of proliferating cells; and (ii) in some patients with AML, however, the expression of certain G/sub 1/ genes is truly deregulated and might contribute to the impairment of proliferative control that is associated with this phenotype.

  10. Catalase ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyl-induced cytotoxicity in non-malignant human breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah A.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Buettner, Garry R.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemical contaminants believed to adversely affect cellular processes. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB-induced changes in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce DNA damage resulting in cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing cultures of human non-malignant breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) were incubated with PCBs for 3 days and assayed for cell number, ROS levels, DNA damage, and cytotoxicity. Exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) or 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone (4-Cl-BQ), a metabolite of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) significantly decreased cell number, MTS reduction, and increased the percentage of cells with sub G1 DNA content. Results from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy showed a 4-fold increase in the steady-state levels of ROS, which was suppressed in cells pre-treated with catalase. EPR measurements in cells treated with 4-Cl-BQ detected the presence of a semiquinone radical, suggesting that the increased levels of ROS could be due to the redox-cycling of 4-Cl-BQ. A dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in PCB-treated cells, consistent with an increase in histone 2AX-phosphorylation. Treatment of cells with catalase blunted the PCB-induced increase in micronuclei frequency and H2AX phosphorylation that was consistent with an increase in cell survival. Our results demonstrate a PCB-induced increase in cellular levels of ROS causing DNA damage, resulting in cell killing. PMID:18691649

  11. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry in Malignant Hyperthermia-susceptible Human Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Adrian M.; Hopkins, Philip M.; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Halsall, Jane P.; Steele, Derek S.

    2010-01-01

    In malignant hyperthermia (MH), mutations in RyR1 underlie direct activation of the channel by volatile anesthetics, leading to muscle contracture and a life-threatening increase in core body temperature. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the associated depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ triggers sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Samples of vastus medialis muscle were obtained from patients undergoing assessment for MH susceptibility using the in vitro contracture test. Single fibers were mechanically skinned, and confocal microscopy was used to detect changes in [Ca2+] either within the resealed t-system ([Ca2+]t-sys) or within the cytosol. In normal fibers, halothane (0.5 mm) failed to initiate SR Ca2+ release or Ca2+t-sys depletion. However, in MH-susceptible (MHS) fibers, halothane induced both SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+t-sys depletion, consistent with SOCE. In some MHS fibers, halothane-induced SR Ca2+ release took the form of a propagated wave, which was temporally coupled to a wave of Ca2+t-sys depletion. SOCE was potently inhibited by “extracellular” application of a STIM1 antibody trapped within the t-system but not when the antibody was denatured by heating. In conclusion, (i) in human MHS muscle, SR Ca2+ depletion induced by a level of volatile anesthetic within the clinical range is sufficient to induce SOCE, which is tightly coupled to SR Ca2+ release; (ii) sarcolemmal STIM1 has an important role in regulating SOCE; and (iii) sustained SOCE from an effectively infinite extracellular Ca2+ pool may contribute to the maintained rise in cytosolic [Ca2+] that underlies MH. PMID:20566647

  12. Cellular distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 in benign and malignant human prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Reinicke, Karin; Sotomayor, Paula; Cisterna, Pedro; Delgado, Carolina; Nualart, Francisco; Godoy, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    Over-expression of hexose transporters (Gluts), specifically Glut-1, is a common event in human malignancies. In prostate cancer (CaP), however, expression of Gluts has been characterized poorly. In this study, expression and distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 proteins were characterized using immunohistochemistry in 76 specimens of benign prostate, 10 specimens of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and 28 specimens of CaP. In addition, mRNA expression of Glut-2, Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 was analyzed in a set of five specimens of benign prostate and CaP. In benign prostate, Glut-1 localized to the basal cells and to the basolateral membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. In HGPIN, Glut-1 was immunohistochemically undetectable. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of the neoplastic epithelial cells. In CaP, Glut-1 and Glut-5, were immunohistochemically undetectable. However, over-expression of GLUT1 was observed in some specimens of highly proliferative intraductal CaP. Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 mRNAs were detected in benign prostate and CaP, however, only Glut-11 mRNA was consistently up-regulated in CaP compared to benign prostate. Low levels of expression of Glut-1 protein in the majority of CaP could explain, at least in part, the limited clinical applicability of positron emission tomography using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for imaging CaP. Moreover, expression of Glut-5 in HGPIN suggested that fructose could be utilized as potential metabolic substrate in HGPIN. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation/dysregulation of Gluts in CaP could provide insight in the understanding of hexose metabolism in CaP.

  13. p53 mutations in human lymphoid malignancies: Association with Burkitt lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidano, G.; Ballerini, P.; Gong, J.Z.; Inghirami, G.; Knowles, D.M.; Dalla-Favera, R. ); Neri, A, Centro Malattie del Sangue G. Marcora, Milan ); Newcomb, E.W. ); Magrath, I.T. )

    1991-06-15

    The authors have investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in B- and T-cell human lymphoid malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the major subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. p53 exons 5-9 were studied by using genomic DNA from 197 primary tumors and 27 cell lines by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and by direst sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments. Mutations were found associated with (i) Burkitt lymphoma (9/27 biopsoes; 17/27 cell lines) and its leukemic counterpart L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5/9), both of which also carry activated c-myc oncogenes, and (ii) B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (6/40) and, in particular, its stage of progression known as Richter's transformation (3/7). Mutations were not found at any significant frequency in other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In many cases, only the mutated allele was detectable, implying loss of the normal allele. These results suggest that (1) significant differences in the frequency of p53 mutations are present among subtypes of neoplasms derived from the same tissue; (2) p53 may play a role in tumor progression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; (3) the presence of both p53 loss/inactivation and c-myc oncogene activation may be important in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma and its leukemia form L{sub 3}-type B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  14. Store-operated Ca2+ entry in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Duke, Adrian M; Hopkins, Philip M; Calaghan, Sarah C; Halsall, Jane P; Steele, Derek S

    2010-08-13

    In malignant hyperthermia (MH), mutations in RyR1 underlie direct activation of the channel by volatile anesthetics, leading to muscle contracture and a life-threatening increase in core body temperature. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the associated depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) triggers sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx via store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Samples of vastus medialis muscle were obtained from patients undergoing assessment for MH susceptibility using the in vitro contracture test. Single fibers were mechanically skinned, and confocal microscopy was used to detect changes in [Ca(2+)] either within the resealed t-system ([Ca(2+)](t-sys)) or within the cytosol. In normal fibers, halothane (0.5 mM) failed to initiate SR Ca(2+) release or Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion. However, in MH-susceptible (MHS) fibers, halothane induced both SR Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion, consistent with SOCE. In some MHS fibers, halothane-induced SR Ca(2+) release took the form of a propagated wave, which was temporally coupled to a wave of Ca(2+)(t-sys) depletion. SOCE was potently inhibited by "extracellular" application of a STIM1 antibody trapped within the t-system but not when the antibody was denatured by heating. In conclusion, (i) in human MHS muscle, SR Ca(2+) depletion induced by a level of volatile anesthetic within the clinical range is sufficient to induce SOCE, which is tightly coupled to SR Ca(2+) release; (ii) sarcolemmal STIM1 has an important role in regulating SOCE; and (iii) sustained SOCE from an effectively infinite extracellular Ca(2+) pool may contribute to the maintained rise in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] that underlies MH.

  15. The activation of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is implicated in melanoma cell malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Serafino, A. Balestrieri, E.; Pierimarchi, P.; Matteucci, C.; Moroni, G.; Oricchio, E.; Rasi, G.; Mastino, A.; Spadafora, C.; Garaci, E.; Vallebona, P. Sinibaldi

    2009-03-10

    Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of endogenous retroviral sequences might be involved in transformation of melanocytes as well as in the increased ability of melanoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that human melanoma cells in vitro undergo a transition from adherent to a more malignant, non-adherent phenotype when exposed to stress conditions. Melanoma-derived non-adherent cells are characterized by an increased proliferative potential and a decreased expression of both HLA class I molecules and Melan-A/MART-1 antigen, similarly to highly malignant cells. These phenotypic and functional modifications are accompanied by the activation of human endogenous retrovirus K expression (HERV-K) and massive production of viral-like particles. Down-regulation of HERV-K expression by RNA interference prevents the transition from the adherent to the non-adherent growth phenotype in low serum. These results implicate HERV-K in at least some critical steps of melanoma progression.

  16. Functional roles of Fli-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, in human breast malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Kondoh, Nobuo; Arai, Massaki; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Kihara-Negishi, Fumiko; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ohno, Hideki; Yamamoto, Mikio; Oikawa, Tsuneyuki

    2007-01-01

    The Ets family of transcription factors is implicated in malignant transformation and tumor progression, including invasion, metastasis and neo-angiogenesis. In the present study, we found that the Fli-1 gene, a member of the Ets family, was highly expressed in several breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231, MDA-MB436, BT-549 and HCC1395). To investigate the functional roles of Fli-1 in breast cancer malignancy, we introduced an expression plasmid containing full-length Fli-1 cDNA into MCF7 breast cancer cells in which endogenous expression of Fli-1 was barely detectable.Overexpression of Fli-1 in MCF7 cells led to inhibition of apoptosis induced by serum depletion or ultraviolet irradiation, although it did not affect cell growth rate in liquid media, colony formation in soft agar or the in vitro invasion capacity of the cells. Expression of Fli-1 and antiapoptotic bcl-2 was coordinately upregulated by serum depletion in MCF7 cells, and the upregulation was inhibited by treatment of the cells with a c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, expression of the bcl-2 gene and protein was enhanced in Fli-1-overexpressing MCF7 cells compared with mock-transfected cells. In addition, human bcl-2 promoter activity was transactivated by Fli-1. These results suggest that Fli-1 contributes to the malignancy of human breast cancer by inhibiting apoptosis through upregulated expression of the bcl-2 gene.

  17. Outbreak of aggressions and transmission of rabies in human beings by vampire bats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcio A S; Sá-Neto, Raymundo J; Brazil, Tania K

    2002-01-01

    Outbreaks of attacks upon human beings by vampire bats seems to be a common phenomenon in several regions of Latin America, but the occurrence of rabies infection among humans bled by vampires, is relatively low. In the present study, two outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are described from Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil, in 1991 and 1992. The first was recorded in Aporá where 308 people were bled by vampires bats and three of these die from this zoonosis. The 2nd outbreak occurred in Conde where only five people were bled by vampires, and two deaths by rabies were registered. Our data suggest that rabies transmitted by bats basically depends on the presence of virus in the vampire bat population and not on the number of humans bled by them.

  18. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  19. Shape-dependent regulation of proliferation in normal and malignant human cells and its alteration by interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesh, D.A.; Greene, J.J.

    1986-06-01

    The relationship between cell morphology, proliferation, and contact inhibition was studied in normal and malignant human cells which varied in their sensitivity to contact inhibition. Their ability to proliferate was examined under conditions where the cells were constrained into different shapes by plating onto plastic surfaces coated with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) can precisely vary the shape of cells without toxicity. Cell proliferation was quantitated by cell counts and labeling indices were determined by autoradiography. The normal JHU-1 foreskin fibroblasts and IMR-90 lung fibroblasts exhibited contact-inhibited growth with a saturation density of 2.9 X 10(5) and 2.0 X 10(5) cells/cm2, respectively. These cells also exhibited stringent dependency on cell shape with a mitotic index of less than 3% at poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) concentrations at which the cells were rounded versus a labeling index of 75-90% when the cells were flat. The malignant bladder carcinoma line RT-4 exhibited partial contact-inhibited growth. Its dependency on cell shape was less stringent than that of normal cells with a mitotic index of 37-40% when rounded and 79% when flat. The malignant fibrosarcoma line, HT1080, was not contact inhibited and was entirely shape independent with a mitotic index of 70-90% regardless of cell shape. Treatment of HT1080 cells with low concentration of human fibroblast interferon (less than 40 units/ml) restored shape-dependent proliferation while having little effect on normal cells. Subantiproliferative doses of interferon were also shown to restore contact-inhibited proliferation control to malignant cells previously lacking it.

  20. Genetic deletion of osteopontin in TRAMP mice skews prostate carcinogenesis from adenocarcinoma to aggressive human-like neuroendocrine cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Giorgio; Jachetti, Elena; Comuzzi, Barbara; Dugo, Matteo; Arioli, Ivano; Miotti, Silvia; Sangaletti, Sabina; Di Carlo, Emma; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein, that belongs to the non-structural extracellular matrix (ECM), and its over expression in human prostate cancer has been associated with disease progression, androgen independence and metastatic ability. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of OPN in prostate tumorigenesis has never been studied. We crossed TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice with OPN deficient (OPN−/−) mice and followed tumor onset and progression in these double mutants. Ultrasound examination detected the early onset of a rapidly growing, homogeneous and spherical tumor in about 60% of OPN−/− TRAMP mice. Such neoplasms seldom occurred in parental TRAMP mice otherwise prone to adenocarcinomas and were characterized for being androgen receptor negative, highly proliferative and endowed with neuroendocrine (NE) features. Gene expression profiling showed up-regulation of genes involved in tumor progression, cell cycle and neuronal differentiation in OPN-deficient versus wild type TRAMP tumors. Down-regulated genes included key genes of TGFa pathway, including SMAD3 and Filamin, which were confirmed at the protein level. Furthermore, NE genes and particularly those characterizing early prostatic lesions of OPN-deficient mice were found to correlate with those of human prostate NE tumours. These data underscore a novel role of OPN in the early stages of prostate cancer growth, protecting against the development of aggressive NE tumors. PMID:26700622

  1. KANK1 inhibits cell growth by inducing apoptosis though regulating CXXC5 in human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhibin; Shen, Yingjia; Chen, Kenny H.; Mittal, Suresh K.; Yang, Jer-Yen; Zhang, GuangJun

    2017-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are a type of rare sarcomas with a poor prognosis due to its highly invasive nature and limited treatment options. Currently there is no targeted-cancer therapy for this type of malignancy. Thus, it is important to identify more cancer driver genes that may serve as targets of cancer therapy. Through comparative oncogenomics, we have found that KANK1 was a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) for human MPNSTs. Although KANK1 is known as a cytoskeleton regulator, its tumorigenic function in MPNSTs remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that restoration of KANK1 in human MPNST cells inhibits cell growth both in human cell culture and xenograft mice by increasing apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of KANK1 in neurofibroma cells promoted cell growth. Using RNA-seq analysis, we identified CXXC5 and other apoptosis-related genes, and demonstrated that CXXC5 is regulated by KANK1. Knockdown of CXXC5 was found to diminish KANK1-induced apoptosis in MPNST cells. Thus, KANK1 inhibits MPNST cell growth though CXXC5 mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that KANK1 may function as a tumor suppressor in human MPNSTs, and thus it may be useful for targeted therapy. PMID:28067315

  2. Induction of exportin-5 expression during melanoma development supports the cellular behavior of human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Corinna Anna; Linck, Lisa; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Meister, Gunter; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression via microRNAs is known to promote the development of many types of cancer. In melanoma, miRNAs are globally up-regulated, and alterations of miRNA-processing enzymes have already been identified. However, mis-regulation of miRNA transport has not been analyzed in melanoma yet. We hypothesized that alterations in miRNA transport disrupt miRNA processing. Therefore, we investigated whether the pre-miRNA transporter Exportin-5 (XPO5) was involved in altered miRNA maturation and functional consequences in melanoma. We found that XPO5 is significantly over-expressed in melanoma compared with melanocytes. We showed enhanced XPO5 mRNA stability in melanoma cell lines which likely contributes to up-regulated XPO5 protein expression. In addition, we identified MEK signaling as a regulator of XPO5 expression in melanoma. Knockdown of XPO5 expression in melanoma cells led to decreased mature miRNA levels and drastic functional changes. Our data revealed that aberrant XPO5 expression is important for the maturation of miRNAs and the malignant behavior of melanoma cells. We suggest that the high abundance of XPO5 in melanoma leads to enhanced survival, proliferation and metastasis and thereby supports the aggressiveness of melanoma. PMID:27556702

  3. Endogenously Expressed IL-4Rα Promotes the Malignant Phenotype of Human Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Traub, Benno; Sun, Lie; Ma, Yongsu; Xu, Pengfei; Lemke, Johannes; Paschke, Stephan; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Knippschild, Uwe; Kornmann, Marko

    2017-03-28

    Exogenous interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been demonstrated to affect the growth of different human malignancies including pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of our study was to determine the role of endogenously expressed IL-4-receptor-α-chain (IL-4Rα) in pancreatic cancer cells. IL-4Rα-suppression was achieved by generating Capan-1 cells stably expressing shRNA targeting IL-4Rα. The malignant phenotype was characterized by assessing growth properties, directional and non-directional cell movement in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Signaling pathways were analyzed upon IL-4 and IL-13 stimulation of wildtype (WT) and control-transfected cells compared to IL-4Rα-knockdown cells. Silencing of IL-4Rα resulted in reduced anchorage-dependent cell growth (p < 0.05) and reduced anchorage-independent colony size (p < 0.001) in vitro. Moreover, cell movement and migration was inhibited. IL-4 and IL-13 stimulation of Capan-1-WT cells induced activation of similar pathways like stimulation with Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. This activation was reduced after IL-4Rα downregulation while IGF-I signaling seemed to be enhanced in knockdown-clones. Importantly, IL-4Rα silencing also significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. The present study indicates that endogenously expressed IL-4 and IL-4Rα contribute to the malignant phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells by activating diverse pro-oncogenic signaling pathways. Addressing these pathways may contribute to the treatment of the disease.

  4. SERMs attenuate estrogen-induced malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by upregulating detoxification of oxidative metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Madhubhani, L.P.; Hemachandra, P.; Patel, Hitisha; Esala, R.; Chandrasena, P.; Choi, Jaewoo; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C.; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yijin; Thayer, Emily; Scism, Rob; Michalsen, Bradley T.; Xiong, Rui; Siklos, Marton; Bolton, Judy L.; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers with long-term exposure to estrogens is attributed both to proliferative, hormonal actions at the estrogen receptor (ER), and chemical carcinogenesis elicited by genotoxic, oxidative estrogen metabolites. Non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells are classified as ER(−) and undergo estrogen-induced malignant transformation. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), in use for breast cancer chemoprevention and for post-menopausal osteoporosis, were observed to inhibit malignant transformation, as measured by anchorage-independent colony growth. This chemopreventive activity was observed to correlate with reduced levels of oxidative estrogen metabolites, cellular ROS, and DNA oxidation. The ability of raloxifene, desmethylarzoxifene (DMA), and bazedoxifene to inhibit this chemical carcinogenesis pathway was not shared by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Regulation of Phase 2 rather than Phase 1 metabolic enzymes was implicated mechanistically: raloxifene and DMA were observed to upregulate sulfotransferase (SULT 1E1) and glucuronidase (UGT 1A1). The results support upregulation of Phase 2 metabolism in detoxification of catechol estrogen metabolites leading to attenuated ROS formation as a mechanism for inhibition of malignant transformation by a subset of clinically important SERMs. PMID:24598415

  5. Aberrant hypomethylation-mediated CD147 overexpression promotes aggressive tumor progression in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Xiang; Mo, Ru-Jun; He, Hui-Chan; Chen, Jia-Hong; Zou, Jun; Han, Zhao-Dong; Lu, Jian-Ming; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Yan-Ru; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our previous study revealed the potential role of CD147 in human prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we investigated the CD147 promoter methylation status and the correlation with tumorigenicity in human PCa. CD147 mRNA and protein expression levels were both significantly higher in the 4 PCa cell lines, than in the 2 non-tumorigenic benign human prostatic epithelial cell lines (all P<0.01). We showed hypomethylation of promoter regions of CD147 in PCa cell lines with significant CD147 expression as compared to non-tumorigenic benign human prostatic epithelial cell lines slowly expressing CD147. Additionally, the treatment of methylated cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine increased CD147 expression significantly in low-expressing cell lines and also activated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, which may be one of the most important downstream targets of CD147. Furthermore, PCa tissues displayed decreased DNA methylation in the promoter region of CD147 compared to the corresponding non-cancerous prostate tissues, and methylation intensity correlated inversely with the CD147 mRNA levels. There was a significant negative correlation between CD147 mRNA levels and the number of methylated sites in PCa tissues (r=-0.467, P<0.01). In conclusion, our data offer convincing evidence for the first time that the DNA promoter hypomethylation of CD147 may be one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the cancer-related overexpression of CD147 and may play a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of PCa.

  6. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael L; Boesch, Christophe; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gilby, Ian C; Hashimoto, Chie; Hobaiter, Catherine L; Hohmann, Gottfried; Itoh, Noriko; Koops, Kathelijne; Lloyd, Julia N; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mitani, John C; Mjungu, Deus C; Morgan, David; Muller, Martin N; Mundry, Roger; Nakamura, Michio; Pruetz, Jill; Pusey, Anne E; Riedel, Julia; Sanz, Crickette; Schel, Anne M; Simmons, Nicole; Waller, Michel; Watts, David P; White, Frances; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-09-18

    Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers greatly outnumbered their victims (median 8:1 ratio). Variation in killing rates was unrelated to measures of human impacts. Our results are compatible with previously proposed adaptive explanations for killing by chimpanzees, whereas the human impact hypothesis is not supported.

  7. Targeting the Interleukin-6/Jak/Stat Pathway in Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Pasquale; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway was discovered 20 years ago as a mediator of cytokine signaling. Since this time, more than 2,500 articles have been published demonstrating the importance of this pathway in virtually all malignancies. Although there are dozens of cytokines and cytokine receptors, four Jaks, and seven Stats, it seems that interleukin-6–mediated activation of Stat3 is a principal pathway implicated in promoting tumorigenesis. This transcription factor regulates the expression of numerous critical mediators of tumor formation and metastatic progression. This review will examine the relative importance and function of this pathway in nonmalignant conditions as well as malignancies (including tumor intrinsic and extrinsic), the influence of other Stats, the development of inhibitors to this pathway, and the potential role of inhibitors in controlling or eradicating cancers. PMID:22355058

  8. Aberrant regulation of miR-15b in human malignant tumors and its effects on the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ci; Wang, Guanyu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Feihu; Zhang, Chunhui; Huang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs encoded by the miR-15b/16-2 cluster act as tumor suppressors. Aberrant regulation of miR-15b in human malignant tumors is reportedly involved in cancer development, contributing to cell death, reduced proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis resistance, metabolism reprogramming, genome instability, and tumor-associated inflammation. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms involved in regulating miR-15b expression in mammalian tumors and discuss the effects of miR-15b dysregulation on the hallmarks of cancer and highlight its role as a potentially valuable target for future cancer therapeutic strategies.

  9. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794

  10. Arsenic compounds: revived ancient remedies in the fight against human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Xiang; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2012-04-01

    Arsenic, the 20th most abundant element in the earth crust, is one of the oldest drugs in the world. It was used in the 18th century in treating hematopoietic malignancies, discarded in 1950s in favor of chemotherapeutic agents (busulphan and others), and was revived in the 1970s due to its dramatic efficacy on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) driven by the t(15;17) translocation-generated PML-RARα fusion. Arsenic represents the most potent single agent for APL, and achieves a five-year overall survival of 90% in APL patients when combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy (daunorubicin and cytarabine), turning this disease from highly fatal to highly curable. Arsenic triggers sumoylation/ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of PML-RARα via directly binding to the C3HC4 zinc finger motif in the RBCC domain of the PML moiety and induction of its homodimerization/multimerization and interaction with the SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9. Because of its multiplicity of targets and complex mechanisms of action, arsenic is widely tested in combination with other agents in a variety of malignancies. Other arsenic containing recipes including oral formulations and organic arsenicals are being developed and tested, and progress in these areas will definitely expand the use of arsenicals in other malignant diseases.

  11. FT-IR Spectroscopic Analysis of Normal and Malignant Human Oral Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Madhavan, R. Nirmal; Sumesh, P.; Palaniappan, Pl. Rm.; Venkatachalam, P.; Ramachandran, C. R.

    2008-11-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to explore the changes in the vibrational bands of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues in the region 4000-400 cm-1. Significant changes in the spectral features were observed. The spectral changes were the results of characteristics structural alterations at the molecular level in the malignant tissues. These alterations include structural changes of proteins and possible increase of its content, an increase in the nucleic-to-cytoplasm ratio, an increase in the relative amount of DNA, an increase in the rate of phosphorylation process induced by carcinogenesis, a loss of hydrogen bonding of the C-OH groups in the amino acid residues of proteins, a decrease in the relative amount of lipids compared to normal epithelial oral tissues. The results of the present study demonstrate that the FT-IR technique has the feasibility of discriminating malignant from normal tissues and other pathological states in a short period of time and may detect malignant transformation earlier than the standard histological examination stage.

  12. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ankita; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC). Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40–60%) for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR). Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV) and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels. PMID:27276067

  13. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  14. HIV-associated large aggressive extranodal lymphoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rahul Dilip; Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Dhupar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas form a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of the lymphoid tissue with different clinical courses, depending on the treatment and the prognosis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been associated with an increased risk for the development of lymphoproliferative disorders. The incidence of lymphoma is associated with 60-fold increase in seropositive patients as compared to seronegative patients. The present case describes a diffuse aggressive extranodal lymphoma in a known HIV patient. PMID:28356696

  15. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using data from two professional sports competitions: football (the Bundesliga, the German first division of football) and basketball (the NBA, the North American National Basketball Association). We defined RHP based on the league ranks of the teams involved in the competition (i.e. their competitive ability) and measured conflict escalation by the number of fouls committed. We found that in both sports the number of fouls committed increased when the difference in RHP was smaller. Thus, we provide what is to our best knowledge the first evidence that, as in conflicts between individuals, conflicts escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. PMID:22896272

  16. Development of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma in epidermodysplasia verruciformis associated with human papillomavirus type 22b.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taegyun; Park, Jae Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung; Park, Jin Mo; Kim, Se Heon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Lee, Min-Geol

    2010-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormal susceptibility to infection with EV-related human papillomavirus (HPV), now known as the beta-papillomavirus (beta-PV). Clinically specific beta-PV-type-associated EV, especially HPV-5 and -8, shows a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this report, we describe a 39-year-old Korean man with HPV-22b-associated EV who developed a rapidly progressing SCC. The patient presented with a huge destructive mass on the nose. Histopathological evaluation of the mass was compatible with well-differentiated SCC. HPV typing results from both EV and SCC specimens demonstrated HPV-22b which has not been considered to be associated with SCC in EV patients so far. The patient underwent surgical excision and postoperative radiotherapy for locoregional control. This is the first report presenting the association of an SCC arising from previous EV with HPV-22b infection only.

  17. Loss of SOD3 (EcSOD) expression promotes an aggressive phenotype in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Brianne R.; Fath, Melissa A.; Bellizzi, Andrew M.; Hrabe, Jennifer E.; Button, Anna M.; Allen, Bryan G.; Case, Adam J.; Altekruse, Sean; Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.; Lynch, Charles F.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Cozen, Wendy; Beardsley, Robert A.; Keene, Jeffery; Henry, Michael D.; Domann, Frederick E.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Mezhir, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells are known to produce excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, which may contribute to the aggressive and refractory nature of this disease. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide in the extracellular environment. The current work tests the hypothesis that EcSOD modulates PDA growth and invasion by modifying the redox balance in PDA. Experimental Design We evaluated the prognostic significance of EcSOD in a human tissue microarray of patients with PDA. EcSOD overexpression was performed in PDA cell lines and animal models of disease. The impact of EcSOD on PDA cell lines was evaluated with Matrigel invasion in combination with a superoxide-specific SOD mimic and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor to determine the mechanism of action of EcSOD in PDA. Results Loss of EcSOD expression is a common event in PDA, which correlated with worse disease biology. Overexpression of EcSOD in PDA cell lines resulted in decreased invasiveness that appeared to be related to reactions of superoxide with nitric oxide. Pancreatic cancer xenografts overexpressing EcSOD also demonstrated slower growth and peritoneal metastasis. Over-expression of EcSOD or treatment with a superoxide-specific SOD mimic caused significant decreases in PDA cell invasive capacity. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that loss of EcSOD leads to increased reactions of superoxide with nitric oxide which contributes to the invasive phenotype. These results allow for the speculation that superoxide dismutase mimetics might inhibit PDA progression in human clinical disease. PMID:25634994

  18. Upregulation of LAPTM4B-35 promotes malignant transformation and tumorigenesis in L02 human liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Shan, Yi; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Sha; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Xin-Yu; Yi, Jing; McNutt, Michael A; Shao, Gen-Ze; Zhou, Rou-Li

    2011-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. We have previously demonstrated that LAPTM4B-35, encoded by lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta gene, is overexpressed in over 80% of HCCs and is a novel-independent prognostic factor for metastasis, recurrence, and postoperative survival in HCC. In this study, we investigated the role of LAPTM4B-35 in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis using L02 cells, a cell line originated from human normal liver cells. Our data show that replication-deficient adenovirus vector-mediated upregulation of LAPTM4B-35 promotes anchorage-independent proliferation and resistance to adriamycin-induced apoptosis. Study of the underlying mechanisms demonstrated alterations of molecular events involved in these processes, which included the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/bcl-xL/bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog (Bad) signaling pathway, inhibition of caspase-3 activation, upregulation of Bcl-2, and downregulation of Bax. In addition, upregulation of LAPTM4B-35 in L02 cells resulted in tumorigenesis in 100% (6/6) of inoculated nude mice and accelerated the death of mice with xenografts in vivo. In conclusion, LAPTM4B-35 promotes malignant transformation and tumorigenesis in human liver L02 cell line through promotion of deregulated proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. These findings suggest that overexpression of LAPTM4B-35 may play a critical role in hepatocarcinogenesis and therefore, may be a therapeutic target for HCC.

  19. Association of Ig/BCL6 translocations with germinal center B lymphocytes in human lymphoid tissues: implications for malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuwei; Lee, Koutetsu; Said, Jonathan; Gong, Xun; Zhang, Ke

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations (CTs) between immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and the BCL6 proto-oncogene are frequently associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and follicular lymphomas (FLs) and are implicated in the development of these lymphomas. However, whether Ig/BCL6 translocation per se is sufficient to drive malignant transformation is not clear. To understand the biology of Ig/BCL6-translocated cells prior to their malignant transformation, we developed a system capable of detecting 1 to 3 Igμ/BCL6 CT cells in 1 million mixed cells through the detection of chimeric Iμ-BCL6E2 and BCL6E1-Cμ1 transcripts that reflect reciprocal Igμ/BCL6 translocations. The chimeric transcripts that existed in the vast majority of normal lymphoid tissues are due to Igμ/BCL6 CT and were not generated from trans-splicing. Both Iμ-BCL6E2 and BCL6E1-Cμ1 transcripts were coexpressed in the same cell populations. The Ig/BCL6 recombination junctions themselves were isolated from B-cell subpopulations expressing the Iμ-BCL6 transcripts. The appearance of Igμ/BCL6 CT was associated with cells expressing germinal center but not naive B-cell markers. This study shows that Ig/BCL6 translocations occur in germinal center–stage B cells in healthy humans, and that Ig/BCL6 CTs per se are not likely sufficient to cause the malignant transformation in the context of human B cells. PMID:16728698

  20. Of Lion Manes and Human Beards: Some Unusual Effects of the Interaction between Aggression and Sociality

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, D. Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871) suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multi-male + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against take-overs and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion's mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social life-style, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors. PMID:20126434

  1. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  2. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  3. Intercellular communication in malignant pleural mesothelioma: properties of tunneling nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ady, Justin W.; Desir, Snider; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Vogel, Rachel I.; Moreira, André L.; Downey, Robert J.; Fong, Yuman; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Lou, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs). TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined changes in TnT length over time in comparison to cell proliferation. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo. PMID:25400582

  4. The evaluation of human papillomavirus and p53 gene mutation in benign and malignant conjunctiva and eyelid lesions.

    PubMed

    Joanna, Reszec; Renata, Zalewska; Witold, Pepiński; Małgorzata, Skawronska; Bernaczyk, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech

    2010-12-01

    Papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common conjunctival and eyelid lesions. The etiology is still unclear and recently human papillomavirus infection and p53 gene mutation have been taken into consideration. The aim of our study was the evaluation of HPV DNApresence and p53 gene mutation in 45 benign and 38 malignant squamous lesions of the conjunctiva and eyelid. For HPV detection PCR-RFLP and immunohistochemical reaction were used; for p53 gene mutation PCR-SSCP was used. Only 8.8% papillomas, 9.1% squamous cell cancers and 3.7% basal cell cancers (using PCR-RFLP method) and 26.6% papillomas, 7.4% squamous cell cancers and 9.1% basal cell cancers (using immunohisto-chemical reaction) were HPV positive. p53 gene mutation was evaluated in 24.4% papillomas, 54.5% squamous cell cancers and 22.2% basal cell cancers; most commonly in 6 and 7 exon. Human papillomavirus infection, opposite to p53 gene mutation, is not a significant etiological factor of the benign and malignant conjunctival and eyelid lesions development.

  5. Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Pesando, J.M.; Hoffman, P.; Abed, M.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of several of the surface antigens on normal and malignant hematopoietic cells is reduced or is modulated by incubation with specific antibodies. Although antigenic modulation provides a means by which cells can escape antibody-mediated immune destruction, the physiologic significance and frequency of this phenomenon are both poorly understood. To begin to address these issues, the authors identified and characterized surface antigens on the malignant B cell line Laz 221 established from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with the use of 26 hematopoietic cell populations and immune precipitation studies with the use of iodinated ALL cells indicate the 163 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) identify 22 different proteins on this cell line, including at least six previously described surface molecules. Seven of these antigens are expressed by all nucleated cells examined, whereas only the ..mu.. chain of immunoglobulin is B cell specific. Studies that made use of multiple MoAb specific for the same antigen suggest that the capacity for antigenic modulation is an intrinsic property of individual antigens. These studies also suggest that the murine immune response to shared human antigens varies from one immunizing cell population to another. Immunogenicity of individual human antigens in the mouse may be a function of their cell surface environment.

  6. HSPH1 inhibition downregulates Bcl-6 and c-Myc and hampers the growth of human aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Roberta; Ruggiero, Giusi; Guarnotta, Carla; Tortoreto, Monica; Tringali, Cristina; Cavanè, Alessandra; Cabras, Antonello D; Castagnoli, Lorenzo; Venerando, Bruno; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Gianni, Alessandro M; De Braud, Filippo; Tripodo, Claudio; Pupa, Serenella M; Di Nicola, Massimo

    2015-03-12

    We have shown that human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) express heat shock protein (HSP)H1/105 in function of their aggressiveness. Here, we now clarify its role as a functional B-NHL target by testing the hypothesis that it promotes the stabilization of key lymphoma oncoproteins. HSPH1 silencing in 4 models of aggressive B-NHLs was paralleled by Bcl-6 and c-Myc downregulation. In vitro and in vivo analysis of HSPH1-silenced Namalwa cells showed that this effect was associated with a significant growth delay and the loss of tumorigenicity when 10(4) cells were injected into mice. Interestingly, we found that HSPH1 physically interacts with c-Myc and Bcl-6 in both Namalwa cells and primary aggressive B-NHLs. Accordingly, expression of HSPH1 and either c-Myc or Bcl-6 positively correlated in these diseases. Our study indicates that HSPH1 concurrently favors the expression of 2 key lymphoma oncoproteins, thus confirming its candidacy as a valuable therapeutic target of aggressive B-NHLs.

  7. GPER mediates estrogen-induced signaling and proliferations in human breast epithelial cells, and normal and malignant breast

    PubMed Central

    Scaling, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (estrogen), through receptor binding and activation, is required for mammary gland development. Estrogen stimulates epithelial proliferation in the mammary gland, promoting ductal elongation and morphogenesis. In addition to a developmental role, estrogen promotes proliferation in tumorigenic settings, particularly breast cancer. The proliferative effects of estrogen in the normal breast and breast tumors are attributed to estrogen receptor α. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously called GPR30) can modulate proliferation in breast cancer cells both positively and negatively depending on cellular context, its role in proliferation in the intact normal or malignant breast remains unclear. Estrogen-induced GPER-dependent proliferation was assessed in the immortalized non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, and an ex vivo organ culture model employing human breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty or tumor resections. Stimulation by estrogen and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 increased the mitotic index in MCF10A cells and proportion of cells in the cell cycle in human breast and breast cancer explants, suggesting increased proliferation. Inhibition of candidate signaling pathways that may link GPER activation to proliferation revealed a dependence on Src, epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by heparin-bound EGF and subsequent ERK phosphorylation. Proliferation was not dependent on matrix metalloproteinase cleavage of membrane bound pro-HB-EGF. The contribution of GPER to estrogen-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells and breast tissue was confirmed by the ability of GPER-selective antagonist G36 to abrogate estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation, and the ability of siRNA knockdown of GPER to reduce estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells. This is the first study to demonstrate GPER-dependent proliferation in primary normal and malignant

  8. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives.

  9. De novo HAPLN1 expression hallmarks Wnt-induced stem cell and fibrogenic networks leading to aggressive human hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mebarki, Sihem; Désert, Romain; Sulpice, Laurent; Sicard, Marie; Desille, Mireille; Canal, Frédéric; Schneider, Hélène Dubois-Pot; Bergeat, Damien; Turlin, Bruno; Bellaud, Pascale; Lavergne, Elise; Guével, Rémy Le; Corlu, Anne; Perret, Christine; Coulouarn, Cédric; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    About 20% hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) display wild-type β-catenin, enhanced Wnt signaling, hepatocyte dedifferentiation and bad outcome, suggesting a specific impact of Wnt signals on HCC stem/progenitor cells. To study Wnt-specific molecular pathways, cell fates and clinical outcome, we fine-tuned Wnt/β-catenin signaling in liver progenitor cells, using the prototypical Wnt ligand Wnt3a. Cell biology assays and transcriptomic profiling were performed in HepaRG hepatic progenitors exposed to Wnt3a after β-catenin knockdown or Wnt inhibition with FZD8_CRD. Gene expression network, molecular pathology and survival analyses were performed on HCCs and matching non-tumor livers from 70 patients by real-time PCR and tissue micro-array-based immunohistochemistry. Wnt3a reprogrammed liver progenitors to replicating fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells displaying stem and invasive features. Invasion was inhibited by 30 nM FZD7 and FZD8 CRDs. Translation of these data to human HCCs revealed two tight gene networks associating cell surface Wnt signaling, stem/progenitor markers and mesenchymal commitment. Both networks were linked by Hyaluronan And Proteoglycan Link Protein 1 (HAPLN1), that appeared de novo in aggressive HCCs expressing cytoplasmic β-catenin and stem cell markers. HAPLN1 was independently associated with bad overall and disease-free outcome. In vitro, HAPLN1 was expressed de novo in EPCAM−/NCAM+ mesoderm-committed progenitors, upon spontaneous epithelial-mesenchymal transition and de-differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells to liver progenitors. In these cells, HAPLN1 knockdown downregulated key markers of mesenchymal cells, such as Snail, LGR5, collagen IV and α-SMA. In conclusion, HAPLN1 reflects a signaling network leading to stemness, mesenchymal commitment and HCC progression. PMID:27191501

  10. Construction of Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles and the effect on Ang2 gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Liang; You, Cai-Lian; Wang, Biao; Lin, Jian-Hong; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shan, Xiu-Ying; Wang, Mei-Shui; Zheng, Hou-Bing; Zhang, Yan-Ding

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)-small interfering (si)RNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles and to observe the interference effects of the nanoparticles on the expression of the Ang2 gene in human malignant melanoma cells. Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were constructed and transfected into human malignant melanoma cells in vitro. Red fluorescent protein expression was observed, and the transfection efficiency was analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to assess the inhibition efficiency of Ang2 gene expression. Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were successfully constructed, and at a mass ratio of plasmid to magnetic chitosan nanoparticles of 1:100, the transfection efficiency into human malignant melanoma cells was the highest of the ratios assessed, reaching 61.17%. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles effectively inhibited Ang2 gene expression in cells, and the inhibition efficiency reached 59.56% (P<0.05). Ang2-siRNA chitosan magnetic nanoparticles were successfully constructed. The in vitro studies showed that the nanoparticles inhibited Ang2 gene expression in human malignant melanoma tumor cells, which laid the foundation and provided experimental evidence for additional future in vivo studies of intervention targeting malignant melanoma tumor growth in nude mice.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of human malignant tumors: a comparative study between photohem and tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litvin, Grigory D.; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating malignant neoplasms of the skin, mammary glands, tongue, oral mucous, lower lip, larynx, lungs, urinary bladder, rectum and other locations has been made. During 1992-1995 543 tumoral foci in 146 patients have been treated with PDT. All patients were previously treated with conventional techniques without effect or they were not treated due to contraindications either because of severe accompanying diseases or because of old age. A part of the patients had PDT because of recurrences or intradermal metastases in 1-2 years after surgical, radial or combined treatment. Two home-made preparations were used as photosensitizers: Photohem (hematoporphyrine derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine). Light sources were: the argon pumped dye laser ('Innova-200,' 'Coherent') and home-made laser devices: copper-vapor laser-pumped dye laser ('Yakhroma-2,' Frjazino), gas-discharge unit 'Xenon' (wavelength 630 nm), gold-vapor laser (wavelength 627.8 nm) for Photohem; while for Photosense sessions we used solid-state laser on ittrium aluminate 'Poljus-1' (wavelength 670 mn). Up to now we have follow-up control data within 2 months and 3 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 92.4% of patients including complete regression of tumors in 62.3% and partial -- in 30.1%. Currently, this new perspective technique of treating malignant neoplasms is successfully being used in Russia; new photosensitizers and light sources for PDT and fluorescent tumour diagnostics are being developed as well.

  12. RHAMM, a receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, on normal human lymphocytes, thymocytes and malignant B cells: a mediator in B cell malignancy?

    PubMed

    Pilarski, L M; Masellis-Smith, A; Belch, A R; Yang, B; Savani, R C; Turley, E A

    1994-08-01

    RHAMM (Receptor for HA Mediated Motility) is a novel HA receptor that has been linked to regulating cell locomotion and density dependent contact inhibition of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and sperm. The ubiquitous expression of RHAMM suggests the existence of multiple isoforms, and indeed, RHAMM is found in various cellular compartments, namely nuclear, cytosolic, membrane-bound and extracellular. In this review, we emphasize the evolving role of RHAMM in B cell malignancies, and examine the function of RHAMM in T cell development in the thymic microenvironment. Both the motile behaviour of progenitor thymocytes (CD3-CD4-CD8-) and malignant B cells from multiple myeloma (MM), plasma cell leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia was blocked by monoclonal antibodies to RHAMM, suggesting that motility may correlate with increased expression of RHAMM at the cell surface. Interestingly, the soluble form of RHAMM is able to inhibit fibroblast locomotion, and it is likely that a balance between expression of both forms determines, in part the motility of cells. RHAMM appears to play a fundamental role in the immune system and the ability of RHAMM to function as a motility receptor is likely to be due to complex variables including the extent to which soluble RHAMM is secreted. RHAMM expression characterizes circulating monoclonal B cells as abnormal. potentially invasive and/or metastatic components of myeloma and may underlie the malignant behavior of these cells.

  13. Identification of the transcriptional regulatory sequences of human calponin promoter and their use in targeting a conditionally replicating herpes vector to malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, H; Hashio, M; Noguchi, M; Sugenoya, Y; Osakada, M; Hirano, N; Sasaki, Y; Yoden, T; Awata, N; Araki, N; Tatsuta, M; Miyatake, S I; Takahashi, K

    2001-05-15

    The calponin (basic or h1) gene, normally expressed in maturated smooth muscle cells, is aberrantly expressed in a variety of human soft tissue and bone tumors. In this study, we show that expression of the calponin gene in human soft tissue and bone tumor cells is regulated at the transcriptional level by the sequence between positions -260 and -219 upstream of the translation initiation site. A novel conditionally replicating herpes simplex virus-1 vector (d12.CALP) in which the calponin promoter drives expression of ICP4, a major trans-activating factor for viral genes was constructed and tested as an experimental treatment for malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors. In cell culture, d12.CALP at low multiplicity of infection (0.001 plaque-forming unit/cell) selectively killed calponin-positive human synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma cells. For in vivo studies, 10 animals harboring SK-LMS-1 human leiomyosarcoma cells were randomly divided and treated twice on days 0 and 9 intraneoplastically with either 1 x 10(7) plaque-forming units of d12.CALP/100 mm(3) of tumor volume or with medium alone. The viral treatment group showed stable and significant inhibition of tumorigenicity with apparent cure in four of five mice by day 35. Replication of viral DNA demonstrated by PCR amplification and expression of the inserted LacZ gene visualized by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside histochemistry was associated with oncolysis of d12.CALP-treated tumors, while sparing normal vascular smooth muscle cells. In mice harboring two SK-LMS-1 tumors, replication of d12.CALP was detected in a nontreated tumor distant from the site of virus inoculation. These results indicate that replication-competent virus vectors controlled by the calponin transcriptional regulatory sequence may be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of malignant human soft tissue and bone tumors.

  14. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2015-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  15. A human homolog of Drosophila lethal(3)malignant brain tumor (l(3)mbt) protein associates with condensed mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Koga, H; Matsui, S; Hirota, T; Takebayashi, S; Okumura, K; Saya, H

    1999-07-01

    The lethal(3)malignant brain tumor (D-l(3)mbt) gene is considered to be one of the tumor suppressor genes of Drosophila, and its recessive mutations are associated with malignant transformation of the neuroblasts in the larval brain. The structure of D-l(3)mbt protein is similar to Drosophila sex comb on midleg (Scm) protein which is a member of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. We have isolated here the first human homolog of the D-l(3)mbt gene, designated h-l(3)mbt. Radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis localized the h-l(3)mbt gene to chromosome 20q12. The h-l(3)mbt transcript is expressed in most of the human adult normal tissues and cultured cell lines. However, some cancer cells markedly reduce the h-l(3)mbt protein expression. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the h-l(3)mbt protein shows a speckled and scattered distribution in interphase nuclei and completely associates with condensed chromosomes in mitotic cells. This subcellular localization has been shown to be different from that of Bmi1 protein which is a component of PcG complex. Furthermore, overexpression of h-l(3)mbt protein by using a Cre-mediated gene activation system leads to failures of proper chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, which result in formation of multinuclei in U251MG cells. These observations suggest that h-l(3)mbt protein has functions distinct from those of PcG proteins and may play a role in proper progression of cell division.

  16. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Żmijewski, Michał A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM) analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2) induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH)2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH)2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl) and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification), the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM). Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs. PMID:26760999

  17. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Upregulation of antioxidant genes correlates with regression of melanoma malignancy and with malignant progression when downregulated

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Ariel; Notcovich, Cintia; Cerda, María B.; Klamt, Fabio; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in tumor transformation. The antioxidant system (AOS) protects cells from ROS damage. However, it is also hijacked by cancers cells to proliferate within the tumor. Thus, identifying proteins altered by redox imbalance in cancer cells is an attractive prognostic and therapeutic tool. Gene expression microarrays in A375 melanoma cells with different ROS levels after overexpressing catalase were performed. Dissimilar phenotypes by differential compensation to hydrogen peroxide scavenging were generated. The melanotic A375-A7 (A7) upregulated TYRP1, CNTN1 and UCHL1 promoting melanogenesis. The metastatic A375-G10 (G10) downregulated MTSS1 and TIAM1, proteins absent in metastasis. Moreover, differential coexpression of AOS genes (EPHX2, GSTM3, MGST1, MSRA, TXNRD3, MGST3 and GSR) was found in A7 and G10. Their increase in A7 improved its AOS ability and therefore, oxidative stress response, resembling less aggressive tumor cells. Meanwhile, their decrease in G10 revealed a disruption in the AOS and therefore, enhanced its metastatic capacity. These gene signatures, not only bring new insights into the physiopathology of melanoma, but also could be relevant in clinical prognostic to classify between non aggressive and metastatic melanomas. PMID:27206673

  18. Analyzing the microfoundations of human violence in the DRC - intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and the prediction of appetitive aggression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Civil wars are characterized by intense forms of violence, such as torture, maiming and rape. Political scientists suggest that this form of political violence is fostered through the provision of particular intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to combatants. In the field of psychology, the perpetration of this kind of cruelty is observed to be positively linked to appetitive aggression. Over time, combatants start to enjoy the fights and even the perpetration of atrocities. In this study, we examine how receiving rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) influence the level of appetitive aggression exhibited by former combatants. Method We surveyed 95 former combatants in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Results Linear regression analyses reveal that intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards are linked to the former combatants’ Appetitive Aggression score. However, this relationship is partly determined by the way in which combatants are recruited: While abducted combatants seem to react more strongly to extrinsic rewards, the score of those that joined voluntarily is primarily determined by intrinsic rewards. Conclusions We conclude that receiving rewards influence the level of appetitive aggression. However, which type of rewards (intrinsic versus extrinsic) is of most importance is determined by the way combatants are recruited. PMID:23683122

  19. Agonist antibody that induces human malignant cells to kill one another.

    PubMed

    Yea, Kyungmoo; Zhang, Hongkai; Xie, Jia; Jones, Teresa M; Lin, Chih-Wei; Francesconi, Walter; Berton, Fulvia; Fallahi, Mohammad; Sauer, Karsten; Lerner, Richard A

    2015-11-10

    An attractive, but as yet generally unrealized, approach to cancer therapy concerns discovering agents that change the state of differentiation of the cancer cells. Recently, we discovered a phenomenon that we call "receptor pleiotropism" in which agonist antibodies against known receptors induce cell fates that are very different from those induced by the natural agonist to the same receptor. Here, we show that one can take advantage of this phenomenon to convert acute myeloblastic leukemic cells into natural killer cells. Upon induction with the antibody, these leukemic cells enter into a differentiation cascade in which as many as 80% of the starting leukemic cells can be differentiated. The antibody-induced killer cells make large amounts of perforin, IFN-γ, and granzyme B and attack and kill other members of the leukemic cell population. Importantly, induction of killer cells is confined to transformed cells, in that normal bone marrow cells are not induced to form killer cells. Thus, it seems possible to use agonist antibodies to change the differentiation state of cancer cells into those that attack and kill other members of the malignant clone from which they originate.

  20. Transient receptor potential canonical channels are essential for chemotactic migration of human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bomben, Valerie C; Turner, Kathryn L; Barclay, Tia-Tabitha C; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The majority of malignant primary brain tumors are gliomas, derived from glial cells. Grade IV gliomas, Glioblastoma multiforme, are extremely invasive and the clinical prognosis for patients is dismal. Gliomas utilize a number of proteins and pathways to infiltrate the brain parenchyma including ion channels and calcium signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the localization and functional relevance of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels in glioma migration. We show that gliomas are attracted in a chemotactic manner to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Stimulation with EGF results in TRPC1 channel localization to the leading edge of migrating D54MG glioma cells. Additionally, TRPC1 channels co-localize with the lipid raft proteins, caveolin-1 and β-cholera toxin, and biochemical assays show TRPC1 in the caveolar raft fraction of the membrane. Chemotaxis toward EGF was lost when TRPC channels were pharmacologically inhibited or by shRNA knockdown of TRPC1 channels, yet without affecting unstimulated cell motility. Moreover, lipid raft integrity was required for gliomas chemotaxis. Disruption of lipid rafts not only impaired chemotaxis but also impaired TRPC currents in whole cell recordings and decreased store-operated calcium entry as revealed by ratiomeric calcium imaging. These data indicated that TRPC1 channel association with lipid rafts is essential for glioma chemotaxis in response to stimuli, such as EGF.

  1. Antibody-based therapeutics for the treatment of human B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2013-02-01

    The dynamic expression of various phenotypic markers during B cell development not only defines the particular stage in ontogeny but also provides the necessary growth, differentiation, maturation and survival signals. When a B cell at any given stage becomes cancerous, these cell surface molecules, intracellular signaling molecules, and the over-expressed gene products become favorite targets for potential therapeutic intervention. Various adaptive and adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches induce T cell and antibody responses against cancer cells, and successful remission leading to minimal residual disease has been obtained. Nonetheless, subsequent relapse and development of resistant clones prompted further development and several novel strategies are evolving. Engineered monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity to target antigens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. They are also used as vehicles to deliver cytotoxic drugs, toxins, or radionuclides that are either directly conjugated or encapsulated in liposomal vesicles. Likewise, genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors are used to redirect cytotoxicity to antigen-positive target cells. This review describes recent advancements in some of these adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies targeting B cell malignancies.

  2. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  3. Cystathionine β-synthase-derived hydrogen sulfide is involved in human malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Vellecco, Valentina; Mancini, Antonio; Ianaro, Angela; Calderone, Vincenzo; Attanasio, Chiara; Cantalupo, Anna; Andria, Barbara; Savoia, Gennaro; Panza, Elisabetta; Di Martino, Antonietta; Cirino, Giuseppe; Bucci, Mariarosaria

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous gasotransmitter and its mechanism of action involves activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and phosphodiesterase inhibition. As both mechanisms are potentially involved in malignant hyperthermia (MH), in the present study we addressed the involvement of the L-cysteine/hydrogen sulfide pathway in MH. Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from 25 MH-susceptible (MHS) and 56 MH-negative (MHN) individuals have been used to perform the in vitro contracture test (IVCT). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting studies have also been performed. Hydrogen sulfide levels are measured in both tissue samples and plasma. In MHS biopsies an increase in cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) occurs, as both mRNA and protein expression compared with MHN biopsies. Hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis is increased in MHS biopsies (0.128±0.12 compared with 0.943±0.13 nmol/mg of protein per min for MHN and MHS biopsies, respectively; P<0.01). Addition of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) to MHS samples evokes a response similar, in the IVCT, to that elicited by either caffeine or halothane. Incubation of MHN biopsies with NaHS, before caffeine or halothane challenge, switches an MHN to an MHS response. In conclusion we demonstrate the involvement of the L-cysteine/hydrogen sulfide pathway in MH, giving new insight into MH molecular mechanisms. This finding has potential implications for clinical care and could help to define less invasive diagnostic procedures.

  4. Neovibsanin B inhibits human malignant brain tumor cell line proliferation and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi-Fen; Yuan, Xiao-Lin; Fan, Wen-Hai; Li, Sheng-Fan; Deng, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Yang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of neovibsanin B on glioma cell viability, apoptosis and on the survival time in mice bearing tumor xenografts. The results demonstrated that neovibsanin B significantly reduced the cell viability of GL261-NS and GL261-AC cells in a dose-dependent manner. However the inhibition of proliferation was more significant in GL261-NS cells. The IC50 value of neovibsanin B against GL261-NS and GL261-AC cells is 5 and 25 nM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of neovibsanin B on cell growth was more effective than that of vincristine (VCR) (P < 0.05). We also observed a significant decrease in sphere-forming ability of GL261-NS cells on treatment with neovibsanin B. The number of colonies formed by GL261-NS cells on treatment with neovibsanin B, VCR and DMSO were 3.34 ± 1.02, 12.53 ± 3.46 and 61.34 ± 9.89% respectively after 7 days. The flow cytometry revealed a marked increase in apoptotic cell death of GL261-NS cells on treatment with neovibsanin B. The western blots showed a significant decrease in the level of activated caspase-3 on treatment with neovibsanin B after 24 h. In addition, neovibsanin B increased the median survival time of glioma-bearing mice (P < 0.05). Therefore, neovibsanin B effectively inhibits glioma cell viability by inducing apoptosis, and can be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  5. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced apoptosis in human malignant testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Ozben, Tomris

    2013-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols in testicular cancer. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has attracted interest because of its anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. However, no study has been carried out so far to elucidate its interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptosis signalling pathways and compared the effects of bleomycin with H2O2 which directly produces reactive oxygen species. We measured apoptosis markers such as caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyt-c levels in NCCIT cells incubated with curcumin (5 μM), bleomycin (120 μg/ml), bleomycin + curcumin, H2O2 (35 μM), and H2O2 + curcumin for 72 h. Curcumin, bleomycin, and H2O2 caused apoptosis indicated as increases in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bax and cytoplasmic Cyt-c levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin decreased caspase activities and Bax and Cyt-c levels compared to their separate effects in NCCIT cells. Our findings suggest that concurrent use of curcumin during chemotherapy in testis cancer should be avoided due to the inhibitory effect of curcumin on bleomycin-induced apoptosis.

  6. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  7. The specific role of pRb in p16INK4A-mediated arrest of normal and malignant human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazarov, Alexey V; Lee, Won Jae; Bazarov, Irina; Bosire, Moses; Hines, William C; Stankovich, Basha; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    RB family proteins pRb, p107 and p130 have similar structures and overlapping functions, enabling cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. pRb, but not p107 or p130, is frequently mutated in human malignancies. In human fibroblasts acutely exposed to oncogenic ras, pRb has a specific role in suppressing DNA replication, and p107 or p130 cannot compensate for the loss of this function; however, a second p53/p21-dependent checkpoint prevents escape from growth arrest. This model of oncogene-induced senescence requires the additional loss of p53/p21 to explain selection for preferential loss of pRb function in human malignancies. We asked whether similar rules apply to the role of pRb in growth arrest of human epithelial cells, the source of most cancers. In two malignant human breast cancer cell lines, we found that individual RB family proteins were sufficient for the establishment of p16-initiated senescence, and that growth arrest in G1 was not dependent on the presence of functional pRb or p53. However, senescence induction by endogenous p16 was delayed in primary normal human mammary epithelial cells with reduced pRb but not with reduced p107 or p130. Thus, under these circumstances, despite the presence of functional p53, p107 and p130 were unable to completely compensate for pRb in mediating senescence induction. We propose that early inactivation of pRb in pre-malignant breast cells can, by itself, extend proliferative lifespan, allowing acquisition of additional changes necessary for malignant transformation. PMID:22333593

  8. The specific role of pRb in p16 (INK4A) -mediated arrest of normal and malignant human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Bazarov, Alexey V; Lee, Won Jae; Bazarov, Irina; Bosire, Moses; Hines, William C; Stankovich, Basha; Chicas, Agustin; Lowe, Scott W; Yaswen, Paul

    2012-03-01

    RB family proteins pRb, p107 and p130 have similar structures and overlapping functions, enabling cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. pRb, but not p107 or p130, is frequently mutated in human malignancies. In human fibroblasts acutely exposed to oncogenic ras, pRb has a specific role in suppressing DNA replication, and p107 or p130 cannot compensate for the loss of this function; however, a second p53/p21-dependent checkpoint prevents escape from growth arrest. This model of oncogene-induced senescence requires the additional loss of p53/p21 to explain selection for preferential loss of pRb function in human malignancies. We asked whether similar rules apply to the role of pRb in growth arrest of human epithelial cells, the source of most cancers. In two malignant human breast cancer cell lines, we found that individual RB family proteins were sufficient for the establishment of p16-initiated senescence, and that growth arrest in G 1 was not dependent on the presence of functional pRb or p53. However, senescence induction by endogenous p16 was delayed in primary normal human mammary epithelial cells with reduced pRb but not with reduced p107 or p130. Thus, under these circumstances, despite the presence of functional p53, p107 and p130 were unable to completely compensate for pRb in mediating senescence induction. We propose that early inactivation of pRb in pre-malignant breast cells can, by itself, extend proliferative lifespan, allowing acquisition of additional changes necessary for malignant transformation.

  9. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  10. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  11. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  12. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  13. siRNA Knockdown of Ribosomal Protein Gene RPL19 Abrogates the Aggressive Phenotype of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Alix; Brewer, Daniel; Beesley, Carol; Dodson, Andrew; Forootan, Shiva; Dickinson, Timothy; Gerard, Patricia; Lane, Brian; Yao, Sheng; Cooper, Colin S.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.; Gosden, Christine M.; Ke, Youqiang; Foster, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We provide novel functional data that posttranscriptional silencing of gene RPL19 using RNAi not only abrogates the malignant phenotype of PC-3M prostate cancer cells but is selective with respect to transcription and translation of other genes. Reducing RPL19 transcription modulates a subset of genes, evidenced by gene expression array analysis and Western blotting, but does not compromise cell proliferation or apoptosis in-vitro. However, growth of xenografted tumors containing the knocked-down RPL19 in-vivo is significantly reduced. Analysis of the modulated genes reveals induction of the non-malignant phenotype principally to involve perturbation of networks of transcription factors and cellular adhesion genes. The data provide evidence that extra-ribosomal regulatory functions of RPL19, beyond protein synthesis, are critical regulators of cellular phenotype. Targeting key members of affected networks identified by gene expression analysis raises the possibility of therapeutically stabilizing a benign phenotype generated by modulating the expression of an individual gene and thereafter constraining a malignant phenotype while leaving non-malignant tissues unaffected. PMID:21799931

  14. Prognostic Role of MicroRNA-200c-141 Cluster in Various Human Solid Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-yang; Li, Hui; Bu, Jie; Xiong, Liang; Guo, Hong-bin; Liu, Li-hong; Xiao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The miR-200 family has emerged recently as a noticeable marker for predicting cancer prognosis and tumor progression. We aimed to review the evidence of miR-200c-141 genomic cluster as prognostic biomarkers in cancers. The results suggested that high level of miR-200c had no significant impact on OS (HR = 1.14 [0.77–1.69], P = 0.501) and DFS/PFS (HR = 0.72 [0.45–1.14], P = 0.161). Stratified analyses revealed that high miR-200c expression was significantly related to poor OS in serum/plasma (HR = 2.12 [1.62–2.77], P = 0.000) but not in tissues (HR = 0.89 [0.58–1.37], P = 0.599). High miR-200c expression was significantly associated with favorable DFS/PFS in tissues (HR = 0.56 [0.43–0.73], P = 0.000) but worse DFS/PFS in serum/plasma (HR = 1.90 [1.08–3.36], P = 0.027). For miR-141, we found that high miR-141 expression predicted no significant impact on OS (HR = 1.18 [0.74–1.88], P = 0.482) but poor DFS/PFS (HR = 1.11 [1.04–1.20], P = 0.003). Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that high miR-141 expression predicted poor OS in serum/plasma (HR = 4.34 [2.30–8.21], P = 0.000) but not in tissues (HR = 1.00 [0.92–1.09], P = 0.093). High miR-141 expression was significantly associated with worse DFS/PFS in tissues (HR = 1.12 [1.04–1.20], P = 0.002) but not in serum/plasma (HR = 0.90 [0.44–1.83], P = 0.771). Our findings indicated that, compared to their tissue counterparts, the expression level of miR-200c and miR-141 in peripheral blood may be more effective for monitoring cancer prognosis. High miR-141 expression was better at predicting tumor progression than survival for malignant tumors. PMID:26556949

  15. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent.

  16. von Willebrand factor fibers promote cancer-associated platelet aggregation in malignant melanoma of mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Alexander T.; Suckau, Jan; Frank, Kathrin; Desch, Anna; Goertz, Lukas; Wagner, Andreas H.; Hecker, Markus; Goerge, Tobias; Umansky, Ludmila; Beckhove, Philipp; Utikal, Jochen; Gorzelanny, Christian; Diaz-Valdes, Nancy; Umansky, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-mediated procoagulatory activity leads to venous thromboembolism and supports metastasis in cancer patients. A prerequisite for metastasis formation is the interaction of cancer cells with endothelial cells (ECs) followed by their extravasation. Although it is known that activation of ECs and the release of the procoagulatory protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) is essential for malignancy, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that VWF fibers in tumor vessels promote tumor-associated thromboembolism and metastasis. Using in vitro settings, mouse models, and human tumor samples, we showed that melanoma cells activate ECs followed by the luminal release of VWF fibers and platelet aggregation in tumor microvessels. Analysis of human blood samples and tumor tissue revealed that a promoted VWF release combined with a local inhibition of proteolytic activity and protein expression of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I repeats 13) accounts for this procoagulatory milieu. Blocking endothelial cell activation by the low-molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin was accompanied by a lack of VWF networks and inhibited tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model. Our findings implicate a mechanism wherein tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) promotes tumor progression and angiogenesis. Thus, targeting EC activation envisions new therapeutic strategies attenuating tumor-related angiogenesis and coagulation. PMID:25977583

  17. Esculetin, a Coumarin Derivative, Exhibits Anti-proliferative and Pro-apoptotic Activity in G361 Human Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Joo; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Myung, Pyung Keun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although esculetin, a coumarin compound, is known to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells, the effects and molecular mechanisms on the apoptosis in human malignant melanoma (HMM) cells are not well understood yet. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of esculetin on the G361 HMM cells. Methods: We analyzed the anti-proliferative effects and molecular mechanisms of esculetin on G361 cells by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and Western blotting. Results: Esculetin exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects on the HMM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that esculetin induced nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation, typical apoptosis markers, by suppression of Sp1 transcription factor (Sp1). Notably, esculetin modulated Sp1 downstream target genes including p27, p21 and cyclin D1, resulted in activation of apoptosis signaling molecules such as caspase-3 and PARP in G361 HMM cells. Conclusions: Our results clearly demonstrated that esculetin induced apoptosis in the HMM cells by downregulating Sp1 protein levels. Thus, we suggest that esculetin may be a potential anti-proliferative agent that induces apoptotic cell death in G361 HMM cells. PMID:26151043

  18. A survey of human T-cell leukaemia virus type I antibodies in patients with malignant disease in the Witwatersrand area.

    PubMed

    Dansey, R D; Mansoor, N; Cohn, R J; MacDougall, L G; Bezwoda, W R

    1986-10-11

    The prevalence of antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus type I in Africa ranges from 2% to 21% according to the geographical area surveyed. Most studies suggest that the background infection rate in children is low. In paediatric patients with malignant disease in the Witwatersrand area the prevalence is low (1%), whereas a seemingly high rate is found in healthy black children from a restricted rural area (7%). Further, the antibody prevalence in adult whites with lymphoproliferative disease is low (1%) compared with that in blacks with malignant disease (6%). There also appears to be a higher prevalence of positive results in black women (7%) than in black men (4%).

  19. The tumor-educated-macrophage increase of malignancy of human pancreatic cancer is prevented by zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Hassanein, Mohamed K; Menen, Rhiana; Momiyama, Masashi; Murakami, Takashi; Miwa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Mako; Uehara, Fuminari; Yano, Shuya; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.

  20. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun; Furusato, Bungo; Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G.; Vogel, Jonathan C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.

  1. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G/sub 2/ phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Parshad, R.; Gantt, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.; Tarone, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G/sub 2/ phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or ..beta..-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G/sub 2/ phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G/sub 2/ phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives.

  2. Malignant Precursor Cells Pre-Exist in Human Breast DCIS and Require Autophagy for Survival

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Virginia; Mariani, Brian D.; Gallagher, Rosa I.; Tran, Khoa; Banks, Stacey; Wiedemann, Joy; Huryk, Heather; Mueller, Claudius; Adamo, Luana; Deng, Jianghong; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Pastore, Lucia; Zaman, Syed; Menezes, Geetha; Mize, James; Johal, Jasbir; Edmiston, Kirsten; Liotta, Lance A.

    2010-01-01

    Background While it is accepted that a majority of invasive breast cancer progresses from a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) precursor stage, very little is known about the factors that promote survival of DCIS neoplastic cells within the hypoxic, nutrient deprived intraductal microenvironment. Methodology and Principal Findings We examined the hypothesis that fresh human DCIS lesions contain pre-existing carcinoma precursor cells. We characterized these cells by full genome molecular cytogenetics (Illumina HumanCytoSNP profile), and signal pathway profiling (Reverse Phase Protein Microarray, 59 endpoints), and demonstrated that autophagy is required for survival and anchorage independent growth of the cytogenetically abnormal tumorigenic DCIS cells. Ex vivo organoid culture of fresh human DCIS lesions, without enzymatic treatment or sorting, induced the emergence of neoplastic epithelial cells exhibiting the following characteristics: a) spontaneous generation of hundreds of spheroids and duct-like 3-D structures in culture within 2–4 weeks; b) tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice; c) cytogenetically abnormal (copy number loss or gain in chromosomes including 1, 5, 6, 8, 13, 17) compared to the normal karyotype of the non-neoplastic cells in the source patient's breast tissue; d) in vitro migration and invasion of autologous breast stroma; and e) up-regulation of signal pathways linked to, and components of, cellular autophagy. Multiple autophagy markers were present in the patient's original DCIS lesion and the mouse xenograft. We tested whether autophagy was necessary for survival of cytogenetically abnormal DCIS cells. The lysosomotropic inhibitor (chloroquine phosphate) of autophagy completely suppressed the generation of DCIS spheroids/3-D structures, suppressed ex vivo invasion of autologous stroma, induced apoptosis, suppressed autophagy associated proteins including Atg5, AKT/PI3 Kinase and mTOR, eliminated cytogenetically abnormal spheroid forming cells from

  3. Bipolar cellular morphology of malignant melanoma in unstained human melanoma skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Wenkai; Yang, Chia-Yi; Yang, Haw

    2009-03-01

    Microstructures of unstained human melanoma skin tissues have been examined by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy. The polarized shape of the individual melanoma cell can be readily recognized-a phenotype that has been identified in laboratory cultures as characteristic of proliferating melanocytes but has not been demonstrated in clinical instances. The results thus provide snapshots of invading melanoma cells in their native environment and suggest a practical means of connecting in vitro laboratory studies to in vivo processes.

  4. The human Bosniak model applied to a cat with renal cystadenoma. A classification to differentiate benign and malignant cystic renal masses via computed tomography and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Baloi, P; Del Chicca, F; Ruetten, M; Gerber, B

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with weight loss and azotemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic space- occupying lesion with multiple septae in the left kidney. A core needle biopsy yielded a renal cystadenoma originating from the epithelial cells. This report describes the clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features and the growth progression of a renal cystadenoma. We describe the first attempt to apply the human Bosniak classification to a cat with renal cystic neoplasia to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Cystadenoma should be a differential diagnosis in cases of renal cystic space-occupying lesions. Other differentials, imaging features to differentiate benign and malignant lesions and the risk of malignant transformation will be discussed.

  5. Dissection of Ras-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Aggressive Tumor Growth of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells: Evidence for a Potential Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Plattner, Rina; Der, Channing J.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of multiple signaling pathways is required to trigger the full spectrum of in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits associated with neoplastic transformation by oncogenic Ras. To determine which of these pathways are important for N-ras tumorigenesis in human cancer cells and also to investigate the possibility of cross talk among the pathways, we have utilized a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), which contains an endogenous mutated allele of the N-ras gene, and its derivative (MCH603c8), which lacks the mutant N-ras allele. We have stably transfected MCH603c8 and HT1080 cells with activating or dominant-negative mutant cDNAs, respectively, of various components of the Raf, Rac, and RhoA pathways. In previous studies with these cell lines we showed that loss of mutant Ras function results in dramatic changes in the in vitro phenotypic traits and conversion to a weakly tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. We report here that only overexpression of activated MEK contributed significantly to the conversion of MCH603c8 cells to an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking the constitutive activation of the Raf-MEK, Rac, or RhoA pathway alone is not sufficient to block the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype of HT1080, despite affecting a number of in vitro-transformed phenotypic traits. We have also demonstrated the possibility of bidirectional cross talk between the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and the Rac-JNK or RhoA pathway. Finally, overexpression of activated MEK in MCH603c8 cells appears to result in the activation of an as-yet-unidentified target(s) that is critical for the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:11094080

  6. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  7. Role of the human papilloma virus in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Jastreboff, A; Cymet, T

    2002-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a public health problem as a sexually transmitted disease and as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of various cancers. The clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and virology that are critical to understanding the process of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia are reviewed. A discussion of the cervical transformation zone and the classification of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia leads into the importance of the Papanicolaou smear in prevention of potentially devastating sequelae of this virus. The role of the immune system in the progression of the disease and how it relates to vaccines, as well as treatment and prevention of HPV, are reviewed. PMID:11930025

  8. Transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2) induces mitochondrial apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yasuo; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Kenta; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Toda, Mitsunori; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Sakai, Yoshitada; Miwa, Masahiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with cancer progression. In mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) regulates the activities of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial proliferation. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PGC-1α leads to mitochondrial proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) to rat skeletal muscle induces PGC-1α expression and causes an increase in mitochondrial proliferation. In this study, we utilized a murine model of human MFH to determine the effect of transcutaneous CO(2) exposure on PGC-1α expression, mitochondrial proliferation and cellular apoptosis. PGC-1α expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, while mitochondrial proliferation was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was assessed by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine mitochondrial apoptosis. We also evaluated the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins, such as caspases, cytochorome c and Bax, by immunoblot analysis. We show that transcutaneous application of CO(2) induces PGC-1α expression, and increases mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly reducing tumor volume. Proteins involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, including caspase 3 and caspase 9, were elevated in CO(2) treated tumors compared to control. We also observed an enrichment of cytochrome c in the cytoplasmic fraction and Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction of CO(2) treated tumors, highlighting the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. These

  9. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus shale gas drilling flow back water

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S.; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation is known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these waste waters, flow back water from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependant. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show a better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. PMID:26210350

  10. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max; Zelikoff, Judith

    2015-10-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining.

  11. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes. Part 2, Progress report, July 1989--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces malignant transformation of the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Isabel Arenas, M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2010-12-18

    The carcinogenic potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was analyzed in non-tumor human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and in vivo xenografts. VIP induced morphological changes and a migratory phenotype consistent with stimulation of expression/activity of metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, decreased E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. VIP increased cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation that was blocked after VPAC(1)-receptor siRNA transfection. Similar effects were seen in RWPE-1 tumors developed by subcutaneous injection of VIP-treated cells in athymic nude mice. VIP acts as a cytokine in RWPE-1 cell transformation conceivably through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), reinforcing VIP role in prostate tumorigenesis.

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

  14. Characterization of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme expression in benign and malignant human prostate.

    PubMed

    Elo, J P; Akinola, L A; Poutanen, M; Vihko, P; Kyllönen, A P; Lukkarinen, O; Vihko, R

    1996-03-28

    In the present study, expressions of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) types 1, 2, and 3, 5alpha-reductase type 2 and human androgen receptor mRNAs were determined in 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia and 17 prostatic carcinoma specimens. 17HSD type 2 was found to be the principle isoenzyme expressed in the prostate. Significantly higher expressions of 17HSD type 2 and 5alpha-reductase type 2 were detected in benign prostatic hyperplasia compared with the carcinoma specimens. Expression of the androgen receptor in the 2 groups was not significantly different. 17HSD type 3 mRNA was not detected in any of the specimens investigated. Only low constructive expression of the 2.3 kb mRNA of 17HSD type 1 was seen. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that this did not lead to significant enzyme expression, only faint staining for the enzyme protein being detected, mainly in uroepithelial cells. No significant correlation was found between any of the mRNAs analysed, but the data on 5alpha-reductase type 2 mRNA support the presence of an increased proportion of 5alpha-dihydrotesterone in the hyperplastic prostate. In cultured PC-3 prostatic cancer cells and in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, 17HSD type 2 was found exclusively to convert 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone into the less potent 17-keto compounds 5alpha-androstanedione and 4-androstenedione, respectively. We suggest that the 17HSD type 2 isoenzyme plays a part in the metabolic pathway, resulting in the inactivation of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone locally in the prostate. The enzyme expressed in the prostate could, therefore, protect cells from excessive androgen action.

  15. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers and non-malignant diseases in men in Europe: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and non-malignant genital diseases in women is well known and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described. However, less is known about the role of HPV in anal, penile and head and neck cancer, and the burden of malignant and non-malignant HPV-related diseases in men. The objective of this review is to estimate the epidemiological burden of HPV-related cancers and non-malignant diseases in men in Europe. Methods The annual number of new HPV-related cancers in men in Europe was estimated using Eurostat population data and applying cancer incidence rates published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The number of cancer cases attributable to HPV, and specifically to HPV16/18, was calculated based on the most relevant prevalence estimates. The annual number of new cases of genital warts was calculated from the most robust European studies; and latest HPV6/11 prevalence estimates were then applied. A literature review was also performed to retrieve exhaustive data on HPV infection at all anatomical sites under study, as well as incidence and prevalence of external genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and HPV-related cancer trends in men in Europe. Results A total of 72, 694 new cancer cases at HPV-related anatomical sites were estimated to occur each year in men in Europe. 17,403 of these cancer cases could be attributable to HPV, with 15,497 of them specifically attributable to HPV16/18. In addition, between 286,682 and 325,722 new cases of genital warts attributable to HPV6/11were estimated to occur annually in men in Europe. Conclusions The overall estimated epidemiological burden of HPV-related cancers and non-malignant diseases is high in men in Europe. Approximately 30% of all new cancer cases attributable to HPV16/18 that occur yearly in Europe were estimated to occur in men. As in women, the vast majority of HPV-positive cancer in men is related

  16. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Fabrizio, T; Scutari, F

    2010-03-01

    Malignant fibroous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma, that most frequently occurs in the muscles of the extremities and in abdominal or in retroperitoneal space of young adults. It is seldom confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is rarely diagnosed before excision and pathological exam, and has an unfavorable prognostic in some cases. This work reports the case of a 94 years old patient with originally cutaneous MFH stressing the importance of the early diagnosis.

  17. Musk xylene induces malignant transformation of human liver cell line L02 via repressing the TGF-β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youyu; Huang, Lixing; Zhao, Yujie; Hu, Tianhui

    2017-02-01

    Musk xylene (MX) is a widely used synthetic nitro musk. Although the persistence and bioaccumulation of the synthetic musks are of concern since the nineteenth century, knowledge concerning the toxicity and environmental risks, especially the carcinogenicity is still limited. In the present study, the normal human hepatic cell line L02 was used to investigate the long-term carcinogenicity of MX. L02 cells were exposed to MX with different concentrations (10, 100, and 1000 μg/L) for 24 h, then with conventional culture. After MX exposure for 24 h, some irregular fusiform, protuberances and multinucleated cells were observed. Indefinite cell proliferation, ability of anchorage-independent proliferation and increase of migration and invision were also observed in subsequent experiments, which suggested the positive effects of MX on cell malignant transformation in vitro. Moreover, the up-regulated protein expression of some oncogenes (C-myc and PCNA) in each time points furthermore supported this conclusion. Meanwhile, decreased protein expression level of TGF-β and the downstream proteins, SMAD4 coupled with P15 were observed in MX-treated cells. In addition, after culturing for 20 passages, the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase was decreased. These results demonstrated that the TGF-β signaling pathway regulated indefinite cell proliferation might be responsible for the oncogenesis of MX.

  18. The effects of self-assembling peptide RADA16 hydrogel on malignant phenotype of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Han, Yun-Zhu; Cai, Guo-Hui; Tang, Fu-Shan; Yang, Ze-Hong; Ao, Di-Shu; Zhou, An

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study will provide a self-assembling peptide (RADA16-I) -derived hydrogel as a tool for investigation the malignant phenotype of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell. Characteristic analysis indicated that the peptide consists of a well-defined secondary structure and self-assembly property. Our results showed that these cells cultured in RADA16-I hydrogels showed a spindle-shaped phenotype with irregular and radial nuclei. Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression of fibronectin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells is positive cultured in RADA16-I hydrogels, and the expression levels of laminin are weakly positive. DNA contents cultured in RADA16-I hydrogel gradually increased up to Day 9. The expression levels of VEGFA, EGF and FGF2 in three hydrogels showed no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05), and the expression levels of IGF-1 in RADA16-I and collagen-I were significantly lower than those of in the Matrigel hydrogel (P ≤ 0.05). These findings suggested that the RADA16-I will help to provide a better physiological substrate for hepatocellular carcinoma cell culture, may serve as an ideal model for cancer biology research of tumorigenesis, growth, local invasion, and metastasis. PMID:26628972

  19. Xanthohumol induces apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma cells by increasing reactive oxygen species and activating MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Festa, Michela; Capasso, Anna; D'Acunto, Cosimo W; Masullo, Milena; Rossi, Adriano G; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2011-12-27

    The effect of the biologically active prenylated chalcone and potential anticancer agent xanthohumol (1) has been investigated on apoptosis of the T98G human malignant glioblastoma cell line. Compound 1 decreased the viability of T98G cells by induction of apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Apoptosis induced by 1 was associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP cleavage and was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway, as exemplified by mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and downregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Xanthohumol induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), an effect that was reduced by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Intracellular ROS production appeared essential for the activation of the mitochondrial pathway and induction of apoptosis after exposure to 1. Oxidative stress due to treatment with 1 was associated with MAPK activation, as determined by ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 was attenuated using NAC to inhibit ROS production. After treatment with 1, ROS provided a specific environment that resulted in MAPK-induced cell death, with this effect reduced by the ERK1/2 specific inhibitor PD98059 and partially inhibited by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These findings suggest that xanthohumol (1) is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

  20. Highly efficient tumor transduction and antitumor efficacy in experimental human malignant mesothelioma using replicating gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Takagi-Kimura, M; Logg, C R; Kasahara, N

    2013-12-01

    Retroviral replicating vectors (RRVs) have been shown to achieve efficient tumor transduction and enhanced therapeutic benefit in a wide variety of cancer models. Here we evaluated two different RRVs derived from amphotropic murine leukemia virus (AMLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), in human malignant mesothelioma cells. In vitro, both RRVs expressing the green fluorescent protein gene efficiently replicated in most mesothelioma cell lines tested, but not in normal mesothelial cells. Notably, in ACC-MESO-1 mesothelioma cells that were not permissive for AMLV-RRV, the GALV-RRV could spread efficiently in culture and in mice with subcutaneous xenografts by in vivo fluorescence imaging. Next, GALV-RRV expressing the cytosine deaminase prodrug activator gene showed efficient killing of ACC-MESO-1 cells in a prodrug 5-fluorocytosine dose-dependent manner, compared with AMLV-RRV. GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy achieved significant inhibition of subcutaneous ACC-MESO-1 tumor growth in nude mice. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that ACC-MESO-1 cells express higher PiT-1 (GALV receptor) and lower PiT-2 (AMLV receptor) compared with normal mesothelial cells and other mesothelioma cells, presumably accounting for the distinctive finding that GALV-RRV replicates much more robustly than AMLV-RRV in these cells. These data indicate the potential utility of GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy in the treatment of mesothelioma.

  1. Optimization of radioimmunotherapy using human malignant melanoma multicell spheroids as a model

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C.S.; Crivici, A.; MacGregor, W.D.; Unger, M.W. )

    1989-06-15

    In vitro multicell spheroids from a human melanoma cell line and the human colon cancer cell line HT29, used as control, have been established as a model of poorly vascularized micrometastases in vivo. The antimelanoma monoclonal antibody 96.5 was radiolabeled with 131I at specific radioactivities from 1.85 to 3.96 GBq/mg. Cytotoxicity of 131I-96.5 to the spheroids, at an initial size of 300 microns in diameter, was investigated as a function of concentration of 131I-96.5 in the incubation medium, specific radioactivity, and treatment time. Spheroid growth delay and clonogenic survival of cells disaggregated from the spheroids at various times after treatment were used as end points. Therapeutic effects increased with the concentration of 131I-96.5 within the range 0.2 to 2 mg/liter (0.34 to 3.4 GBq/liter) at a fixed specific radioactivity. The effects increased with specific radioactivity at a fixed concentration of 131I-96.5. Difference in therapeutic effect was also observed between treatment times of 8 and 24 h. Radiation doses to the melanoma spheroids varied from 10 to 16 Gy. Unlabeled 96.5 at 2 mg/liter or 131I-iodide at 1.7 GBq/liter did not affect the growth of the melanoma spheroids. The HT29 spheroids, however, only suffered slight cytotoxicity at 1 or 2 mg/liter of 131I-96.5 and for a treatment time of 24 h despite comparable radiosensitivity of HT29 cells and melanoma cells to high-dose-rate radiation. Similar cytotoxicity was observed in the HT29 group treated with 131I-iodide at 1.7 GBq/liter. Present findings therefore demonstrate preferential and adequate killing of the melanoma spheroids by 131I-96.5 at 0.5 mg/liter and 3.96 GBq/mg in 8 h.

  2. Health Disparities in the Immunoprevention of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, Amira H.; Skarzynski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes roughly 1.6% of the plus 1.6 million cases of cancer that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to vaccinate all 11- to 12-year-old males and females. In fact, only about 38 and 14% of eligible females and males, respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization. The many factors associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities – including race, age, family income, and patient education – contribute to widespread disparities in vaccine completion and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. However, the impact of current HPV vaccination campaigns is hindered by stagnant immunization rates, which remain far below target levels despite a slow overall increase. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equally distributed across gender, age, demographic, and socioeconomic divisions within the recommended group of vaccine recipients. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving immunization coverage where it is weakest. They should also explore more subtle but potentially

  3. Deletion of 6q16-q21 in human lymphoid malignancies: a mapping and deletion analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Carrara, P; Duke, V; Sinclair, P; Papaioannou, M; Harrison, C J; Foroni, L

    2000-06-01

    Two distinct regions of minimal deletion (RMD) have been identified at 6q25-q27 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RMD-1), and at 6q21-q23 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; RMD-2) by loss of heterozygosity and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. In this study, 30 overlapping yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 1 expressed sequence tag, and 11 novel YAC ends were identified using bidirectional YAC walks between markers D6S447 (proximal) and D6S246 (distal) in RMD-2. The genes AF6q21, human homologue of the Drosophila tailless (HTLX), CD24 antigen, the Kruppel-like zinc finger BLIMP1, and cyclin C (CCNC), previously mapped to 6q21, were accurately positioned in a telomere-to-centromere orientation. Approximately 3.5 Mb were found to separate the BLIMP1 (adjacent to D6S447) and AF6q21 genes (telomeric to D6S246). Deletions of 6q were investigated in 21 cases of ALL using the newly characterized YAC clones in dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. A region centromeric to D6S447 (containing marker D6S283) and a region telomeric to marker CHLC.GGAT16CO2 (and containing marker D6S268) were identified as distinct and nonoverlapping regions of deletion in ALL.

  4. Accumulation of 99mTc-low-density lipoprotein in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, J.; Kallio, M.; Nikula, T.; Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Savolainen, S.; Gylling, H.; Hiltunen, J.; Callaway, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in gliomas was studied to find out if LDL has potential as a drug carrier of boron, especially for boron neutron capture therapy. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed 2 h and 20 h after intravenous injection of autologous 99mTc-labelled LDL in four patients with untreated and five patients with recurrent glioma. 99mTc-LDL uptake was compared with the uptake of 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA), an established blood pool marker. The intra- and peritumoral distributions of radioactivity in the SPET images were not identical for radiolabelled LDL and HSA. The mean LDL tumour to brain ratio, determined from transversal SPET slices at 20 h post injection, was 1.5 in untreated and 2.2 in recurrent gliomas; the corresponding ratios for HSA were 1.6 and 3.4. The brain to blood ratio remained constant at 2 h and 20 h in both types of tumours. These data are not consistent with highly selective, homogeneous uptake of LDL in gliomas. However, the different tumoral distribution and rate of uptake of 99mTc-LDL, as compared with 99mTc-HSA, indicate that the uptake of LDL is different from that of HSA and that further studies on the mechanism of LDL uptake in glioma are warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7841057

  5. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  6. The gamma 2 chain of kalinin/laminin 5 is preferentially expressed in invading malignant cells in human cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, C.; Rømer, J.; Kallunki, P.; Lund, L. R.; Ralfkiaer, E.; Danø, K.; Tryggvason, K.

    1994-01-01

    All known laminin isoforms are cross-shaped heterotrimeric molecules, consisting of one heavy alpha chain and two light beta and gamma chains. Recently, a cDNA encoding a new gamma chain from laminin 5 (also known as kalinin) was sequenced. This chain, named gamma 2, showed extended homology to the classical gamma 1 chain but differed from this by lacking the terminal globular domain. Recent data, indicating an important role of the gamma 2 chain gene in establishing adhesion contacts between epithelial cells and basement membranes, prompted us to investigate whether the gamma 2 chain gene is aberrantly expressed in cancer tissue, and if so whether its localization could provide clues to its possible role in cancer dissemination. Routinely processed tissue specimens from 36 cases of human cancer were investigated, including 16 cases of colon adenocarcinoma, 7 ductal mammary carcinomas, 4 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 malignant melanomas and 6 sarcomas. In situ hybridization for the detection of mRNAs for the gamma 2 chain and for the classical laminin chains alpha 1, beta 1, and gamma 1 was performed using S-35 labeled antisense RNA probes. As positive control of the specificity of the gamma 2 chain mRNA detection, two different anti-sense probes derived from two nonoverlapping cDNA clones were used. Malignant cells were found to express the gamma 2 chain in 29 of the 30 carcinomas studied and the expression was particularly high in cancer cells located at the invasion front. In contrast, mesenchymally derived cancer cells in three different types of sarcomas did not express the gamma 2 chain. In colon cancer there was a clear histological correlation between the expression of gamma 2 chain by cancer cells and their engagement in tumor budding processes. Laminin chains alpha 1, beta 1, and gamma 1 were weakly expressed throughout cancerous areas with no apparent correlation to sites of invasion. The aberrant expression of the gamma 2 chain gene seen in invasively

  7. Advances in the management of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mazen Y; Mapa, Marissa; Shin, Hyung Ju C; Shin, Dong M

    2003-07-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are very aggressive tumors that originate from mesothelial cells, which form the serosal lining of the pleura, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Finding effective chemotherapeutic treatment for malignant mesothelioma is a challenge. There is no standard treatment because this tumor is relatively resistant to therapy. A resurgence of interest has been expressed in novel therapies and conventional treatments used in different ways. Several treatment modalities have been studied, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically or directly into the pleura. This review presents the results of the most recent trials and highlights the most promising advances in the battle against this aggressive disease.

  8. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Henry; Davis, Mark; James, Danielle; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with greater frequency. Dantrolene

  9. Household Chemical Exposures and the Risk of Canine Malignant Lymphoma, a Model for Human Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Takashima-Uebelhoer, Biki B.; Barber, Lisa G.; Zagarins, Sofija E.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Moore, Antony S.; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of companion animals offer an important opportunity to identify risk factors for cancers in animals and humans. Canine malignant lymphoma (CML) has been established as a model for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Previous studies have suggested that exposure to environmental chemicals may relate to development of CML. Methods We assessed the relation of exposure to flea and tick control products and lawn-care products and risk of CML in a case-control study of dogs presented to a tertiary-care veterinary hospital (2000–2006). Cases were 263 dogs with biopsy-confirmed CML. Controls included 240 dogs with benign tumors and 230 dogs undergoing surgeries unrelated to cancer. Dog owners completed a 10-page questionnaire measuring demographic, environmental, and medical factors. Results After adjustment for age, weight, and other factors, use of specific lawn care products was associated with greater risk of CML. Specifically, the use of professionally applied pesticides was associated with a significant 70% higher risk of CML (odds ratio(OR)=1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1–2.7). Risk was also higher in those reporting use of self-applied insect growth regulators (OR = 2.7; 95% CI=1.1–6.8). The use of flea and tick control products was unrelated to risk of CML. Conclusions Results suggest that use of some lawn care chemicals may increase the risk of CML. Additional analyses are needed to evaluate whether specific chemicals in these products may be related to risk of CML, and perhaps to human NHL as well. PMID:22222006

  10. Calix[6]arene bypasses human pancreatic cancer aggressiveness: downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and induction of cell death by reticulum stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta Regina; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Reis, Fabiano Souza; de Fátima, Angelo; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks fourth among cancer-related causes of death in North America. Minimal progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with late-stage tumors. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of pro-survival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression, resistance and metastasis. The main goal of this study was to define the mechanisms by which calix[6]arene, but not other calixarenes, efficiently decreases the aggressiveness of a drug resistant human pancreas carcinoma cell line (Panc-1). Calix[6]arene was more potent in reducing Panc-1 cell viability than gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. In relation to the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic effects, it led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through downregulation of PIM1, CDK2, CDK4 and retinoblastoma proteins. Importantly, calix[6]arene abolished signal transduction of Mer and AXL tyrosine kinase receptors, both of which are usually overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K and mTOR was also observed, and these proteins are positively modulated by Mer and AXL. Despite decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308, calix[6]arene caused an increase in phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings in conjunction with increased BiP and IRE1-α provide a molecular basis explaining the capacity of calix[6]arene to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Our findings highlight calix[6]arene as a potential candidate for overcoming pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Importantly, we provide evidence that calix[6]arene affects a broad array of key targets that are usually dysfunctional in pancreatic cancer, a highly desirable characteristic for chemotherapeutics.

  11. Wnt Interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; G, Mary; Johlfs, Ronald R. Fiscus; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤ 40 nm; intermediates ~40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. PMID:23318676

  12. Uncovering the role of p53 splice variants in human malignancy: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Surget, Sylvanie; Khoury, Marie P; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-five years of research on p53 gave rise to more than 68,000 articles and reviews, but did not allow the uncovering of all the mysteries that this major tumor suppressor holds. How p53 handles the different signals to decide the appropriate cell fate in response to a stress and its implication in tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear. Nevertheless, the uncovering of p53 isoforms has opened new perspectives in the cancer research field. Indeed, the human TP53 gene encodes not only one but at least twelve p53 protein isoforms, which are produced in normal tissues through alternative initiation of translation, usage of alternative promoters, and alternative splicing. In recent years, it became obvious that the different p53 isoforms play an important role in regulating cell fate in response to different stresses in normal cells by differentially regulating gene expression. In cancer cells, abnormal expression of p53 isoforms contributes actively to cancer formation and progression, regardless of TP53 mutation status. They can also be associated with response to treatment, depending on the cell context. The determination of p53 isoform expression and p53 mutation status helps to define different subtypes within a particular cancer type, which would have different responses to treatment. Thus, the understanding of the regulation of p53 isoform expression and their biological activities in relation to the cellular context would constitute an important step toward the improvement of the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive values of p53 in cancer treatment. This review aims to summarize the involvement of p53 isoforms in cancer and to highlight novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24379683

  13. Protooncogene bcl-2 gene transfer abrogates Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated apoptosis of human malignant glioma cells and confers resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and therapeutic irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, M; Malipiero, U; Aguzzi, A; Reed, J C; Fontana, A

    1995-01-01

    The majority of human malignant glioma cells express Fas/APO-1 and are susceptible to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated apoptosis in vitro. The sensitivity of Fas/APO-1-positive glioma cell lines to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated killing correlates inversely with the constitutive expression of the antiapoptotic protooncogene bcl-2. Here we report that BCL-2 protein expression of human glial tumors in vivo correlates with malignant transformation in that BCL-2 immunoreactive glioma cells were more abundant in WHO grade III/IV gliomas than in grade I/II gliomas. Fas/APO-1 antibody-sensitive human glioma cell lines stably transfected with a murine bcl-2 cDNA acquired resistance to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated apoptosis. Forced expression of bcl-2 also attenuated TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity of glioma cell lines in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide and conferred partial protection from irradiation and the cancer chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin and BCNU. Preexposure of the glioma cell lines to the cytokines, IFN gamma and TNF alpha, which sensitize for Fas/APO-1-dependent killing, partially overcame bcl-2-mediated rescue from apoptosis, suggesting that multimodality immunotherapy involving cytokines and Fas/APO-1 targeting might eventually provide a promising approach to the treatment of human malignant gliomas. Images PMID:7539458

  14. Aggressive histiocytic disorders that can involve the skin.

    PubMed

    Newman, Brenda; Hu, Weimin; Nigro, Kelly; Gilliam, Anita C

    2007-02-01

    Histiocytoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of reactive or neoplastic histiocytes. Three classes of histiocytoses have been defined: class I, Langerhans cell disease; class II, non-Langerhans cell histiocytic disease without features of malignancy; and class III, malignant histiocytic disorders. Although the disorders in classes I and II usually have a benign appearance on histology and are commonly non-aggressive and self-healing, some can cause debilitating or even fatal outcomes. Such cases beg the question: what stimulates aggressive behavior of a classically benign disease? New molecular information may now provide insight into the driving force behind many of the aggressive histiocytoses. In this article, we review Langerhans cell disease and seven aggressive histiocytoses that can involve skin, discuss histologic features that may forecast a poor prognosis, and discuss the molecular findings that help to explain the pathophysiology of these aggressive histiocytic disorders.

  15. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio; Le, Thuc T.; Johlfs, Mary G.; Fiscus, Ronald R.; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Corbeil, Denis; Lorico, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ≤40 nm; intermediates ∼40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ► First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ► Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in

  16. CREB1 directly activates the transcription of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 and promotes the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zejun; Lin, Aifen; Chen, Jiaoe; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Hong; Li, Hongzhang; Hu, Yanyan; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Jiangang; Qiu, Lanlan; Mei, Lingming; Shao, Jimin; Chen, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    As the small subunit of Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), RRM2 displays a very important role in various critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation, DNA repair, and senescence, etc. Importantly, RRM2 functions like a tumor driver in most types of cancer but little is known about the regulatory mechanism of RRM2 in cancer development. In this study, we found that the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) acted as a transcription factor of RRM2 gene in human colorectal cancer (CRC). CREB1 directly bound to the promoter of RRM2 gene and induced its transcriptional activation. Knockdown of CREB1 decreased the expression of RRM2 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, knockdown of RRM2 attenuated CREB1-induced aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the data from TCGA database and clinical CRC specimens with immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated a strong correlation between the co-expression of CREB1 and RRM2. Decreased disease survivals were observed in CRC patients with high expression levels of CREB1 or RRM2. Our results indicate CREB1 as a critical transcription factor of RRM2 which promotes tumor aggressiveness, and imply a significant correlation between CREB1 and RRM2 in CRC specimens. These may provide the possibility that CREB1 and RRM2 could be used as biomarkers or targets for CRC diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27801665

  17. Antibodies to parathyroid hormone-related protein lower serum calcium in athymic mouse models of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia due to human tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, S C; Shevrin, D H; Wimbiscus, S A; Ebeling, P R; Danks, J A; Rodda, C P; Wood, W I; Martin, T J

    1988-01-01

    A parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has recently been isolated from tumors associated with hypercalcemia. In the present study, we tested the effects of neutralizing antisera to the PTHrP on serum calcium and urine cAMP in two animal models of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. The animal models consisted of (a) a human squamous cell lung cancer and (b) a human laryngeal cancer, both serially carried in athymic mice. The antisera specifically reduced the elevated serum calcium and urinary cAMP levels in the tumor-bearing animals. We conclude that PTHrP plays a major role in the pathogenesis of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. PMID:2846659

  18. Malignant ameloblastoma: classification, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Andrew; Sapp, Philip; Huang, Catherine; Abemayor, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm of the mandible and maxilla that rarely exhibits malignant behavior. We report the case of an aggressive malignant ameloblastoma of the mandible that presented with an unusual multiphasic, histologic pattern. Initial fine needle aspiration and radiographic findings showed features consistent with a benign, fibro-osseous lesion. However, aggressive growth and the association of enlarged submandibular lymph nodes suggested a more malignant potential. Treatment consisted of an angle-to-angle composite mandibular resection, right modified neck dissection, left functional supraomohyoid neck dissection, and anterior chin skin resection with iliac crest osteocutaneous free flap reconstruction. Microscopic evaluation showed primarily malignant ameloblastoma without cellular atypia and extensive fields of fibro-osseous tissue with smaller fields of clear cell odontogenic tumor. This multiphasic, histologic arrangement may explain the perplexing preoperative microscopic diagnosis, suggesting a benign fibro-osseous lesion. Of the lymph nodes analyzed, one from the right submandibular triangle exhibited metastatic, benign-appearing ameloblastoma without fibro-osseous or clear cell features. The absence of cellular features of malignancy in the tumor mass and lymph node metastasis suggest that the lesion should be classified as malignant ameloblastoma rather than ameloblastic carcinoma or odontogenic carcinoma. A malignant ameloblastoma with all 3 of the aforementioned microscopic features has not been previously reported. We review the classification of epithelial odontogenic malignancies. Lesions showing multiphasic patterns can create diagnostic dilemmas and may require extensive surgical sampling and/or removal to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  19. Induction of ovarian function by using short-term human menopausal gonadotrophin in patients with ovarian failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Mills, W; Katz, M; McGarrigle, H H; Goldstone, A H

    1993-07-01

    Currently no treatment has proved successful in inducing ovarian steroidogenic and/or gametogenic recovery in patients with haematological malignancies treated by cytotoxic chemotherapy once biochemical failure becomes manifest i.e., when FSH levels exceed 40 IU/L. This paper reports two such cases with classical biochemical ovarian failure in which ovarian function was induced by brief stimulation with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG).

  20. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md. Motarab; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2012-08-01

    network formation ability of cells was significantly inhibited by survivin silencing and completely by combination of survivin silencing and EGCG treatment. Collectively, survivin silencing potentiated anti-cancer effects of EGCG in human malignant neuroblastoma cells having survivin overexpression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG controlled growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin knockdown induced neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin shRNA + EGCG induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination therapy inhibited invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis as well. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer So, combination therapy showed multiple anti-cancer mechanisms in neuroblastoma.

  1. TRU-016, a humanized anti-CD37 IgG fusion protein for the potential treatment of B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Robak, Tadeusz; Robak, Pawel; Smolewski, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    TRU-016, under development by Trubion Pharmaceuticals Inc and Facet Biotech Corp, is an intravenously administered anti-CD37 IgG fusion protein for the potential treatment of B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), as well as for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. TRU-016 was created by humanizing SMIP-016, a mouse/human chimeric protein that demonstrated antitumor activity against lymphoid malignancies in preclinical studies, including in human B-cell tumor mouse xenograft models. In addition, TRU-016 demonstrated synergistic or additive activity in NHL cells in combination with rituximab, rapamycin, doxorubicin and bendamustine. In a phase I/II clinical trial in refractory or relapsed patients with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma, TRU-016 was well tolerated, with clinical benefit and a reduced absolute lymphocyte count observed in all cohorts dosed at > 0.1 mg/kg. TRU-016 is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with B-cell lymphoid malignancies, especially patients refractory to standard treatment.

  2. Evaluating the cytotoxic effects of the water extracts of four anticancer herbs against human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Binbing; Michel, Deborah; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, killing more than 1,100 people each year in Canada. Prognosis for late stage and recurrent MM is extremely poor due to insensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and thus many patients seek complementary and alternative medicines. In this study, we examined four commonly used anticancer herbs in traditional Chinese medicine, Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, Lobelia chinensis, and Solanum nigrum, for their in vitro antitumor effects toward human MM cell line A-375. The crude water extract of S. nigrum (1 g of dry herb in 100 mL water) and its 2-fold dilution caused 52.8%±13.0% and 17.3%±2.7% cytotoxicity in A-375 cells, respectively (P<0.01). The crude water extract of H. diffusa caused 11.1%±12.4% cytotoxicity in A-375 cells with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Higher concentrated formulation might be needed for H. diffusa to exert its cytotoxic effect against A-375 cells. No cytotoxicity was observed in A-375 cells treated with crude water extract of S. barbata and L. chinensis. Further high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy analysis of the herbal extracts implicated that S. nigrum and H. diffusa might have adopted the same bioactive components for their cytotoxic effects in spite of belonging to two different plant families. We also showed that the crude water extract of S. nigrum reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in A-375 cells, which may lead to a cytostatic effect. Furthermore, synergistic effect was achieved when crude water extract of S. nigrum was coadministered with temozolomide, a chemotherapy drug for skin cancer. PMID:27843296

  3. Human agonistic TRAIL receptor antibodies Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab induce apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma and act synergistically with cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Belyanskaya, Larisa L; Marti, Thomas M; Hopkins-Donaldson, Sally; Kurtz, Stefanie; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf A

    2007-01-01

    Background The incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with exposure to asbestos, and projections suggest that the yearly number of deaths in Western Europe due to MPM will increase until 2020. Despite progress in chemo- and in multimodality therapy, MPM remains a disease with a poor prognosis. Inducing apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or agonistic monoclonal antibodies which target TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) or TRAIL-R2 has been thought to be a promising cancer therapy. Results We have compared the sensitivity of 13 MPM cell lines or primary cultures to TRAIL and two fully human agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed to TRAIL-R1 (Mapatumumab) and TRAIL-R2 (Lexatumumab) and examined sensitization of the MPM cell lines to cisplatin-induced by the TRAIL-receptor antibodies. We found that sensitivity of MPM cells to TRAIL, Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab varies largely and is independent of TRAIL-receptor expression. TRAIL-R2 contributes more than TRAIL-R1 to death-receptor mediated apoptosis in MPM cells that express both receptors. The combination of cisplatin with Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab synergistically inhibited the cell growth and enhanced apoptotic death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab resulted in significant higher cytotoxic effects as compared to the reverse sequence. Combination-induced cell growth inhibition was significantly abrogated by pre-treatment of the cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion Our results suggest that the sequential administration of cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab deserves investigation in the treatment of patients with MPM. PMID:17953743

  4. Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) anthocyanins exert anti-inflammatory activity in human colon cancer and non-malignant colon cells.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Vinicius P; Cipriano, Paula A; Kim, Hyemee; Antunes, Lusânia M G; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2017-01-25

    Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.) (CP) is an anthocyanin-rich fruit found in tropical areas around the globe. CP polyphenols are associated with beneficial effects on health, including reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. Due to its functional properties, the consumption of this fruit may be beneficial in the promotion of human health and reduce the risk for chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanins extracted from CP (1.0 to 20.0 μg ml(-1) gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) in CCD-18Co non-malignant colonic fibroblasts and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 10 ng mL(-1)) was used to induce inflammation in CCD-18Co cells. CP anthocyanins were identified and quantified using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). The chemical analysis of CP extract identified delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin and peonidin derivatives as major components. Cell proliferation was suppressed in HT-29 cells at 10.0 and 20.0 μg ml(-1) GAE and this was accompanied by increased intracellular ROS production as well as decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NF-κB1 expressions at 20.0 μg ml(-1) GAE. Within the same concentration range, there was no cytotoxic effect of CP anthocyanins in CCD-18Co cells and TNF-α-induced intracellular ROS-production was decreased by 17.3%. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α protein expressions were also reduced in TNF-α-treated CCD-18Co cells by CP anthocyanins at 20.0 μg ml(-1) GAE. These results suggest that cocoplum anthocyanins possess cancer-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities in both inflamed colon and colon cancer cells.

  5. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  6. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  7. Cigarette smoke induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response in normal and malignant human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Ellen; Stinson, Andy; Shan, Lin; Yang, Jin; Gietl, Diana; Albino, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Background Although lung cancer is among the few malignancies for which we know the primary etiological agent (i.e., cigarette smoke), a precise understanding of the temporal sequence of events that drive tumor progression remains elusive. In addition to finding that cigarette smoke (CS) impacts the functioning of key pathways with significant roles in redox homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, cell cycle control, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functioning, our data highlighted a defensive role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) program. The UPR promotes cell survival by reducing the accumulation of aberrantly folded proteins through translation arrest, production of chaperone proteins, and increased degradation. Importance of the UPR in maintaining tissue health is evidenced by the fact that a chronic increase in defective protein structures plays a pathogenic role in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's syndromes, and cancer. Methods Gene and protein expression changes in CS exposed human cell cultures were monitored by high-density microarrays and Western blot analysis. Tissue arrays containing samples from 110 lung cancers were probed with antibodies to proteins of interest using immunohistochemistry. Results We show that: 1) CS induces ER stress and activates components of the UPR; 2) reactive species in CS that promote oxidative stress are primarily responsible for UPR activation; 3) CS exposure results in increased expression of several genes with significant roles in attenuating oxidative stress; and 4) several major UPR regulators are increased either in expression (i.e., BiP and eIF2α) or phosphorylation (i.e., phospho-eIF2α) in a majority of human lung cancers. Conclusion These data indicate that chronic ER stress and recruitment of one or more UPR effector arms upon exposure to CS may play a pivotal role in the etiology or progression of lung cancers, and that phospho-eIF2α and BiP may have diagnostic and

  8. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  9. Roles of different IRES-dependent FGF2 isoforms in the acquisition of the major aggressive features of human metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Elena; Bianchini, Francesca; Biagioni, Alessio; Del Rosso, Mario; Papucci, Laura; Schiavone, Nicola; Magnelli, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Fgf2 deregulation contributes to the acquisition of malignant features of melanoma and other cancers. FGF2 is an alternative translation product expressed as five isoforms, a low-molecular-weight (18 KDa) and four high-molecular-weight (22, 22.5, 24, 34 KDa) isoforms, with different subcellular distributions. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in its mRNA controls the translation of all the isoforms with the exception for the cap-dependent 34 KDa. The 18-KDa isoform has been extensively studied, while very few is known about the roles of high molecular weight isoforms. FGF2 is known to promote melanoma development and progression. To disclose the differential contribution of FGF2 isoforms in melanoma, we forced the expression of IRES-dependent low-molecular-weight (LMW, 18 KDa) and high-molecular-weight (HMW, 22, 22.5, 24 KDa) isoforms in a human metastatic melanoma cell line. This comparative study highlights that, while LMW isoform confers stem-like features to melanoma cells and promotes angiogenesis, HMW isoforms induce higher migratory ability and contribute to tumor perfusion by promoting vasculogenic mimicry (VM) when endothelial cell-driven angiogenesis is lacking. To conclude, FGF2 isoforms mainly behave in specific, antithetical manners, but can cooperate in different steps of tumor progression, providing melanoma cells with major malignant features.

  10. Targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 suppresses aggressive growth of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many human malignant tumors. Notably, miR-21 was identified to contribute to tumorigenicity. To investigate the repressive effect of targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 on proliferation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We established the Tca8113-luc cell line with stable luciferase expression using pGL6-luciferase (pGL6-luc) plasmid transfection. TSCC xenograft models were characterized by high tumorigenicity rate and stable growth. Intratumor injection of Oligofectamine™-mediated AS-miR-21 significantly inhibited TSCC growth. The suppression of malignant phenotype was also accompanied by decreased photon signals, rare necrosis foci, smaller nucleuses, weakly stained nucleuses, atypia reversal and tumor angiogenesis reduction. Additionally, miR-21 expression was markedly decreased in TSCC xenografts and the apoptotic index was increased. Intratumor injection of AS-miR-21 into TSCC xenografts could reduce expression of miR-21, promote apoptosis of TSCC cells and inhibit TSCC proliferation. PMID:26191167

  11. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  12. A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors harbors alterations in the Rb/p16 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Hicks, Jessica L; Sharma, Rajni; Vang, Russell; Illei, Peter B; De Marzo, Angelo; Emens, Leisha A; Argani, Pedram

    2013-11-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms with variable risk of aggressive local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the molecular pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we systematically study p16 and Rb expression in 34 phyllodes tumors in relation to proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 10 benign, 10 borderline, and 14 malignant phyllodes (5 cores/tumor) and from 10 fibroadenomas (2 cores/tumor). Tissue microarrays were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p16, Rb, and Ki-67 and by in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 were scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >95%) and intensity. Nuclear Rb was scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >75%) and intensity. p16 and Rb labeling were repeated on whole sections of cases with Rb loss on the tissue microarray. Twenty-nine percent (4/14) malignant phyllodes showed diffuse strong p16 labeling with Rb loss in malignant cells (diffuse p16+/Rb-), whereas 21% (3/14) malignant phyllodes showed the reverse pattern of p16 loss with diffuse strong Rb (p16-/diffuse Rb+). Results were consistent between tissue microarrays and whole sections. No borderline phyllodes, benign phyllodes, or fibroadenoma showed diffuse p16+/Rb- or p16-/diffuse Rb+ phenotypes. No cases contained high-risk human papillomavirus. Average Ki-67 proliferation indices were 15% in malignant phyllodes, 1.7% in borderline phyllodes, 0.5% in benign phyllodes, and 0% in fibroadenoma. Ki-67 was highest in malignant phyllodes with diffuse p16+/Rb- labeling. In summary, 50% malignant phyllodes display evidence of Rb/p16 pathway alterations, likely reflecting p16 or Rb inactivation. These and other mechanisms may contribute to the increased proliferation in malignant phyllodes relative to other fibroepithelial neoplasms.

  13. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.

  14. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fábio He; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Bersano, Paulo Ro; Bissacot, Denise Z; Rocha, Noeme S

    2010-06-30

    Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.

  15. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits. PMID:20587072

  16. Cancer immunology and canine malignant melanoma: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Matthew J; Morris, Joanna S; McDermott, Mark R; Lichty, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Oral canine malignant melanoma (CMM) is a spontaneously occurring aggressive tumour with relatively few medical treatment options, which provides a suitable model for the disease in humans. Historically, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at provoking both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses have been published with varying levels of activity against CMM. Recently, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing human tyrosinase has been licensed for the adjunct treatment of oral CMM. This article reviews the immunological similarities between CMM and the human counterpart; mechanisms by which tumours evade the immune system; reasons why melanoma is an attractive target for immunotherapy; the premise of whole cell, dendritic cell (DC), viral and DNA vaccination strategies alongside preliminary clinical results in dogs. Current "gold standard" treatments for advanced human malignant melanoma are evolving quickly with remarkable results being achieved following the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptively transferred cell therapies. The rapidly expanding field of cancer immunology and immunotherapeutics means that rational targeting of this disease in both species should enhance treatment outcomes in veterinary and human clinics.

  17. An integrated approach for comparative proteomic analysis of human bile reveals overexpressed cancer-associated proteins in malignant biliary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Natalija; Visentin, Rémy; Delhaye, Myriam; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Farina, Annarita

    2014-05-01

    Proteomics is a key tool in the identification of new bile biomarkers for differentiating malignant and nonmalignant biliary stenoses. Unfortunately, the complexity of bile and the presence of molecules interfering with protein analysis represent an obstacle for quantitative proteomic studies in bile samples. The simultaneous need to introduce purification steps and minimize the use of pre-fractionation methods inevitably leads to protein loss and limited quantifications. This dramatically reduces the chance of identifying new potential biomarkers. In the present study, we included differential centrifugation as a preliminary step in a quantitative proteomic workflow involving iTRAQ labeling, peptide fractionation by OFFGEL electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS, to compare protein expression in bile samples collected from patients with malignant or nonmalignant biliary stenoses. A total of 1267 proteins were identified, including a set of 322 newly described bile proteins, mainly belonging to high-density cellular fractions. The subsequent comparative analysis led to a 5-fold increase in the number of quantified proteins over previously published studies and highlighted 104 proteins overexpressed in malignant samples. Finally, immunoblot verifications performed on a cohort of 8 malignant (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, n=4; cholangiocarcinoma, n=4) and 5 nonmalignant samples (chronic pancreatitis, n=3; biliary stones, n=2) confirmed the results of proteomic analysis for three proteins: olfactomedin-4, syntenin-2 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge.

  18. In vivo tracing of indium-111 oxine-labeled human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with lymphatic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.Z.; Zielinski, C.C.; Linkesch, W.; Ludwig, H.; Sinzinger, H.

    1989-06-01

    The in vivo migration of (/sup 111/In)oxine-labeled peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) was studied in 20 patients with various lymphatic malignancies and palpable enlarged lymph nodes. The maximal labeling dose of 10 microCi (0.37 MBq) (/sup 111/In)oxine/10(8) PMNC was found not to adversely influence either cell viability or lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. For in vivo studies, 1.5 X 10(9) PMNC were gained by lymphapheresis and reinjected intravenously after radioactive labeling, 150 microCi (5.55 MBq). The labeling of enlarged palpable lymph nodes was achieved in three out of three patients with Hodgkin's disease and in five out of five with high-malignant lymphoma, whereas three out of seven patients with low malignant lymphoma and no patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia had positive lymph node imaging. We thus conclude that PMNC retain their ability to migrate after (/sup 111/In)oxine labeling and that these cells traffic to involved lymph nodes of some, but not all hematologic malignancies.

  19. Differential expression of metallothioneins (MTs) 1, 2, and 3 in response to zinc treatment in human prostate normal and malignant cells and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Lin, Shufei; Xiao, Dakai; Franklin, Renty B; Feng, Pei

    2008-01-01

    Background The disturbance of zinc homeostasis featured with a significant decrease of cellular zinc level was well documented to associate with the development and progression of human prostate malignancy. We have previously reported that zinc treatment induces prostate malignant cell apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Metallothionein (MT) is a major receptor/donor of zinc in the cells. However, the studies on the expression of MT in association with the prostate pathological and malignant status are very limited, and the zinc regulation of MT isoform expression in prostate cells remains elusive. The goals of this study were to define the expression of endogenous MTs, the isoforms of MT 1, 2, 3 at both messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels; and to investigate the zinc effect on MT expression in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignant PC-3 cells, and in relevant human tissues. Cellular MT proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the MT isoform-specific mRNAs. Results Our results demonstrated a significant suppression of endogenous levels of MT1/2 in malignant PC-3 cells (95% reduction compared to the normal prostate cells) and in human adenocarcinoma tissues (73% MT1/2 negative). A moderate reduction of MT1/2 expression was observed in BPH. Zinc treatment remarkably induced MT1/2 expression in PC-3 and BPH cells, which was accordant with the restored cellular zinc level. MT 3, as a growth inhibitory factor, was detected and up-regulated by zinc mainly in BPH cells. Conclusion This study provided evidence of the association of attenuated MT1/2 with prostate tumor progression, and the zinc induction of MT1/2 expression resulting in cellular zinc restoration. The results suggest the potential of MT1/2 as a candidate biomarker for prostate cancer and the utilization of zinc in prostate

  20. The anti-proliferative effects of a palm oil-derived product and its mode of actions in human malignant melanoma MeWo cells.

    PubMed

    Komarasamy, Thamil Vaani; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma incidence and mortality have risen dramatically in recent years. No effective treatment for metastatic melanoma exists; hence currently, an intense effort for new drug evaluation is being carried out. In this study, we investigated the effects of a palm oil-derived nanopolymer called Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma. The nanopolymers of Bio-12 are lipid esters derived from a range of fatty acids of palm oil. Our study aims to identify the anti-proliferative properties of Bio-12 against human malignant melanoma cell line (MeWo) and to elucidate the mode of actions whereby Bio-12 brings about cell death. Bio-12 significantly inhibited the growth of MeWo cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner with a median inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 1/25 dilution after 72 h but was ineffective on human normal skin fibroblasts (CCD-1059sk). We further investigated the mode of actions of Bio-12 on MeWo cells. Cell cycle flow cytometry demonstrated that MeWo cells treated with increasing concentrations of Bio-12 resulted in S-phase arrest, accompanied by the detection of sub-G1 content, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Induction of apoptosis was further confirmed via caspase (substrate) cleavage assay which showed induction of early apoptosis in MeWo cells. In addition, DNA strand breaks which are terminal event in apoptosis were evident through increase of TUNEL positive cells and formation of a characteristic DNA ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, treatment of MeWo cells with Bio-12 induced significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. These results show that Bio-12 possesses the ability to suppress proliferation of human malignant melanoma MeWo cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to the initiation of the S-phase arrest, apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting that it is indeed worth for further investigations.

  1. Maternal defense: breast feeding increases aggression by reducing stress.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M; Lawson, E Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress.

  2. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  3. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis discriminates normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tissue: classifying subtypes of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-21

    Surgical management of ovarian tumours largely depends on their histo-pathological diagnosis. Currently, screening for ovarian malignancy with tumour markers in conjunction with radiological investigations has a low specificity for discriminating benign from malignant tumours. Also, pre-operative biopsy of ovarian masses increases the risk of intra-peritoneal dissemination of malignancy. Intra-operative frozen section, although sufficiently accurate in differentiating tumours according to their histological type, increases operation times. This results in increased surgery-related risks to the patient and additional burden to resource allocation. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis can be applied to discriminate between normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and classify ovarian carcinoma subtypes according to the unique spectral signatures of their molecular composition. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks were de-waxed, mounted on Low-E slides and desiccated before being analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis in the form of principal component analysis (PCA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm (GA), followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of the obtained spectra revealed clear segregation between benign versus borderline versus malignant tumours as well as segregation between different histological tumour subtypes, when these approaches are used in combination. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis has the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of ovarian tumours assisting surgical decision making to avoid under-treatment or over-treatment, with minimal impact to the patient.

  4. Aberrant regulation of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in human malignant tumors and its effects on the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianzhen; Wang, Guangyu; Hao, Dapeng; Liu, Xi; Wang, Dong; Ning, Ning; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-06-30

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are two of the most important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and their aberrant expression contributes to the development of human malignancies. Let-7, one of the most well-known tumor suppressors, is frequently down-regulated in a variety of human cancers. The RBP LIN28A/LIN28B, a direct target of the let-7 family of miRNAs, is an inhibitor of let-7 biogenesis and is frequently up-regulated in cancers. Aberrant regulation of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in human malignant tumors is reportedly involved in cancer development, contributing to cellular proliferation, cell death resistance, angiogenesis, metastasis, metabolism reprogramming, tumor-associated inflammation, genome instability, acquiring immortality and evading immune destruction. In this review, we summarized the mechanisms of LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop aberrant regulation in human cancer and discussed the roles and potential mechanisms of the LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop in regulating the hallmarks of cancer. The crosstalk between LIN28A/LIN28B and let-7 loop and certain oncogenes (such as MYC, RAS, PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and β-catenin) in regulating hallmarks of cancer has also been discussed.

  5. Effect of inhibition of aloe-emodin on N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells (A375.S2).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Yang, Jen-Hung; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lee, Jau-Hong; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2005-12-01

    Arylamine carcinogens and drugs are N-acetylated by cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT), which uses acetyl-coenzyme A as a cofactor. NAT plays an initial role in the metabolism of these arylamine compounds. 2-Aminofluorene is one of the arylamine carcinogens which have been demonstrated to undergo N-acetylation in laboratory animals and humans. Our previous study showed that human cancer cell lines (colon cancer, colo 205; liver cancer, Hep G2; bladder cancer, T24; leukemia, HL-60; prostate cancer, LNCaP; osteogenic sarcoma, U-2 OS; malignant melanoma, A375.S2) displayed NAT activity, which was affected by aloe-emodin in human leukemia cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aloe-emodin could affect the enzyme activity and gene expression of NAT at the mRNA and protein levels in malignant human melanoma A375.S2 cells. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited NAT1 activity (decreased N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene) in intact cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of aloe-emodin on NAT1 at the protein level was determined by Western blotting and the mRNA levels were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cDNA microarray. These results clearly indicate that aloe-emodin inhibits the mRNA expression and enzyme activity of NAT1 in A375.S2 cells.

  6. Tumor malignancy is engaged to prokaryotic homolog toolbox.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Janaina; Guedes, Patrícia G; Lage, Celso Luiz S; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola F; Lage, Claudia de Alencar S

    2012-04-01

    Cancer cells display high proliferation rates and survival provided by high glycolysis, chemoresistance and radioresistance, metabolic features that appear to be activated with malignancy, and seemed to have arisen as early in evolution as in unicellular/prokaryotic organisms. Based on these assumptions, we hypothesize that aggressive phenotypes found in malignant cells may be related to acquired unicellular behavior, launched within a tumor when viral and prokaryotic homologs are overexpressed performing likely robust functions. The ensemble of these expressed viral and prokaryotic close homologs in the proteome of a tumor tissue gives them advantage over normal cells. To assess the hypothesis validity, sequences of human proteins involved in apoptosis, energetic metabolism, cell mobility and adhesion, chemo- and radio-resistance were aligned to homologs present in other life forms, excluding all eukaryotes, using PSI-BLAST, with further corroboration from data available in the literature. The analysis revealed that selected sequences of proteins involved in apoptosis and tumor suppression (as p53 and pRB) scored non-significant (E-value>0.001) with prokaryotic homologs; on the other hand, human proteins involved in cellular chemo- and radio-resistance scored highly significant with prokaryotic and viral homologs (as catalase, E-value=zero). We inferred that such upregulated and/or functionally activated proteins in aggressive malignant cells represent a toolbox of modern human homologs evolved from a similar key set that have granted survival of ancient prokaryotes against extremely harsh environments. According to what has been discussed along this analysis, high mutation rates usually hit hotspots in important conserved protein domains, allowing uncontrolled expansion of more resistant, death-evading malignant clones. That is the case of point mutations in key viral proteins affording viruses escape to chemotherapy, and human homologs of such retroviral

  7. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  8. Identification of Proteins Related to Epigenetic Regulation in the Malignant Transformation of Aberrant Karyotypic Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Yang, Yixuan; Zeng, Sicong; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) tend to develop genomic alterations and progress to a malignant state during long-term in vitro culture. This raises concerns of the clinical safety in using cultured hESCs. However, transformed hESCs might serve as an excellent model to determine the process of embryonic stem cell transition. In this study, ITRAQ-based tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify normal and aberrant karyotypic hESCs proteins from simple to more complex karyotypic abnormalities. We identified and quantified 2583 proteins, and found that the expression levels of 316 proteins that represented at least 23 functional molecular groups were significantly different in both normal and abnormal hESCs. Dysregulated protein expression in epigenetic regulation was further verified in six pairs of hESC lines in early and late passage. In summary, this study is the first large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis of the malignant transformation of aberrant karyotypic hESCs. The data generated should serve as a useful reference of stem cell-derived tumor progression. Increased expression of both HDAC2 and CTNNB1 are detected as early as the pre-neoplastic stage, and might serve as prognostic markers in the malignant transformation of hESCs. PMID:24465727

  9. Violence, mental illness, and the brain - A brief history of psychosurgery: Part 3 - From deep brain stimulation to amygdalotomy for violent behavior, seizures, and pathological aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    In the final installment to this three-part, essay-editorial on psychosurgery, we relate the history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in humans and glimpse the phenomenal body of work conducted by Dr. Jose Delgado at Yale University from the 1950s to the 1970s. The inception of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1974-1978) is briefly discussed as it pertains to the "determination of the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare regarding the recommendations and guidelines on psychosurgery." The controversial work - namely recording of brain activity, DBS, and amygdalotomy for intractable psychomotor seizures in patients with uncontrolled violence - conducted by Drs. Vernon H. Mark and Frank Ervin is recounted. This final chapter recapitulates advances in neuroscience and neuroradiology in the evaluation of violent individuals and ends with a brief discussion of the problem of uncontrolled rage and "pathologic aggression" in today's modern society - as violence persists, and in response, we move toward authoritarianism, with less freedom and even less dignity.

  10. Aggression in Replacement Grower and Finisher Gilts fed a High-Tryptophan Diet and the Effect of Long-term Human-Animal Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression is a major problem for swine production as it negatively impacts the pigs’ health and welfare. Dietary approaches such as increasing tryptophan (TRP) ingestion to raise cerebral serotonin (5-HT) – a key neurotransmitter for aggression control, and long-term positive social handling have b...

  11. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  12. Lack of expression of the liver-type glutaminase (LGA) mRNA in human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Sidoryk, Marta; Matyja, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Albrecht, Jan

    2005-02-21

    In the central nervous system (CNS), liver-type glutaminase (LGA) shows a unique nuclear localization suggesting its role in the regulation of transcription rather than in the cellular glutamine metabolism. RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from postoperative tissue samples revealed the absence or only traces of LGA mRNA in all (9) cases of malignant gliomas (astrocytoma anaplasticum, AA, WHO grade III; glioblastoma multiforme, WHO grade IV) examined. The RNA was strongly expressed in the non-neoplastic tissue derived from the same patients (6 cases), and in most of the brain metastases from different organs (5 out of 7 cases). By contrast, the mRNAs coding for the kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) and its less ubiquitous isoform GAC, which catalyze degradation of the cytoplasmic pool of Gln, were expressed in all the tissues examined. The lack of LGA may be thus considered as a useful negative diagnostic marker of highly malignant gliomas in situ.

  13. Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloendoprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Gregor; Mengele, Karin; Yfanti, Christina; Gkazepis, Apostolos; Hellmann, Daniela; Welk, Anita; Giersig, Cecylia; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Rosner, Marsha Rich; Tang, Wei-Jen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemical evidence for ubiquitous distribution of metalloprotease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; insulysin) in human non-malignant tissues and tumor cells is presented. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a multi-organ tissue microarray (pancreas, lung, kidney, central/peripheral nervous system, liver, breast, placenta, myocardium, striated muscle, bone marrow, thymus, spleen) and on a cell microarray encompassing 31 tumor cell lines of different origin plus trophoblast cells, and normal blood lymphocytes and granulocytes. IDE protein is expressed by all of the tissues assessed and in all of the tumor cell lines except Raji and HL-60; trophoblast cells and granulocytes but not normal lymphocytes are also IDE-positive. PMID:18783335

  14. PME-1 protects extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A; Hector, Melissa E; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C; Westermarck, Jukka

    2009-04-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies; however, the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here, we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A promotes basal ERK pathway activity and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically, PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and protein kinase C. In malignant gliomas, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (n=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells and suggest an important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas.

  15. Epigenetic alteration by DNA-demethylating treatment restores apoptotic response to glucocorticoids in dexamethasone-resistant human malignant lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are often included in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies because they kill several types of malignant lymphoid cells. GCs activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), to regulate a complex genetic network, culminating in apoptosis. Normal lymphoblasts and many lymphoid malignancies are sensitive to GC-driven apoptosis. Resistance to GCs can be a significant clinical problem, however, and correlates with resistance to several other major chemotherapeutic agents. Methods We analyzed the effect of treatment with the cytosine analogue 5 aza-2’ deoxycytidine (AZA) on GC resistance in two acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T or pre-T ALL) cell lines- CEM and Molt-4- and a (B-cell) myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226. Methods employed included tissue culture, flow cytometry, and assays for clonogenicity, cytosine extension, immunochemical identification of proteins, and gene transactivation. High throughput DNA sequencing was used to confirm DNA methylation status. Conclusions Treatment of these cells with AZA resulted in altered DNA methylation and restored GC-evoked apoptosis in all 3 cell lines. In CEM cells the altered epigenetic state resulted in site-specific phosphorylation of the GR, increased GR potency, and GC-driven induction of the GR from promoters that lie in CpG islands. In RPMI 8226 cells, expression of relevant coregulators of GR function was altered. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is central to a feed-forward mechanism of site-specific GR phosphorylation and ultimately, apoptosis, occurred in all 3 cell lines. These data show that in certain malignant hematologic B- and T-cell types, epigenetically controlled GC resistance can be reversed by cell exposure to a compound that causes DNA demethylation. The results encourage studies of application to in vivo systems, looking towards eventual clinical applications. PMID:24795534

  16. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  17. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.

  18. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cantin, R Y; Poole, A; Ryan, J F

    1986-10-01

    The increasing use of intravenous and inhalation sedation in the dental office has the potential of increasing the incidence of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in susceptible subjects. The object of this article is to present two cases of MH and to discuss its pathophysiology, its clinical picture, and its management in the light of the current literature. Stringent screening procedures should be adopted and maintained in order to channel suspected cases to appropriate centers for expert consultation and management. It is further advocated that a program of education for patients and their families be instituted, as it is an essential prerequisite of effective prophylaxis.

  19. Cadmium Induced Cell Apoptosis, DNA Damage, Decreased DNA Repair Capacity, and Genomic Instability during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Haibai; Huang, Qinhai; Wang, Min; Lei, Yixiong

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA damage in cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We analyzed cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression, genomic instability, and the sequence of exons in DNA repair genes in several kinds of cells. These cells consisted of untreated control cells, cells in the fifth, 15th, and 35th passage of cadmium-treated cells, and tumorigenic cells from nude mice using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, comet assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis. We observed a progressive increase in cell population of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the rate of apoptosis, DNA damage, and cadmium-induced apoptotic morphological changes in cerebral cortical neurons during malignant transformation. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of cell proliferation (PCNA), cell cycle (CyclinD1), pro-apoptotic activity (Bax), and DNA damage of the checkpoint genes ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, Cdc25A. Decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and the DNA repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and hOGG1 was observed. RAPD-PCR revealed genomic instability in cadmium-exposed cells, and sequence analysis showed mutation of exons in hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 in tumorigenic cells. This study suggests that Cadmium can increase cell apoptosis and DNA damage, decrease DNA repair capacity, and cause mutations, and genomic instability leading to malignant transformation. This process could be a viable mechanism for cadmium-induced cancers. PMID:24046522

  20. Sodium ascorbate inhibits growth via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Lai, Wan-Wen; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hsiu-Maan; Li, Te-Mao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2006-12-01

    Vitamin C has been reported to be useful in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Inconsistent effects from growth stimulation to induction of apoptosis of malignant tumor cells, however, have been reported. Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially lethal malignancy. It was reported that melanoma cells were more susceptible to ascorbate toxicity than any other tumor cells. The mechanisms accounting for ascorbate-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells, however, have remained unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sodium ascorbate on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells. A375.S2 cells were incubated with a certain range of concentrations of sodium ascorbate for various time periods. In order to examine the effects of sodium ascorbate on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and necrosis, we performed 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride assays and flow cytometry analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the mRNA levels of p53, p21, p27, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, which are associated with cell cycle S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that sodium ascorbate significantly induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the A375.S2 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The increased expressions of p53 and p21, and the decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, indicated the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase after the cells had been treated with sodium ascorbate. Induction of apoptosis involved an increase in the levels of p53, p21 and cellular Ca, and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3 before culminating in apoptosis in sodium ascorbate-treated A375.S2 cells.

  1. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kim D; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Turk, James R; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Henry, Carolyn J; Huxley, Virginia H; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Raz, Avraham; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2007-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (ASA) in humans and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, and poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA and canine HSA and could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10) and canine HSA (17 of 17) samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP) and lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL), caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP and LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells. PMID:17786185

  2. IL-4, a direct target of miR-340/429, is involved in radiation-induced aggressive tumor behavior in human carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Su Jin; Han, Young-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Bae, In Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy induces the production of cytokines, thereby increasing aggressive tumor behavior. This radiation effect results in the failure of radiotherapy and increases the mortality rate in patients. We found that interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4Rα (IL-4 receptor) are highly expressed in various human cancer cells subsequent to radiation treatment. In addition, IL-4 is highly overexpressed in metastatic carcinoma tissues compared with infiltrating carcinoma tissues. High expression of IL-4 in patients with cancer is strongly correlated with poor survival. The results of this study suggest that radiation-induced IL-4 contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Radiation-induced IL-4 was associated with tumorigenicity and metastasis. IL-4 expression was downregulated by miR-340 and miR-429, which were decreased by ionizing radiation (IR). Radiation-regulated miR-340/429-IL4 signaling increased tumorigenesis and metastasis by inducing the production of Sox2, Vimentin, VEGF, Ang2, and MMP-2/9 via activating JAK, JNK, β-catenin, and Stat6 in vitro and in vivo. Our study presents a conceptual advance in our understanding of the modification of tumor microenvironment by radiation and suggests that combining radiotherapy with genetic therapy to inhibit IL-4 may be a promising strategy for preventing post-radiation recurrence and metastasis in patients. PMID:27895317

  3. The error-prone DNA polymerase zeta catalytic subunit (Rev3) gene is ubiquitously expressed in normal and malignant human tissues.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, K; O-Wang, J; Bahar, R; Koshikawa, N; Shishikura, T; Nakagawara, A; Sakiyama, S; Kajiwara, K; Kimura, M; Tagawa, M

    2001-01-01

    Mutagenesis induced by UV light and chemical agents in yeast is largely dependent on the function of Rev3, the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta that carries out translesion DNA synthesis. Human and mouse homologues of the yeast Rev3 gene have recently been identified, and inhibition of Rev3 expression in cultured human fibroblasts by Rev3 anti-sense was shown to reduce UV-induced mutagenesis, indicating that Rev3 also plays a crucial role in mutagenesis in mammalian cells. A common variant transcript with an insertion of 128-bp between nucleotides +139 and +140 is found in both human and mouse Rev3 cDNAs, but its biological significance has not been defined. We show here that the insertion variant is not translatable either under in vitro or in vivo conditions. We also found that the translational efficiency of Rev3 gene is enhanced by the 5' untranslated region that contains a putative stem-loop structure postulated to inhibit the translation. Since the human Rev3 gene is localized to chromosome 6q21, a region previously shown to contain genes involved in tumor suppression and cellular senescence, we examined its expression in various normal and malignant tissues. Rev3 and its insertion variant transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all 27 normal human tissues studied, with an additional variant species found in tissues with relatively high levels of Rev3 expression. Levels of Rev3 transcripts were similar in lung, gastric, colon and renal tumors compared to normal tissue counterparts. The data indicate that Rev3 expression is ubiquitous and is not dysregulated in malignancies.

  4. Cholesteryl Ester Accumulation Induced by PTEN Loss and PI3K/AKT Activation Underlies Human Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Li, Junjie; Lee, Seung-Young; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shao, Tian; Song, Bing; Cheng, Liang; Masterson, Timothy A.; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ratliff, Timothy L.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Altered lipid metabolism is increasingly recognized as a signature of cancer cells. Enabled by label-free Raman spectromicroscopy, we performed quantitative analysis of lipogenesis at single cell level in human patient cancerous tissues. Our imaging data revealed an unexpected, aberrant accumulation of esterified cholesterol in lipid droplets of high-grade prostate cancer and metastases. Biochemical study showed that such cholesteryl ester accumulation was a consequence of loss of tumor suppressor PTEN and subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT pathway in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that such accumulation arose from significantly enhanced uptake of exogenous lipoproteins and required cholesterol esterification. Depletion of cholesteryl ester storage significantly reduced cancer proliferation, impaired cancer invasion capability, and suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models with negligible toxicity. These findings open opportunities for diagnosing and treating prostate cancer by targeting the altered cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24606897

  5. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  6. Sialylation and glycosylation modulate cell adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix in human malignant lymphoma: Dependency on integrin and the Rho GTPase family.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    To determine the biological roles of cell surface glycosylation, we modified the surface glycosylation of human malignant lymphoma cell lines using glycosylation inhibitors. The O-glycosylation inhibitor, benzyl-α-GalNAc (BZ) enhanced the fibronectin adhesion of HBL-8 cells, a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, and of H-ALCL cells, a human anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line, both of which were established in our laboratory. The N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (TM) inhibited the surface expression of Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinating (L-PHA) lectin- and Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) lectin-reactive oligosaccharides in the HBL-8 cell line. Assay of the adhesion of HBL-8 cells to fibronectin showed that fibronectin adhesion is mediated by the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 and that not only BZ but also TM treatment enhanced HBL-8 cell adhesion to fibronectin. Furthermore, although BZ treatment also enhanced H-ALCL cell adhesion to fibronectin, this effect was not mediated by VLA-5 or the RGD sequence of fibronectin. We also showed that H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was enhanced by pre-treatment with neuraminidase, which cleaves cell surface sialic acid. Additionally, H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was inhibited by pre‑treatment with the RGD peptide suggesting that cell adhesion to galectin-3 is mediated by integrin (VLA-5). Furthermore, H-ALCL cell invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 was inhibited by pre-treatment with the RGD peptide. Therefore, cell adhesion to and invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 are integrin-dependent. In addition to these findings, cell adhesion to galectin-3 was markedly inhibited by treatment with β-lactose compared to treatment with sucrose. Therefore, interactions between integrins and galectin-3 may be mediated through β-galactose that is linked to glycans of integrins. AZA1, an inhibitor of Ras homolog oncoprotein (Rho) GTPase family proteins, RAS-related C3 botulinus toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1) and

  7. miR-135b, a key regulator of malignancy, is linked to poor prognosis in human myxoid liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Y; Hagiwara, K; Yamamoto, Y; Fujiwara, T; Matsuo, K; Yoshida, A; Kawai, A; Saito, T; Ochiya, T

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell (RC) liposarcomas (MLS) were originally classified into two distinct populations based on histological differences; a myxoid component and a RC component. It is notable that, depending on an increase of the RC component, the prognosis significantly differs. Hence, the RC component is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the malignancy of the RC component still remain largely unknown. Here, we report microRNA-135b (miR-135b), a key regulator of the malignancy, highly expressed in the RC component and promoting MLS cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through the direct suppression of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2). Decreased THBS2 expression by miR-135b increases the total amount of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and influences cellular density and an extracellular matrix structure, thereby resulting in morphological change in tumor. The expression levels of miR-135b and THBS2 significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in MLS patients. Overall, our study reveals that the miR-135b/THBS2/MMP2 axis is tightly related to MLS pathophysiology and has an important clinical implication. This work provides noteworthy evidence for overcoming metastasis and improving patient outcomes, and sheds light on miR-135b and THBS2 as novel molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy in MLS. PMID:27157622

  8. Synergistic anticancer activity of curcumin and bleomycin: an in vitro study using human malignant testicular germ cells.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Timur, Mujgan; Ozdemir, Evrim; Kucuksayan, Ertan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among young men of reproductive age. Bleomycin is a frequently used drug for the treatment of several malignancies and is part of the chemotherapy protocols used for testicular cancer; however, side-effects are common. Bleomycin causes an increase in oxidative stress which has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active component of the spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in a number of malignancies. However, to date no study has been carried out to elucidate its anticancer activity and interaction with bleomycin in testicular cancer cells. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of curcumin, bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on apoptotic signaling pathways. Curcumin (20 µM), bleomycin (400 µg/ml) and H2O2 (400 µM) incubation for 24 h decreased the viability of NTera-2 cells, and increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, Bax and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels and decreased Bcl-2 levels. The concurrent use of curcumin with bleomycin induced caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities to a greater extent in NTera-2 cells than the use of each drug alone. Our observations suggest that the effects of curcumin and bleomycin on apoptotic signaling pathways are synergistic. Therefore, we propose to use curcumin together with bleomycin to decrease its therapeutic dose and, therefore, its side-effects.

  9. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  10. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  11. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  12. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  13. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Asplund, Maria; Herrera, Jose A.R.; Steiniche, Torben; Mourier, Tobias; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Izarzugaza, Jose M.G.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Lars P.

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be investigated. PMID:28098541

  14. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  15. Spontaneous malignant craniopharyngioma in an aged Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Martin; Ernst, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are extremely rare epithelial tumors of the sellar region in human beings and domestic and laboratory animals. A craniopharyngioma, 0.6 cm in diameter, was observed grossly in the sellar and parasellar regions of an untreated 23-month-old male Wistar-derived rat sacrificed moribund. The tumor was composed of cords, columns, and nests of neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Neoplastic cells formed solid or cystic areas, infiltrating the base of the skull, brain, and pituitary gland. Immunocytochemical evaluation revealed a strong cytoplasmic reaction for pan-cytokeratin in all tumor cells. Malignant craniopharyngioma should be considered a differential diagnosis in the rat when a tumor with stratified squamous epithelial features and a locally aggressive growth pattern is observed in the sellar or suprasellar region. PMID:27559246

  16. Identification of a cDNA encoding a parathyroid hormone-like peptide from a human tumor associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Mangin, M.; Webb, A.C.; Dreyer, B.E.; Posillico, J.T.; Ikeda, K.; Weir, E.C.; Stewart, A.F.; Bander, N.H.; Milstone, L.; Barton, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common paraneoplastic syndrome that appears to be mediated in many instances by a parathyroid hormone-like peptide. Poly(A)/sup +/ RNA from a human renal carcinoma associated with this syndrome was enriched by preparative electrophoresis and used to construct an enriched cDNA library in phage lambdagt10. The library was screened with a codon-preference oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of a partial N-terminal amino acid sequence from a human tumor-derived peptide, and a 2.0 kilo-base cDNA was identified. The cDNA encodes a 177 amino acid protein consisting of a 36 amino acid leader sequence and a 141 amino acid mature peptide. The first 13 amino acids of the deduced sequence of the mature peptide display strong homology to human PTH, with complete divergence thereafter. RNA blot-hybridization analysis revealed multiple transcripts in mRNA from tumors associated with the humor syndrome and also in mRNA from normal human keratinocytes. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from humans and rodents revealed a simple pattern compatible with a single-copy gene. The gene has been mapped to chromosome 12.

  17. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sunil K; Misra, Ritu; Gupta, Rohini; Bansal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality. PMID:27730041

  18. Is metastatic pancreatic cancer an untargetable malignancy?

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Gharios, Joseph; Elkarak, Fadi; Antoun, Joelle; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, known to be chemo-resistant and have been recently considered resistant to some targeted therapies (TT). Erlotinib combined to gemcitabine is the only targeted therapy that showed an overall survival benefit in MPC. New targets and therapeutic approaches, based on new-TT, are actually being evaluated in MPC going from immunotherapy, epigenetics, tumor suppressor gene and oncogenes to stromal matrix regulators. We aim in this paper to present the major causes rendering MPC an untargetable malignancy and to focus on the new therapeutic modalities based on TT in MPC. PMID:26989465

  19. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epihelial Cells in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    environment and the grafting site. Several xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their...useful for studying xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors and human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the development of a

  20. [Biochemical findings in proteincomposition of secretions of human malignant parotid tumours, chronic parotitis and sialadenoses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H; Bretzel, G; Hochstrasser, K

    1977-01-01

    In comparison to former investigations in pleomorphic adenoms and Wharthin tumours in the present paper secretion of IgA, lysozyme in correlation to flowrate and total secretion in glands with malignant tumours, inflammations and Sialadenosis were estimated. Thereby 12 patients with malignomas of the parotid gland, 11 patients with chronic parotitis and 12 with sialadenoses were examined. The following results were found: 1. The concentration of protein, IgA and Lysozym is significantly higher than in normal glands and in glands with pleomorphic adenomas and Wharthin tumours. 2. Differentialdiagnosis of Sialadenitis and Sialadenosis of parotid glands is possible by estimating the examined parameters. Thereby in glands with sialadenosis flowrate is higher than in normal glands, and significant lower in glands with sialadenitis. Moreover concentrations of IgA and Lysozyme and protein in glands with sialadenitis are evaluated.

  1. Characterization of cancer stem cell properties of CD24 and CD26-positive human malignant mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Hiroto; Naito, Motohiko; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Dang, Nam H.; Morimoto, Chikao

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on CD24 and CD26 for further analysis of CSC properties in MM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were correlated with chemoresistance, cell growth, and invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their expressions were also correlated with several cancer related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of each marker was correlated with different CSC property in Meso1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of ERK by EGF was regulated by expression of CD26, but not CD24. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos-related malignancy characterized by rapid growth and poor prognosis. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that several cancer stem cell (CSC) markers correlated with CSC properties in MM cells. Among these markers, we focused on two: CD24, the common CSC marker, and CD26, the additional CSC marker. We further analyzed the CSC properties of CD24 and CD26-positve MM cells. We established RNAi-knockdown cells and found that these markers were significantly correlated with chemoresistance, proliferation, and invasion potentials in vitro. Interestingly, while Meso-1 cells expressed both CD24 and CD26, the presence of each of these two markers was correlated with different CSC property. In addition, downstream signaling of these markers was explored by microarray analysis, which revealed that their expressions were correlated with several cancer-related genes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK by EGF stimulation was significantly affected by the expression of CD26, but not CD24. These results suggest that CD24 and CD26 differentially regulate the CSC potentials of MM and could be promising targets for CSC-oriented therapy.

  2. Fusion Toxin BLyS-Gelonin Inhibits Growth of Malignant Human B Cell Lines In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Luster, Troy A.; Mukherjee, Ipsita; Carrell, Jeffrey A.; Cho, Yun Hee; Gill, Jeffrey; Kelly, Lizbeth; Garcia, Andy; Ward, Christopher; Oh, Luke; Ullrich, Stephen J.; Migone, Thi-Sau; Humphreys, Robin

    2012-01-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines. The biological activity of BLyS is mediated by three cell surface receptors: BR3/BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA. The expression of these receptors is highly restricted to B cells, both normal and malignant. A BLyS-gelonin fusion toxin (BLyS-gel) was generated consisting of the recombinant plant-derived toxin gelonin fused to the N-terminus of BLyS and tested against a large and diverse panel of B-NHL cell lines. Interestingly, B-NHL subtypes mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B cell precursor-acute lymphocytic leukemia (BCP-ALL) were preferentially sensitive to BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity, with low picomolar EC50 values. BLyS receptor expression did not guarantee sensitivity to BLyS-gel, even though the construct was internalized by both sensitive and resistant cells. Resistance to BLyS-gel could be overcome by treatment with the endosomotropic drug chloroquine, suggesting BLyS-gel may become trapped within endosomal/lysosomal compartments in resistant cells. BLyS-gel induced cell death was caspase-independent and shown to be at least partially mediated by the “ribotoxic stress response.” This response involves activation of p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK, and BLyS-gel mediated cytotoxicity was inhibited by the p38/JNK inhibitor SB203580. Finally, BLyS-gel treatment was shown to localize to sites of disease, rapidly reduce tumor burden, and significantly prolong survival in xenograft mouse models of disseminated BCP-ALL, DLBCL, and MCL. Together, these findings suggest BLyS has significant potential as a targeting ligand for the delivery of cytotoxic “payloads” to malignant B cells. PMID:23056634

  3. Alterations in vitamin D signaling pathway in gastric cancer progression: a study of vitamin D receptor expression in human normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yanghui; Da, Mingxu; Zhang, Yongbin; Peng, Lingzhi; Yao, Jibin; Duan, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Amount of studies in cells and animal models have proved vitamin D has multifarious antitumor effects. However, epidemiological studies showed inconsistent result on gastric cancer. The antitumor role is mainly mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Our hypothesis is that VDR may be abnormally (poorly) expressed in gastric cancer tissue. Present study is aimed at discovering and analyzing VDR expression in a series of human gastric tissues, including normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue, and correlated VDR to the clinicopathological parameters of gastric cancer patients. VDR expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The χ2 test was used to analyze the VDR expression as well as the relationship between VDR and the clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer patients. Compared with normal (82.61%) and premalignant tissues (73.64%), VDR was lower expressed in cancer tissues (57.61%), with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Among cancer tissues, VDR was higher expressed in well and moderate differentiated tissues contrasted with tissues with poor differentiation, and higher expressed in small tumors (< 5 cm) compared with large tumors (≥ 5 cm), with a statistically significant difference respectively (P = 0.016, P = 0.009). A decline linear trend appeared when analyzing the statistical difference of VDR expression among normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissues. VDR expression has been on the decline from the premalignant stage, finally low expressed in gastric cancer tissues, especial in poorly differentiated tissues. VDR could be a potential prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26722516

  4. Involvement of p53 mutation and mismatch repair proteins dysregulation in NNK-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhang, Shuilian; Huang, Xiaobin; Chen, Kailin; Shen, Jing; Wang, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  5. Alterations in vitamin D signaling pathway in gastric cancer progression: a study of vitamin D receptor expression in human normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yanghui; Da, Mingxu; Zhang, Yongbin; Peng, Lingzhi; Yao, Jibin; Duan, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Amount of studies in cells and animal models have proved vitamin D has multifarious antitumor effects. However, epidemiological studies showed inconsistent result on gastric cancer. The antitumor role is mainly mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Our hypothesis is that VDR may be abnormally (poorly) expressed in gastric cancer tissue. Present study is aimed at discovering and analyzing VDR expression in a series of human gastric tissues, including normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue, and correlated VDR to the clinicopathological parameters of gastric cancer patients. VDR expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the VDR expression as well as the relationship between VDR and the clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer patients. Compared with normal (82.61%) and premalignant tissues (73.64%), VDR was lower expressed in cancer tissues (57.61%), with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Among cancer tissues, VDR was higher expressed in well and moderate differentiated tissues contrasted with tissues with poor differentiation, and higher expressed in small tumors (< 5 cm) compared with large tumors (≥ 5 cm), with a statistically significant difference respectively (P = 0.016, P = 0.009). A decline linear trend appeared when analyzing the statistical difference of VDR expression among normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissues. VDR expression has been on the decline from the premalignant stage, finally low expressed in gastric cancer tissues, especial in poorly differentiated tissues. VDR could be a potential prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer.

  6. Non-AIDS definings malignancies among human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects: Epidemiology and outcome after two decades of HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Morelli, Erika; Cattelan, Francesca; Petrucci, Andrea; Panese, Sandro; Eseme, Franklyn; Cavinato, Francesca; Barelli, Andrea; Raise, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been widely available in industrialized countries since 1996; its widespread use determined a dramatic decline in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality, and consequently, a significant decrease of AIDS-defining cancers. However the increased mean age of HIV-infected patients, prolonged exposure to environmental and lifestyle cancer risk factors, and coinfection with oncogenic viruses contributed to the emergence of other malignancies that are considered non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) as a relevant fraction of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected people twenty years after HAART introduction. The role of immunosuppression in the pathogenesis of NADCs is not well defined, and future researches should investigate the etiology of NADCs. In the last years there is a growing evidence that intensive chemotherapy regimens and radiotherapy could be safely administrated to HIV-positive patients while continuing HAART. This requires a multidisciplinary approach and a close co-operation of oncologists and HIV-physicians in order to best manage compliance of patients to treatment and to face drug-related side effects. Here we review the main epidemiological features, risk factors and clinical behavior of the more common NADCs, such as lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer and anal cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and some cutaneous malignancies, focusing also on the current therapeutic approaches and preventive screening strategies. PMID:26279983

  7. Artemether Combined with shRNA Interference of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Significantly Inhibited the Malignant Biological Behavior of Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue; Yao, Yi-Long; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells. U87 human glioma cells were treated with artemether at various concentrations and shRNA interfering technology was employed to silence the expression of VCAM-1. Cell viability, migration, invasiveness and apoptosis were assessed with MTT, wound healing, Transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was checked by Western blot assay. Results showed that artemether and shRNA-VCAM-1 not only significantly inhibited the migration, invasiveness and expression of MMP-2/9 and p-Akt, but also promoted the apoptosis of U87 cells. Combined treatment of both displayed the maximum inhibitory effects on the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Our work revealed the potential therapeutic effects of artemether and antiVCAM-1 in the treatments of gliomas. PMID:23593320

  8. Pelvic pain, free fluid in pelvis, and human chorionic gonadotropin serum elevation: recurrence of malignant ovarian germ-cell tumor or early pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Barczyński, B; Rogala, E; Nowicka, A; Nurzyńska-Flak, J; Kotarski, J

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of metastatic germ-cell tumor of the ovary does not exclude the possibility of pregnancy in the future. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) serves as pregnancy test, and has also been proven to be a useful marker for ovarian germ-cell tumors. This paper is a case report of a 19-year-old patient who was admitted to a district hospital in emergency due to pelvic pain, amenorrhoea, and free fluid in the pelvis. Laboratory tests demonstrated slight increase in beta-hCG serum concentration and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) showed no evidence of gestational sac in the uterus. At the age of 14, the patient was diagnosed with malignant germ-cell tumor of the left ovary in FIGO Stage IV and was treated with four courses of chemotherapy according to TGM-95 protocol with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin, followed by conservative surgery and adjuvant two courses of cytostatics. The initial diagnosis was recurrence of ovarian malignancy and the patient was referred to an oncology center. Wait-and-see approach and repeated ultrasound examination confirmed a normal intrauterine pregnancy which concluded with the delivery of a healthy newborn through cesarean section.

  9. Dielectric properties of human normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue: in vivo and ex vivo measurements from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Ann P; Lazebnik, Mariya; Bertram, John M; Converse, Mark C; Hagness, Susan C; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2007-08-07

    Hepatic malignancies have historically been treated with surgical resection. Due to the shortcomings of this technique, there is interest in other, less invasive, treatment modalities, such as microwave hepatic ablation. Crucial to the development of this technique is the accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of human liver tissue at microwave frequencies. To this end, we characterized the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic human liver tissues from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Analysis of our data at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz indicates that the dielectric properties of ex vivo malignant liver tissue are 19 to 30% higher than normal tissue. The differences in the dielectric properties of in vivo malignant and normal liver tissue are not statistically significant (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 16% higher than normal). Also, the dielectric properties of in vivo normal liver tissue at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are 16 to 43% higher than ex vivo. No statistically significant differences were found between the dielectric properties of in vivo and ex vivo malignant tissue (with the exception of effective conductivity at 915 MHz, where malignant tissue properties are 28% higher than normal). We report the one-pole Cole-Cole parameters for ex vivo normal, malignant and cirrhotic liver tissue in this frequency range. We observe that wideband dielectric properties of in vivo liver tissue are different from the wideband dielectric properties of ex vivo liver tissue, and that the in vivo data cannot be represented in terms of a Cole-Cole model. Further work is needed to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the observed wideband trends in the in vivo liver data.

  10. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  11. Leiomyosarcoma: a rare malignant transformation of a uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, G; D'Alfonso, A; Patacchiola, F; Di Stefano, L; Palermo, P; Carta, G

    2015-01-01

    The malignant transformation of a uterine leiomyoma is still debated and, if it occurs, it is very rare. The case of a patient affected by one small leiomyoma is described. Diagnosis was made postoperatively on histopathological examination. The case reported here is meant to underline the need to keep all uterine myomas in check since the transition into leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) may occur with an evolution over a time period which has not been established so far. Specific receptors for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) have also been identified in the myometrium of several animal species, including humans. Conventional LMSs express estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and androgen receptors (AR) in 30-40% of cases. In comparison with other more common uterine malignancies, uterine LMSs bear some resemblance to type 2 endometrial carcinomas and high-grade serous carcinomas of ovary/fallopian tube origin, based on their genetic instability, frequent p53 abnormalities, aggressive behavior, and resistance to chemotherapy. It could be useful to understand with further researches if hormonal stimulation could be a contributing factor of uterine leiomyoma transformation into LMS. Until today the oncogenic mechanisms underlying the development of uterine LMSs remain elusive.

  12. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  13. Simultaneous estimation of size, radial and angular locations of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast - A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    This article reports a numerical study pertaining to simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast. The breast skin surface temperature profile is specific to a tumor of specific size and location. The temperature profiles are always the Gaussian one, though their peak magnitudes and areas differ according to the size and location of the tumor. The temperature profiles are obtained by solving the Pennes bioheat equation using the finite element method based solver COMSOL 4.3a. With temperature profiles known, simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of the tumor is done using the curve fitting method. Effect of measurement errors is also included in the study. Estimations are accurate, and since in the inverse analysis, the curve fitting method does not require solution of the governing bioheat equation, the estimation is very fast.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, SEN; CHIBA, SHUNMEI; LIN, YANFUI; ARAKAKI, KAZUNARI; MATSUMOTO, HIROFUMI; NAKANISHI, TAKAYA; SUZUKI, MIKIO; KATO, SEIYA

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common non-skin cancer worldwide. Despite improvement in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of advanced HNSCC remains poor. The extacellular lipid mediators known as lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis of HNSCC. LPAs activate G-protein-coupled receptors not only in the endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) family (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3) but also in the phylogenetically distant non-Edg family (LPA4, LPA5, LPA6). The distinct roles of these receptor isoforms in HNSCC tumorigenesis have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ectopic expression of LPA4 in SQ-20B, an HNSCC cell line, expressing a trivial level of endogenous LPA4. LPA (18:1) stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells, but did not affect proliferation of HEp-2, an SCC cell line expressing higher levels of LPA4, comparable to those of with LPA1. LPA-stimulated proliferation of SQ-20B cells was attenuated by Ki16425 and Rac1 inhibitor, but not by Y-27632. Infection with doxycycline-regulatable adenovirus vector expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged LPA4 (AdvLPA4G) abolished LPA-stimulated proliferation in SQ-20B cells with the accumulation of G2/M-phasic cells. Ectopic LPA4 induction further downregulated proliferation of Ki16425-treated SQ-20B cells, of which downregulation was partially recovered by LPA. Ectopic LPA4 induction also downregulated proliferation of Rac1 inhibitor-treated SQ-20B cells, however, LPA no longer recovered it. Finally, LPA-induced cell motility was suppressed by ectopic LPA4 expression as well as by Ki16425, Rac1 inhibitor or Y-27632. Our data suggest that LPA4 signaling potentially modulates malignant behavior of SQ-20B cells. LPA signaling, which is mediated by both Edg and non-Edg receptors, may be a determinant of malignant behavior of HNSCC and could therefore be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:23467751

  15. Exposure to the polyester PET precursor—terephthalic acid induces and perpetuates DNA damage-harboring non-malignant human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Moore, Dan H.; Dairkee, Shanaz H.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of early perturbations induced in cells from non-cancerous breast tissue is critical for understanding possible breast cancer risk from chemical exposure. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to the ubiquitous xenoestrogens, bisphenol A (BPA) and methyl paraben, promotes the hallmarks of cancer in non-malignant human high-risk donor breast epithelial cells (HRBECs) isolated from several donors. Here we show that terephthalic acid (TPA), a major chemical precursor of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers used for the storage of food and beverages, increased the ERα: ERβ ratio in multiple HRBEC samples, suggesting an estrogenic effect. Although, like BPA and methyl paraben, TPA also promoted resistance to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, unlike these chemicals instead of inducing an increased S-phase fraction, TPA treatment arrested cell proliferation. DNA-PK, ATM and members of the MRN complex, known to be involved in DNA damage sensor and effector proteins, were elevated indicating induction of DNA strand breaks. Early DNA damage checkpoint response, mediated through p53/p21, led to G1 arrest in TPA-exposed cells. Removal of TPA from the growth medium resulted in the rapid induction of BCL2, increasing the ratio of anti-: pro-apoptotic proteins, together with overexpression of Cyclin A/CDK2 proteins. Consequently, despite elevated p53pSer15 and H2AXpSer139, indicating sustained DNA damage, TPA exposed cells resumed robust growth rates seen prior to TPA exposure. The propensity for the perpetuation of DNA aberrations that activate DNA damage pathways in non-malignant breast cells justifies careful consideration of human exposure to TPA, particularly at vulnerable life stages. PMID:25411358

  16. Interaction of human malignant melanoma (ST-ML-12) tumor spheroids with endothelial cell monolayers. Damage to endothelium by oxygen-derived free radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Offner, F. A.; Wirtz, H. C.; Schiefer, J.; Bigalke, I.; Klosterhalfen, B.; Bittinger, F.; Mittermayer, C.; Kirkpatrick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations suggest that tumor-induced endothelial cell injury may be one of several initial events in the establishment of tumor metastases. To test this hypothesis, the authors have analyzed the interaction of malignant melanoma (ST-ML-12) multicenter tumor spheroids with endothelial cell monolayers in a three-dimensional coculture system. After 1.5 hours of interaction, the authors observed a toxic effect on endothelial cells in the perispheroid region. The latter was demonstrated by testing membrane integrity with the fluorescent probes acridine orange/ethidium bromide and resulted in sensitivity to shear stress of the damaged cells. The endothelium then underwent a regenerative cycle to replace the denuded halo. Addition of the oxygen radical-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase to the culture medium prevented this endothelial cell damage in a dose-dependent manner for up to 12 hours. By contrast, catalase, deferoxamine mesylate, allopurinol, and the proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and aprotinin were not protective under the same conditions. The endothelial damage was dependent on the attachment of the spheroids. Medium conditioned by ST-ML-12-spheroids proved to be ineffective. A similar, but less prominent, deleterious effect was seen when human peritoneal mesothelial cells were used in place of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Spheroids of the uroepithelial cell line HU-609 were used as control. No toxicity was observed in these cocultures. Melanin biosynthesis is associated with the production of oxygen-derived free radicals. The results suggest a possible implication of these free radicals in metastasis formation of malignant melanoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1519667

  17. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Xianglin

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.

  18. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts.

  19. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epithelial Cells In Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    grafting site. Several xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their derivative, the non... xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors and human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the development of a severe acute graft-vs

  20. Identification of a seven glycopeptide signature for malignant pleural mesothelioma in human serum by selected reaction monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum biomarkers can improve diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, the evaluation of potential new serum biomarker candidates is hampered by a lack of assay technologies for their clinical evaluation. Here we followed a hypothesis-driven targeted proteomics strategy for the identification and clinical evaluation of MPM candidate biomarkers in serum of patient cohorts. Results Based on the hypothesis that cell surface exposed glycoproteins are prone to be released from tumor-cells to the circulatory system, we screened the surfaceome of model cell lines for potential MPM candidate biomarkers. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay technology allowed for the direct evaluation of the newly identified candidates in serum. Our evaluation of 51 candidate biomarkers in the context of a training and an independent validation set revealed a reproducible glycopeptide signature of MPM in serum which complemented the MPM biomarker mesothelin. Conclusions Our study shows that SRM assay technology enables the direct clinical evaluation of protein-derived candidate biomarker panels for which clinically reliable ELISA’s currently do not exist. PMID:24207061

  1. Up-regulation of PKM2 promote malignancy and related to adverse prognostic risk factor in human gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Yijian; Li, Sheng; Gao, Jian; Wang, Xu-An; Mu, Jiasheng; Hu, Yun-Ping; Jiang, Lin; Dong, Ping; Gong, Wei; Liu, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been implicated in the progression of certain cancers and might play pivotal roles in the formation of malignancy. However, the role of PKM2 in gallbladder cancer had not been well investigated. This study analyzed associations between PKM2 expression status with various clinical and pathologic parameters in a large cohort of gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients from a long term follow up results. The expression level of pyruvate kinase isotypes in GBC tissues and their adjacent normal gallbladder tissues were estimated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. PKM2 mRNA level were significantly high in gallbladder cancer tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001). High expression of the PKM2 was detected in 55.71% paraffin-embedded GBC tissue. The high PKM2 expression was independently associated with poorer overall survival in patients with GBC (median survival 11.9 vs 30.1 months; hazard ratio 2.79; 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.55; P = 0.02). These findings indicated elevated expression of PKM2 is a prognostic factor for poor GBC clinical outcomes, implied involving of PKM2 in GBC progression. PMID:27283076

  2. Overexpression of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zunfu; He, Weiling; Lai, Yuanhui; Guo, Xuefeng; Chen, Sharon; Li, Shuhua; Wang, Yuefeng; Wang, Liantang

    2014-10-15

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1), a novel oncogene, was identified to be aberrantly overexpressed in several malignant tumors. However, the expression profile of CTHRC1 and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown. In this study, we showed that CTHRC1 was evidently overexpressed in human NSCLC tissues and NSCLC cell lines at the protein and mRNA level. Ectopic up-regulation of CTHRC1 in cancer cells resulted in elevated invasive and proliferative abilities, which were attenuated by the specific CTHRC1 siRNA. The biological effect of CTHRC1 on metastasis and proliferation was mediated by the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Furthermore, CTHRC1 immunoreactivity was evidently overexpressed in paraffin-embedded NSCLC tissues (212/292, 72.60%) in comparison to corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (6/66, 9.09%) (p<0.001). Clinicopathologic analysis showed that CTHRC1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation degree (p<0.001), clinical stage (p<0.001), T classification (p<0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.013) and distant metastasis (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high CTHRC1 expression had poorer overall survival rates than those with low CTHRC1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that CTHRC1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of NSCLC patients. Collectively, CTHRC1 plays important roles in NSCLC progression, and the evaluation of CTHRC1 expression could serve as a potential marker for metastasis progression and prognosis in NSCLC patients.

  3. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  4. Novel Photosensitizers Trigger Rapid Death of Malignant Human Cells and Rodent Tumor Transplants via Lipid Photodamage and Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Moisenovich, Mikhail M.; Ol'shevskaya, Valentina A.; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I.; Ramonova, Alla A.; Nikitina, Roza G.; Tatarskiy, Victor V.; Kaplan, Mikhail A.; Kalinin, Valery N.; Kotova, Elena A.; Uvarov, Oleg V.; Agapov, Igor I.; Antonenko, Yuri N.; Shtil, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Our novel derivatives of chlorin e6, that is, its amide (compound 2) and boronated amide (compound 5) evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e6 against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes) necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all) lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3–4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e6 in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. Conclusions/Significance The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are directly associated with

  5. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA HOTAIR inhibits malignant biological behaviors of human glioma cells via modulation of miR-326

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jing; Yao, Yi-long; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-hui; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-bai; Li, Zhi-qing; Wang, Zhen-hua; Xue, Yi-xue

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common and aggressive primary adult brain tumor. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in a variety of biological properties of cancers. Here, we elucidated the function and the possible molecular mechanisms of lncRNA HOTAIR in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that HOTAIR expression was up-regulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of HOTAIR exerted tumor-suppressive function in glioma cells. Further, HOTAIR was confirmed to be the target of miR-326 and miR-326 mediated the tumor-suppressive effects of HOTAIR knockdown on glioma cell lines. Moreover, over-expressed miR-326 reduced the FGF1 expression which played an oncogenic role in glioma by activating PI3K/AKT and MEK 1/2 pathways. In addition, the in vivo studies also supported the above findings. Taken together, knockdown of HOTAIR up-regulated miR-326 expression, and further inducing the decreased expression of FGF1, these results provided a comprehensive analysis of HOTAIR-miR-326-FGF1 axis in human glioma and provided a new potential therapeutic strategy for glioma treatment. PMID:26183397

  6. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  7. Contribution of Soft Substrates to Malignancy and Tumor Suppression during Colon Cancer Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rabineau, Morgane; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Dujardin, Denis; Senger, Bernard; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Freund, Jean-Noel; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe; Vautier, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In colon cancer, a highly aggressive disease, progression through the malignant sequence is accompanied by increasingly numerous chromosomal rearrangements. To colonize target organs, invasive cells cross several tissues of various elastic moduli. Whether soft tissue increases malignancy or in contrast limits invasive colon cell spreading remains an open question. Using polyelectrolyte multilayer films mimicking microenvironments of various elastic moduli, we revealed that human SW480 colon cancer cells displayed increasing frequency in chromosomal segregation abnormalities when cultured on substrates with decreasing stiffness. Our results show that, although decreasing stiffness correlates with increased cell lethality, a significant proportion of SW480 cancer cells did escape from the very soft substrates, even when bearing abnormal chromosome segregation, achieve mitosis and undergo a new cycle of replication in contrast to human colonic HCoEpiC cells which died on soft substrates. This observation opens the possibility that the ability of cancer cells to overcome defects in chromosome segregation on very soft substrates could contribute to increasing chromosomal rearrangements and tumor cell aggressiveness. PMID:24167628

  8. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer. PMID:27036040

  9. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-05-10

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer.

  10. Mutations in the TP53 gene in human malignant melanomas derived from sun-exposed skin and unexposed mucosal membranes.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson-Olding, B K; Karsberg, S; Platz, A; Ringborg, U K

    2002-10-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumour suppressor gene ( ) have been linked to several types of cancer. We therefore investigated whether such mutations occur in malignant melanomas and, if so, whether they are linked to ultraviolet (sun) light exposure. For the first time, mutations in mucosal membranes and adjacent tissues shielded from sunlight were compared with those in cutaneous melanomas from sun-exposed skin. Archival tissues were obtained from 35 patients with a primary melanoma taken from unexposed mucosal areas and from 34 patients with a primary melanoma located in chronically sun-exposed head and neck skin. was characterized by means of polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism assay followed by nucleotide sequencing. The results showed that 17.6% of the primary cutaneous and 28.6% of the primary mucosal melanomas had point mutations in. Among the cutaneous melanomas, one showed three mutations in exon 7, and one had two mutations in exon 5; the mutation was in the same allele in both cases. One mucosal melanoma had two mutations in exon 7, both in the same allele, and another had two mutations, one in exon 7 and one in intron 6, both in the same allele. C<--T mutations at dipyrimidine sites, considered fingerprints for ultraviolet light-induced mutations, were about equally distributed among patients with melanomas from chronically sun-exposed areas (six out of nine; 67%) and those with melanomas from unexposed mucosal areas and adjacent skin (eight out of 14; 57%). Our data, demonstrating the presence of such mutations even in melanomas from mucosal membranes, clearly suggest that factors other than, or additional to, ultraviolet radiation are operational in the induction of mutations in melanomas.

  11. Quantitation of chemopreventive synergism between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Khafif, A; Schantz, S P; Chou, T C; Edelstein, D; Sacks, P G

    1998-03-01

    An in vitro model for oral cancer was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of chemopreventive agents when used singly and in combination. The model consists of primary cultures of normal oral epithelial cells, newly established cell lines derived from dysplastic leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Two naturally occurring substances, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and curcumin from the spice turmeric were tested. Cells were treated singly and in combination and effects on growth determined in 5-day growth assays and by cell cycle analysis. Effective dose 50s and the combination index were calculated with the computerized Chou-Talalay method which is based on the median-effect principle. Agents were shown to differ in their inhibitory potency. EGCG was less effective with cell progression; the cancer cells were more resistant than normal or dysplastic cells. In contrast, curcumin was equally effective regardless of the cell type tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that EGCG blocked cells in G1, whereas curcumin blocked cells in S/G2M. The combination of both agents showed synergistic interactions in growth inhibition and increased sigmoidicity (steepness) of the dose-effect curves, a response that was dose and cell type dependent. Combinations allowed for a dose reduction of 4.4-8.5-fold for EGCG and 2.2-2.8-fold for curcumin at ED50s as indicated by the dose reduction index (DRI). Even greater DRI values were observed above ED50 levels. Our results demonstrate that this model which includes normal, premalignant and malignant oral cells can be used to analyse the relative potential of various chemopreventive agents. Two such naturally-occurring agents, EGCG and curcumin, were noted to inhibit growth by different mechanisms, a factor which may account for their demonstrable interactive synergistic effect.

  12. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  13. Tumor-specific downregulation and methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes correlate with aggressiveness of human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi Rong; Sano, Toshiaki; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Asa, Sylvia L; Yamada, Shozo; Mizusawa, Noriko; Kudo, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    The gene products of CDH13 and CDH1, H-cadherin and E-cadherin, respectively, play a key role in cell-cell adhesion. Inactivation of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system caused by aberrant methylation is a common finding in human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 and CDH1 function as tumor suppressor and invasion suppressor genes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein in 5 normal pituitary tissues and 69 primary pituitary adenomas including all major types by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Reduced expression of H-cadherin was detected in 54% (28/52) of pituitary tumors and was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression was lost in 30% (21 of 69) and significantly reduced in 32% (22 of 69) of tumors. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in grade II, III, and IV than in grade I adenomas (P=0.015, P=0.029, and P=0.01, respectively). Using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), promoter hypermethylation of CDH13 and CDH1 was detected in 30 and 36% of 69 adenomas, respectively, but not in 5 normal pituitary tissues. Methylation of CDH13 was observed more frequently in invasive adenomas (42%) than in non-invasive adenomas (19%) (P<0.05) and methylation of CDH1 was more frequent in grade IV adenomas compared with grade I adenomas (P<0.05). Methylation of either CDH13 or CDH1 was identified in 35 cases (51%) and was more frequent in grade IV invasive adenomas than in grade I non-invasive adenomas (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). Downregulation of expression was correlated with promoter hypermethylation in CDH13 and CDH1. In conclusion, the tumor-specific downregulation of expression and methylation of CDH13 and CDH1, alone or in combination, may be involved in the development and invasive growth of pituitary adenomas.

  14. Establishment of the epithelial-specific transcriptome of normal and malignant human breast cells based on MPSS and array expression data

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, Anita; Mackay, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Steele, Dawn; Iseli, Christian; Stevenson, Brian J; Jongeneel, C Victor; Valgeirsson, Haukur; Fenwick, Kerry; Iravani, Marjan; Leao, Maria; Simpson, Andrew JG; Strausberg, Robert L; Jat, Parmjit S; Ashworth, Alan; Neville, A Munro; O'Hare, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Diverse microarray and sequencing technologies have been widely used to characterise the molecular changes in malignant epithelial cells in breast cancers. Such gene expression studies to identify markers and targets in tumour cells are, however, compromised by the cellular heterogeneity of solid breast tumours and by the lack of appropriate counterparts representing normal breast epithelial cells. Methods Malignant neoplastic epithelial cells from primary breast cancers and luminal and myoepithelial cells isolated from normal human breast tissue were isolated by immunomagnetic separation methods. Pools of RNA from highly enriched preparations of these cell types were subjected to expression profiling using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) and four different genome wide microarray platforms. Functional related transcripts of the differential tumour epithelial transcriptome were used for gene set enrichment analysis to identify enrichment of luminal and myoepithelial type genes. Clinical pathological validation of a small number of genes was performed on tissue microarrays. Results MPSS identified 6,553 differentially expressed genes between the pool of normal luminal cells and that of primary tumours substantially enriched for epithelial cells, of which 98% were represented and 60% were confirmed by microarray profiling. Significant expression level changes between these two samples detected only by microarray technology were shown by 4,149 transcripts, resulting in a combined differential tumour epithelial transcriptome of 8,051 genes. Microarray gene signatures identified a comprehensive list of 907 and 955 transcripts whose expression differed between luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells, respectively. Functional annotation and gene set enrichment analysis highlighted a group of genes related to skeletal development that were associated with the myoepithelial/basal cells and upregulated in the tumour sample. One of the most

  15. Differential expression and biochemical activity of the immune receptor Tim-3 in healthy and malignant human myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Silva, Isabel; Gibbs, Bernhard F; Bardelli, Marco; Varani, Luca; Sumbayev, Vadim V

    2015-10-20

    The T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a plasma membrane-associated receptor which is involved in a variety of biological responses in human immune cells. It is highly expressed in most acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells and therefore may serve as a possible target for AML therapy. However, its biochemical activities in primary human AML cells remain unclear. We therefore analysed the total expression and surface presence of the Tim-3 receptor in primary human AML blasts and healthy primary human leukocytes isolated from human blood. We found that Tim-3 expression was significantly higher in primary AML cells compared to primary healthy leukocytes. Tim-3 receptor molecules were distributed largely on the surface of primary AML cells, whereas in healthy leukocytes Tim-3 protein was mainly expressed intracellularly. In primary human AML blasts, both Tim-3 agonistic antibody and galectin-9 (a Tim-3 natural ligand) significantly upregulated mTOR pathway activity. This was in line with increased accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and secretion of VEGF and TNF-α. Similar results were obtained in primary human healthy leukocytes. Importantly, in both types of primary cells, Tim-3-mediated effects were compared with those induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and stem cell factor (SCF). Tim-3 induced comparatively moderate responses in both AML cells and healthy leukocytes. However, Tim-3, like LPS, mediated the release of both TNF-α and VEGF, while SCF induced mostly VEGF secretion and did not upregulate TNF-α release.

  16. Environmental malignant mesothelioma in southern Anatolia: a study of fifty cases.

    PubMed Central

    Zeren, E H; Gümürdülü, D; Roggli, V L; Zorludemir, S; Erkişi, M; Tuncer, I

    2000-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor of the serous membranes, which in humans results from exposure to asbestos and asbestiform fibers. Although occupational malignant mesothelioma is still the most common form of this lesion, naturally contaminated soil can play an important role in the development of environmental malignant mesothelioma in some parts of the world. Fifty cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) from southern Turkey with no occupational history of asbestos exposure were reviewed regarding pathologic and clinical features. A case of hyaline fibrous plaque of the pleura was also included in this series. Histologically the cases were classified as epithelial (36 cases); sarcomatous (7 cases); and biphasic (7 cases). One of the sarcomatous cases was desmoplastic. Ultrastructural examination of the tumor tissue in three cases revealed long-surface microvilli in epithelial cells. Interstitial cells of the lung in one case showed electron-dense asbestos fibers in the cytoplasm. Mineralogical analyses of the lung tissue in three cases of MM and the case of pleural plaque showed high amounts of asbestos fibers most consistent with tremolite and actinolite. The clinical and pathologic features of our cases support that the environmental inhalation of asbestos is still a major health problem in some parts of Turkey. PMID:11102295

  17. Upregulation of kazrin F by miR-186 suppresses apoptosis but promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition to contribute to malignancy in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Jinghua; Hu, Yang; Xie, Hong; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have identified that kazrin is a constituent of desmosome and influences intercellular adhesion, growing development and morphology. We previously cloned another new isoform, kazrin F and found that it has anti-apoptotic effects on human glioma cell line. To further explore whether kazrin F is involved in tumorigenesis, we investigated its expression and role in cervical cancer (CC) cells. Methods The role of kazrin F and miR-186 in CC was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, colony formation, transwell, and apoptosis assays. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter assays, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, we identified kazrin F post-transcriptional regulation by miR-186. Results We demonstrate that kazrin F is highly expressed in CC tissues compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues and promotes cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in HeLa and C33A cells by suppressing apoptosis and facilitating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, miR-186 was confirmed as a regulator of kazrin F dysregulation. An EGFP reporter assay proved that miR-186 directly targets the 3’-untranslated region (3’UTR) of kazrin F and downregulates its expression, and miR-186 expression showed an inverse correlation with kazrin F levels in CC tissues. In addition, overexpression of miR-186 suppressed the malignant behaviors of CC cells. The ectopic expression of kazrin F rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-186. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the upregulation of kazrin F due to downregulated miR-186 levels contributes to malignancy, and highlight the significance of kazrin F in CC tumorigenesis. PMID:28373753

  18. The role of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin and EGF in normal and malignant acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bello-DeOcampo, D; Kleinman, H K; Webber, M M

    2001-09-01

    Complex multiple interactions between cells and extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis involving integrin receptors and growth factors. Changes in these interactions occur during carcinogenesis as cells progress from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. We have developed human prostatic epithelial cell lines of the same lineage, which represent multiple steps in carcinogenesis, similar to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent tumor progression. The non-tumorigenic, RWPE-1 and the tumorigenic WPE1-NB27 and WPE1-NB26 cell lines were used to examine their ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis in a 3-D cell culture model and its relationship to invasion, integrin expression and EGF presence. An inverse relationship between the degree of acinar formation and invasive ability was observed. The non-tumorigenic, non-invasive RWPE-1 and the low tumorigenic, low invasive, WPE1-NB27 cells show high and decreased acinar forming ability, respectively, while the more invasive WPE1-NB26 cells show a loss of acinar formation. While RWPE-1 acini show basal expression of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin, which correlates with their ability to polarize and form acini, WPE1-NB27 cells lack alpha 6 but show basal, but weaker expression of beta 1 integrin. WPE1-NB26 cells show loss alpha 6 and abnormal, diffused beta 1 integrin expression. A dose-dependent decrease in acinar formation was observed in RWPE-1 cells when cell proliferation was induced by EGF. Anti-functional antibody to EGF caused an increase in acinar formation in RWPE-1 cells. These results suggest that malignant cells lose the ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis and that the degree of this loss appears to be related to invasive ability, EGF levels and alterations in laminin-specific integrin expression. This model system mimics different steps in prostate carcinogenesis and has applications in the secondary and tertiary prevention of prostate cancer.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B identified in adults with hematological malignancy attending an Irish hospital between 2004 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Salter, Aisling; Laoi, Bairbre Ni; Crowley, Brendan

    2011-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory infection in patients with hematological malignancy, particularly hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. This study investigated the genetic variability of the attachment (G) protein gene among HRSV isolates collected from adult patients with hematological malignancy. Between December 2004 and March 2009, 60 samples collected from 58 adults attending an Irish hospital were positive for HRSV by direct immunofluorescence. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the G gene showed a slightly higher frequency of HRSV subgroup A (52%) than HRSV subgroup B (48%). Genetic variability was higher among subgroup A viruses (up to 13% at nucleotide level) than among subgroup B viruses (up to 4%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genotypes of HRSV subgroup A, GA2 and GA5, which cocirculated between 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, although GA2 alone was identified in season 2008/2009. Genotype BA was the only genotype of HRSV subgroup B identified. Genotype-specific amino acid substitutions were identified, with two and seven changes for GA2 and GA5, respectively. Furthermore, one to four potential N-glycosylation sites were found among HRSV subgroup A isolates while two to three were identified in HRSV B isolates. Predicted O-glycosylation sites included 25-34 and 40-43 in HRSV subgroups A and B, respectively. The average synonymous mutation-to-non-synonymous mutation ratios (dS/dN) implied neutral selection pressure on both HRSV subgroup isolates. This study provides data for the first time on the molecular epidemiology of HRSV isolates over five successive epidemic seasons among patients attending an Irish hospital.

  20. Induction of calcium sensing receptor in human colon cancer cells by calcium, vitamin D and aquamin: Promotion of a more differentiated, less malignant and indolent phenotype.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Aslam, Muhammad N; Varani, James; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2015-07-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a robust promoter of differentiation in colonic epithelial cells and functions as a tumor suppressor. Cancer cells that do not express CaSR (termed CaSR null) are highly malignant while acquisition of CaSR expression in these cells circumvents the malignant phenotype. We hypothesize that chemopreventive agents mediate their action through the induction of CaSR. Here, we compare the effectiveness of Ca(2+), vitamin D, and Aquamin (a marine algae product containing Ca(2+), magnesium and detectable levels of 72 additional minerals) on the induction of CaSR in the CBS and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cell lines and the corresponding CaSR null cells isolated from these lines. All three agonists induced CaSR mRNA and protein expression and inhibited cellular proliferation in the parental and CaSR null cells. Aquamin was found to be most potent in this regard. Induction of CaSR expression by these agonists resulted in demethylation of the CaSR gene promoter with a concurrent increase in CaSR promoter reporter activity. However, demethylation per se did not induce CaSR transcription. Induction of CaSR expression resulted in a down-regulated expression of tumor inducers and up-regulated expression of tumor suppressors. Again, Aquamin was found to be most potent in these biologic effects. This study provides a rationale for the use of a multi-mineral approach in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and suggests that induction of CaSR may be a measure of the effectiveness of chemopreventive agents.

  1. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  2. Upregulation of SQSTM1/p62 contributes to nickel-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishan; Zhu, Junlan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liping; Gu, Jiayan; Xie, Qipeng; Jin, Honglei; Che, Xun; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chao; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lyu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic lung inflammation is accepted as being associated with the development of lung cancer caused by nickel exposure. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that lead to a nickel-induced sustained inflammatory microenvironment that causes transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells is of high significance. In the current studies, we identified SQSTM1/p62 as a novel nickel-upregulated protein that is important for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF expression, subsequently resulting in transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that nickel exposure induced SQSTM1 protein upregulation in human lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. The SQSTM1 upregulation was also observed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies revealed that the knockdown of SQSTM1 expression dramatically inhibited transformation of human lung epithelial cells upon chronic nickel exposure, whereas ectopic expression of SQSTM1 promoted such transformation. Mechanistic studies showed that the SQSTM1 upregulation by nickel was the compromised result of upregulating SQSTM1 mRNA transcription and promoting SQSTM1 protein degradation. We demonstrated that nickel-initiated SQSTM1 protein degradation is mediated by macroautophagy/autophagy via an MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 axis, whereas RELA is important for SQSTM1 transcriptional upregulation following nickel exposure. Furthermore, SQSTM1 upregulation exhibited its promotion of nickel-induced cell transformation through exerting an impetus for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF mRNA stability. Consistently, the MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 autophagic cascade acted as an inhibitory effect on nickel-induced TNF expression and cell transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel SQSTM1 regulatory network that promotes a nickel-induced tumorigenic effect in human bronchial epithelial cells, which is negatively controlled by an autophagic cascade following nickel exposure. PMID:27467530

  3. [Therapeutical effects of pleural injecting recombinant human endostain to 
malignant pleural effusion nude mice model].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Li, Min; Yang, Huaping; Hu, Chengping

    2015-05-01

    背景与目的 恶性胸腔积液(malignant pleural effusion, MPE)临床预后不佳,胸腔内抗血管治疗可能对恶性胸腔积液具有治疗作用,本研究旨在探讨胸腔内注射重组人血管内皮抑素、顺铂、重组人血管内皮抑素联合顺铂对裸鼠恶性胸腔积液的治疗作用。方法 BALB/c裸鼠胸膜腔内注射Lewis肺癌细胞(Lewis lung cancer cell, LCC)构建恶性胸腔积液模型,造模后分别胸腔内注射重组人血管内皮抑素(E)、顺铂(P)以及重组人血管内皮抑素联合顺铂(EP)并分析各组裸鼠胸腔积液量、胸膜肿瘤微血管密度(micro vessel density, MVD)以及血管生成、凋亡相关基因的表达变化。结果 重组人血管内皮抑素及重组人血管内皮抑素联合顺铂胸腔内注射可以使裸鼠MPE量减少,且与裸鼠胸腔肿瘤组织MVD下降呈正相关;且重组人血管内皮抑素及重组人血管内皮抑素联合顺铂胸腔内注射后,MPE裸鼠胸腔肿瘤组织血管内皮生长因子(Vescular epidermal growth factor-α, VEGF-α)表达下降、低氧诱导因子-α(hypoxia induced factor-1, HIF1-α)表达升高。结论 胸腔内注射LLC细胞可成功制作裸鼠MPE模型。重组人血管内皮抑素裸鼠胸膜腔内注射对MPE裸鼠具有治疗作用,其治疗作用可能是通过下调VEGF-α,抑制肿瘤新生血管生成,下调微血管密度而达成的。.

  4. Bio-inactivation of human malignant cells through highly responsive diluted colloidal suspension of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Roberta V.; Silva-Caldeira, Priscila P.; Pereira-Maia, Elene C.; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Ardisson, José D.; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    2016-04-01

    containing these MNPs at concentrations varying within a narrower range from 2.5 to 10 mg L-1, typically under an AMF of 15 kA m-1 at 356 kHz, indicate efficient cytotoxic activity against malignant cells and inhibition of cell growth, even at very low hyperthermally induced temperature increases. The IC50 value varied with time, reaching 3.5 mg L-1 after 10 min under the AMF. Our results effectively demonstrate new prospective uses for such nanoparticles in advanced medical practices in oncology.

  5. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM

  6. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epithelial Cells in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their derivative, the non-obese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mouse model. The...all T and B cells and NK function. This novel immunodeficient mouse proved to be useful for studying xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic

  7. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Malignant Melanoma A375.S2 Cells by Bufalin: Involvement of Caspase Cascade-Dependent and Independent Mitochondrial Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Chien-Chih; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Jen-Hung; Huang, An-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Bufalin was obtained from the skin and parotid venom glands of toad and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects in various types of cancer cell lines, but there is no report to show that whether bufalin affects human skin cancer cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of bufalin on human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in induction of apoptosis. A375.S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of bufalin for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptotic analyses. Our results indicated that cells after exposure to bufalin significantly decreased cell viability, and induced cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric assays indicated that bufalin promoted ROS productions, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), intracellular Ca2+ release, and nitric oxide (NO) formations in A375.S2 cells. Additionally, the apoptotic induction of bufalin on A375.S2 cells resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction-related responses (disruption of the ΔΨm and releases of cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G), and activations of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions. Based on those observations, we suggest that bufalin-triggered apoptosis in A375.S2 cells is correlated with extrinsic- and mitochondria-mediated multiple signal pathways. PMID:22719785

  8. Autophagy Induction by Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide II Contributes to the Inhibition of Malignant Biological Behaviors by the Combination of EMAP II with Rapamycin in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Meng, Fanjie; Li, Shuai; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Lini; Liu, Yunhui; Hu, Yi; Li, Zhen; Yao, Yilong; Xi, Zhuo; Teng, Hao; Xue, Yixue

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) on human glioblastoma (GBM) cells and glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) as well as its possible mechanisms. In this study, EMAP II inhibited the cell viability and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in human GBM cells and GSCs, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) blocked these effects. Autophagic vacuoles were formed in these cells after EMAP II treatment and this phenomenon was blocked by 3-MA. In addition, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3)-II and the down-regulation of autophagic degraded substrate p62/SQSTM1 caused by EMAP II were observed. Cells treated with EMAP-II inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, and PI3K/Akt agonist insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) blocked the effect of EMAP II on the expression of LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1. Cells exposed to EMAP-II experienced mitophagy and ER stress. Furthermore, the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells and GSCs were more remarkable by the combination of EMAP II and rapamycin than either agent alone in vitro and in vivo. The current study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of EMAP II in human GBM cells and GSCs was induced by autophagy, accompanied by the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, mitophagy and ER stress. The combination of EMAP II with rapamycin demonstrated the inhibitory effect on the malignant biological behaviors of human GBM cells and GSCs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26648842

  9. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression.

  10. Visible to near-infrared refractive properties of freshly-excised human-liver tissues: marking hepatic malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannios, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G.; Matiatou, Maria; Stasinos, Konstantinos; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, George C.; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    The refractive index is an optical constant that plays a significant role in the description of light-matter interactions. When it comes to biological media, refraction is understudied despite recent advances in the field of bio-optics. In the present article, we report on the measurement of the refractive properties of freshly excised healthy and cancerous human liver samples, by use of a prism-coupling technique covering the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Novel data on the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index of human liver tissues are presented. The magnitude of the real and imaginary part of the refractive index is correlated with hepatic pathology. Notably, the real index contrast is pointed out as a marker of discrimination between normal liver tissue and hepatic metastases. In view of the current progress in optical biosensor technologies, our findings may be exploited for the development of novel surgical and endoscopic tools.

  11. Malignant Mesothelioma: Development to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joyce; Westbom, Catherine; Shukla, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelium caused by asbestos. Asbestos use has been reduced but not completely stopped. In addition, natural or man-made disasters will continue to dislodge asbestos from old buildings into the atmosphere and as long as respirable asbestos is available, MM will continue to be a threat. Due to the long latency period of MM development, it would still take decades to eradicate this disease if asbestos was completely removed from our lives today. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and clinicians to work together to understand this deadly disease and find a solution for early diagnosis and treatment. This article focuses on developmental mechanisms as well as current therapies available for MM. PMID:23959774

  12. Socially explosive minds: the triple imbalance hypothesis of reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Morgan, Barak E; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2010-02-01

    The psychobiological basis of reactive aggression, a condition characterized by uncontrolled outbursts of socially violent behavior, is unclear. Nonetheless, several theoretical models have been proposed that may have complementary views about the psychobiological mechanisms involved. In this review, we attempt to unite these models and theorize further on the basis of recent data from psychological and neuroscientific research to propose a comprehensive neuro-evolutionary framework: The Triple Imbalance Hypothesis (TIH) of reactive aggression. According to this model, reactive aggression is essentially subcortically motivated by an imbalance in the levels of the steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone (Subcortical Imbalance Hypothesis). This imbalance not only sets a primal predisposition for social aggression, but also down-regulates cortical-subcortical communication (Cortical-Subcortical Imbalance Hypothesis), hence diminishing control by cortical regions that regulate socially aggressive inclinations. However, these bottom-up hormonally mediated imbalances can drive both instrumental and reactive social aggression. The TIH suggests that reactive aggression is differentiated from proactive aggression by low brain serotonergic function and that reactive aggression is associated with left-sided frontal brain asymmetry (Cortical Imbalance Hypothesis), especially observed when the individual is socially threatened or provoked. This triple biobehavioral imbalance mirrors an evolutionary relapse into violently aggressive motivational drives that are adaptive among many reptilian and mammalian species, but may have become socially maladaptive in modern humans.

  13. Malignant transformation of human colon epithelial cells by benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiolepoxides as well as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Uta; Fuchs, Judith Iris; Teubner, Wera; Steinberg, Pablo . E-mail: steinber@rz.uni-potsdam.de

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) ingested with food have repeatedly been suggested to be involved in the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells. In order to test this hypothesis, HCEC cells (SV40 large T antigen-immortalized human colon epithelial cells) were incubated with a racemic mixture of benzo[c]phenanthrene dihydrodiol epoxides (B[c]PhDE), extremely potent carcinogenic PAH metabolites in vivo, or with 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), the N-hydroxylated metabolite of the most abundant HCA in cooked meat. First, it was shown that HCEC cells express sulfotransferase 1A1, which is needed to metabolize N-OH-PhIP to the corresponding N-sulfonyloxy derivative, the direct precursor molecule of genotoxic nitrenium ions. Thereafter, exponentially growing HCEC cells were exposed five times to 0.1 {mu}g (0.37 nmol) B[c]PhDE/ml for 30 min or 0.72 {mu}g (3 nmol) N-OH-PhIP/ml for 24 h. Chemically treated HCEC cells showed an enhanced saturation density and grew faster than the corresponding solvent-treated cell cultures. After five treatment cycles, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} as well as HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells lost cell-cell contact inhibition and started piling up and forming foci in the culture flasks. Furthermore, HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells were injected i.m. into SCID mice. Within 6 weeks after injection, eight animals out of eight injected with HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} or HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cells developed tumors at the site of injection, thus demonstrating the high tumorigenic potential of the HCEC{sup B[c]PhDE} and HCEC {sup N-OH-PhIP} cell cultures. Taken together, we show for the first time that the abovementioned active PAH metabolites as well as N-OH-PhIP are indeed able to malignantly transform human colon epithelial cells in vitro.

  14. Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

  15. Dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions during malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Devailly, Guillaume; Grandin, Mélodie; Perriaud, Laury; Mathot, Pauline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Bidet, Yannick; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Bignon, Jean-Yves; Puisieux, Alain; Mehlen, Patrick; Dante, Robert

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to induce transcriptional silencing through the combination of two mechanisms: the repulsion of transcriptional activators unable to bind their target sites when methylated, and the recruitment of transcriptional repressors with specific affinity for methylated DNA. The Methyl CpG Binding Domain proteins MeCP2, MBD1 and MBD2 belong to the latter category. Here, we present MBD2 ChIPseq data obtained from the endogenous MBD2 in an isogenic cellular model of oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells. In immortalized (HMEC-hTERT) or transformed (HMLER) cells, MBD2 was found in a large proportion of methylated regions and associated with transcriptional silencing. A redistribution of MBD2 on methylated DNA occurred during oncogenic transformation, frequently independently of local DNA methylation changes. Genes downregulated during HMEC-hTERT transformation preferentially gained MBD2 on their promoter. Furthermore, depletion of MBD2 induced an upregulation of MBD2-bound genes methylated at their promoter regions, in HMLER cells. Among the 3,160 genes downregulated in transformed cells, 380 genes were methylated at their promoter regions in both cell lines, specifically associated by MBD2 in HMLER cells, and upregulated upon MBD2 depletion in HMLER. The transcriptional MBD2-dependent downregulation occurring during oncogenic transformation was also observed in two additional models of mammary cell transformation. Thus, the dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions was associated with the oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells. PMID:26007656

  16. Dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions during malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Devailly, Guillaume; Grandin, Mélodie; Perriaud, Laury; Mathot, Pauline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Bidet, Yannick; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Bignon, Jean-Yves; Puisieux, Alain; Mehlen, Patrick; Dante, Robert

    2015-07-13

    DNA methylation is thought to induce transcriptional silencing through the combination of two mechanisms: the repulsion of transcriptional activators unable to bind their target sites when methylated, and the recruitment of transcriptional repressors with specific affinity for methylated DNA. The Methyl CpG Binding Domain proteins MeCP2, MBD1 and MBD2 belong to the latter category. Here, we present MBD2 ChIPseq data obtained from the endogenous MBD2 in an isogenic cellular model of oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells. In immortalized (HMEC-hTERT) or transformed (HMLER) cells, MBD2 was found in a large proportion of methylated regions and associated with transcriptional silencing. A redistribution of MBD2 on methylated DNA occurred during oncogenic transformation, frequently independently of local DNA methylation changes. Genes downregulated during HMEC-hTERT transformation preferentially gained MBD2 on their promoter. Furthermore, depletion of MBD2 induced an upregulation of MBD2-bound genes methylated at their promoter regions, in HMLER cells. Among the 3,160 genes downregulated in transformed cells, 380 genes were methylated at their promoter regions in both cell lines, specifically associated by MBD2 in HMLER cells, and upregulated upon MBD2 depletion in HMLER. The transcriptional MBD2-dependent downregulation occurring during oncogenic transformation was also observed in two additional models of mammary cell transformation. Thus, the dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions was associated with the oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells.

  17. Detection of cell surface and intracellular antigens by human monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid cell lines derived from lymphocytes of patients with malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    This study represents an initial attempt to analyze the humoral immune reactions of patients with malignant melanoma by hybridoma methodology. Using lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes, peripheral blood and tumor infiltrates, 158 fusions were performed with SKO-007 (human myeloma line), LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2), GM 4672 (human lymphoblastoid lines), or NS-1 (mouse myeloma line). Fusion of lymph node lymphocytes with NS-1 resulted in a 3-4 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2, and a 10 times higher frequency than fusion with SKO-007 or GM 4672. In the case of peripheral blood lymphocytes, fusion with NS-1 gave greater than 25 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2 or SKO-007. Production of human mu, gamma, or alpha heavy chains was detected in 50-80% of wells containing growing clones, and the levels of immunoglobulin ranged from 0.3 micrograms to 40 micrograms/ml. NS-1-derived clones could be easily subcultured, while LICR-2 and SKO-007 clones grew more slowly on subculturing. In this study, Ig secretion appeared to be a more stable property of LICR-2- derived clones than NS-1-derived clones. A panel of 20 human cancer cell lines was used to screen 771 Ig-secreting cultures for antibody to cell surface or intracellular antigens. Reactivity with cell surface antigens was found infrequently (6 cultures), whereas reactivity with intracellular antigens was more common (27 cultures). A new cell surface antigen with properties of a glycolipid was defined with an IgM monoclonal antibody secreted by a tetraploid cell derived from a fusion of LICR-2 with lymphocytes from the axillary lymph node of a patient with melanoma. The hybrid cell line has been subcloned four times and secretes 5 micrograms IgM/ml. The antigen detected by this IgM antibody was found on 5 of 23 melanoma cell lines and 12 of 30 epithelial cancer cell lines. No reactions were found with 11 cultures derived from normal cells. Stable cell lines secreting human

  18. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine.

  19. Downregulation of TBXAS1 in an iron-induced malignant mesothelioma model.

    PubMed

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Kato, Yuka; Kudo, Kenichiro; Isozaki, Hideko; Hashida, Shinsuke; Harada, Daijiro; Ochi, Nobuaki; Fujii, Masanori; Kubo, Toshio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Sato, Akiko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Toyooka, Shinichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells. Evidence suggests that the major pathology associated with asbestos-induced mesothelioma is local iron overload. In the present study, we induced iron-induced mesothelioma in rats based on previous reports. Ten Wistar rats were given ferric saccharate and nitrilotriacetate i.p. for 5 days a week. Five of the ten rats exhibited widespread mesotheliomas in the peritoneum and tunica vaginalis. The tumor cells showed positive immunostaining for calretinin, wilms tumor-1, podoplanin and the oxidative DNA marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In three of the five rats with mesothelioma, array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a common chromosomal deletion mapped to the chromosomal 4q31 locus, which encompasses the TBXAS1 gene. Downregulation of the TBXAS1 gene was confirmed using quantitative PCR. TBXAS1 gene expression was also reduced in three of four human malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TBXAS1 expression was weakly positive and positive in five and three out of eight human malignant mesothelioma samples, respectively. In conclusion, TBXAS1 gene expression was downregulated in rats with iron-induced mesothelioma. The relationship between iron overload and TBXAS1 downregulation should be pursued further.

  20. [Metastasis revealing malignant peritoneum mesothelioma: About the difficulty to identify the primary tumors].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Charles-Henri; Petitjean, Alain; Felix, Sophie; Bedgedjian, Isabelle; Algros, Marie-Paule; Delabrousse, Eric; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma is a rare and extremely aggressive tumor that is sometimes difficult to diagnose. We report two cases of metastatic malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. In one case, malignant metastatic cells were identified in cervical lymph nodes while in the other case, the cells were found in the liver. In both cases, metastases were identified before discovering the primary tumor. This led to the misdiagnosis of carcinoma of unknown origin. Nevertheless, the histological and immuno-histochemical patterns were typical of malignant mesothelioma. Regarding metastasis of unknown origin, a differentiation of epithelioid peritoneal malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma proved to be difficult. Therefore, we discuss the diagnostic usefulness of immuno-histochemical mesothelioma markers.

  1. Raman spectrosopic characterization of human malignant tissues: implications for a percutaneous optical biopsy technique for in-situ tissue diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Douglas C. B.; Frank, Christopher J.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Gansler, Ted S.; McCreery, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in the technique of Raman spectroscopy now make it possible to achieve rapid, minimally invasive and non-destructive characterization of tissues. In order to evaluate the efficacy of this technique for diagnosis, the Raman spectra of normal and neoplastic human tissues (e.g., breast, kidney, liver and colon) were obtained utilizing visible and near-IR excitation. Normal breast tissue and colon adenocarcinoma showed major Raman features due to the presence of carotenoids and lipids. In breast carcinoma, the features due to lipids were attenuated and as fibrosis (desmoplasia) increased, new spectral features attributable to collagen were observed. Samples of normal and neoplastic liver and kidney show unique spectral differences sufficient to permit tissue differentiation.

  2. KTN0158, a Humanized Anti-KIT Monoclonal Antibody, Demonstrates Biologic Activity against both Normal and Malignant Canine Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    London, Cheryl A; Gardner, Heather L; Rippy, Sarah; Post, Gerald; La Perle, Krista; Crew, Linda; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Garton, Andrew J; McMahon, Gerald; LaVallee, Theresa M; Gedrich, Richard

    2016-11-04

    Purpose: KTN0158 is a novel anti-KIT antibody that potently inhibits wild-type and mutant KIT. This study evaluated the safety, biologic activity, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profile of KTN0158 in dogs with spontaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) as a prelude to human clinical applications.Experimental Design: Cell proliferation, KIT phosphorylation, and mast cell degranulation were evaluated in vitro KTN0158 was administered to 4 research dogs to assess clinical effects and cutaneous mast cell numbers. Thirteen dogs with spontaneous MCT were enrolled into a prospective phase I dose-escalating open-label clinical study of KTN0158 evaluating 3 dose levels and 2 schedules and with weekly assessments for response and clinical toxicities.Results: KTN0158 was a potent inhibitor of human and dog KIT activation and blocked mast cell degranulation in vitro In dogs, KTN0158 was well tolerated and reduced cutaneous mast cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical benefit of KTN0158 administration in dogs with MCT (n = 5 partial response; n = 7 stable disease) was observed regardless of KIT mutation status, and decreased KIT phosphorylation was demonstrated in tumor samples. Histopathology after study completion demonstrated an absence of neoplastic cells in the primary tumors and/or metastatic lymph nodes from 4 dogs. Reversible hematologic and biochemical adverse events were observed at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The MTD was established as 10 mg/kg.Conclusions: KTN0158 inhibits KIT phosphorylation, demonstrates an acceptable safety profile in dogs, and provides objective responses in canine MCT patients with and without activating KIT mutations, supporting future clinical evaluation of KTN0158 in people. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  4. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  5. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  6. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  7. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  8. Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Samhani; Haris, Khalilah; Abdul Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway.

  9. Reduction of estradiol in human malignant pleural mesothelioma tissues may prevent tumour growth, as implied by in in-vivo and in-vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Nuvoli, Barbara; Sacconi, Andrea; Cortese, Giancarlo; Germoni, Sabrina; Murer, Bruno; Galati, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate intratumoural estradiol and estrogen-receptors (ERα, ERβ and GPR30) in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) to understand their function. Here, we report that immunohistochemistry of estradiol showed cytoplasmatic staining in 95% of fifty-seven human MPM samples with a trend toward a negative correlation between estradiol levels and the median post-diagnosis survival time. ERβ was only focally positive in 5.3% of cases, GPR30 and ERα were negative in our cases of MPM. GPR30 was detected mainly in glycosylated form in MPM cells. Moreover, G15, a GPR30 antagonist, induced MPM cell death. Altogether, these data suggest that MPM cells produce E2 interact with glycosylated forms of GPR30, and this facilitates tumour growth. Estradiol was found in MPM cells and plasma from mice mesothelioma xenografts. Concurrent reduction in tumour mass and plasmatic estradiol levels were observed in the mice treated with exemestane, suggesting that the reduction of E2 levels inhibit MPM growth. Thus, it appears that agents reducing estradiol levels could be useful to MPM therapy. PMID:27323398

  10. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  11. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  12. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Budiyasa, Dewa Gde Agung; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman

    2008-10-01

    Mesothel is the cell lining of serosal surface of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis. Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor from mesothel that has a tendency to grow rapidly and invade locally. Although the incidence of malignant mesenterial mesothelioma is not so high, the case fatality rate is very high. The aim of this case report is to report the rare and difficult case with several complications. A Balinese man, 64 years old, came with chief complaint of weakness, abdominal enlargement, and nausea, with history of previous liver disease. On physical examination were found a decrease of conciousness, subfebrile, abdominal distension, ascites, negative traube space, and paralysis of the left side of the body. Laboratory examination results showed leukocytosis, hypochromic-micrositic anemia, trombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, increase of alkaline phosphatase, and mild hyponatremia. Abdominal USG showed intraperitoneal mass which some of them attach to abdominal wall, possibly from mesenterium and ascites, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, skull CT scan showed small infarction at left parietal medulla and right basal ganglia, cytology showed spreaded and grouped mesothel with reactive lymphocyte and amorph back ground. FNAB result showed malignant mesothelioma, and normal colonoscopy. Based on the above data, the diagnoses were malignant mesenterial mesothelioma, reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, and non hemorrhagic stroke. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma should be considered in patient with the combination of unexplained ascites and abdominal pain. Although the result of treatment is very disappointing, the patient had to be treated optimally to increase quality of life.

  13. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  14. Local distribution and concentration of intravenously injected sup 131 I-9. 2. 27 monoclonal antibody in human malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Del Vecchio, S.; Reynolds, J.C.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Blasberg, R.G.; Neumann, R.D.; Lotze, M.T.; Bryant, G.J.; Farkas, R.J.; Larson, S.M. )

    1989-05-15

    Regional measurements of {sup 131}I-9.2.27 distribution in human melanoma tumors were obtained using quantitative autoradiography. Tumors were removed from patients 72-96 h after they had received an i.v. injection of 9.15 mCi (100 mg) of {sup 131}I-9.2.27. The autoradiographic images showed that the radioactivity reaching the tumor was heterogeneously distributed. Areas of relative high and low uptake were selected in each tumor. Regions of high activity contained from 51 to 1371 nCi/g, while areas with low uptake had radioactivity ranging from 12 to 487 nCi/g. The reliability of the autoradiographic measurements was demonstrated by the strong positive correlation with direct tissue sample counting (r = 0.994 P less than 0.001). Since comparative immunocytochemistry showed a homogeneous and diffuse staining of target antigen on viable tumor cells, variability of monoclonal antibody uptake within individual tumors was not primarily due to heterogeneity of antigen expression in these cases. However, antigen levels accounted for some of the variation from tumor to tumor. When immunoperoxidase staining was repeated on adjacent sections without the addition of 9.2.27, it confirmed the nonuniform distribution of monoclonal antibody found at autoradiography. Thus, quantitative autoradiography gives information about the distribution and the local concentration of radioactive antibody in tumors allowing calculation of the radiation dose delivered to small regions within tumors.

  15. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  16. Expression of smooth muscle-specific proteins in myoepithelium and stromal myofibroblasts of normal and malignant human breast tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Lazard, D; Sastre, X; Frid, M G; Glukhova, M A; Thiery, J P; Koteliansky, V E

    1993-01-01

    The expression of several differentiation markers in normal human mammary gland myoepithelium and in certain stromal fibroblasts ("myofibroblasts") associated with breast carcinomas was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen sections. Several antibodies to smooth muscle-specific proteins (smooth muscle alpha-actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chains, calponin, alpha 1-integrin, and high molecular weight caldesmon) and to epithelial-specific proteins (cytokeratins, E-cadherin, and desmoplakin) were used to show that myoepithelial cells concomitantly express epithelial and smooth muscle markers whereas adjacent luminal cells express only epithelial markers. The same antibodies were used to establish that stromal myofibroblasts exhibit smooth muscle phenotypic properties characterized by the expression of all the smooth muscle markers examined except for high molecular weight caldesmon. In addition, both myoepithelium and myofibroblasts show a significant degree of heterogeneity in smooth muscle protein expression. Thus, myoepithelial cells and stromal myofibroblasts are epithelial and mesenchymal cells, respectively, which coordinately express a set of smooth muscle markers while maintaining their specific original features. The dual nature of myoepithelial cells and the phenotypic transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts are examples of the plasticity of the differentiated cell phenotype. Images PMID:8430113

  17. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J A

    1990-08-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers). The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening (plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and calcification), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers). Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics (length and diameter), other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of the adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects (disease frequency, latency, and cohort size). Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air.

  18. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-04-11

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  19. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α−/− cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α−/− cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α−/− cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration). PMID:27065079

  20. 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone induced ROS-signaling inhibits proliferation in human non-malignant prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Leena; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental chemical contaminants which can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by auto-oxidation of dihydroxy PCBs as well as the reduction of quinones and redox-cycling. We investigate the hypothesis that 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone (4-Cl-BQ), a metabolite of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3), induced ROS-signaling inhibits cellular proliferation. Monolayer cultures of exponentially growing asynchronous human non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) were incubated with 0–6 micromolar of 4-Cl-BQ and harvested at the end of 72 h of incubation to assess antioxidant enzyme expression, cellular ROS levels, cell growth, and cell cycle phase distributions. 4-Cl-BQ decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, protein, and mRNA levels. 4-Cl-BQ treatment increased dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, which was suppressed in cells pre-treated with polyethylene glycol conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD). The increase in ROS levels was associated with a decrease in cell growth, and an increase in the percentage of S-phase cells. These effects were suppressed in cells pretreated with PEG-SOD. 4-Cl-BQ treatment did not change the protein levels of phosphorylated H2AX at the end of 72 h of incubation, suggesting that the inhibition in cell growth and accumulation of cells in S-phase at the end of the treatments were probably not due to 4-Cl-BQ induced DNA double strand break. These results demonstrate that MnSOD activity and ROS-signaling perturb proliferation in 4-Cl-BQ treated in vitro cultures of human prostate cells. PMID:20163859

  1. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells.

  2. Hexavalent chromium induces malignant transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells via ROS-dependent activation of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Turcios, Lilia; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. Studies have shown that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic activity by targeting the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The present study examined the role of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Results showed that Cr(VI) induces ROS generation in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Cr(VI) caused a significant increase of miR-21 expression associated with an inhibition of PDCD4 expression. Notably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the Cr(VI)-induced miR-21 elevation. Stable knockdown of miR-21 or overexpression of PDCD4 in BEAS-2B cells significantly reduced the Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) induced inhibition of PDCD4 suppressed downstream E-cadherin protein expression, but promoted β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. We also found an increased miR-21 level and decreased PDCD4 expression in xenograft tumors generated with chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells. In addition, stable knockdown of miR-21 and overexpression of PDCD4 reduced the tumorogenicity of chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27323401

  3. Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Lizarte, F.S.; Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Ambrosio, S.R.; Tirapelli, C.R.; Oliveira, F.M.; Novais, P.C.; Peria, F.M.; Oliveira, H.F.; Carlotti, C.G.; Tirapelli, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors. PMID:23314342

  4. Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Lizarte Neto, F S; Tirapelli, D P C; Ambrosio, S R; Tirapelli, C R; Oliveira, F M; Novais, P C; Peria, F M; Oliveira, H F; Carlotti Junior, C G; Tirapelli, L F

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors.

  5. Precursors to Lymphoproliferative Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397

  6. Meningioma after radiotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Peter F; Shah, Kalee; Dunkel, Ira J; Reiner, Anne S; Khakoo, Yasmin; Rosenblum, Marc K; Gutin, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RIM. Initial malignancies included acute lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%), medulloblastoma (26.7%) and glioma (16.7%) at a mean age of 8.1years (range 0.04-33years). The mean radiation dose was 34Gy (range 16-60Gy) and latency time to meningioma was 26years (range 8-51years). Twenty-one patients (70%) underwent surgery. Of these, 57.1% of tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) grade I while 42.9% were WHO II (atypical). The mean MIB-1 labeling index for patients with WHO I tumors was 5.44%, with 33.3% exhibiting at least 5% staining. Mean follow-up after meningioma diagnosis was 5.8years. Mortality was zero during the follow-up period. Meningioma is an important long-term complication of therapeutic radiation. While more aggressive pathology occurs more frequently in RIM than in sporadic meningioma, it remains unclear whether this translates into an effect on survival. Further study should be aimed at delineating the risks and benefits of routine surveillance for the development of secondary neoplasms after radiation therapy.

  7. Role of Radiotherapy in Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Laurence; Prieto, Victor G; Ivan, Doina; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Curry, Jonathan L; Bell, Diana; Moon, Bryan S; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Aung, Phyu P

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare and often misdiagnosed malignant tumor of the sweat glands, most commonly encountered on the extremities. Due to the relatively high metastatic potential of the tumor, aggressive surgical treatment, including amputation, is generally recommended. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with an over 10-year history of a skin lesion on the right hand in the web space between the index and the middle finger. Histologically, the lesion revealed a malignant epithelioid neoplasm with features consistent with ADPA. The lesion was treated with 5-weeks preoperative radiation (total 5000 cGy) followed by surgical resection. There was no evidence of residual disease confirmed by pathological study of re-excision specimen as well as imaging studies. This is, to the best of knowledge, the first report of complete regression of an ADPA after radiotherapy.

  8. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  9. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  10. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Heng; Lee, Chun-Te; Su, Chung-Jen; Lo, Hua-Cheng

    2012-11-09

    A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  11. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Morgan, Theodore J; Mackay, Trudy F. C

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression. The realized heritability of aggressive behavior was approximately 0.10, and the phenotypic response to selection specifically affected aggression. We used whole-genome expression analysis to identify 1,539 probe sets with different expression levels between the selection lines when pooled across replicates, at a false discovery rate of 0.001. We quantified the aggressive behavior of 19 mutations in candidate genes that were generated in a common co-isogenic background, and identified 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex traits. PMID:17044737

  12. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult males

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Joseph L.; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 international units of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured via the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min prior and 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indicator of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson’s r = 0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  13. [Classic and aggressive Kaposi sarcoma with bone involvement].

    PubMed

    Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; El Alaoui, Adil; El Bardai, Mohammed; Mezzani, Amine; Lahrach, Kamal; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a multifocal rare tumor originating from vascular endothelial cells with progressive evolution and little malignant predisposition. Although Kaposi sarcoma with extensive visceral involvement is sometimes observed among HIV-positive patients, tumor dissemination to visceral lymph nodes in classic SK remains very rare. We report a rare case of aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma of the hand with a rapid and destructive development.

  14. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  15. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  16. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  17. Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylated at both linker and COOH-terminal regions transmit malignant TGF-beta signal in later stages of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Koichi; Kitano, Chiaki; Murata, Miki; Sekimoto, Go; Yoshida, Katsunori; Uemura, Yoshiko; Seki, Toshihito; Taketani, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2009-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta initially inhibits growth of mature epithelial cells. Later, however, autocrine TGF-beta signaling acts in concert with the Ras pathway to induce a proliferative and invasive phenotype. TGF-beta activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) but also Ras-associated kinases, which differentially phosphorylate the mediators Smad2 and Smad3 to create distinct phosphorylated forms: COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2C and pSmad3C) and both linker and COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C). In this study, we investigated actions of pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C in cancer progression. TGF-beta inhibited cell growth by down-regulating c-Myc oncoprotein through the pSmad2C and pSmad3C pathway; TGF-beta signaling, in turn, enhanced cell growth by up-regulating c-Myc through the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4-dependent pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C pathways in cell nuclei. Alternatively, TbetaRI and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) together created cytoplasmic pSmad2L/C, which entered the nucleus and stimulated cell invasion, partly by up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-9. In 20 clinical samples, pSmad2L/C and pSmad3L/C showed nuclear localization at invasion fronts of all TGF-beta-producing human metastatic colorectal cancers. In vitro kinase assay confirmed that nuclear CDK4 and cytoplasmic JNK obtained from the tumor tissue could phosphorylate Smad2 or Smad3 at their linker regions. We suggest that CDK4, together with JNK, alters tumor-suppressive TGF-beta signaling to malignant characteristics in later stages of human colorectal cancer. The linker phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 may represent a target for intervention in human metastatic cancer.

  18. Evaluation of efficacy and safety for recombinant human adenovirus-p53 in the control of the malignant pleural effusions via thoracic perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Biaoxue, Rong; Hui, Pan; Wenlong, Gao; Shuanying, Yang

    2016-01-01

    A certain number of studies have showed that p53 gene transfer has an anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thoracic perfusion of recombinant human adenovirus p53 (rAd-p53, Gendicine) for controlling malignant pleural effusion (MPE). We searched for the relevant studies from the database of MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrance Library and CNKI to collect the trials concerning the efficacy and safety of rAd-p53 to treat MPE. Fourteen randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 879 patients were involved in this analysis. The rAd-p53 combined with chemotherapeutic agents significantly improved the overall response rate (ORR) (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 3.73) and disease control rate (DCR) (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.32) of patients with MPE as well as the quality of life (QOL) of patients (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.27), compared with that of chemotherapeutic agents alone. In addition, the participation of rAd-p53 did not have an obvious impact on the most of incidence of adverse reactions (AEs) (P < 0.05) except the fever (P < 0.001). However, the fever was self-limited and could be tolerated well. The application of rAd-p53 through thoracic perfusion for treating MPE had a better efficacy and safety, which could be a potential choice for controlling MPE. PMID:27976709

  19. Activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells treated with sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Weinberg, M S; Banik, N L; Patel, S J; Ray, S K

    2006-09-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant and prevalent brain tumor that still remains incurable. Recent studies reported anti-cancer effect of the broccoli-derived compound sulforaphane. We explored the mechanisms of sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Wright staining and ApopTag assay confirmed apoptosis in glioblastoma cells treated with sulforaphane. Increase in intracellular free Ca2+ was detected by fura-2 assay, suggesting activation of Ca2+-dependent pathways for apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins resulting in increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio that indicated a commitment of glioblastoma cells to apoptosis. Upregulation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, activated caspase-12 that in turn caused activation of caspase-9. With the increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol for sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Increased calpain and caspase-3 activities generated 145 kD spectrin breakdown product and 120 kD spectrin breakdown product, respectively. Activation of caspase-3 also cleaved the inhibitor-of-caspase-activated-DNase. Accumulation of apoptosis-inducing-factor in cytosol suggested caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis as well. Two of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins were downregulated because of an increase in 'second mitochondrial activator of caspases/Direct inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein binding protein with low pI.' Decrease in nuclear factor kappa B and increase in inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha expression favored the process of apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicated activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in glioblastoma cells following treatment with sulforaphane.

  20. The neuro-steroid, 3beta androstene 17alpha diol exhibits potent cytotoxic effects on human malignant glioma and lymphoma cells through different programmed cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Graf, M R; Jia, W; Loria,