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Sample records for aggressive local growth

  1. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  2. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-06-16

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analyzed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:27043383

  3. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-05-01

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analysed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:26918325

  4. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas: growth and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Øystese, Kristin Astrid; Evang, Johan Arild; Bollerslev, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are common, comprising approximately one third of all intracranial tumors. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are the most common PAs. Although usually benign, the NFPAs represent therapeutic challenges because of their location close to the optic chiasm and nerves, and the proximity to the pituitary gland. The therapeutic alternatives are surgery and radiation. To date there is no effective medical treatment. NFPAs are classified according to different modalities, but there are no reliable marker of aggressiveness to guide the clinician in monitoring the patient. More information on growth patterns with constituent biological markers are needed to tailor the care of this patient group. Studies characterizing the membrane receptors of NFPAs have shown promising results, which may give rise to the development of medical treatment. PMID:27066792

  5. Inflammatory Response Influences Treatment of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Allin, N; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Velsko, I; Vovk, A; Hovemcamp, N; Harrison, P; Huang, H; Aukhil, I; Wallet, S M; Shaddox, L M

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported a systemic hyperinflammatory response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). Additionally, different levels of this response were observed within the LAP group. It is unknown whether this hyperinflammatory response influences the clinical response to periodontal treatment in these children. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of LPS responsiveness present prior to treatment on the clinical response to treatment within the LAP cohort. Prior to treatment, peripheral blood was collected from 60 African American participants aged 5 to 21 y, free of systemic diseases, and diagnosed with LAP. Blood was stimulated with ultrapure LPS from Escherichia coli, and Luminex assays were performed to quantify 14 cytokine/chemokine levels. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to find patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression among participants and subdivide them into clusters. Three distinct clusters emerged among LAP participants: a high responder group (high level of response for INFg, IL6, and IL12p40), a mixed responder group (low for some and high for other cytokines/chemokines), and a low responder group (low overall cytokine/chemokine response). Periodontal clinical parameters were compared among these groups prior to and 3, 6, and 12 mo following treatment with mechanical debridement and systemic antibiotics. High responders presented the lowest reductions in clinical parameters after treatment, whereas the low responders presented the highest reductions. In our LAP participants, distinct patterns of LPS response were significantly predictive of changes in clinical parameters after treatment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms predicting the heterogeneity of LAP activity, severity, and response to treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01330719). PMID:26917438

  6. The use of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in the management of locally aggressive bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M A

    1993-03-01

    Cryosurgery has a unique role in the management of locally aggressive osseous lesions. By using a combination of enucleation and cryosurgery to devitalize the surrounding bone, the need for segmental mandibular resection is decreased. This article reviews 37 cases managed successfully in this manner. PMID:8445469

  7. Increased aggressive and affiliative display behavior in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) baboons

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Hillary F; Ford, Susan M; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized intrauterine growth restricted offspring (IUGR) demonstrate higher rates of aggression and higher dominance ranks than control (CTR) offspring with normal weight at term; if aggressive behavior is advantageous during resource scarcity, developmental programming may lead to an association between aggression and IUGR. Methods We studied 22 group-housed baboons (ages 3-5 years). CTR (male n=8, female n=5) mothers ate ad libitum. IUGR (male n=4, female n=5) mothers were fed 70% feed eaten by CTR mothers during pregnancy and lactation. Results IUGR showed higher rates of aggressive displays (p<0.01) and friendly displays (p<0.02). Dominance ranks and physical aggression rates did not differ between groups. Conclusions High rates of IUGR aggressive display might reflect developmental programming of behavioral phenotypes enhancing fitness. Friendly displays may reflect reconciliation. Potential mechanisms include neurodevelopment and learning. Exploration of IUGR as a risk factor for behavioral patterns is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25891005

  8. Targeting Resources for Local Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing state and federal dollars on targeted areas, the Kentucky Appalachian Community Development Initiative helps communities in eastern Kentucky fund their own strategies for economic growth. In Hindman, the project focuses on creating the Kentucky School of Crafts, to train master artisans; supporting the Kentucky Appalachian Artisan Center;…

  9. Identification of Genes Associated with Local Aggressiveness and Metastatic Behavior in Soft Tissue Tumors12

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Carvalho, Katia Candido; Martins, Waleska Keller; Marques, Sarah Martins; Muto, Nair Hideko; Falzoni, Roberto; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Aguiar, Samuel; Simoes, Ana C. Q.; Fahham, Lucas; Neves, Eduardo Jordão; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Reis, Luiz Fernando Lima

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors represent a group of neoplasia with different histologic and biological presentations varying from benign, locally confined to very aggressive and metastatic tumors. The molecular mechanisms responsible for such differences are still unknown. The understanding of these molecular alterations mechanism will be critical to discriminate patients who need systemic treatment from those that can be treated only locally and could also guide the development of new drugs' against this tumors. Using 102 tumor samples representing a large spectrum of these tumors, we performed expression profiling and defined differentially expression genes that are likely to be involved in tumors that are locally aggressive and in tumors with metastatic potential. We described a set of 12 genes (SNRPD3, MEGF9, SPTAN-1, AFAP1L2, ENDOD1, SERPIN5, ZWINTAS, TOP2A, UBE2C, ABCF1, MCM2, and ARL6IP5) showing opposite expression when these two conditions were compared. These genes are mainly related to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions and cell proliferation and might represent helpful tools for a more precise classification and diagnosis as well as potential drug targets. PMID:20165692

  10. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes are linked to aggressive local recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, Shuichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Imura, Satoru; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Takasu, Chie; Saito, Yu; Yamada, Shinichiro

    2016-05-28

    We reported that poor prognoses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are owing to up-regulation of expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule. We investigated aggressive progression in residual liver tumors (RLTs) after RFA to focus on expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes and miRNAs. Ten patients with recurrent HCC post-RFA who underwent hepatectomy (RFA group) and 78 patients with HCC without prior RFA (non-RFA group) were enrolled. We examined expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Twist, vimentin, and Snail-1 mRNAs in tumor tissues, and expression of miR-34a and miR-200c. Expression of TGF-β, Twist and Snail-1 in the RFA group was significantly higher than that in the non-RFA group (P < 0.05); vimentin expression in the RFA group was higher than that in the non-RFA group (P = 0.07). Expression of miR-200c and miR-34a in the RFA group was significantly lower than that in the non-RFA group (miR-200c: P = 0.04; miR-34a: P < 0.01). Increased expression of EMT markers through down-regulation of miRNA expression in RLTs after RFA may be related to poor prognoses of HCC patients with aggressive local recurrence after RFA. PMID:26940140

  12. Modeling Growth in Boys' Aggressive Behavior across Elementary School: Links to Later Criminal Involvement, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2003-01-01

    The present study used general growth mixture modeling to identify pathways of antisocial behavior development within an epidemiological sample of urban, primarily African American boys. Teacher-rated aggression, measured longitudinally from 1st to 7th grade, was used to define growth trajectories. Three high-risk trajectories (chronic high,…

  13. Novel analogs targeting histone deacetylase suppress aggressive thyroid cancer cell growth and induce re-differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jang, S; Yu, X-M; Odorico, S; Clark, M; Jaskula-Sztul, R; Schienebeck, C M; Kupcho, K R; Harrison, A D; Winston-McPherson, G N; Tang, W; Chen, H

    2015-08-01

    To develop novel therapies for aggressive thyroid cancers, we have synthesized a collection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor analogs named AB1 to AB13, which have different linkers between a metal chelating group and a hydrophobic cap. The purpose of this study was to screen out the most effective compounds and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. AB2, AB3 and AB10 demonstrated the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in one metastatic follicular and two anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Treatment with each of the three ABs resulted in an increase in apoptosis markers, including cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase 3. Additionally, the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p21(WAF1) and p27(Kip1) increased with the treatment of ABs while cyclin D1 decreased. Furthermore, AB2, AB3 and AB10 were able to induce thyrocyte-specific genes in the three thyroid cancer cell lines indicated by increased expression levels of sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), TTF2 and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. AB2, AB3 and AB10 suppress thyroid cancer cell growth via cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. They also induce cell re-differentiation, which could make aggressive cancer cells more susceptible to radioactive iodine therapy. PMID:26251030

  14. Regorafenib inhibits growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in a highly aggressive, orthotopic colon cancer model.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Arns, Susanne; Brix, Gunnar; Gremse, Felix; Zopf, Dieter; Kiessling, Fabian; Lederle, Wiltrud

    2013-07-01

    The combination of target-specific drugs like bevacizumab with chemotherapeutics has improved treatment efficacy in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the clinical prognosis of metastatic CRCs is still poor, and novel drugs are currently assessed with respect to their efficacies in patients with CRCs. In a phase III study, the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) has recently been shown to prolong survival of patients with CRCs after standard therapies failed. In the present study, the activity of regorafenib was investigated in comparison with the angiogenesis inhibitor DC101 in the highly aggressive, murine CT26 metastatic colon cancer model. While a treatment for 10 days with DC101 given at a dose of 34 mg/kg every third day significantly delayed tumor growth compared with vehicle-treated animals, regorafenib completely suppressed tumor growth at a daily oral dose of 30 mg/kg. Regorafenib also induced a stronger reduction in tumor vascularization, as longitudinally assessed in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, regorafenib inhibited the angiogenic activity more strongly and induced a three times higher apoptosis rate than DC101. Even more important, regorafenib completely prevented the formation of liver metastases, whereas in DC101-treated animals, the metastatic rate was only reduced by 33% compared with the vehicle group. In addition, regorafenib significantly reduced the amount of infiltrating macrophages. These data show that the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib exerts strong antiangiogenic, antitumorigenic, and even antimetastatic effects on highly aggressive colon carcinomas indicative for its high potential in the treatment of advanced CRCs. PMID:23619301

  15. [Complete dental care of patients suffering from localized aggressive periodontitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2015-12-01

    A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected. PMID:26863818

  16. Cytoplasmic localization of Nrf2 promotes colorectal cancer with more aggressive tumors via upregulation of PSMD4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Lin; Chang, Jinghua Tsai; Wu, De-Wei; Huang, Chi-Chou; Lee, Huei

    2016-06-01

    Differences in subcellular localization of Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) have been associated with poor outcomes in human cancers. However, the prognostic value of subcellular localization of Nrf2 in colorectal cancer and the underlying mechanism in tumor invasion remain unknown. We enrolled tumors from colorectal patients to evaluate Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. NQO1 and HO-1 positive tumors showed nearly complete expression of Nrf2 in the nucleus and/or showed partial expression in the nucleus/cytoplasm (nNrf2); however, tumors negative for NQO1 and HO-1 showed almost complete expression of Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and/or partial expression in the nucleus/cytoplasm (cNrf2). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis indicated poorer overall survival in patients with cNrf2 tumors than with nNrf2 tumors. Cell models provided evidence that cNrf2, rather than nNrf2, was responsible for cell invasion and soft agar growth triggered by activation of the NF-κB/AKT/β-catenin cascade. Mechanistically, cNrf2 persistently increased PSMD4 expression by the HIF1α/β-catenin axis, whereas PSMD4 reciprocally enhanced Nrf2 nuclear export by increasing CRM1 expression through p53 degradation. The mechanistic action of the cell model was further confirmed with a nude mouse animal model in which xenograft tumors induced by cNrf2 were nearly completely suppressed by the proteasomal inhibitor carfilzomib or the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939. We therefore suggest that PSMD4 or β-catenin might be potential targets for suppressing tumor aggressiveness, and consequently, improving outcomes in patients whose tumors express cNrf2. PMID:27033953

  17. Teacher-Child Relationship, Parenting, and Growth in Likelihood and Severity of Physical Aggression in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…

  18. Local growth of icosahedral quasicrystalline tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Connor T.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals (IQCs) with extremely high degrees of translational order have been produced in the laboratory and found in naturally occurring minerals, yet questions remain about how IQCs form. In particular, the fundamental question of how locally determined additions to a growing cluster can lead to the intricate long-range correlations in IQCs remains open. In answer to this question, we have developed an algorithm that is capable of producing a perfectly ordered IQC yet relies exclusively on local rules for sequential, face-to-face addition of tiles to a cluster. When the algorithm is seeded with a special type of cluster containing a defect, we find that growth is forced to infinity with high probability and that the resultant IQC has a vanishing density of defects. The geometric features underlying this algorithm can inform analyses of experimental systems and numerical models that generate highly ordered quasicrystals.

  19. Laser crystallization and localized growth of nanomaterials for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In, Jungbin; Ryu, Sang-Gil; Lee, Daeho; Ahn, Sanghoon; Zheng, Andy Cheng; Hwang, David Jae-Seok; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-assisted localized growth of semiconducting nanostructures is reported. As is the case of conventional crystal growth, localized laser enables three kinds of crystal growth: (1) melt growth (recrystallization) of amorphous silicon nanopillars by pulsed laser; (2) vapor growth (chemical vapor deposition) of germanium nanowires; (3) solution growth (hydrothermal growth) of zinc oxide nanowires. The results not only demonstrate programmable and digital fabrication of laser-assisted crystal growth, but also reveal unusual growth chacracteristics (grain morphologies, growth kinetics). Related to solar applications, it is suggested that these structures can act as epitaxial seeds for growth of coarse grains and as multi-spectral centers for enhanced and engineered light absorption.

  20. Primary vertebral tumors: a review of epidemiologic, histological and imaging findings, part II: locally aggressive and malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Ropper, Alexander E; Cahill, Kevin S; Hanna, John W; McCarthy, Edward F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Chi, John H

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a comprehensive review of primary vertebral tumors focuses on locally aggressive and malignant tumors. As discussed in the earlier part of the review, both benign and malignant types of these tumors affect the adult and the pediatric population, and an understanding of their subtleties may increase their effective resection. In this review, we discuss the epidemiologic, histological, and imaging features of the most common locally aggressive primary vertebral tumors (chordoma and giant-cell tumor) and malignant tumors (chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, multiple myeloma or plasmacytoma, and osteosarcoma). The figures used for illustration are from operative patients of the senior authors (Z.L.G. and J.H.C.). Taken together, parts 1 and 2 of this article provide a thorough and illustrative review of primary vertebral tumors. PMID:21768918

  1. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  2. APRIL promotes breast tumor growth and metastasis and is associated with aggressive basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    García-Castro, Araceli; Zonca, Manuela; Florindo-Pinheiro, Douglas; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla E; Cordero, Alex; Gutiérrez del Fernando, Burgo; García-Grande, Aránzazu; Mañes, Santos; Hahne, Michael; González-Suárez, Eva; Planelles, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) is a cytokine of the tumor necrosis factor family associated mainly with hematologic malignancies. APRIL is also overexpressed in breast carcinoma tissue lesions, although neither its role in breast tumorigenesis nor the underlying molecular mechanism is known. Here, we show that several breast cancer cell lines express APRIL and both its receptors, B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and transmembrane activator and CAML-interactor (TACI), independently of luminal or basal tumor cell phenotype, and that the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 are activated in response to APRIL. The inflammatory stimulus poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand, enhanced APRIL secretion. Silencing experiments decreased cell proliferation, demonstrating that APRIL is a critical autocrine factor for breast tumor growth. Studies of 4T1 orthotopic breast tumors in APRIL transgenic mice showed that an APRIL-enriched environment increased tumor growth and promoted lung metastasis associated with enhanced tumor cell proliferation; BCMA and TACI expression suggests that both participate in these processes. We detected APRIL, BCMA and TACI in human luminal, triple-negative breast carcinomas and HER2 breast carcinomas, with increased levels in more aggressive basal tumors. APRIL was observed near Ki67(+) nuclei and was distributed heterogeneously in the cancer cells, in the leukocyte infiltrate, and in the myoepithelial layer adjacent to the tumor area; these results imply that APRIL provides proliferation signals to tumor cells through paracrine and autocrine signaling. Our study identifies participation of APRIL signaling in breast cancer promotion; we propose impairment of this pathway as a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:25750171

  3. AT9283, a novel aurora kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaobing; Cooke, Laurence S; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Squires, Matthew; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2012-06-15

    Aurora kinases are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in regulating the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Auroras are overexpressed in numerous tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are validated oncology targets. AT9283, a pan-aurora inhibitor inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that AT9283 had potent activity against Aurora B in a variety of aggressive B-(non-Hodgkin lymphoma) B-NHL cell lines. Cells treated with AT9283 exhibited endoreduplication confirming the mechanism of action of an Aurora B inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with AT9283 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner and inhibited cell proliferation with an IC(50) < 1 μM. It is well known that inhibition of auroras (A or B) synergistically enhances the effects of microtubule targeting agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis. We evaluated whether AT9283 in combination with docetaxel is more efficient in inducing apoptosis than AT9283 or docetaxel alone. At very low doses (5 nM) apoptosis was doubled in the combination (23%) compared to AT9283 or docetaxel alone (10%). A mouse xenograft model of mantle cell lymphoma demonstrated that AT9283 at 15 mg/kg and docetaxel (10 mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, AT9283 at 20 mg/kg and AT9283 (15 or 20 mg/kg) plus docetaxel (10 mg/kg) demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival. Together, our results suggest that AT9283 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in B-cell NHL and warrant early phase clinical trial evaluation. PMID:21796626

  4. The rare aggressive osteoblastoma in a two year old child in an unusual localization

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Debdutta; Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    A rare bone tumor of 3rd metacarpal bone in a male child aged 2 years is being described. The patent presented with a gradually increasing, painful swelling over the dorsum of right hand which radiologically revealed an expansile, radioluscent mass, in 3rd metacarpal shaft with cortical destruction. The clinic-radiological differential diagnosis was aggressive cartilage tumor or an osteomyelitis. Histological examination of surgical biopsy material revealed randomly arranged woven bone lined by epithelioid osteoblast and after correlating the clinic-radiological features the diagnosis was an aggressive osteoblastoma. Appropriate diagnosis of such a rare tumor in an unusual location and age group facilitate adequate management by surgery alone without radiotherapy or chemotherapy. PMID:26909276

  5. Desmoplastic Fibroma of the Pediatric Cranium: An Aggressive Skull Tumor with Local Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    KOISO, Takao; MUROI, Ai; YAMAMOTO, Tetsuya; SAKAMOTO, Noriaki; MATSUMURA, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Cranial desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is extremely rare and only 20 cases, including only 7 pediatric cases, have been reported previously. We describe the first case of a child with cranial DF that increased in size over a short-term and recurred after resection. The aim of this case report was to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics and optimal treatment for this rare and aggressive skull tumor. PMID:26804188

  6. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  7. Individual growth trajectories of sibling Brycon moorei raised in isolation since egg stage, and their relationship with aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baras, E; Lucas, M C

    2010-09-01

    The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression. PMID:20840625

  8. Local recurrent vaginal aggressive angiomyxoma misdiagnosed as cellular angiomyofibroblastoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YIN-FENG; QIAN, HONG-LANG; JIN, HANG-MEI

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) and angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB) are two rare types of mesenchymal tumors with overlapping clinicopathological features. In certain cases, the differential diagnosis between the two tumors is difficult even for experienced pathologists. The present study reported the case of a well-circumscribed soft tissue mass on the anterior wall of the vagina in a 25-year-old woman. The mass was initially removed without disturbance to the adjacent tissues. The histopathological features included spindle cells in inconspicuous myxoid stroma and a well-demarcated mass without evidence of invasion, which prompted the initial diagnosis of AMFB. After 2 years, a mass returned in the same area and a wide tumor excision was performed. The histopathological examination confirmed the final diagnosis of AAM upon review. PMID:27168823

  9. Nonsyndromic localized aggressive periodontitis of primary dentition: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Muppa, Radhika; Nallanchakrava, Srinivas; Chinta, Mahesh; Manthena, Ravi Teja

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva and tissues of the periodontium. It is characterized by pocket formation and destruction of supporting alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases of aggressive nature are not very common in children. They are usually associated with systemic conditions. The present case report is of a 5-year-old male child who reported with rapid attachment loss and bony defects of the gingiva and supporting structures. His family and medical history gave no contribution for the diagnosis. Blood investigations did not reveal any abnormality. The microbial examination of culture revealed the presence of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The treatment objective in the present case was to prevent the further progress of the condition, restore esthetic and function in the child which would psychologically benefit the child. PMID:27307682

  10. Nonsyndromic localized aggressive periodontitis of primary dentition: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Nallanchakrava, Srinivas; Chinta, Mahesh; Manthena, Ravi Teja

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva and tissues of the periodontium. It is characterized by pocket formation and destruction of supporting alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases of aggressive nature are not very common in children. They are usually associated with systemic conditions. The present case report is of a 5-year-old male child who reported with rapid attachment loss and bony defects of the gingiva and supporting structures. His family and medical history gave no contribution for the diagnosis. Blood investigations did not reveal any abnormality. The microbial examination of culture revealed the presence of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The treatment objective in the present case was to prevent the further progress of the condition, restore esthetic and function in the child which would psychologically benefit the child. PMID:27307682

  11. [Effects of sorting weaner pigs by weight on growth performance, aggressive interactions and skin lesion score after mixing].

    PubMed

    Fels, Michaela; Hoy, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Weaning piglets at the age of three or four weeks is an integral part of certain production rhythms in modern pig farming. Sorting piglets by weight and mixing them into new groups is a common method in agricultural practice. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the formation of homogeneous weight groups after weaning affects weight development and aggressive behaviour. We compared homogeneous and heterogeneous weight groups and entire litters that were weaned and reared completely. All groups including entire litters were composed of 12 animals. All piglets were weighed the day before weaning, four days later, and on day 38. The number of all aggressive interactions occurring within a group was determined by video analysis for 72 hours after mixing.There during four days after weaning or over the rearing period. Rearing entire litters resulted in significantly higher daily weight gain within four days after weaning and throughout the rearing period. Sorting piglets by weight did not affect the development of weight dispersion in a group. The coefficients of variation of weights in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups which differed significantly at the beginning were on a similar level after 38 days. Neither weight balance of piglet batches at the end of rearing nor growth performance or aggressive interactions were influenced by sorting piglets by weight at weaning. PMID:23540194

  12. Evaluation of Penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.

    PubMed

    Neri, Fiorella; Donati, Irene; Veronesi, Francesca; Mazzoni, David; Mari, Marta

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of Penicillium expansum (I 1, E 11, C 28 and I 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. The 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. In particular, C 28 and I 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infection and 20.7 and 15.4 mm lesion diameters). 'Candonga' strawberries and 'Pinkcot' apricots showed the largest lesion diameters (29.8 and 25.3 mm), followed by 'Conference' pears, 'Spring Crest' peaches and 'Abate Fetel' pears. With the exception of 'Candonga' strawberries, the formation of colonies and mycelial growth of P. expansum isolates on fruit puree agar media (PAMs) was stimulated in comparison to a standard growth medium (malt extract agar, MEA). Two of the most aggressive isolates in our assays (I 12 and C 28) showed the greatest accumulation of patulin both in vitro and in vivo, while the least aggressive isolate (I 1) produced patulin only in a few growth media and cvs. Patulin concentration on fruit PAMs was higher than patulin detected in infected fruit tissues. Apple PAMs were the more favorable substrates for patulin accumulation in vitro (maximum concentration 173.1 and 74.1 μg/mL in 'Pink Lady and 'Golden Delicious' PAMs, respectively) and 'Pink Lady' apples inoculated with the isolate E 11 showed the greatest accumulation of patulin in the whole in vivo assay (33.9 μg/mL). However, infected tissue of cv Golden Delicious showed lower average accumulation of patulin (1.7 μg/mL) than that of cv Pink Lady (19.1 μg/mL), and no significant differences in patulin concentrations were found among 'Golden Delicious' apples and tested cvs of pears, kiwifruits and strawberries. Peaches were highly susceptible to patulin accumulation, showing average concentrations

  13. Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Colak, Dilek; Hengst, Ulrich; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, while most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signaling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses. PMID:25901863

  14. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, a rare but locally aggressive tumor on finger: clinical and aeromedical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kwo-Tsao; Lee, Shih-Yu; Chu, Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, slow growing, locally infiltrative tumor of intermediate malignancy. It is mostly found on the trunk and head, rarely on hands. The course of evaluation and treatment of a young pilot with DFSP on left middle finger is reported. The clinical issues and aeromedical considerations of this rare tumor is discussed.

  15. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  16. Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE): a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Hale, Daniel; Allen, Elizabeth; Elbourne, Diana; Jones, Rebecca; Bond, Lyndal; Wiggins, Meg; Miners, Alec; Legood, Rosa; Scott, Stephen; Christie, Deborah; Viner, Russell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Youth bullying and other aggressive behaviours are a major public health concern owing to their impact on adolescent physical and mental health and well-being. Whole-school restorative approaches have been identified as a promising method of addressing aggressive behaviour but there have been no randomised trials undertaken to examine their effects. AIM To examine the feasibility and acceptability of implementing and trialling the INCLUSIVE (initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment) intervention in English secondary schools. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled pilot trial in eight schools (1 : 1 computer-generated random allocation post baseline by a statistician blind to the identity of clusters) and process evaluation. SETTING Secondary schools in England (purposively sampled to ensure diversity). PARTICIPANTS Year 8 students (aged 12-13 years), teachers, other school staff and intervention providers. INTERVENTION Whole-school restorative approach to address bullying and aggression, involving the following standard processes: school action group formation and external facilitation to review needs assessment data, identify priorities, and plan and monitor school-level actions; staff training in restorative practices; and a new social and emotional skills curriculum. COMPARISON GROUP Standard practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES (1) The primary outcome of interest was the feasibility and acceptability of delivering and trialling the intervention according to prespecified criteria; (2) process data were analysed to explore participants' experiences of implementing and trialling the intervention and how these varied according to school context; and (3) indicative primary outcomes (aggressive behaviour measures), secondary outcomes, intermediate outcomes and economic evaluation methods were piloted. DATA SOURCES Students (n = 1144 baseline; n = 1114 follow-up) and teachers (n = 387 baseline; n = 336

  17. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  18. Local Growth and the Outside Contacts of Influentials: An Alternative Test of the "Growth Machine" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.

    1984-01-01

    While other studies of local efforts to promote small town growth have generally shown negative results, this study of 88 small northwestern Michigan towns during the 1970s focused on external ties and contacts of local influentials and tended to support the growth machine hypothesis. Extensive metropolitan contacts increased population/program…

  19. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A.; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  20. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  1. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills. PMID:25046126

  2. The role of tip-localized mitochondria in hyphal growth.

    PubMed

    Levina, Natalia N; Lew, Roger R

    2006-02-01

    Hyphal tip-growing organisms have a high density of tip-localized mitochondria which maintain a membrane potential based on Rhodamine 123 fluorescence, but do not produce ATP based on the absence of significant oxygen consumption. Two possible roles of these mitochondria in tip growth were examined: Calcium sequestration and biogenesis, because tip-high cytoplasmic calcium gradients are a common feature of tip-growing organisms, and the volume expansion as the tip extends would require a continuous supply of additional mitochondria. Co-localization of calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye and mitochondria-specific fluorescent dyes showed that the tip-localized mitochondria do contain calcium, and therefore, may function in calcium clearance from the cytoplasm. Short-term inhibition of DNA synthesis or mitochondrial protein synthesis did not affect either tip growth, or mitochondrial shape or distribution. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis may not occur from the tip-localized mitochondria in hyphal organisms. PMID:16455272

  3. The Growth and Aggressive Behavior of Human Osteosarcoma Is Regulated by a CaMKII-Controlled Autocrine VEGF Signaling Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Daft, Paul G.; Yang, Yang; Napierala, Dobrawa; Zayzafoon, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a hyperproliferative malignant tumor that requires a high vascular density to maintain its large volume. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and acts as a paracrine and autocrine agent affecting both endothelial and tumor cells. The alpha-Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase two (α-CaMKII) protein is an important regulator of OS growth. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII-induced VEGF in the growth and tumorigenicity of OS. We show that the pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of α-CaMKII results in decreases in VEGF gene expression (50%) and protein secretion (55%), while α- CaMKII overexpression increases VEGF gene expression (250%) and protein secretion (1,200%). We show that aggressive OS cells (143B) express high levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and respond to exogenous VEGF (100nm) by increasing intracellular calcium (30%). This response is ameliorated by the VEGFR inhibitor CBO-P11, suggesting that secreted VEGF results in autocrine stimulated α-CaMKII activation. Furthermore, we show that VEGF and α-CaMKII inhibition decreases the transactivation of the HIF-1α and AP-1 reporter constructs. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows significantly decreased binding of HIF-1α and AP-1 to their responsive elements in the VEGF promoter. These data suggest that α-CaMKII regulates VEGF transcription by controlling HIF-1α and AP-1 transcriptional activities. Finally, CBO-P11, KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and combination therapy significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo. Our results suggest that VEGF-induced OS tumor growth is controlled by CaMKII and dual therapy by CaMKII and VEGF inhibitors could be a promising therapy against this devastating adolescent disease. PMID:25860662

  4. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  5. Local diffusion induced roughening in cobalt phthalocyanine thin film growth.

    PubMed

    Gedda, Murali; Subbarao, Nimmakayala V V; Goswami, Dipak K

    2014-07-29

    We have studied the kinetic roughening in the growth of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) thin films grown on SiO2/Si(001) surfaces as a function of the deposition time and the growth temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have observed that the growth exhibits the formation of irregular islands, which grow laterally as well as vertically with coverage of CoPc molecules, resulting rough film formation. Our analysis further disclosed that such formation is due to an instability in the growth induced by local diffusion of the molecules following an anomalous scaling behavior. The instability relates the (ln(t))(1/2), with t as deposition time, dependence of the local surface slope as described in nonequilibrium film growth. The roughening has been characterized by calculating different scaling exponents α, β, and 1/z determined from the height fluctuations obtained from AFM images. We obtained an average roughness exponent α = 0.78 ± 0.04. The interface width (W) increases following a power law as W ∼ t(β), with growth exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.05 and lateral correlation length (ξ) grows as ξ ∼ t(1/z) with dynamic exponent 1/z = 0.23 ± 0.06. The exponents revealed that the growth belongs to a different class of universality. PMID:24992503

  6. Interface Shape Control Using Localized Heating during Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Croll, A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical calculations were performed to assess the effect of localized radial heating on the melt-crystal interface shape during vertical Bridgman growth. System parameters examined include the ampoule, melt and crystal thermal conductivities, the magnitude and width of localized heating, and the latent heat of crystallization. Concave interface shapes, typical of semiconductor systems, could be flattened or made convex with localized heating. Although localized heating caused shallower thermal gradients ahead of the interface, the magnitude of the localized heating required for convexity was less than that which resulted in a thermal inversion ahead of the interface. A convex interface shape was most readily achieved with ampoules of lower thermal conductivity. Increasing melt convection tended to flatten the interface, but the amount of radial heating required to achieve a convex interface was essentially independent of the convection intensity.

  7. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Ku, Amy W.; Bucsek, Mark J.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Vardam-Kaur, Trupti; Kim, Minhyung; Fisher, Daniel T.; Camoriano, Marta; Khoury, Thaer; Skitzki, Joseph J.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Evans, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA) in a preclinical mouse model. Experimental Design Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma. Results Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen). Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Conclusion Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant

  8. Localized electrochemical deposition: the growth behavior of nickel microcolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, SweeHock; Choo, Jian H.; Yip, Kwan S.

    2000-08-01

    The development of MEMS has initiated the birth of various types of microfabrication processes. These processes in turn serve as a platform for the invention of newer improve3d processes with increasingly higher fabrication resolution. This paper reports on an investigative study on the growth characteristics of nickel micro-columns grown by localized electrochemical deposition - a new truly 3D micro-rapid prototyping and direct-fabrication process capable of producing extremely high aspect ratio microstructures. Nickel columns were electrochemically formed on copper cathodes form a nickel sulfamate plating solution using a non-soluble microelectrode as the anode. Initial experiments showed that zero, partial or complete growths of the columns were revealed, depending on the vertical traverse speed of the microelectrode away form the horizontal copper surface - the preferred traverse speed profile being a decreasing quadratic function that starts form a low traverse speed value followed by a constant function at a higher speed value with respect to time. Further work conducted based on this finding achieve da constant growth rate with an analog closed-loop feedback control of the process, which produced columns with more even dimensions. Understanding of the growth phenomena will allow increases in the rate of deposition and better dimensional control of 3D micro- components grown via localized electrochemical deposition.

  9. Localization of growth and secretion of proteins in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wösten, H A; Moukha, S M; Sietsma, J H; Wessels, J G

    1991-08-01

    Hyphal growth and secretion of proteins in Aspergillus niger were studied using a new method of culturing the fungus between perforated membranes which allows visualization of both parameters. At the colony level the sites of occurrence of growth and general protein secretion were correlated. In 4-d-old colonies both growth and secretion were localized at the periphery of the colony, whereas in a 5-d-old colony growth and secretion also occurred in a more central zone of the colony where conidiophore differentiation was observed. However, in both cases glucoamylase secretion was mainly detected at the periphery of the colonies. At the hyphal level immunogold labelling showed glucoamylase secretion at the tips of leading hyphae only. Microautoradiography after labelling with N-acetylglucosamine showed that these hyphae were probably all growing. Glucoamylase secretion could not be demonstrated immediately after a temperature shock which stopped growth. These results indicate that glucoamylase secretion is located at the tips of growing hyphae only. PMID:1955876

  10. Locally aggressive aneurysmal bone cyst of C4 vertebra treated by total en bloc excision and anterior plus posterior cervical instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Himanshu N.; Agrawal, Vinod A.; Shah, Munjal S.; Nanda, Saurav N.

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a case of cervical (C4) aneurysmal bone cyst in a 13-year-old girl, came to the outpatient department with neck pain and stiffness since 6 months and normal neurology. We did an en bloc excision of locally aggressive tumor through anterior plus posterior approach and stabilization by lateral mass screw fixation and anterior cervical instrumentation. Involvement of several adjacent cervical vertebrae by an aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, and conventional treatment with curettage and bone grafting is most likely to carry a high rate of recurrence and spinal instability. We recommend complete excision of the tumor and instrumentation in a single stage to avoid instability. PMID:26288549

  11. Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy Versus Prostate Only Radiotherapy in the Management of Locally Advanced or Aggressive Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Aizer, Ayal A.; Yu, James B.; McKeon, Anne M.; Decker, Roy H.; Colberg, John W.; Peschel, Richard E.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) or prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT) yields improved biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) in patients with advanced or aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 277 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and at least a 15% likelihood of lymph node involvement who had undergone WPRT (n = 68) or PORT (n = 209) at two referral centers was analyzed. The median radiation dose in both arms was 75.6 Gy. The outcome measure was BDFS, as determined using the prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL definition of failure. BDFS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess for confounding. Treatment-related toxicity was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events guidelines. The median follow-up was 30 months. Results: WPRT patients had more advanced and aggressive disease at baseline (p < .001). The 4-year BDFS rate was 69.4% in the PORT cohort and 86.3% in the WPRT cohort (p = .02). Within the entire cohort, after adjustment for confounding variables, the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (p < .001), Gleason score (p < .001), use of hormonal therapy (p = .002), and use of WPRT (vs. PORT, p = .006) predicted for BDFS. Patients undergoing WPRT had increased acute gastrointestinal toxicity (p = .048), but no significant difference in acute genitourinary toxicity was seen (p = .09). No difference in late toxicity was found. Conclusion: WPRT may yield improved BDFS in patients with advanced or aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma, but results in a greater incidence of acute toxicity.

  12. Curative-Intent Aggressive Treatment Improves Survival in Elderly Patients With Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and High Comorbidity Index

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Wu, Li-Li; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Ding, Yi-Fang; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), therapeutic decisions depend on comorbidity or age. We estimated the treatment outcomes of patients with different Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores and ages to determine whether aggressive treatment improves survival. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases were analyzed, and we included >20-year-old patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III or IV HNSCC (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 140.0–148.9) undergoing surgery, chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), sequential CT and RT, or surgery with adjuvant treatment. The exclusion criteria were a past cancer history, distant metastasis, AJCC stage I or II, missing sex data, an age < 20 years, nasopharyngeal cancer, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, and HNSCC recurrence. The index date was the date of first HNSCC diagnosis, and comorbidities were scored using the CCI. The enrolled patients were categorized into Group 1 (curative-intent aggressive treatments) and Group 2 (best supportive care or palliative treatments). We enrolled 21,174 stage III or IV HNSCC patients without distant metastasis (median follow-up, 3.25 years). Groups 1 and 2 comprised 18,584 and 2232 patients, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and clinical stage, adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of overall death in Group 1 were 0.33 (0.31–0.35), 0.34 (0.31–0.36), and 0.37 (0.28–0.49), and those of all-cause death among patients undergoing curative surgical aggressive treatments were 1.13 (0.82–1.55), 0.67 (0.62–0.73), and 0.49 (0.46–0.53) for CCI scores of ≥10, 5 to 9, and <5, respectively. Aggressive treatments improve survival in elderly (≥65 years) and critically ill HNSCC patients. Curative nonsurgical aggressive treatments including definitive RT or CCRT might be suitable for

  13. Control of tissue growth by locally produced activator: Liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-03-01

    In general, the tissue development is controlled by growth factors and depends on the biomechanics of cells. The corresponding kinetic models are focused primarily on the early stages of the development. The attempts to construct such models for the later stages are still rare. One of the notable examples here is liver regeneration. Referring to this process, the author proposes and analyzes a generic kinetic model describing the regulation of tissue growth by locally produced activator. The model includes activator diffusion and control of the rate of cell proliferation which is described by using the Hill expression. Although this control may be moderately or strongly non-linear, the qualitative changes in the regeneration kinetics are predicted to be modest. For moderately non-linear control, the evolution of the tissue volume to the steady-state value exhibits an initial relatively short linear stage and then becomes slightly slower so that the whole kinetics is close to exponential. For strongly non-linear control, the linear stage dominates and/or the kinetics may exhibit a S-like shape feature which is, however, rather weak. The identification of such qualitative features in experimentally measured kinetics is shown to be difficult, because the error bars in the experiments are typically too large.

  14. [Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Nava Flores, Elda Lizeth; Alvarez Blanco, Mario A; Figueroa Vadillo, Jazmín; Cruz Ortiz, Humberto

    2009-10-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare vulvovaginal, perineal or pelvic mesenchymal neoplasm with a marked tendency to local recurrence but does not metastasize. A case of an aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva in a 39-years-old women with an illness of one year prior to examination, with a slow and progressive growth of the left vulvar region, without other symptoms. During physical examination, a piriform tumor of 15x10 cm was found, located on the left labia majora, soft tissue dependent. Wide resection of the tumor were performed. Hystopathology reported an aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva, with tumor in resection margins. The patient was treated with a 65Gy postsurgical radiotherapy and gosereline 3.6 mg monthly, during 6 cycles. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare neoplasm 150 cases has been reported. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy and hormonal adyuvant is not fully stablished. PMID:19902678

  15. Combined global 2D-local 3D modeling of the industrial Czochralski silicon crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, T.; Seebeck, J.; Friedrich, J.

    2013-04-01

    A global, axisymmetric thermal model of a Czochralski furnace is coupled to an external, local, 3D, time-dependent flow model of the melt via the inclusion of turbulent heat fluxes, extracted from the 3D melt model, into the 2D furnace model. Boundary conditions of the 3D model are updated using results from the 2D model. In the 3D model the boundary layers are resolved by aggressive mesh refinement towards the walls, and the Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to model the turbulent flow in the melt volume on a relatively coarse mesh to minimize calculation times. It is shown that by using this approach it is possible to reproduce fairly good results from Direct Numerical Simulations obtained on much finer meshes, as well as experimental results for interface shape and oxygen concentration in the case of growth of silicon crystals with 210 mm diameter for photovoltaics by the Czochralski method.

  16. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  17. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860

  18. The Developmental Impact of Two First Grade Preventive Interventions on Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence: An Application of Latent Transition Growth Mixture Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1–3 and 6–12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1–3 and 6–12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6–12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1–3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1–3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1–3 to a low class in grades 6–12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860

  19. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity. PMID:25868978

  20. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P.; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L.; Zotto, Valeria Dal; Carter, James E.; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity. PMID:25868978

  1. Local CTLA4 blockade effectively restrains experimental pancreatic adenocarcinoma growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, Linda C; Eriksson, Fredrik; Ellmark, Peter; Loskog, Angelica SI; Tötterman, Thomas H; Mangsbo, Sara M

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated blockade of CTLA4 has been shown to be effective in treating a select group of patients with late-stage melanoma. The precise mechanism underlying the clinical activity of CTLA4 immunotherapy is poorly understood, although recent experimental findings indicate that antibody-mediated depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in efficacious antitumor responses. In the current study, we used an experimental model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma to compare the antitumor efficacy of peritumoral low-dose anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration to that of a commonly utilized systemic high-dose anti-CTLA4 regimen. We selected pancreatic adenocarcinoma as it presents a particular challenge to clinicians due to its aggressive behavior, metastatic spread and limited treatment options. Furthermore, Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-dense myeloid cells commonly infiltrate pancreatic tumors, such that these tumor types exhibit increased susceptibility to CTLA4 antibody-targeted Treg depletion via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Locally administered anti-CTLA4 mAb effectively reduced tumor growth at a low dose and no additional anti-tumor effects were apparent when increasing the dose or number of injections. No significant difference in overall survival was seen when comparing locally administered low-dose with standard systemic high-dose CTLA4 blockade therapy, and both delivery routes led to increased tumor-infiltrating effector T cells and reduced Treg cells. As opposed to low-dose peritumoral treatment, high-dose systemic therapy stimulated the accumulation of Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs, an effect that could potentially counteract the antitumor immunotherapeutic benefit of CTLA4 blockade. Our study confirms previous findings that local administration of low-dose anti-CTLA4 antibody generates sustained antitumor effects and provides rationale to devise ultrasound-guided intratumoral

  2. Overexpression of the growth-hormone-releasing hormone gene in acromegaly-associated pituitary tumors. An event associated with neoplastic progression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, K.; Kovacs, K.; Stefaneanu, L.; Scheithauer, B.; Killinger, D. W.; Lioyd, R. V.; Smyth, H. S.; Barr, A.; Thorner, M. O.; Gaylinn, B.; Laws, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical behavior of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors is known to vary greatly; however, the events underlying this variability remain poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that tumor overexpression of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene is one prognostically informative event associated with the clinical aggressiveness of somatotroph pituitary tumors. Accumulation of GHRH mRNA transcripts was demonstrated in 91 of a consecutive series of 100 somatotroph tumors by in situ hybridization; these findings were corroborated by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein translation was confirmed by Western blotting. By comparison, transcript accumulation was absent or negligibly low in 30 normal pituitary glands. GHRH transcripts were found to preferentially accumulate among clinically aggressive tumors. Specifically, GHRH mRNA signal intensity was 1) linearly correlated with Ki-67 tumor growth fractions (r = 0.71; P < 0.001), 2) linearly correlated with preoperative serum GH levels (r = 0.56; p = 0.01), 3) higher among invasive tumors (P < 0.001), and 4) highest in those tumors in which post-operative remission was not achieved (P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression, a model of postoperative remission likelihood was derived wherein remission was defined by the single criterion of suppressibility of GH levels to less than 2 ng/ml during an oral glucose tolerance test. In this outcome model, GHRH mRNA signal intensity proved to be the most important explanatory variable overall, eclipsing any and all conventional clinicopathological predictors as the single most significant predictor of postoperative remission; increases in GHRH mRNA signal were associated with marked declines in remission likelihood. The generalizability of this outcome model was further validated by the model's significant performance in predicting postoperative remission in a random sample of 30 somatotroph tumors treated at

  3. Local Solutions in the Estimation of Growth Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, John R.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Finite mixture models are well known to have poorly behaved likelihood functions featuring singularities and multiple optima. Growth mixture models may suffer from fewer of these problems, potentially benefiting from the structure imposed on the estimated class means and covariances by the specified growth model. As demonstrated here, however,…

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor as a novel molecular target for aggressive papillary tumors in the middle ear and temporal bone

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Shigeru; Christine Hollander, M; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Mercado-Matos, José R.; Li, Jie; Regales, Lucia; Pao, William; Jänne, Pasi A.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Butman, John A.; Lonser, Russell R.; Hansen, Marlan R.; Gurgel, Richard K.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatous tumors in the middle ear and temporal bone are rare but highly morbid because they are difficult to detect prior to the development of audiovestibular dysfunction. Complete resection is often disfiguring and difficult because of location and the late stage at diagnosis, so identification of molecular targets and effective therapies is needed. Here, we describe a new mouse model of aggressive papillary ear tumor that was serendipitously discovered during the generation of a mouse model for mutant EGFR-driven lung cancer. Although these mice did not develop lung tumors, 43% developed head tilt and circling behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed bilateral ear tumors located in the tympanic cavity. These tumors expressed mutant EGFR as well as active downstream targets such as Akt, mTOR and ERK1/2. EGFR-directed therapies were highly effective in eradicating the tumors and correcting the vestibular defects, suggesting these tumors are addicted to EGFR. EGFR activation was also observed in human ear neoplasms, which provides clinical relevance for this mouse model and rationale to test EGFR-targeted therapies in these rare neoplasms. PMID:26027747

  5. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798

  6. Local Calcium Entry and the Guidance of Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    The role of calcium in developing cells is illustrated. The Fucus egg, a brown algae is used to describe this phenomenom. Results of local calcium entry and forced calcium entry into the eggs are given.

  7. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts. PMID:26093985

  8. Heparin localization and fine structure regulate Burkitt's lymphoma growth

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David; Lynn, David M.; Berry, Eric; Sasisekharan, Ram; Langer, Robert . E-mail: rlanger@mit.edu

    2006-09-29

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell malignancy associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Mounting evidence has implicated heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) in the initiation, severity, and progression of the malignancy. The importance of HSGAGs in regulating BL cell growth was therefore examined. Extracellular exogenous heparin inhibited cell growth >30%, while heparin internalized with poly({beta}-amino ester)s promoted proliferation up to 58%. The growth-modulating effects of heparin and internalized heparin were dependent on cell surface HSGAGs, PI3K, and Erk/Mek. Treatment of cells with protamine sulfate or with heparinases potently inhibited proliferation, with the greatest effects induced by heparinase I. Cell surface HSGAGs therefore play an important role in regulating BL proliferation and may offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Locally produced estrogen through aromatization might enhance tissue expression of pituitary tumor transforming gene and fibroblast growth factor 2 in growth hormone-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Comunoglu, Nil; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Oz, Buge; Haliloglu, Ozlem Asmaz; Tanriover, Necmettin; Gazioglu, Nurperi; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2016-06-01

    Aromatase, a key enzyme in local estrogen synthesis, is expressed in different pituitary tumors including growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas. We aimed to evaluate aromatase, estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expressions in GH-secreting adenomas, and investigate their correlation with clinical, pathologic, and radiologic parameters. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary center in Turkey. Protein expressions were determined via immunohistochemical staining in ex vivo tumor samples of 62 patients with acromegaly and ten normal pituitary tissues. Concordantly increased aromatase, PTTG, and FGF2 expressions were detected in the tumor samples as compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all). None of the tumors expressed ERα while ERβ was detected only in mixed somatotroph adenomas. Aromatase, ERβ, PTTG expressions were not significantly different between patients with and without remission (p > 0.05 for all). FGF2 expression was significantly higher in patients without postoperative and late remission (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively), with sphenoid bone invasion, optic chiasm compression, and somatostatin analog resistance (p = 0.005, p = 0.033, and p = 0.013, respectively). Aromatase, PTTG and FGF2 expressions were positively correlated with each other (r = 0,311, p = 0.008 for aromatase, FGF2; r = 0.380, p = 0.001 for aromatase, PTTG; r = 0.400, p = 0.001 for FGF2, PTTG). PTTG-mediated FGF2 upregulation is associated with more aggressive tumor features in patients with acromegaly. Also, locally produced estrogen through aromatization might have a role in this phenomenon. PMID:26578364

  10. A Microchip for Quantitative Analysis of CNS Axon Growth under Localized Biomolecular Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Sunja; Park, Su Inn; Choe, Yoonsuck; Li, Jianrong; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Growth capability of neurons is an essential factor in axon regeneration. To better understand how microenvironments influence axon growth, methods that allow spatial control of cellular microenvironments and easy quantification of axon growth are critically needed. Here, we present a microchip capable of physically guiding the growth directions of axons while providing physical and fluidic isolation from neuronal somata/dendrites that enables localized biomolecular treatments and linear axon growth. The microchip allows axons to grow in straight lines inside the axon compartments even after the isolation; therefore, significantly facilitating the axon length quantification process. We further developed an image processing algorithm that automatically quantifies axon growth. The effect of localized extracellular matrix components and brain-derived neurotropic factor treatments on axon growth was investigated. Results show that biomolecules may have substantially different effects on axon growth depending on where they act. For example, while chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan causes axon retraction when added to the axons, it promotes axon growth when applied to the somata. The newly developed microchip overcomes limitations of conventional axon growth research methods that lack localized control of biomolecular environments and are often performed at a significantly lower cell density for only a short period of time due to difficulty in monitoring of axonal growth. This microchip may serve as a powerful tool for investigating factors that promote axon growth and regeneration. PMID:24161788

  11. Localization, growth, and inactivation of Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeno peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been implicated in one of the largest foodborne illness outbreaks in the summer of 2008. The objective of this study was to investigate representative groups of native microflora and the distribution, growth, and inactivation of experiment...

  12. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and

  13. Overexpression of PIN1 Enhances Cancer Growth and Aggressiveness with Cyclin D1 Induction in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chow, Chit; Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu-Tim; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a peculiar Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy that is prevalent in South-East Asia. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) isomerizes specific phosphorylated amino acid residues, which makes it an important regulator in cell survival and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the contribution made by PIN1 in NPC tumorigenesis and PIN1’s potential role as a therapeutic target. Methods The expression of PIN1 was examined in a panel of NPC cell lines, xenografts and primary tumors. The functional roles of PIN1 in NPC cells were elucidated by the knockdown and overexpression of PIN1 in in vitro and in vivo nude mice models by siRNA and lenti-viral transfection, respectively. The antitumor effects of the PIN1 inhibitor Juglone in NPC cells were also evaluated. Results We revealed the consistent overexpression of PIN1 in almost all EBV-associated NPC cell lines, xenografts and primary tumors. PIN1 suppression was capable of inhibiting cyclin D1 expression and activating caspase-3 in NPC cells. It positively regulated NPC cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth. The inhibition of PIN1 suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions This study demonstrates the oncogenic role of PIN1 in NPC tumorigenesis, and shows that its overexpression can enhance tumor cell growth via the upregulation of cyclinD1. Our findings inform the development of novel treatments targeting PIN1 for NPC patients. PMID:27258148

  14. Oncogenic Ki-ras confers a more aggressive colon cancer phenotype through modification of transforming growth factor-beta receptor III.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Deng, X; Friedman, E

    2001-01-12

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) can act as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter depending on the characteristics of the malignant cell. Each of three Ki-ras(G12V) transfectants of HD6-4 colon cancer cells had been shown to be more aggressive in vivo than controls in earlier studies (Yan, Z., Chen, M., Perucho, M., and Friedman, E. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 30928-30936). We now show that stable expression of oncogenic Ki-ras(G12V) converts the HD6-4 colon cancer cell line from insensitive to TGF-beta1 to growth-promoted by TGF-beta1. Each of three Ki-ras(G12V) transfectants responded to TGF-beta1 by an increase in proliferation and by decreasing the abundance of the Cdk inhibitor p21 and the tumor suppressor PTEN, whereas each of three wild-type Ki-ras transfectants remained unresponsive to TGF-beta1. The wild-type Ki-ras transfectants lack functional TGF-beta receptors, whereas all three Ki-ras(G12V) transfectants expressed functional TGF-beta receptors that bound (125)I-TGF-beta1. The previous studies showed that in cells with wild-type Ki-ras, TGF-beta receptors were not mutated, and receptor proteins were transported to the cell surface, but post-translational modification of TGF-beta receptor III (TbetaRIII) was incomplete. We now show that the betaglycan form of TbetaRIII is highly modified following translation when transiently expressed in Ki-ras(G12V) cells, whereas no such post-translational modification of TbetaRIII occurs in control cells. Antisense oligonucleotides directed to Ki-Ras decreased both TbetaRIII post-translational modification in Ki-ras(G12V) cells and TGF-beta1 down-regulation of p21, demonstrating the direct effect of mutant Ras. Therefore, one mechanism by which mutant Ki-Ras confers a more aggressive tumor phenotype is by enhancing TbetaRIII post-translational modification. PMID:11029459

  15. Increased local dopamine secretion has growth promoting effects in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coufal, Monique; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Frampton, Gabriel A.; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Ramirez, Jonathan C.; Alvaro, Domenico; Marzioni, Marco; Battisti, Guido; Benedetti, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating cancer of biliary origin with limited treatment options. Symptoms are usually evident after blockage of the bile duct by the tumor, and at this late stage, they are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Therefore, it is imperative that alternative treatment options are explored. We have previously shown that serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma leading to an increased secretion of serotonin, which has growth-promoting effects. Because serotonin and dopamine share the degradation machinery, we evaluated the secretion of dopamine from cholangiocarcinoma and its effects on cell proliferation. Using 4 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and human biopsy samples, we demonstrated that there was an increase in mRNA and protein expression of the dopamine synthesis enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase in cholangiocarcinoma. There was increased dopamine secretion from cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared to H69 and HIBEC cholangiocytes and increased dopamine immunoreactivity in human biopsy samples. Furthermore, administration of dopamine to all cholangiocarcinoma cell lines studied increased proliferation by up to 30% which could be blocked by the pretreatment of the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor antagonists, whereas blocking dopamine production by α-methyldopa administration suppressed growth by up to 25%. Administration of α-methyldopa to nude mice also suppressed cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth. The data presented here represent the first evidence that dopamine metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and that modulation of dopamine synthesis may represent an alternative target for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:19795457

  16. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  17. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Elisabeth R.; Park, SooHyun; James, Jose K.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Philippou, Anastassios; Eletto, Davide; Lei, Hanqin; Brisson, Becky; Ostrovsky, Olga; Li, Zihai; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical for development and growth of skeletal muscles, but because several tissues produce IGFs, it is not clear which source is necessary or sufficient for muscle growth. Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth. These mice exhibited smaller skeletal muscles with diminished IGF contents but with normal contractile function and no apparent endoplasmic reticulum stress response. This result shows that muscles rely on GRP94 primarily to support local production of IGFs, a pool that is necessary for normal muscle growth. In addition, body weights were ∼30% smaller than those of littermate controls, and circulating IGF-I also decreased significantly, yet glucose homeostasis was maintained with little disruption to the growth hormone pathway. The growth defect was complemented on administration of recombinant IGF-I. Thus, unlike liver production of IGF-I, muscle IGF-I is necessary not only locally but also globally for whole-body growth.—Barton, E. R., Park, S., James, J. K., Makarewich, C. A., Philippou, A., Eletto, D., Lei, H., Brisson, B., Ostrovsky, O., Li, Z., Argon, Y. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production. PMID:22649033

  18. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, John A; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  19. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    SciTech Connect

    Purdie, J.

    1995-09-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

  20. Local air quality constraints on energy growth, 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report examines the potential future conflict between energy growth and environmental protection, from the perspective of siting constraints imposed by requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. County-level projections of additional utility powerplant capacity and increases in industrial coal, oil, and gas consumption are derived for the period 1985 to 1990. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, after the application of appropriate control systems, are converted to changes in ambient air quality using a proportional modeling approach. These changes are then compared with Nonattainment and Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements, and the energy activity is considered to be constrained if a violation is projected. Total percentages of constrained energy activity are developed for the nation, and the geographical patterns of significant impacts are presented.

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  2. Concept analysis: aggression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  3. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  4. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  5. Nucleolin-Mediated RNA Localization Regulates Neuron Growth and Cycling Cell Size.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rotem Ben-Tov; Rishal, Ida; Doron-Mandel, Ella; Kalinski, Ashley L; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Terenzio, Marco; Alber, Stefanie; Koley, Sandip; Lin, Albina; Rozenbaum, Meir; Yudin, Dmitry; Sahoo, Pabitra K; Gomes, Cynthia; Shinder, Vera; Geraisy, Wasim; Huebner, Eric A; Woolf, Clifford J; Yaron, Avraham; Burlingame, Alma L; Twiss, Jeffery L; Fainzilber, Mike

    2016-08-01

    How can cells sense their own size to coordinate biosynthesis and metabolism with their growth needs? We recently proposed a motor-dependent bidirectional transport mechanism for axon length and cell size sensing, but the nature of the motor-transported size signals remained elusive. Here, we show that motor-dependent mRNA localization regulates neuronal growth and cycling cell size. We found that the RNA-binding protein nucleolin is associated with importin β1 mRNA in axons. Perturbation of nucleolin association with kinesins reduces its levels in axons, with a concomitant reduction in axonal importin β1 mRNA and protein levels. Strikingly, subcellular sequestration of nucleolin or importin β1 enhances axonal growth and causes a subcellular shift in protein synthesis. Similar findings were obtained in fibroblasts. Thus, subcellular mRNA localization regulates size and growth in both neurons and cycling cells. PMID:27477284

  6. Local and Remote Growth Factor Effects After Primate Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J.H.; Rosenzweig, E.S.; Blesch, A.; Moseanko, R.; Havton, L.A.; Edgerton, V.R.; Tuszynski, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Primate models of spinal cord injury differ from rodent models in several respects, including the relative size and functional neuroanatomy of spinal projections. Fundamental differences in scale raise the possibility that retrograde injury signals, and treatments applied at the level of the spinal cord that exhibit efficacy in rodents, may fail to influence neurons at the far greater distances of primate systems. Thus, we examined both local and remote neuronal responses to neurotrophic factor-secreting cell grafts placed within sites of right C7 hemisection lesions in the rhesus macaque. Six months after gene delivery of BDNF and NT-3 into C7 lesion sites, we found both local effects of growth factors on axonal growth, and remote effects of growth factors reflected in significant reductions in axotomy-induced atrophy of large pyramidal neurons within the primary motor cortex. Further examination in a rodent model suggested that BDNF, rather than NT-3, mediated remote protection of corticospinal neurons in the brain. Thus, injured neural systems retain the ability to respond to growth signals over the extended distances of the primate CNS, promoting local axonal growth and preventing lesion-induced neuronal degeneration at a distance. Remote cortical effects of spinally-administered growth factors could “prime” the neuron to respond to experimental therapies that promote axonal plasticity or regeneration. PMID:20660255

  7. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production. PMID:25847795

  8. Initial stages of silicon growth on the (100) surface of silicon by localized laser CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotecki, D. E.; Herman, I. P.

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports initial results of an experimental study of the early stages of silicon thin film growth on well prepared (100) c-Si surfaces by pyrolytic deposition from silane (SiH4) during localized laser chemical vapor deposition (LLCVD). The rate of silicon thin film growth during low pressure (less than 10 Torr) deposition using tightly focussed laser beams (514.5 nm, approximately 2.5 micron FWHM) is characterized and is shown to be much slower than expected based on the previously measured silane decomposition rate. Hybrid-heating experiments, in which laser heating induces a slight temperature increase on a uniformly heated substrate in the presence of silane gas, shows that growth is inhibited within the laser irradiation region. This result suggests that a nonpyrolytic mechanism contributes to silicon growth in laser CVD. Possible explanations for this nonpyrolytic growth mechanism are discussed.

  9. Netrin-1 induces local translation of down syndrome cell adhesion molecule in axonal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shruti; Welshhans, Kristy

    2016-07-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) plays an important role in many neurodevelopmental processes such as axon guidance, dendrite arborization, and synapse formation. DSCAM is located in the Down syndrome trisomic region of human chromosome 21 and may contribute to the Down syndrome brain phenotype, which includes a reduction in the formation of long-distance connectivity. The local translation of a select group of mRNA transcripts within growth cones is necessary for the formation of appropriate neuronal connectivity. Interestingly, we have found that Dscam mRNA is localized to growth cones of mouse hippocampal neurons, and is dynamically regulated in response to the axon guidance molecule, netrin-1. Furthermore, netrin-1 stimulation results in an increase in locally translated DSCAM protein in growth cones. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), a netrin-1 receptor, is required for the netrin-1-induced increase in Dscam mRNA local translation. We also find that two RNA-binding proteins-fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB)-colocalize with Dscam mRNA in growth cones, suggesting their regulation of Dscam mRNA localization and translation. Finally, overexpression of DSCAM in mouse cortical neurons results in a severe stunting of axon outgrowth and branching, suggesting that an increase in DSCAM protein results in a structural change having functional consequences. Taken together, these results suggest that netrin-1-induced local translation of Dscam mRNA during embryonic development may be an important mechanism to regulate axon growth and guidance in the developing nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 799-816, 2016. PMID:26518186

  10. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  11. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  12. Local weather conditions have complex effects on the growth of blue tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R

    2016-08-01

    Adverse weather conditions are expected to result in impaired nestling development in birds, but empirical studies have provided equivocal support for such a relationship. This may be because the negative effects of adverse weather conditions are masked by parental effects. Globally, ambient temperatures, rainfall levels and wind speeds are all expected to increase in a changing climate and so there is a need for a better understanding of the relationship between weather conditions and nestling growth. Here, we describe a correlative study that examined the relationships between local temperatures, rainfall levels and wind speeds and the growth of individual blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings in relation to their hatching order and sex. We found that changes in a range of morphological characters were negatively related to both temperature and wind speed, but positively related to rainfall. These patterns were further influenced by the hatching order of the nestlings but not by nestling sex. This suggests that the predicted changes in local weather conditions may have complex effects on nestling growth, but that parents may be able to mitigate the adverse effects via adaptive parental effects. We therefore conclude that local weather conditions have complex effects on avian growth and the implications for patterns of avian growth in a changing climate are discussed. PMID:27503711

  13. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 × 107 M ⊙ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  14. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in normal human tissues.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, I; Mildner, B; Knowles, B B

    1986-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the external domain of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was used to localize this protein in selected normal human tissues. Two patterns of reactivity were recognized: strong linear or granular cell surface staining, and granular cytoplasmic staining. In one tissue, the endometrium, a change in the reaction pattern associated with changes in hormonal stimulation was observed. In some tissues such as epididymis and skin, the antibody showed surface reactivity with cells considered to represent part of the proliferating cell compartment, whereas in liver, pancreas, and prostate, all cells were reactive with the antibody, though the predominant reactivity was localized in the cytoplasm. The differential distribution of the epidermal growth factor receptor to specific cell types and cellular compartments may signify adaptations that permit growth factor responsiveness in a milieu of available ligand. PMID:3534450

  16. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-II: possible local growth factor in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gelato, M C; Vassalotti, J

    1990-11-01

    Pheochromocytomas, neural crest tumors, express an abundance of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II). To assess further the potential for IGF-II to play an autocrine role for these tumors, we measured 1) IGF-II content by RRA in 7 pheochromocytomas and peripheral blood in these patients, 2) IGF-II receptors by Western analysis, and 3) characterized the tumor binding proteins by ligand blot studies. IGF-II levels in the tumors varied from 2.8-41 micrograms/g. Chromatography revealed that 60% of the peptide eluted as a large mol wt form of IGF-II (8.7-10 kDa); the remainder coeluted with mature peptide (7.5 kDa). This was in contrast to IGF-II levels in normal adrenal tissue (0.225 +/- 0.005 micrograms/g) or another neural crest-derived tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (0.63 +/- 0.02 micrograms/g). Serum IGF-II levels in the 7 patients with pheochromocytoma (720 +/- 71 ng/mL) were similar to those in 35 normal controls (762 +/- 69 ng/mL). Radiolabeled IGF-II (9 +/- 1%) and IGF-I (20 +/- 2%) bound specifically to pheochromocytoma membranes. Western analysis of these membranes using a specific antiserum directed against the type II receptor demonstrated a band at 210 kDa. Affinity cross-linking studies with [125I]IGF-I demonstrated a specific band at 140 kDa. Ligand blot analysis was performed on the void volume pools from the Sephadex G-75 column and demonstrated bands at about 30 and 25 kDa. In conclusion, these data 1) confirm that pheochromocytomas have increased levels of IGF-II; 2) demonstrate that despite high IGF-II concentrations in the tumors, peripheral levels are not elevated, suggesting that very little tumoral IGF-II is released into the circulation, unlike catecholamines; 3) demonstrate the presence of IGF-II and IGF-I receptors; 4) describe binding protein species similar to those present in other tissues. Thus, the presence of high levels of IGF-II and both type I and type II receptors suggests that IGF II may act through both receptors to

  18. Neurobiological Patterns of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes chemical model for patterns of aggressive behavior. Addresses cultural, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that affect violent children. Identifies five patterns of aggression (overaroused, impulsive, affective, predatory, and instrumental) and examines these dimensions of aggression for each pattern: baseline, precipitators,…

  19. The role of cytoskeleton in organizing growth cones: a microfilament- associated growth cone component depends upon microtubules for its localization

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between the cytoskeleton and the organization of polarized cell morphology. We show here that the growth cones of hippocampal neurons in culture are specifically stained by a monoclonal antibody called 13H9. In other systems, the antigen recognized by 13H9 is associated with marginal bands of chicken erythrocytes and shows properties of both microtubule-and microfilament- associated proteins (Birgbauer, E., and F. Solomon. 1989 J. Cell Biol. 109:1609-1620). This dual nature is manifest in hippocampal neurons as well. At early stages after plating, the antibody stains the circumferential lamellipodia that mediate initial cell spreading. As processes emerge, 13H9 staining is heavily concentrated in the distal regions of growth cones, particularly in lamellipodial fans. In these cells, the 13H9 staining is complementary to the localization of assembled microtubules. It colocalizes partially, but not entirely, with phalloidin staining of assembled actin. Incubation with nocodazole rapidly induces microtubule depolymerization, which proceeds in the distal-to-proximal direction in the processes. At the same time, a rapid and dramatic redistribution of the 13H9 staining occurs; it delocalizes along the axon shaft, becoming clearly distinct from the phalloidin staining and always remaining distal to the receding front of assembled microtubules. After longer times without assembled microtubules, no staining of 13H9 can be detected. Removal of the nocodazole allows the microtubules to reform, in an ordered proximal-to- distal fashion. The 13H9 immunoreactivity also reappears, but only in the growth cones, not in any intermediate positions along the axon, and only after the reformation of microtubules is complete. The results indicate that the antigen recognized by 13H9 is highly concentrated in growth cones, closely associated with polymerized actin, and that its proper localization depends upon intact microtubules. PMID:2677024

  20. Monodispersed calcium carbonate nanoparticles modulate local pH and inhibit tumor growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Avik; Raliya, Ramesh; Tian, Limei; Akers, Walter; Ippolito, Joseph E.; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Biswas, Pratim; Achilefu, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    The acidic extracellular environment of tumors potentiates their aggressiveness and metastasis, but few methods exist to selectively modulate the extracellular pH (pHe) environment of tumors. Transient flushing of biological systems with alkaline fluids or proton pump inhibitors is impractical and nonselective. Here we report a nanoparticles-based strategy to intentionally modulate the pHe in tumors. Biochemical simulations indicate that the dissolution of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) in vivo increases pH asymptotically to 7.4. We developed two independent facile methods to synthesize monodisperse non-doped vaterite nano-CaCO3 with distinct size range between 20 and 300 nm. Using murine models of cancer, we demonstrate that the selective accumulation of nano-CaCO3 in tumors increases tumor pH over time. The associated induction of tumor growth stasis is putatively interpreted as a pHe increase. This study establishes an approach to prepare nano-CaCO3 over a wide particle size range, a formulation that stabilizes the nanomaterials in aqueous solutions, and a pH-sensitive nano-platform capable of modulating the acidic environment of cancer for potential therapeutic benefits.The acidic extracellular environment of tumors potentiates their aggressiveness and metastasis, but few methods exist to selectively modulate the extracellular pH (pHe) environment of tumors. Transient flushing of biological systems with alkaline fluids or proton pump inhibitors is impractical and nonselective. Here we report a nanoparticles-based strategy to intentionally modulate the pHe in tumors. Biochemical simulations indicate that the dissolution of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) in vivo increases pH asymptotically to 7.4. We developed two independent facile methods to synthesize monodisperse non-doped vaterite nano-CaCO3 with distinct size range between 20 and 300 nm. Using murine models of cancer, we demonstrate that the selective accumulation of nano-CaCO3

  1. Natural History, Growth Kinetics and Outcomes of Untreated Clinically Localized Renal Tumors Under Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Crispen, Paul L.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Chen, David Y.T.; Uzzo, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The growth kinetics of untreated solid organ malignancies are not defined. Radiographic active surveillance (AS) of renal tumors in patient unfit or unwilling to undergo intervention provides an opportunity to quantitate the natural history of untreated localized tumors. Here we report the radiographic growth kinetics of renal neoplasms during a period of surveillance. Methods We identified patients with enhancing renal masses who were radiographically observed for at least 12 months. Clinical and pathological records were reviewed to determine tumor growth kinetics and clinical outcomes. Tumor growth kinetics were expressed in terms of absolute and relative linear and volumetric growth. Results We identified 172 renal tumors in 154 patients under AS. Median tumor diameter and volume on presentation was 2.0 cm (mean 2.5, range 0.4 - 12.0) and 4.18 cm3 (mean 20.0, range 0.0033 – 904). Median duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean 31, range 12 – 156). A significant association between presenting tumor size and proportional growth was noted, with smaller tumors growing faster than larger tumors. 39% (68/173) of tumors underwent delayed intervention and 84% (57/68) were pathologically malignant. Progression to metastatic disease was noted in 1.3% (2/154) of patients. Conclusions We demonstrate the association between a tumor’s volume and subsequent growth with smaller tumors exhibiting significantly faster volumetric growth than larger tumors, consistent with Gompertzian kinetics. Surveillance of localized renal tumors is associated with a low rate of disease progression in the intermediate term and suggests potential over-treatment biases in select patients. PMID:19402168

  2. Ubc9 Mediates Nuclear Localization and Growth Suppression of BRCA1 and BRCA1a Proteins

    PubMed Central

    QIN, YUNLONG; XU, JINGYAO; AYSOLA, KARTIK; BEGUM, NURJAHAN; REDDY, VAISHALI; CHAI, YULI; GRIZZLE, WILLIAM E.; PARTRIDGE, EDWARD E.; REDDY, E. SHYAM P.; RAO, VEENA N.

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 gene mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In sporadic breast tumors, BRCA1 dysfunction or aberrant subcellular localization is thought to be common. BRCA1 is a nuclear–cytoplasm shuttling protein and the reason for cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 in young breast cancer patients is not yet known. We have previously reported BRCA1 proteins unlike K109R and cancer-predisposing mutant C61G to bind Ubc9 and modulate ER-α turnover. In the present study, we have examined the consequences of altered Ubc9 binding and knockdown on the subcellular localization and growth inhibitory function of BRCA1 proteins. Our results using live imaging of YFP, GFP, RFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins show enhanced cytoplasmic localization of K109 R and C61G mutant BRCA1 proteins in normal and cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of Ubc9 in MCF-7 cells using Ubc9 siRNA resulted in enhanced cytoplasmic localization of BRCA1 protein and exclusive cytoplasmic retention of BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins. These mutant BRCA1 proteins were transforming and impaired in their capacity to inhibit growth of MCF-7 and CAL51 breast cancer cells. Interestingly, cytoplasmic BRCA1a mutants showed more clonogenicity in soft agar and higher levels of expression of Ubc9 than parental MCF7 cells. This is the first report demonstrating the physiological link between cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant BRCA1 proteins, loss of ER-α repression, loss of ubiquitin ligase activity and loss of growth suppression of BRCA1 proteins. Thus, binding of BRCA1 proteins to nuclear chaperone Ubc9 provides a novel mechanism for nuclear import and control of tumor growth. PMID:21344391

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of urban growth factors: A global and local perspective on the megacity of Mumbai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Helbich, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth of megacities requires special attention among urban planners worldwide, and particularly in Mumbai, India, where growth is very pronounced. To cope with the planning challenges this will bring, developing a retrospective understanding of urban land-use dynamics and the underlying driving-forces behind urban growth is a key prerequisite. This research uses regression-based land-use change models - and in particular non-spatial logistic regression models (LR) and auto-logistic regression models (ALR) - for the Mumbai region over the period 1973-2010, in order to determine the drivers behind spatiotemporal urban expansion. Both global models are complemented by a local, spatial model, the so-called geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR) model, one that explicitly permits variations in driving-forces across space. The study comes to two main conclusions. First, both global models suggest similar driving-forces behind urban growth over time, revealing that LRs and ALRs result in estimated coefficients with comparable magnitudes. Second, all the local coefficients show distinctive temporal and spatial variations. It is therefore concluded that GWLR aids our understanding of urban growth processes, and so can assist context-related planning and policymaking activities when seeking to secure a sustainable urban future.

  4. Acceleration and localization of subcritical crack growth in a natural composite material.

    PubMed

    Lennartz-Sassinek, S; Main, I G; Zaiser, M; Graham, C C

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic failure of natural and engineered materials is often preceded by an acceleration and localization of damage that can be observed indirectly from acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the nucleation and growth of microcracks. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of the statistical properties and spatiotemporal characteristics of AE signals generated during triaxial compression of a sandstone sample. We demonstrate that the AE event amplitudes and interevent times are characterized by scaling distributions with shapes that remain invariant during most of the loading sequence. Localization of the AE activity on an incipient fault plane is associated with growth in AE rate in the form of a time-reversed Omori law with an exponent near 1. The experimental findings are interpreted using a model that assumes scale-invariant growth of the dominating crack or fault zone, consistent with the Dugdale-Barenblatt "process zone" model. We determine formal relationships between fault size, fault growth rate, and AE event rate, which are found to be consistent with the experimental observations. From these relations, we conclude that relatively slow growth of a subcritical fault may be associated with a significantly more rapid increase of the AE rate and that monitoring AE rate may therefore provide more reliable predictors of incipient failure than direct monitoring of the growing fault. PMID:25493797

  5. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028

  6. Monodispersed calcium carbonate nanoparticles modulate local pH and inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Som, Avik; Raliya, Ramesh; Tian, Limei; Akers, Walter; Ippolito, Joseph E; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Biswas, Pratim; Achilefu, Samuel

    2016-07-01

    The acidic extracellular environment of tumors potentiates their aggressiveness and metastasis, but few methods exist to selectively modulate the extracellular pH (pHe) environment of tumors. Transient flushing of biological systems with alkaline fluids or proton pump inhibitors is impractical and nonselective. Here we report a nanoparticles-based strategy to intentionally modulate the pHe in tumors. Biochemical simulations indicate that the dissolution of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) in vivo increases pH asymptotically to 7.4. We developed two independent facile methods to synthesize monodisperse non-doped vaterite nano-CaCO3 with distinct size range between 20 and 300 nm. Using murine models of cancer, we demonstrate that the selective accumulation of nano-CaCO3 in tumors increases tumor pH over time. The associated induction of tumor growth stasis is putatively interpreted as a pHe increase. This study establishes an approach to prepare nano-CaCO3 over a wide particle size range, a formulation that stabilizes the nanomaterials in aqueous solutions, and a pH-sensitive nano-platform capable of modulating the acidic environment of cancer for potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:26745389

  7. p27 Nuclear localization and growth arrest caused by perlecan knockdown in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Katsuya; Oka, Kiyomasa; Matsumoto, Kunio; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2010-02-12

    Perlecan, a secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and participates in angiogenesis. Here, we used small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of perlecan expression to investigate the regulatory function of perlecan in the growth of human vascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged by perlecan deficiency in endothelial cells; however, perlecan deficiency inhibited the Rb protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis induced by bFGF. By contrast to cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in control endothelial cells, p27 was localized in the nucleus and its expression increased in perlecan-deficient cells, which suggests that p27 mediates inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. In addition to the well-characterized function of perlecan as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors such as bFGF, our results suggest that perlecan plays an indispensible role in endothelial cell proliferation and acts through a mechanism that involves subcellular localization of p27.

  8. Recruitment of myeloid but not endothelial precursor cells facilitates tumor re-growth after local irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Sergey V.; Kamoun, Walid S.; Huang, Yuhui; Dawson, Michelle R.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor neovascularization and growth may be promoted by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which include endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) and “vascular modulatory” myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor re-growth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC recruitment in breast and lung carcinoma xenograft models after local irradiation (LI). We depleted the bone marrow by including whole body irradiation (WBI) of 6Gy as part of a total tumor dose of 21Gy, and compared the growth delay with the one achieved after LI of 21Gy. In both models, including WBI induced longer tumor growth delays. Moreover, including WBI increased lung tumor control probability by LI. Exogenous delivery of BMDCs from radiation-naïve donors partially abrogated the WBI effect. Myeloid BMDCs, primarily macrophages, rapidly accumulated in tumors after LI. Intratumoral expression of SDF-1α, a chemokine that promotes tissue retention of BMDCs, was noted 2 days after LI. Conversely, treatment with an inhibitor of SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 (AMD3100) with LI significantly delayed tumor re-growth. However, when administered starting from 5 days post-LI, AMD3100 treatment was ineffective. Lastly, with restorative bone marrow transplantation of Tie2-GFP-labeled BMDC population we observed an increased number of monocytes but not EPCs in tumors that recurred following LI. Our results suggest that an increase in intratumoral SDF-1α triggered by local irradiation recruits myelomonocyte/macrophage which promote tumor re-growth. PMID:20631066

  9. GROWTH OF A LOCALIZED SEED MAGNETIC FIELD IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju

    2012-11-10

    Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.

  10. Authoritarianism and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Walker, W D; Rowe, R C; Quinsey, V L

    1993-11-01

    In Study 1, 198 men completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism, Sex Role Ideology, Hostility Towards Women, Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Rape Myth Acceptance scales, as well as measures of past sexually aggressive behavior and likelihood of future sexual aggression. As predicted, authoritarianism and sex role ideology were as closely related to self-reported past and potential future sexually aggressive behavior as were the specifically sexual and aggression-related predictors. Among 134 men in Study 2, authoritarianism and sex guilt positively correlated with each other and with self-reported past sexual aggression. In both studies, the relationship of authoritarianism and sexual aggression was larger in community than in university samples. PMID:8246111

  11. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  12. A prospective study of reduced-dose three-course CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy for patients 70 years old or more with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, Naoto . E-mail: shikama@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Oguchi, Masahiko; Isobe, Koichi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Tamaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kodaira, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Kagami, Yoshikazu

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We conducted a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced-dose three-course CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) followed by involved-field radiotherapy for elderly patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary endpoint was compliance with the combined modality. Methods and Materials: This study included untreated patients, {>=}70 years old, with diffuse aggressive lymphoma, Stage IA or contiguous nonbulky Stage IIA. 80%-CHOP (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m{sup 2}, doxorubicin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, vincristine 1.1 mg/m{sup 2}, and prednisolone at 80 mg/day for 5 days) was repeated every 3 weeks. After three cycles of chemotherapy, involved-field radiotherapy was performed with a radiation dose of 30-50 Gy in 15-28 fractions. Results: Twenty-four patients with a median age of 75 years (range, 70-84 years) were enrolled. The compliance rate of the protocol study was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.6-97.3). Three patients received only two cycles of chemotherapy because of toxicity or second neoplasm. There were no deaths caused by severe toxicity. The 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 83.1% (95% CI, 75.4-90.8) and 82.9% (95% CI, 75.1-90.6), respectively. Conclusion: Three-course 80%-CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy may be safe for administration to elderly patients over 70 years old. The next step is to evaluate three-course 80%-CHOP and rituximab followed by radiotherapy in elderly patients with localized disease.

  13. Effects of local film properties on the nucleation and growth of tin whiskers and hillocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin

    Whiskers and hillocks grow spontaneously on Pb-free Sn electrodeposited films as a response to thin film stresses. Stress relaxation occurs by atom deposition to specific grain boundaries in the plane of the film, with hillocks being formed when grain boundary migration accompanies growth out of the plane of the film. The implication for whisker formation in electronics is serious: whiskers can grow to be millimeters long, sometimes causing short circuiting between adjacent components and, thereby, posing serious electrical reliability risks. In order to develop more effective whisker mitigation strategies, a predictive physics-based model has been needed. A growth model is developed, based on grain boundary faceting, localized Coble creep, as well as grain boundary sliding for whiskers, and grain boundary sliding with shear induced grain boundary migration for hillocks. In this model of whisker formation, two mechanisms are important: accretion of atoms by Coble creep on grain boundary planes normal to the growth direction inducing a grain boundary shear and grain boundary sliding in the direction of whisker growth. The model accurately captures the importance of the geometry of "surface grains"---shallow grains on film surfaces whose depths are significantly less than their in-plane grain sizes. A critical factor in the analysis is the ratio of the grain boundary sliding coefficient to the in-plane film compressive stress. If the accretion-induced shear stresses are not coupled to grain boundary motion and sliding occurs, a whisker forms. If the shear stress is coupled to grain boundary migration, a hillock forms. Based on this model, long whiskers grow from shallow surface grains with easy grain boundary sliding in the direction of growth. Other observed growth morphologies will be discussed in light of our model. Additional insights into the preferred sites for whisker and hillock growth were developed based on elastic anisotropy, local film microstructure

  14. Insulin growth factor 1 receptor expression is associated with NOTCH1 mutation, trisomy 12 and aggressive clinical course in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Maura, Francesco; Mosca, Laura; Fabris, Sonia; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Barbieri, Marzia; D'Anca, Marianna; Manzoni, Martina; Colombo, Monica; Massucco, Carlotta; Reverberi, Daniele; Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Musolino, Caterina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Morabito, Fortunato; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540). High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM) status (p<0.0001), high CD38 expression (p<0.0001), trisomy 12 (p<0.0001), and del(11)(q23) (p=0.014). Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002) characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT), identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation. PMID:25786252

  15. Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor Expression Is Associated with NOTCH1 Mutation, Trisomy 12 and Aggressive Clinical Course in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Maura, Francesco; Mosca, Laura; Fabris, Sonia; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Barbieri, Marzia; D’Anca, Marianna; Manzoni, Martina; Colombo, Monica; Massucco, Carlotta; Reverberi, Daniele; Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Musolino, Caterina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Morabito, Fortunato; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540). High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM) status (p<0.0001), high CD38 expression (p<0.0001), trisomy 12 (p<0.0001), and del(11)(q23) (p=0.014). Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002) characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT), identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation. PMID:25786252

  16. Co-localization of growth QTL with differentially expressed candidate genes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kocmarek, Andrea L; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2015-09-01

    We tested whether genes differentially expressed between large and small rainbow trout co-localized with familial QTL regions for body size. Eleven chromosomes, known from previous work to house QTL for weight and length in rainbow trout, were examined for QTL in half-sibling families produced in September (1 XY male and 1 XX neomale) and December (1 XY male). In previous studies, we identified 108 candidate genes for growth expressed in the liver and white muscle in a subset of the fish used in this study. These gene sequences were BLASTN aligned against the rainbow trout and stickleback genomes to determine their location (rainbow trout) and inferred location based on synteny with the stickleback genome. Across the progeny of all three males used in the study, 63.9% of the genes with differential expression appear to co-localize with the QTL regions on 6 of the 11 chromosomes tested in these males. Genes that co-localized with QTL in the mixed-sex offspring of the two XY males primarily showed up-regulation in the muscle of large fish and were related to muscle growth, metabolism, and the stress response. PMID:26360524

  17. Tip-localized receptors control pollen tube growth and LURE sensing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hidenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-10

    Directional control of tip-growing cells is essential for proper tissue organization and cell-to-cell communication in animals and plants. In the sexual reproduction of flowering plants, the tip growth of the male gametophyte, the pollen tube, is precisely guided by female cues to achieve fertilization. Several female-secreted peptides have recently been identified as species-specific attractants that directly control the direction of pollen tube growth. However, the method by which pollen tubes precisely and promptly respond to the guidance signal from their own species is unknown. Here we show that tip-localized pollen-specific receptor-like kinase 6 (PRK6) with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain is an essential receptor for sensing of the LURE1 attractant peptide in Arabidopsis thaliana under semi-in-vivo conditions, and is important for ovule targeting in the pistil. PRK6 interacted with pollen-expressed ROPGEFs (Rho of plant guanine nucleotide-exchange factors), which are important for pollen tube growth through activation of the signalling switch Rho GTPase ROP1 (refs 7, 8). PRK6 conferred responsiveness to AtLURE1 in pollen tubes of the related species Capsella rubella. Furthermore, our genetic and physiological data suggest that PRK6 signalling through ROPGEFs and sensing of AtLURE1 are achieved in cooperation with the other PRK family receptors, PRK1, PRK3 and PRK8. Notably, the tip-focused PRK6 accumulated asymmetrically towards an external AtLURE1 source before reorientation of pollen tube tip growth. These results demonstrate that PRK6 acts as a key membrane receptor for external AtLURE1 attractants, and recruits the core tip-growth machinery, including ROP signalling proteins. This work provides insights into the orchestration of efficient pollen tube growth and species-specific pollen tube attraction by multiple receptors during male-female communication. PMID:26961657

  18. Angry and Aggressive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…

  19. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  20. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  1. Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

    1989-01-01

    Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable. PMID:21248947

  2. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  3. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  4. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  5. Effect of localization, length and orientation of chondrocytic primary cilium on murine growth plate organization.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Blanco, Christian; Drayer, Ian; Kim, Hannah; Wilson, Ryan; Retting, Kelsey N; Lyons, Karen M; Mohler, George

    2011-09-21

    The research investigates the role of the immotile chondrocytic primary cilium in the growth plate. This study was motivated by (i) the recent evidence of the mechano-sensorial function of the primary cilium in kidney tubule epithelial cells and (ii) the distinct three-dimensional orientation patterns that the chondrocytic primary cilium forms in articular cartilage in the presence or the absence of loading. For our investigation, we used the Smad1/5(CKO) mutant mouse, whose disorganized growth plate is due to the conditional deletion of Smad 1 and 5 proteins that also affect the so-called Indian Hedgehog pathway, whose physical and functional topography has been shown to be partially controlled by the primary cilium. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy on stained sections visualized ciliated chondrocytes. Morphometric data regarding position, orientation and eccentricity of chondrocytes, and ciliary localization on cell membrane, length and orientation, were collected and reconstructed from images. We established that both localization and orientation of the cilium are definite, and differently so, in the Smad1/5(CKO) and control mice. The orientation of the primary cilium, relative to the major axis of the chondrocyte, clusters at 80° with respect to the anterior-posterior direction for the Smad1/5(CKO) mice, showing loss of the additional clustering present in the control mice at 10°. We therefore hypothesized that the clustering at 10° contains information of columnar organization. To test our hypothesis, we prepared a mathematical model of relative positioning of the proliferative chondrocytic population based on ciliary orientation. Our model belongs to the category of "interactive particle system models for self-organization with birth". The model qualitatively reproduced the experimentally observed chondrocytic arrangements in growth plate of each of the Smad1/5(CKO) and control mice. Our mathematically predicted cell division process will need to be

  6. Effect of localization, length and orientation of chondrocytic primary cilium on murine growth plate organization

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Blanco, Christian; Drayer, Ian; Kim, Hannah; Wilson, Ryan; Retting, Kelsey N.; Lyons, Karen M.; Mohler, George

    2011-01-01

    The research investigates the role of the immotile chondrocytic primary cilium in the growth plate. This study was motivated by (i) the recent evidence of the mechano-sensorial function of the primary cilium in kidney tubule epithelial cells; and (ii) the distinct three-dimensional orientation patterns that the chondrocytic primary cilium forms in articular cartilage in the presence or the absence of loading. For our investigation, we used the Smad1/5CKO mutant mouse, whose disorganized growth plate is due to the conditional deletion of Smad 1 and 5 proteins that also affect the so-called Indian Hedgehog pathway, whose physical and functional topography has been shown to be partially controlled by the primary cilium. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy on stained sections visualized ciliated chondrocytes. Morphometric data regarding position, orientation and eccentricity of chondrocytes, and ciliary localization on cell membrane, length and orientation, were collected and reconstructed from images. We established that both localization and orientation of the cilium are definite, and differently so, in the Smad1/5CKO and control mice. The orientation of the primary cilium, relative to the major axis of the chondrocyte, clusters at 80° with respect to the anterior-posterior direction for the Smad1/5CKO mice, showing loss of the additional clustering present in the control mice at 10°. We therefore hypothesized that the clustering at 10° contains information of columnar organization. To test our hypothesis, we prepared a mathematical model of relative positioning of the proliferative chondrocytic population based on ciliary orientation. Our model belongs to the category of “interactive particle system models for self-organization with birth”. The model qualitatively reproduced the experimentally observed chondrocytic arrangements in growth plate of each of the Smad1/5CKO and control mice. Our mathematically predicted cell division process will need to be

  7. Local, submicron, strain gradients as the cause of Sn whisker growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiech, M.; Wohlschlögel, M.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E. J.; Hügel, W.; Seekamp, A.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.

    2009-06-01

    It has been shown experimentally that local in-plane residual strain gradients occur around the root of spontaneously growing Sn whiskers on the surface of Sn coatings deposited on Cu. The strain distribution has been determined with synchrotron white beam micro Laue diffraction measurements. The observed in-plane residual strain gradients in combination with recently revealed out-of-plane residual strain-depth gradients [M. Sobiech et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011906 (2008)] provide the driving forces for whisker growth.

  8. Effect of local synaptic strengthening on global activity-wave growth in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Koch, P; Leisman, G

    2001-08-01

    Analysis of a continuum model of the hippocampus shows that strengthening of the synaptic connections within localized regions can convert the global activity-wave properties from decay to growth. These growing waves can play a part in the implantation of long-term memory in the higher brain regions. The wavelength of the fastest-growing mode decreases with increasing local synaptic strength and can be modified by the chemical state as reflected by synaptic sensitivity to stimuli. The temporal period of the response is a constant, equal to twice the delay time exhibited by some of the hippocampal inhibitory neurons ("d-cells"). The value for the period obtained from this relationship and measurement of the delay time agrees with the hippocampal gamma rhythm. For normal hippocampal function the proportion of d-cells is limited to one-third the total number of inhibitory neurons. PMID:11328707

  9. Global contraction or local growth, bleb shape depends on more than just cell structure.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Thomas E; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Oliver, James M; Waters, Sarah L; Baker, Ruth E; Goriely, Alain

    2015-09-01

    When the plasma membrane of a cell locally delaminates from its actin cortex the membrane is pushed outwards due to the cell׳s internal fluid pressure. The resulting spherical protrusion is known as a bleb. A cell׳s ability to function correctly is highly dependent on the production of such protrusions with the correct size and shape. Here, we investigate the nucleation of large blebs from small, local neck regions. A mathematical model of a cell׳s membrane, cortex and interconnecting adhesions demonstrates that these three components are unable to capture experimentally observed bleb shapes without the addition of further assumptions. We have identified that combinations of global cortex contraction and localised membrane growth are the most promising methods for generating prototypical blebs. Currently, neither proposed mechanism has been fully tested experimentally and, thus, we propose experiments that will distinguish between the two methods of bleb production. PMID:25934350

  10. miR-126-3p Inhibits Thyroid Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis, and Is Associated with Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yin; Kotian, Shweta; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zhang, Lisa; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that microRNAs are dysregulated in thyroid cancer and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of target oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the function of miR-126-3p in thyroid cancer cells, and as a marker of disease aggressiveness. We found that miR-126-3p expression was significantly lower in larger tumors, in tumor samples with extrathyroidal invasion, and in higher risk group thyroid cancer in 496 papillary thyroid cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas study cohort. In an independent sample set, lower miR-126-3p expression was observed in follicular thyroid cancers (which have capsular and angioinvasion) as compared to follicular adenomas. Mechanistically, ectopic overexpression of miR-126-3p significantly inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation, in vitro (p<0.01) and in vivo (p<0.01), colony formation (p<0.01), tumor spheroid formation (p<0.05), cellular migration (p<0.05), VEGF secretion and endothelial tube formation, and lung metastasis in vivo. We found 14 predicted target genes, which were significantly altered upon miR-126-3p transfection in thyroid cancer cells, and which are involved in cancer biology. Of these 14 genes, SLC7A5 and ADAM9 were confirmed to be inhibited by miR-126-3p overexpression and to be direct targets of miR-136-3p. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that miR-126-3p has a tumor-suppressive function in thyroid cancer cells, and is associated with aggressive disease phenotype. PMID:26244545

  11. Expression and localization of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor receptor in the canine testis

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; TAKEMOTO, Kohei; TOMINAGA, Masato; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HATOYA, Shingo; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; INABA, Toshio; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and EGF receptor (EGF-R) and the localization of the corresponding proteins in the canine testis were studied. Levels of mRNA expressions were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the testes of the peripubertal (4–6 months), young adult (3–4 years), advanced adult (7–8 years) and senescent (11–16 years) groups. The EGF-R mRNA level in the testes of the peripubertal group was significantly higher than those in the other groups, whereas there was no difference in EGF and TGF-α mRNA levels among groups. Immunohistochemical stainings for EGF, TGF-α and EGF-R in the testis revealed that immunoreactivity in the seminiferous epithelium and Sertoli cell was weak and nonspecific for the stage of spermatogenesis, and distinct staining was found in Leydig cells. These results suggest that the EGF family of growth factors may be involved in testicular maturation and function in the dog. PMID:26498203

  12. Derivatives of the local ballooning growth rate with respect to surface label, field line label, and ballooning parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.R.

    2006-04-15

    Expressions for the derivative of the local ballooning growth rate with respect to surface label, field line label, and ballooning-parameter are presented. Such expressions lead to increased computational efficiency for ballooning stability applications.

  13. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999–2012)*

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, A.; Skorupski, K.; Frazier, S.; Vanhaezebrouck, I.; Rebhun, R. B.; Reilly, C. M.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188–2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149–2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188–2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300–2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months. PMID:23721492

  14. ESCRT-II controls retinal axon growth by regulating DCC receptor levels and local protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Konopacki, Filip A.; Dwivedy, Asha; Bellon, Anaïs; Blower, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis and local protein synthesis (LPS) act coordinately to mediate the chemotropic responses of axons, but the link between these two processes is poorly understood. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a key regulator of cargo sorting in the endocytic pathway, and here we have investigated the role of ESCRT-II, a critical ESCRT component, in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. We show that ESCRT-II is present in RGC axonal growth cones (GCs) where it co-localizes with endocytic vesicle GTPases and, unexpectedly, with the Netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). ESCRT-II knockdown (KD) decreases endocytosis and, strikingly, reduces DCC in GCs and leads to axon growth and guidance defects. ESCRT-II-depleted axons fail to turn in response to a Netrin-1 gradient in vitro and many axons fail to exit the eye in vivo. These defects, similar to Netrin-1/DCC loss-of-function phenotypes, can be rescued in whole (in vitro) or in part (in vivo) by expressing DCC. In addition, ESCRT-II KD impairs LPS in GCs and live imaging reveals that ESCRT-II transports mRNAs in axons. Collectively, our results show that the ESCRT-II-mediated endocytic pathway regulates both DCC and LPS in the axonal compartment and suggest that ESCRT-II aids gradient sensing in GCs by coupling endocytosis to LPS. PMID:27248654

  15. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Y. K.; Kwon, H. J.; Oh, S. T.; Um, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, C. W.; Lee, S. K.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05). Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05), and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05). Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05). The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05). Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05), whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05). In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat. PMID:25049967

  16. Subtle Gardeners: Inland Predators Enrich Local Topsoils and Enhance Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, José M; Garrote, Pedro José; Delgado, María del Mar; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Inland vertebrate predators could enrich of nutrients the local top soils in the area surrounding their nests and dens by depositing faeces, urine, and prey remains and, thus, alter the dynamics of plant populations. Surprisingly, and in contrast with convincing evidence from coastal habitats, whether and how this phenomenon occurs in inland habitats is largely uncertain even though these habitats represent a major fraction of the earth's surface. We investigated during two consecutive breeding seasons the potential enrichment of the top-soils associated with inland ground-nesting eagle owls Bubo bubo, as well as its possible consequences in the growth of two common annual grasses in southern Spain. Top-soils associated with owl nests differed strongly and significantly from control top-soils in chemical parameters, mainly fertility-related properties. Specifically, levels of available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic matter, and available potassium were 49.1, 5.6, 3.1, and 2.7 times higher, respectively, in top-soils associated with owl nests as compared to control top-soils. Germination experiments in chambers indicated that nutrient enrichment by nesting owls enhanced seedling growth in both annual grasses (Phalaris canariensis and Avena sativa), with seedling size being 1.4-1.3 times higher in owl nest top-soils than in control top-soils. Our experimental study revealed that pervasive inland, predatory birds can profoundly enrich the topsoil around their nests and, thus, potentially enhance local vegetation growth. Because diverse inland vertebrate predators are widespread in most habitats they have a strong potential to enhance spatial heterogeneity, impinge on plant communities, and exert an overlooked effect on primary productivity worldwide. PMID:26383647

  17. Subtle Gardeners: Inland Predators Enrich Local Topsoils and Enhance Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fedriani, José M.; Garrote, Pedro José; Delgado, María del Mar; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Inland vertebrate predators could enrich of nutrients the local top soils in the area surrounding their nests and dens by depositing faeces, urine, and prey remains and, thus, alter the dynamics of plant populations. Surprisingly, and in contrast with convincing evidence from coastal habitats, whether and how this phenomenon occurs in inland habitats is largely uncertain even though these habitats represent a major fraction of the earth's surface. We investigated during two consecutive breeding seasons the potential enrichment of the top-soils associated with inland ground-nesting eagle owls Bubo bubo, as well as its possible consequences in the growth of two common annual grasses in southern Spain. Top-soils associated with owl nests differed strongly and significantly from control top-soils in chemical parameters, mainly fertility-related properties. Specifically, levels of available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic matter, and available potassium were 49.1, 5.6, 3.1, and 2.7 times higher, respectively, in top-soils associated with owl nests as compared to control top-soils. Germination experiments in chambers indicated that nutrient enrichment by nesting owls enhanced seedling growth in both annual grasses (Phalaris canariensis and Avena sativa), with seedling size being 1.4–1.3 times higher in owl nest top-soils than in control top-soils. Our experimental study revealed that pervasive inland, predatory birds can profoundly enrich the topsoil around their nests and, thus, potentially enhance local vegetation growth. Because diverse inland vertebrate predators are widespread in most habitats they have a strong potential to enhance spatial heterogeneity, impinge on plant communities, and exert an overlooked effect on primary productivity worldwide. PMID:26383647

  18. Gelatin microspheres crosslinked with genipin for local delivery of growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Luis; Zwolinski, Christopher; Lund, Amanda W.; Farrell, Megan J.; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    A main challenge in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is achieving local and efficient growth factor release to guide cell function. Gelatin is a denatured form of collagen that cells can bind to and degrade through enzymatic action. In this study, gelatin microspheres were used to release bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Spherical microparticles with diameters in the range of 2–6 µm were created by an emulsification process and were stabilized by crosslinking with the small molecule genipin. The degree of crosslinking was varied by controlling the incubation time in genipin solution. Loading rate studies, using soy bean trypsin inhibitor as a model protein, showed rapid protein uptake over the first 24 h, followed by a levelling off and then a further increase after approximately 3 days, as the microspheres swelled. Growth factor release studies using microspheres crosslinked to 20%, 50% and 80% of saturation and then loaded with BMP2 showed that higher degrees of crosslinking resulted in higher loading efficiency and slower protein release. After 24 h, the concentration profiles produced by all microsphere formulations were steady and approximately equal. Microspheres incubated with adult human mesenchymal stem cells accumulated preferentially on the cell surface, and degraded over time in culture. BMP2-loaded microspheres caused a three- to eight-fold increase in expression of the bone sialoprotein gene after 14 days in culture, with more crosslinked beads producing a greater effect. These results demonstrate that genipin-crosslinked gelatin microspheres can be used to deliver growth factors locally to cells in order to direct their function. PMID:20872738

  19. TOR signaling regulates planarian stem cells and controls localized and organismal growth.

    PubMed

    Peiris, T Harshani; Weckerle, Frank; Ozamoto, Elyse; Ramirez, Daniel; Davidian, Devon; García-Ojeda, Marcos E; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2012-04-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) controls an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that modulates cellular growth and division by sensing levels of nutrients, energy and stress. As such, TOR signaling is a crucial component of tissues and organs that translates systemic signals into cellular behavior. The ubiquitous nature of TOR signaling, together with the difficulty of analyzing tissue during cellular turnover and repair, have limited our understanding of how this kinase operates throughout the body. Here, we use the planarian model system to address TOR regulation at the organismal level. The planarian TOR homolog (Smed-TOR) is ubiquitously expressed, including stem cells (neoblasts) and differentiated tissues. Inhibition of TOR with RNA interference severely restricts cell proliferation, allowing the study of neoblasts with restricted proliferative capacity during regeneration and systemic cell turnover. Strikingly, TOR signaling is required for neoblast response to amputation and localized growth (blastema). However, in the absence of TOR signaling, regeneration takes place only within differentiated tissues. In addition, TOR is essential for maintaining the balance between cell division and cell death, and its dysfunction leads to tissue degeneration and lack of organismal growth in the presence of nutrients. Finally, TOR function is likely to be mediated through TOR Complex 1 as its disruption recapitulates signs of the TOR phenotype. Our data reveal novel roles for TOR signaling in controlling adult stem cells at a systemic level and suggest a new paradigm for studying TOR function during physiological turnover and regeneration. PMID:22427692

  20. Global and local current sheet thickness estimates during the late growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Mcpherron, Robert L.; Huang, C. Y.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    The thinning and intensification of the cross tail current sheet during the substorm growth phase are analyzed during the CDAW 6 substorm (22 Mar. 1979) using two complementary methods. The magnetic field and current sheet development are determined using data from two spacecraft and a global magnetic field model with several free parameters. These results are compared with the local calculation of the current sheet location and structure previously done by McPherron et al. Both methods lead to the conclusion that an extremely thin current sheet existed prior to the substorm onset, and the thicknesses estimated by the two methods at substorm onset agree relatively well. The plasma data from the ISEE 1 spacecraft at 13 R(sub E) show an anisotropy in the low energy electrons during the growth phase which disappears just before the substorm onset. The global magnetic model results suggest that the field is sufficiently stretched to scatter such low energy electrons. The strong stretching may improve the conditions for the growth of the ion tearing instability in the near Earth tail at substorm onset.

  1. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  2. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  3. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  4. Local epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride and molybdenum thin films in fiber texture using aluminum nitride interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2006-08-14

    The authors have found the local epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) and molybdenum (Mo) films in fiber texture, although the interface between the AlN and Mo films has different crystal symmetries. The local heteroepitaxial relationship is (0001)AlN[2110](parallel sign)(110)Mo[111](parallel sign)(0001)AlN[2110]. The AlN films changes from nonequiaxed microstructures to equiaxed columnar structures. The authors think that the AlN interlayer is effective in decreasing the crystallization energy of the Mo electrode due to the coherent heteroepitaxial nucleation. It is interesting that the local heteroepitaxial relationship does not satisfy the criteria for heteroepitaxial growth.

  5. Layer-controlled stylolite growth and the creation and destruction of local seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Pataki Rood, Daisy; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Aleksans, Janis; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    is destroyed. Stage one represents the nucleation of the stylolite in the layer and its initial growth until it reaches the boundaries of the layer. Typically the initial roughness development leads to a local variation of the position of the stylolite interface with respect to the upper or lower boundary of the layer. Stage two is represented by successive fast growth that is controlled by the pinning layer and the stylolite develops pronounced teeth. Stage three happens in cases where the layer disappears because it is also slowly dissolving. Once the layer is gone stylolite growth basically stops except for local variations in shape and rounding of teeth edges. The developing geometries influence the sealing capacity of stylolites significantly: collection of slow dissolving material in the stylolite does produce a potential seal, offset of a sealing layer due to pinning effects of that layer and the development of teeth can destroy the seal because of leakage across teeth sides and the destruction of a pinning layer due to dissolution destroys the seal completely.

  6. ROP Gtpase–Dependent Dynamics of Tip-Localized F-Actin Controls Tip Growth in Pollen Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Wu, Guang; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2001-01-01

    Tip-growing pollen tubes provide a useful model system to study polar growth. Although roles for tip-focused calcium gradient and tip-localized Rho-family GTPase in pollen tube growth is established, the existence and function of tip-localized F-actin have been controversial. Using the green fluorescent protein–tagged actin-binding domain of mouse talin, we found a dynamic form of tip-localized F-actin in tobacco pollen tubes, termed short actin bundles (SABs). The dynamics of SABs during polar growth in pollen tubes is regulated by Rop1At, a Rop GTPase belonging to the Rho family. When overexpressed, Rop1At transformed SAB into a network of fine filaments and induced a transverse actin band behind the tip, leading to depolarized growth. These changes were due to ectopic Rop1At localization to the apical region of the plasma membrane and were suppressed by guanine dissociation inhibitor overexpression, which removed ectopically localized Rop1At. Rop GTPase–activating protein (RopGAP1) overexpression, or Latrunculin B treatments, also recovered normal actin organization and tip growth in Rop1At-overexpressing tubes. Moreover, overexpression of RopGAP1 alone disrupted SABs and inhibited growth. Finally, SAB oscillates and appears at the tip before growth. Together, these results indicate that the dynamics of tip actin are essential for tip growth and provide the first direct evidence to link Rho GTPase to actin organization in controlling cell polarity and polar growth in plants. PMID:11238457

  7. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  8. Local-scale recovery of wastewater nitrogen for edible plant growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel P; Smith, Nathaniel T

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic/ion exchange (AN-IX) system was developed for recovery and reuse of wastewater nitrogen at point-of-origin. AN-IX combines upflow solids blanket anaerobic treatment with ammonium ion adsorption onto granular natural zeolite. AN-IX operates passively and without energy input. A 57 L empty-bed prototype was operated for 355 days on wastewater primary effluent. Total nitrogen removal exceeded 95% over the first 214 days of operation and ammonia reduction exceeded 99%; accumulation of oxidized nitrogen species (NO3(-) + NO2(-)) was not observed. The wastewater flowrate was increased during the last 35 days of operation to deliberately exhaust the ion exchange media. Spent granular media was removed from the AN-IX prototype and deployed in plant chamber experiments for cultivation of Solanum lycopersicum (cherry tomato). Wastewater nitrogen captured on zeolite was capable of supplying the total growth requirement for nitrogen. Canopy volume and plant flowering and fruiting were higher for wastewater nitrogen than for artificial fertilizer. The AN-IX process is a passive, mechanically simple and reliable system for local-scale nitrogen recovery. AN-IX is modular, scalable, adaptable and can be applied in diverse treatment contexts and recycling scenarios. AN-IX benefits include appropriate technology for local-scale nitrogen recovery, low capital and energy costs, and protection of health and the environment. PMID:27003068

  9. Immunocytochemical Localization of Latent Transforming Growth Factor-B1 Activation by Stimulated Macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Hyonkyong; Vodovotz, Yoram; Cox, G.W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1998-09-22

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-{beta} noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-{beta} from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-{beta} action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-{beta} (LTGF-{beta}) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-{beta} concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-{gamma} and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-{beta} via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-{beta} activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-{beta} epitopes. The induction of TGF-{beta} immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-{beta} activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-{beta} and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-{beta} activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Cellular localization and time course.

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, R.; Funa, K.; Schweitzer, T.; Jung, S.; Bourde, O.; Toyka, K. V.; Hartung, H. P.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a monophasic inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system that resolves spontaneously by molecular mechanisms as yet unknown. We have investigated whether the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) might be endogenously expressed in the peripheral nervous system of Lewis rats with actively induced and adoptive transfer EAN. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was upregulated to high levels in sensory and motor roots, spinal ganglia, and sciatic nerve as revealed by quantitative Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry, with peak levels just preceding the first signs of clinical recovery. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was localized to scattered round cells and dense cellular infiltrates, but only rarely to Schwann cell profiles. Double labeling studies revealed macrophages and subpopulations of T cells as the major cellular source of TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 protein was visualized immunocytochemically and localized to infiltrating mononuclear cells with peak expression around the same time as mRNA, in addition to some constitutive expression in axons and Schwann cells. Our studies suggest that the spontaneous recovery observed in Lewis rat EAN might be mediated by the endogenous elaboration of TGF-beta 1 within the peripheral nerve, and that macrophages might control their own cytotoxicity by expressing TGF-beta 1. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546208

  11. Immunocytochemical localization of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation by stimulated macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, H.; Vodovotz, Y.; Cox, G. W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-beta noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-beta from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-beta action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-beta (LTGF-beta) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-beta concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-beta via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-beta activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-beta epitopes. The induction of TGF-beta immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-beta activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-beta and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-beta activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  12. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  13. CDK phosphorylates the polarisome scaffold Spa2 to maintain its localization at the site of cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Au Yong, Jie Ying; Zou, Hao; Zeng, Guisheng; Gao, Jiaxin; Wang, Yanming; Wong, Ada Hang-Heng; Wang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    Polarisome is a protein complex that plays an important role in polarized growth in fungi by assembling actin cables towards the site of cell growth. For proper morphogenesis, the polarisome must localize to the right place at the right time. However, the mechanisms that control polarisome localization remain poorly understood. In this study, using the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans as a model, we have discovered that the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc28 phosphorylates the polarisome scaffold protein Spa2 to govern polarisome localization during both yeast and hyphal growth. In a yeast cell cycle, Cdc28-Clb2 phosphorylates Spa2 and controls the timing of polarisome translocation from the bud tip to the bud neck. And during hyphal development, Cdc28-Clb2 and the hyphal-specific Cdc28-Hgc1 cooperate to enhance Spa2 phosphorylation to maintain the polarisome at the hyphal tip. Blocking the CDK phosphorylation causes premature tip-to-neck translocation of Spa2 during yeast growth and inappropriate septal localization of Spa2 in hyphae and abnormal hyphal morphology under certain inducing conditions. Together, our results generate new insights into the mechanisms by which fungi regulate polarisome localization in the control of polarized growth. PMID:27061942

  14. Localization of transforming growth factor-beta at the human fetal-maternal interface: role in trophoblast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, C H; Lysiak, J J; McCrae, K R; Lala, P K

    1992-04-01

    We examined the localization of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in first-trimester and term human decidua and chorionic villi and explored the role of this factor on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured trophoblast cells. Two antibodies, 1D11.16.8, a mouse monoclonal neutralizing antibody capable of recognizing both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and CL-B1/29, a rabbit polyclonal antibody capable of recognizing TGF-beta 2, were used to immunolocalize TGF-beta in fixed, paraffin-embedded, or fixed, frozen sections of placenta and decidua, providing similar results. Intense labeling was observed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the first-trimester decidua and cytoplasm of term decidual cells. Syncytiotrophoblast cell cytoplasm as well as the ECM in the core of the chorionic villi of both first-trimester and term placentas exhibited a moderate degree of labeling. Strong cytoplasmic labeling was observed in the cytotrophoblastic shell of the term placenta. To examine the role of TGF-beta on trophoblast proliferation and differentiation, early passage cultures of first-trimester and primary cultures of term trophoblast cells were established and characterized on the basis of numerous immunocytochemical and functional markers. These cells expressed cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and pregnancy-specific beta glycoprotein, but not factor VIII or 63D3; they also produced hCG and collagenase type IV. Exposure of first-trimester trophoblast cultures to TGF-beta 1 significantly inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. An antiproliferative effect was also noted in the presence of TGF-beta 2. These effects were abrogated in the presence of the neutralizing anti-TGF-beta antibody (1D11.16.8) in a concentration-dependent manner. In a 3-day culture, exogenous TGF-beta 1 stimulated formation of multinucleated cells by the first trimester as well as term trophoblast cells. Addition of neutralizing anti

  15. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as

  16. Modeling the growth of individuals in plant populations: local density variation in a strand population of Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Weiner, J; Kinsman, S; Williams, S

    1998-11-01

    We studied the growth of individual Xanthium strumarium plants growing at four naturally occurring local densities on a beach in Maine: (1) isolated plants, (2) pairs of plants ≤1 cm apart, (3) four plants within 4 cm of each other, and (4) discrete dense clumps of 10-39 plants. A combination of nondestructive measurements every 2 wk and parallel calibration harvests provided very good estimates of the growth in aboveground biomass of over 400 individual plants over 8 wk and afforded the opportunity to fit explicit growth models to 293 of them. There was large individual variation in growth and resultant size within the population and within all densities. Local crowding played a role in determining plant size within the population: there were significant differences in final size between all densities except pairs and quadruples, which were almost identical. Overall, plants growing at higher densities were more variable in growth and final size than plants growing at lower densities, but this was due to increased variation among groups (greater variation in local density and/or greater environmental heterogeneity), not to increased variation within groups. Thus, there was no evidence of size asymmetric competition in this population. The growth of most plants was close to exponential over the study period, but half the plants were slightly better fit by a sigmoidal (logistic) model. The proportion of plants better fit by the logistic model increased with density and with initial plant size. The use of explicit growth models over several growth intervals to describe stand development can provide more biological content and more statistical power than "growth-size" methods that analyze growth intervals separately. PMID:21680325

  17. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  18. Giant Aggressive Mesenteric Fibromatosis- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    BN, Anandaravi; CD, Jagadish Kumar; M, Mayur; URS, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Fibromatosis are rare, accounting for 0.03% of all tumours. Mesenteric fibromatosis is a very rare (8% of all desmoid neoplasm). Aggressive fibromatosis of mesentery is a rare surgical problem affecting 2-4 per million people. Females are more commonly affected than males (Estrogen acts as a growth factor). It is locally invasive and tends to recur but never metastasize. Here, we are discussing about 24-year-old male presented with progressive abdomen distension associated with pain since one month. Abdominal examination showed a firm non-tender intra-abdominal mass, measuring around 15x14 cm size, with intrinsic mobility, which was perpendicular to mesenteric line, all borders were well-made out. CECT abdomen showed features suggestive of GIST . Elective Laparotomy was done and a giant mass arising from mesentery without any infiltration to the surrounding structures was noted. The entire mass was excised and mesentery repaired. Histopathology showed uniform band of spindle shaped cells arranged in fascicles admixed with blood vessels in a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed Beta Catenin +ve, CD 117-ve, CD 34 –ve and SMA-ve, which is confirmative of Fibromatosis. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:25859491

  19. Impact of Funneliformis mosseae on the growth, lead uptake, and localization of Sophora viciifolia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhouying; Ban, Yihui; Yang, Ren; Zhang, Xiangyu; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of a pot experiment under lead (Pb) stress, we investigated the effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on the growth and Pb uptake of Sophora viciifolia L., and explored the Pb localization in AM roots using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that high Pb levels (500 and 1000 μg/g) inhibited the growth of S. viciifolia seedlings. Compared with the noninoculation treatment, F. mosseae inoculation decreased the Pb concentrations above- and belowground by 61.0% and 15.2%, when exposed to Pb at a concentration of 1000 μg/g. The root length, fork number, tip number, surface area, and volume of mycorrhizal S. viciifolia were higher than those of the corresponding nonmycorrhizal plants. These parameters of mycorrhizal plants increased by 220%, 219%, 157%, 225%, and 278% when plants were exposed to Pb at 1000 μg/g compared with nonmycorrhizal plants. The ratio of root length with diameters between 0-0.2 mm to the total root length significantly increased under Pb stress, and F. mosseae inoculation significantly reduced the ratio. Under Pb stress, F. mosseae increased the ratios of root length with 0.61-0.8 and 0.81-1.0 mm diameters to the total root length, indicating that F. mosseae tended to thicken the roots of S. viciifolia under Pb additions. The combined results of TEM and EDS indicated that Pb deposited in not only plant cells but also the cell walls and vacuoles of the AM fungal intracellular hyphae, thus revealing the subcellular-level mechanism of AM fungi in alleviating the Pb toxicity to the host plant. PMID:26960756

  20. Cellular localization of transforming growth factor-beta expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, K.; Flanders, K. C.; Phan, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased lung transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) gene expression, but cellular localization of the source of this expression has not been unequivocally established. In this study, lung fibrosis was induced in rats by endotracheal bleomycin injection on day 0 and, on selected days afterwards, lungs were harvested for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical and histochemical analyses for TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein expression, and cell identification. The results show that control lungs express essentially no detectable TGF-beta 1 mRNA or protein in the parenchyma. Before day 3 after bleomycin treatment, scattered bronchiolar epithelial cells, mononuclear cells, and eosinophils expressed elevated levels of TGF-beta 1. Between days 3 and 14, there was a major increase in the number of eosinophils, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts strongly expressing TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein. TGF-beta 1-producing cells were predominantly localized within areas of injury and active fibrosis. After day 14, the intensity and number of TGF-beta 1-expressing cells significantly declined and were predominantly found in fibroblasts in fibrotic areas. The expression of TGF-beta 1 protein was generally coincident with that for mRNA with the exception of bronchiolar epithelial cells in which strong protein expression was unaccompanied by a commensurate increase in mRNA. The study demonstrates that myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and eosinophils represent the major sources of increased lung TGF-beta 1 expression in this model of pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7543734

  1. Local epitaxial growth of ZrO2 on Ge (100) substrates by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsub; Chui, Chi On; Saraswat, Krishna C.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2003-09-01

    High-k dielectric deposition processes for gate dielectric preparation on Si surfaces usually result in the unavoidable and uncontrolled formation of a thin interfacial oxide layer. Atomic layer deposition of ˜55-Å ZrO2 film on a Ge (100) substrate using ZrCl4 and H2O at 300 °C was found to produce local epitaxial growth [(001) Ge//(001) ZrO2 and [100] Ge//[100] ZrO2] without a distinct interfacial layer, unlike the situation observed when ZrO2 is deposited using the same method on Si. Relatively large lattice mismatch (˜10%) between ZrO2 and Ge produced a high areal density of interfacial misfit dislocations. Large hysteresis (>200 mV) and high frequency dispersion were observed in capacitance-voltage measurements due to the high density of interface states. However, a low leakage current density, comparable to values obtained on Si substrates, was observed with the same capacitance density regardless of the high defect density.

  2. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  3. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  4. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  5. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  6. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  7. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  8. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  9. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions; however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion.

  10. Regulating Set-β's Subcellular Localization Toggles Its Function between Inhibiting and Promoting Axon Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Morkin, Melina I.; Fernandez, Stephanie G.; Mlacker, Gregory M.; Shechter, Jesse M.; Liu, Xiongfei; Patel, Karan H.; Lapins, Allison; Yang, Steven; Dombrowski, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The failure of the CNS neurons to regenerate axons after injury or stroke is a major clinical problem. Transcriptional regulators like Set-β are well positioned to regulate intrinsic axon regeneration capacity, which declines developmentally in maturing CNS neurons. Set-β also functions at cellular membranes and its subcellular localization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease, but many of its biological mechanisms have not been explored in neurons. We found that Set-β was upregulated postnatally in CNS neurons, and was primarily localized to the nucleus but was also detected in the cytoplasm and adjacent to the plasma membrane. Remarkably, nuclear Set-β suppressed, whereas Set-β localized to cytoplasmic membranes promoted neurite growth in rodent retinal ganglion cells and hippocampal neurons. Mimicking serine 9 phosphorylation, as found in Alzheimer's disease brains, delayed nuclear import and furthermore blocked the ability of nuclear Set-β to suppress neurite growth. We also present data on gene regulation and protein binding partner recruitment by Set-β in primary neurons, raising the hypothesis that nuclear Set-β may preferentially regulate gene expression whereas Set-β at cytoplasmic membranes may regulate unique cofactors, including PP2A, which we show also regulates axon growth in vitro. Finally, increasing recruitment of Set-β to cellular membranes promoted adult rat optic nerve axon regeneration after injury in vivo. Thus, Set-β differentially regulates axon growth and regeneration depending on subcellular localization and phosphorylation. PMID:24849368

  11. Detection and Imaging of Aggressive Cancer Cells Using an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Targeted Filamentous Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Amy M.; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging approaches and targeted drug delivery hold promise for earlier detection of diseases and treatment with higher efficacy while reducing side effects, therefore increasing survival rates and quality of life. Virus-based nanoparticles are a promising platform because their scaffold can be manipulated both genetically and chemically to simultaneously display targeting ligands while carrying payloads for diagnosis or therapeutic intervention. Here, we displayed a 12-amino-acid peptide ligand, GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI), on nanoscale filaments formed by the plant virus potato virus X (PVX). Bioconjugation was used to produce fluorescently labeled PVX-GE11 filaments targeted toward the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cell detection and imaging was demonstrated using human skin epidermoid carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (A-431, HT-29, MDA-MB-231), all of which upregulate EGFR to various degrees. Nonspecific uptake in ductal breast carcinoma (BT-474) cells was not observed. Furthermore, co-culture experiments with EGFR+ cancer cells and macrophages indicate successful targeting and partitioning toward the cancer cells. This study lays a foundation for the development of EGFR-targeted filaments delivering contrast agents for imaging and diagnosis, and/or toxic payloads for targeted drug delivery. PMID:25611133

  12. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  13. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  14. Nerve growth factor mRNA in brain: localization by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Rennert, P.D.; Heinrich, G.

    1986-07-31

    Nerve Growth Factor is a 118 amino acid polypeptide that plays an important role in the differentiation and survival of neurons. The recent discovery that a mRNA that encodes beta Nerve Growth Factor is present in brain suggests that the Nerve Growth Factor gene may not only regulate gene expression of peripheral but also of central neurons. To identify the site(s) of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA production in the brain and to determine which cells express the Nerve Growth Factor gene, the technique of in situ hybridization was employed. A 32P-labeled RNA probe complementary to Nerve Growth Factor mRNA hybridized to cells in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. These observations identify for the first time cellular sites of Nerve Growth Factor gene expression in the central nervous system, and suggest that Nerve Growth Factor mRNA is produced by neurons.

  15. Emergence of Large-Scale Cell Morphology and Movement from Local Actin Filament Growth Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lacayo, Catherine I; Pincus, Zachary; VanDuijn, Martijn M; Wilson, Cyrus A; Fletcher, Daniel A; Gertler, Frank B; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    phenotypes as large-scale consequences of kinetic contributions of VASP to actin filament growth and protection from capping at the leading edge. This work shows that the local effects of actin-remodeling proteins on cytoskeletal dynamics and organization can manifest as global modifications of the shape and behavior of migrating cells and that mathematical modeling can elucidate these large-scale cell behaviors from knowledge of detailed multiscale protein interactions. PMID:17760506

  16. A GTPase-Dependent Fine ER Is Required for Localized Secretion in Polarized Growth of Root Hairs1.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingyun; Sun, Jiaqi; Zheng, Huanquan

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular network comprising membrane tubules and sheets stretching throughout the cytoplasm. Atlastin GTPases, including Atlastin-1 in mammals and RHD3 in plants, play a role in the generation of the interconnected tubular ER network by promoting the fusion of ER tubules. Root hairs in rhd3 are short and wavy, a defect reminiscent of axon growth in cells with depleted Atlastin-1. However, how a loss in the ER complexity could lead to a defective polarized cell growth of root hairs or neurons remains elusive. Using live-cell imaging techniques, we reveal that, a fine ER distribution, which is found in the subapical zone of growing root hairs of wild-type plants, is altered to thick bundles in rhd3 The localized secretion to the apical dome as well as the apical localization of root hair growth regulator ROP2 is oscillated in rhd3 Interestingly, the shift of ROP2 precedes the shift of localized secretion as well as the fine ER distribution in rhd3 Our live imaging and pharmacologic modification of root hair growth defects in rhd3 suggest that there is interplay between the ER and microtubules in the polarized cell growth of root hairs. We hypothesize that, under the guidance of ROP2, RHD3, together with the action of microtubules, is required for the formation of a fine ER structure in the subapical zone of growing root hairs. This fine ER structure is essential for the localized secretion to the apical dome in polarized cell growth. PMID:27231102

  17. A correlative microscopy approach relates microtubule behaviour, local organ geometry, and cell growth at the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Agata; Uyttewaal, Magalie

    2013-01-01

    Cortical microtubules (CMTs) are often aligned in a particular direction in individual cells or even in groups of cells and play a central role in the definition of growth anisotropy. How the CMTs themselves are aligned is not well known, but two hypotheses have been proposed. According to the first hypothesis, CMTs align perpendicular to the maximal growth direction, and, according to the second, CMTs align parallel to the maximal stress direction. Since both hypotheses were formulated on the basis of mainly qualitative assessments, the link between CMT organization, organ geometry, and cell growth is revisited using a quantitative approach. For this purpose, CMT orientation, local curvature, and growth parameters for each cell were measured in the growing shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this approach, it has been shown that stable CMTs tend to be perpendicular to the direction of maximal growth in cells at the SAM periphery, but parallel in the cells at the boundary domain. When examining the local curvature of the SAM surface, no strict correlation between curvature and CMT arrangement was found, which implies that SAM geometry, and presumed geometry-derived stress distribution, is not sufficient to prescribe the CMT orientation. However, a better match between stress and CMTs was found when mechanical stress derived from differential growth was also considered. PMID:24153420

  18. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  19. Cellular localization and expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins within the epiphyseal growth plate of the ovine fetus: possible functional implications.

    PubMed

    de los Rios, P; Hill, D J

    1999-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important in the regulation of normal fetal musculoskeletal growth and development, and their actions have been shown to be modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Because the anatomical distribution of IGFBPs is likely to dictate IGF bioavailability, we determined the cellular distribution and expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6 in epiphyseal growth plates of the fetal sheep, using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Little mRNA for IGF-I was detectable within the growth plates, but mRNA for IGF-II was abundant in germinal and proliferative chondrocytes, although absent from some differentiating chondrocytes and hypertrophic cells. Immunohistochemistry for IGF-I and IGF-II showed a presence of both peptides in all chondrocyte zones, including hypertrophic cells. Immunoreactive IGFBP-2 to -5 were localized within the germinal and proliferative zones of chondrocytes, but little immunoreactivity was present within the columns of differentiating cells. IGFBP immunoreactivity again appeared in hypertrophic chondrocytes. IGFBP mRNA in chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth plate was below the detectable limit of in situ hybridization. However, low levels of mRNAs for IGFBP-2 to -6 were detected by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A co-localization of IGFBPs with IGF peptides in intact cartilage suggests that they may regulate IGF bioavailability and action locally. To test this hypothesis, monolayer cultures of chondrocytes were established from the proliferative zone of the growth plate, and were found to release immunoreactive IGF-II and to express mRNAs encoding IGFBP-2 to -6. Exogenous IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 had an inhibitory action on IGF-II-dependent DNA synthesis. IGFBP-2 had a biphasic effect, potentiating IGF-II action at low concentrations but inhibiting DNA synthesis at equimolar or greater concentrations relative to IGF-II. Long R3 IGF-I, which has a reduced binding

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of components of the insulin-like growth factor system in human permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Götz, Werner; Heinen, Michael; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Jäger, Andreas

    2006-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the biology of oro-dento-facial tissues and organs, including the development, homeostasis and regeneration of the periodontium. To obtain basic data on the occurrence and distribution of IGF components in human permanent teeth we immunohistochemically investigated 25 extracted, decalcified and paraffin-embedded teeth using mono and polyclonal antibodies against the ligands IGF-I and -II, the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and all six IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). In the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the adhering periodontal ligament (PDL), immunoreactivity for IGF-I, -II and IGFBP-1 and -6 was observed. PDL fibroblasts showed immunostaining for the IGF1R. For the cementum, in the acellular cementum only IGF-II could be detected, while outer cementum layers with inserting Sharpey's fibers reacted with all antibodies applied except for IGFBP-4 and -6. In the pulp, mainly fibrotic areas and areas around denticles were immunoreactive for IGF-I, IGFBP-1, -3, -5 and -6. Predentin and odontoblastic processes were stained for IGF-I and IGFBP-3. The spatially oriented occurrence of components of the IGF system in human permanent teeth indicates that specific functions of the IGFs may be localized in particular tissue compartments. In the cementum, several IGF components were found indicating roles in tissue homeostasis or attachment. The PDL may function as a reservoir for IGFs probably bound to ECM components. PDL fibroblasts could then respond in a paracrine manner. In the pulp, the IGF system may be involved in odontoblast biology, fibrosis and denticle formation. PMID:16321360

  1. Reduction of peritoneal adhesions by sustained and local administration of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Uguralp, S; Akin, M; Karabulut, A Bay; Harma, B; Kiziltay, Aysel; Kiran, T R; Hasirci, N

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have shown epidermal growth factor (EGF) facilitate peritoneal membrane healing by augmenting cell adhesion and migration. The objective of this study was to show the effect of sustained and local administration of EGF on peritoneal adhesion. Fourty-two rats were divided into six groups: control 7 and 14, gelatin 7 and 14, and EGF 7 and 14. Adhesions were created by scraping the cecum with mesh gause followed by application of absolute alcohol and placement of silk suture in the parietal peritoneum. The anterior walls of the intestines were covered with 5 x 5 cm unloaded, and EGF loaded gelatin films in the gelatin and EGF groups, respectively. The rats were killed on days 7 and 14 to assess the adhesion occurring, and for biochemical examination. The mean adhesion grades of EGF groups were significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.008). The mean adenosine deaminase (ADA) measurements of EGF 7 group were lower than in the gelatin 7 and control 7 groups but the difference was not significant (P > 0.008). The mean ADA measurements in the 14 days groups were as follows: control 14 < EGF 14 < gelatin 14 groups. The mean ADA measurements between 14 days groups did not significantly differ from each other (P > 0.008). The mean hydroxyproline measurements did not differ among the groups (P > 0.008). EGF decreased intestinal adhesion in our study. EGF has important roles in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Further studies are required to determine the exact mechanism by which EGF lowers the efficiency of intestinal adhesion. PMID:17985134

  2. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  3. Sensitivity of tree ring growth to local and large-scale climate variability in a region of Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venegas-González, Alejandro; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Anholetto Júnior, Claudio Roberto; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between tree growth in two tropical species and local and large-scale climate variability in Southeastern Brazil. Tree ring width chronologies of Tectona grandis (teak) and Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) trees were compared with local (Water Requirement Satisfaction Index—WRSI, Standardized Precipitation Index—SPI, and Palmer Drought Severity Index—PDSI) and large-scale climate indices that analyze the equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (Trans-Niño Index-TNI and Niño-3.4-N3.4) and atmospheric circulation variations in the Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic Oscillation-AAO). Teak trees showed positive correlation with three indices in the current summer and fall. A significant correlation between WRSI index and Caribbean pine was observed in the dry season preceding tree ring formation. The influence of large-scale climate patterns was observed only for TNI and AAO, where there was a radial growth reduction in months preceding the growing season with positive values of the TNI in teak trees and radial growth increase (decrease) during December (March) to February (May) of the previous (current) growing season with positive phase of the AAO in teak (Caribbean pine) trees. The development of a new dendroclimatological study in Southeastern Brazil sheds light to local and large-scale climate influence on tree growth in recent decades, contributing in future climate change studies.

  4. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  5. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Kaczorowski, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Markiewicz, Bartosz D.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). Case Report We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Conclusions Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment. PMID:25866593

  6. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  7. Recent advances in cancer stem/progenitor cell research: therapeutic implications for overcoming resistance to the most aggressive cancers.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, M; Hauke, R; Mehta, P P; Batra, S K

    2007-01-01

    Overcoming intrinsic and acquired resistance of cancer stem/progenitor cells to current clinical treatments represents a major challenge in treating and curing the most aggressive and metastatic cancers. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the cellular origin and molecular mechanisms at the basis of cancer initiation and progression as well as the heterogeneity of cancers arising from the malignant transformation of adult stem/progenitor cells. We describe the critical functions provided by several growth factor cascades, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem cell factor (SCF) receptor (KIT), hedgehog and Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathways that are frequently activated in cancer progenitor cells and are involved in their sustained growth, survival, invasion and drug resistance. Of therapeutic interest, we also discuss recent progress in the development of new drug combinations to treat the highly aggressive and metastatic cancers including refractory/relapsed leukaemias, melanoma and head and neck, brain, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, pancreas and gastrointestinal cancers which remain incurable in the clinics. The emphasis is on new therapeutic strategies consisting of molecular targeting of distinct oncogenic signalling elements activated in the cancer progenitor cells and their local microenvironment during cancer progression. These new targeted therapies should improve the efficacy of current therapeutic treatments against aggressive cancers, and thereby preventing disease relapse and enhancing patient survival. PMID:17979879

  8. Cellular growth defects triggered by an overload of protein localization processes

    PubMed Central

    Kintaka, Reiko; Makanae, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    High-level expression of a protein localized to an intracellular compartment is expected to cause cellular defects because it overloads localization processes. However, overloads of localization processes have never been studied systematically. Here, we show that the expression levels of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) with localization signals were limited to the same degree as a toxic misfolded GFP in budding yeast cells, and that their high-level expression caused cellular defects associated with localization processes. We further show that limitation of the exportin Crm1 determined the expression limit of GFP with a nuclear export signal. Although misfolding of GFP with a vesicle-mediated transport signal triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, it was not the primary determinant of its expression limit. The precursor of GFP with a mitochondrial targeting signal caused a cellular defect. Finally, we estimated the residual capacities of localization processes. High-level expression of a localized protein thus causes cellular defects by overloading the capacities of localization processes. PMID:27538565

  9. Cellular growth defects triggered by an overload of protein localization processes.

    PubMed

    Kintaka, Reiko; Makanae, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    High-level expression of a protein localized to an intracellular compartment is expected to cause cellular defects because it overloads localization processes. However, overloads of localization processes have never been studied systematically. Here, we show that the expression levels of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) with localization signals were limited to the same degree as a toxic misfolded GFP in budding yeast cells, and that their high-level expression caused cellular defects associated with localization processes. We further show that limitation of the exportin Crm1 determined the expression limit of GFP with a nuclear export signal. Although misfolding of GFP with a vesicle-mediated transport signal triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, it was not the primary determinant of its expression limit. The precursor of GFP with a mitochondrial targeting signal caused a cellular defect. Finally, we estimated the residual capacities of localization processes. High-level expression of a localized protein thus causes cellular defects by overloading the capacities of localization processes. PMID:27538565

  10. Growth-Dependent Catalase Localization in Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T Reflected by Catalase Activity of Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Takebe, Fumihiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Hara, Isao; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2013-01-01

    A psychrotolerant and H2O2-resistant bacterium, Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T, exhibits extraordinary H2O2 resistance and produces catalase not only intracellularly but also extracellularly. The intracellular and extracellular catalases exhibited the same enzymatic characteristics, that is, they exhibited the temperature-dependent activity characteristic of a cold-adapted enzyme, their heat stabilities were similar to those of mesophilic enzymes and very high catalytic intensity. In addition, catalase gene analysis indicated that the bacterium possessed the sole clade 1 catalase gene corresponding to intracellular catalase. Hence, intracellular catalase is secreted into the extracellular space. In addition to intracellular and extracellular catalases, the inner circumference of the cells showed the localization of catalase in the mid-stationary growth phase, which was observed by immunoelectron microscopy using an antibody against the intracellular catalase of the strain. The cells demonstrated higher catalase activity in the mid-stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase. The catalase localized in the inner circumference can be dissociated by treatment with Tween 60. Thus, the localized catalase is not tightly bound to the inner circumference of the cells and may play a role in the oxidative defense of the cells under low metabolic state. PMID:24204687

  11. The management of adult aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Couderc, B; Dujols, J P; Mokhtari, F; Norkowski, J L; Slawinski, J C; Schlaifer, D

    2000-07-01

    Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphona include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphona, and different peripheral T-cell lymphomas. An international prognostic index has been developed including age, serum LDH, performance status, and extranodal involvement. For localized aggressive lymphoma, the preferred treatment is 3-4 CHOP and radiation therapy, with a cure rate of 70-80%. For disseminated aggressive lymphoma, current regimens have a cure rate of less than 40%. Innovative strategies, including dose escalation, autologus stem cell support, new drugs, and immunotherapy are being explored to improve these results. PMID:10863150

  12. The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

  13. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  14. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  15. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  16. Strategies for the coupling of global and local crystal growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Jeffrey J.; Lun, Lisa; Yeckel, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    The modular coupling of existing numerical codes to model crystal growth processes will provide for maximum effectiveness, capability, and flexibility. However, significant challenges are posed to make these coupled models mathematically self-consistent and algorithmically robust. This paper presents sample results from a coupling of the CrysVUn code, used here to compute furnace-scale heat transfer, and Cats2D, used to calculate melt fluid dynamics and phase-change phenomena, to form a global model for a Bridgman crystal growth system. However, the strategy used to implement the CrysVUn-Cats2D coupling is unreliable and inefficient. The implementation of under-relaxation within a block Gauss-Seidel iteration is shown to be ineffective for improving the coupling performance in a model one-dimensional problem representative of a melt crystal growth model. Ideas to overcome current convergence limitations using approximations to a full Newton iteration method are discussed.

  17. Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funato, Mitsuru; Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-11-01

    Screw dislocations in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.

  18. Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Funato, Mitsuru Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-11-15

    Screw dislocations in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.

  19. A novel protein kinase gene ssp1+ is required for alteration of growth polarity and actin localization in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Matsusaka, T; Hirata, D; Yanagida, M; Toda, T

    1995-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive suppressor mutants were isolated from two fission yeast mutants defective in cell shape control: ppe1, encoding a type 2A-like protein phosphatase, and sts5, one of 11 staurosporine-supersensitive mutants. Complementation tests showed that suppression was due to two chromosomal loci, ssp1 and ssp2. Cells of the ssp1 mutant grown at the restrictive temperature arrested uniformly with an elongated cell body and a 2C content of DNA. Interestingly, these mutant cells grew only in a monopolar manner. At a specific point in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, wild-type cells exhibit a drastic alteration in growth polarity, from mono- to bipolar. This change coincides with the distribution of cortical actin from one end of the cell to both ends. In the ssp1 mutant cells, cortical actin was localized only at one end, suggesting that the mutant fails to change growth polarity. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that ssp1+ encodes a novel protein kinase. Ectopic overexpression of ssp1+ resulted in an altered cell morphology and cortical actin was randomly dispersed within the cells. Immunocytological analysis revealed that the protein was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and that half of the protein existed in an insoluble fraction. These results show that the dynamics of actin-based growth polarity during the cell cycle are regulated, at least in part, by a novel set of protein kinases and phosphatases. Images PMID:7628434

  20. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Localized to the Plasma Membrane Lipid Raft Microdomain Overcomes Serum Deprivation Induced Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hengst, Jeremy A.; Francy-Guilford, Jacquelyn M.; Fox, Todd E.; Wang, Xujun; Conroy, Elizabeth J.; Yun, Jong K.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) upon its activation and further suggested the plasma membrane lipid raft microdomain (PMLRM) as a target for SphK1 relocalization. To date, however, direct evidence of SphK1 localization to the PMLRM has been lacking. In this report, using multiple biochemical and subcellular fractionation techniques we demonstrate that endogenous SphK1 protein and its substrate, D-erythro sphingosine, are present within the PMLRM. Additionally, we demonstrate that the PMA stimulation of SphK1 localized to the PMLRM results in production of sphingosine-1-phosphate as well as induction of cell growth under serum-deprivation conditions. We further report that Ser225Ala and Thr54Cys mutations, reported to abrogate phosphatidylserine binding, block SphK1 targeting to the PMLRM and SphK1 induced cell growth. Together these findings provide direct evidence that the PMLRM is the major site-of-action for SphK1 to overcome serum-deprived cell growth inhibition. PMID:19782042

  1. Influence of InGaN growth rate on the localization states and optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhao, D. G.; Yang, J.; Jiang, D. S.; Liu, Z. S.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, W.; He, X. G.; Li, X. J.; Liang, F.; Zhang, L. Q.; Liu, J. P.; Yang, H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The localization effect is studied in blue-violet light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with varying InGaN growth rate. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows that for higher-growth-rate samples two emission peaks appear in their PL spectra. Further analysis reveals that two different localization luminescence states (i.e., deep and shallow localization states) exist in the InGaN QWs with higher QW growth rate, and the competition of radiative recombination between the two localization states determines the relative intensity of the two emission peaks. It is also found that, as InGaN growth rate reduces, the deep localization state depth is almost unchanged while the shallow localization state weakens. When the QW growth rate reduces to a certain value, the shallow localization state disappears and only a single main peak induced by deep localization state appears in the PL spectra. Finally, it is noted that an intermediate InGaN growth rate results in a better light emission efficiency of the MQW.

  2. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  3. The Growth of Single-Sex Schools: Federal Policy Meets Local Needs and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    Changes to Title IX allowing the growth of single-sex schools have garnered media attention promoting the benefits of separating boys and girls. Alternately, civil rights groups such as the ACLU continue to oppose any type of school segregation. Within this context, a private philanthropy, the Foundation for the Education of Young Women (FEYW) has…

  4. Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people as…

  5. A chloroplast-localized protein LESION AND LAMINA BENDING affects defence and growth responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yokota, Takao; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Haruko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fujisaki, Koki; Oikawa, Kaori; Uemura, Aiko; Natsume, Satoshi; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Umemura, Kenji; Terry, Matthew J; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how plants allocate their resources to growth or defence is of long-term importance to the development of new and improved varieties of different crops. Using molecular genetics, plant physiology, hormone analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based transcript profiling, we have isolated and characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) LESION AND LAMINA BENDING (LLB) gene that encodes a chloroplast-targeted putative leucine carboxyl methyltransferase. Loss of LLB function results in reduced growth and yield, hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions, accumulation of the antimicrobial compounds momilactones and phytocassanes, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Consistent with these defence-associated responses, llb shows enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The lesion and resistance phenotypes are likely to be caused by the over-accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) in the llb mutant including the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. Additionally, llb shows an increased lamina inclination and enhanced early seedling growth due to elevated brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis and/or signalling. These findings show that LLB functions in the chloroplast to either directly or indirectly repress both JA- and BR-mediated responses, revealing a possible mechanism for controlling how plants allocate resources for defence and growth. PMID:26864209

  6. The Effect of Created Local Hyperosmotic Microenvironment in Microcapsule for the Growth and Metabolism of Osmotolerant Yeast Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Yao, Shanjing

    2013-01-01

    Candida krusei is osmotolerant yeast used for the production of glycerol. Addition of osmolyte such as NaCl into culture medium can increase the production of glycerol from glucose, but osmolytes may burden the glycerol separation. A coencapsulation method was suggested to create local extracellular hyperosmotic stress for glycerol accumulation. Firstly, the influence of osmotic stress induced by the addition of PEG4000 on growth and metabolism of free cell was studied in detail. Glycerol accumulation could be improved by employing PEG4000 as osmoregulator. Secondly, cells and PEG4000 were coentrapped in NaCS/PDMDAAC capsules to create local hyperosmotic stress. The effects of local hyperosmotic microenvironment on the cell growth and metabolism were studied. The coentrapment method increased the glycerol concentration by 25%, and the glycerol concentration attained 50 gL−1 with productivity of 18.8 gL−1Day−1 in shake flask. More importantly, the glycerol could be directly separated from the encapsulated cells. The entrapped cells containing PEG4000 were also cultivated for 15 days in an airlift reactor. The yield and productivity were ca. 35% and 21 gL−1Day−1, respectively. PMID:24294610

  7. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinfoced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamim

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-global analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring-like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, and interface conditions on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system.

  8. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  9. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  10. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  11. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  12. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  13. A psychoanalytic study of aggression.

    PubMed

    Furst, S S

    1998-01-01

    Eleven participants carried out a study of aggression by utilizing clinical data from the analyses of patients who manifested significant problems in the management of aggression. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of the intrapsychic factors that determine the nature and intensity of aggressive tendencies, the place they occupy in the psychic economy, their patterns of expression, and the extrapsychic factors that trigger them. The findings of the study indicate, first, that aggression is multiply determined by developmental, genetic (experiential), and dynamic variables; second, that each cluster of variables affects the nature, intensity, and expression of aggression in a fairly specific way; third, the importance of aggression in the psychic economy is proportional to the extent to which it is overdetermined. The successful analysis of aggressive individuals depends not solely on interpretation and insight, but on the relationship to the analyst as new parent who does not threaten and prohibit. The relationship to the analyst permits developmental change, particularly the ability to organize, structure, and control aggression. As a result, it need not be expressed destructively, but may be placed in the service of constructive thought and action. PMID:9990829

  14. Computational modelling of the scaffold-free chondrocyte regeneration: a two-way coupling between the cell growth and local fluid flow and nutrient concentration.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture process in a perfusion bioreactor provides enhanced nutrient supply as well as the flow-induced shear stress that may have a positive influence on the cell growth. Mathematical and computational modelling of such a culture process, by solving the coupled flow, mass transfer and cell growth equations simultaneously, can provide important insight into the biomechanical environment of a bioreactor and the related cell growth process. To do this, a two-way coupling between the local flow field and cell growth is required. Notably, most of the computational and mathematical models to date have not taken into account the influence of the cell growth on the local flow field and nutrient concentration. The present research aimed at developing a mathematical model and performing a numerical simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method to predict the chondrocyte cell growth without a scaffold on a flat plate placed inside a perfusion bioreactor. The model considers the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field, and the simulation has been performed for 174 culture days. To incorporate the cell growth into the model, a control-volume-based surface growth modelling approach has been adopted. The simulation results show the variation of local fluid velocity, shear stress and concentration distribution during the culture period due to the growth of the cell phase and also illustrate that the shear stress can increase the cell volume fraction to a certain extent. PMID:25804699

  15. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  16. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  17. A Guide to Using Student Learning Objectives as a Locally-Determined Measure of Student Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, Ohio has made important education policy advances, with a focus on student learning and achievement, standards, and accountability. Ohio is serious about its commitment to quality schools and honors this commitment by providing Local Education Agencies (LEAs) a research-based, transparent, fair teacher evaluation system…

  18. Organizations and Local Development: Economic and Demographic Growth among Southern Counties during Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruef, Martin; Patterson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Under conditions of uncertainty, we predict that development will be tied to the idiosyncrasy of organizational forms represented within local regions. Our investigation applies this theory to data on 342 counties and 43,352 businesses in the U.S. South during Reconstruction, finding support for the thesis that organizational idiosyncrasy…

  19. Please Come to New England: Slow Growth Spells Trouble for Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francese, Peter

    2002-01-01

    New England may be the wealthiest region in the United States, but it is also the oldest and slowest-growing, and among the least diverse. These peculiar demographic characteristics combined with New England's history of heavy reliance on local governments suggest future problems for the region's educational systems. Since most public schools in…

  20. Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov

    2006-01-15

    An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

  1. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents. PMID:26852155

  2. In search of Winnicott's aggression.

    PubMed

    Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

    2001-01-01

    Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

  3. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  4. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  5. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression. PMID:23589667

  6. Estimation of median growth curves for children up two years old based on biresponse local linear estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamidah, Nur; Rifada, Marisa

    2016-03-01

    There is significant of the coeficient correlation between weight and height of the children. Therefore, the simultaneous model estimation is better than partial single response approach. In this study we investigate the pattern of sex difference in growth curve of children from birth up to two years of age in Surabaya, Indonesia based on biresponse model. The data was collected in a longitudinal representative sample of the Surabaya population of healthy children that consists of two response variables i.e. weight (kg) and height (cm). While a predictor variable is age (month). Based on generalized cross validation criterion, the modeling result based on biresponse model by using local linear estimator for boy and girl growth curve gives optimal bandwidth i.e 1.41 and 1.56 and the determination coefficient (R2) i.e. 99.99% and 99.98%,.respectively. Both boy and girl curves satisfy the goodness of fit criterion i.e..the determination coefficient tends to one. Also, there is difference pattern of growth curve between boy and girl. The boy median growth curves is higher than those of girl curve.

  7. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  8. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Jagirdar, J; Lee, T C; Reibman, J; Gold, L I; Aston, C; Bégin, R; Rom, W N

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor, plays a key role in scarring and fibrotic processes because of its ability to induce extracellular matrix proteins and modulate the growth and immune function of many cell types. These effects are important in inflammatory disorders with fibrosis and cancer. The asbestos-related diseases are characterized by fibrosis in the lower respiratory tract and pleura and increased occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma. We performed immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies to the three TGF-beta isoforms on 16 autopsy lungs from Quebec, Canada, asbestos miners and millers. There was increased immunolocalization of all three TGF-beta isoforms in the fibrotic lesions of asbestosis and pleural fibrosis. The hyperplastic type II pneumocytes contained all three isoforms. By contrast, there was differential spatial immunostaining for the TGF-beta isoforms in malignant mesothelioma, with TGF-beta 1 in the stroma but TGF-beta 2 in the tumor cells. These data are consistent with an important role for TGF-beta in accumulation of extracellular matrix and cell proliferation in asbestos-related diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9400723

  10. On the growth of locally interacting plants: differential equations for the dynamics of spatial moments.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas P; Holland, E Penelope; Law, Richard; Plank, Michael J; Raghib, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Ecologists are faced with the challenge of how to scale up from the activities of individual plants and animals to the macroscopic dynamics of populations and communities. It is especially difficult to do this in communities of plants where the fate of individuals depends on their immediate neighbors rather than an average over a larger region. This has meant that algorithmic, agent-based models are typically used to understand their dynamics, although certain macroscopic models have been developed for neighbor-dependent, birth death processes. Here we present a macroscopic model that, for the first time, incorporates explicit, gradual, neighbor-dependent plant growth, as a third fundamental process of plant communities. The model is derived from a stochastic, agent-based model, and describes the dynamics of the first and second spatial moments of a multispecies, spatially structured plant community with neighbor-dependent growth, births, and deaths. A simple example shows that strong neighborhood space-filling during tree growth in an even-aged stand of Scots pine is well captured by the spatial-moment model. The space-filling has a spatial signature consistent with that observed in several field studies of forests. Small neighborhoods of interaction, nonuniform spacing of trees, and asymmetric competition all contribute to the buildup of a wide range of tree sizes with some large dominant individuals and many smaller ones. PMID:24597220

  11. Nuclear localization of Src-family tyrosine kinases is required for growth factor-induced euchromatinization

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Obata, Yuuki; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Nakayama, Yuji; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kuga, Takahisa; Higashiyama, Yukihiro; Saito, Takashi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2009-04-15

    Src-family kinases (SFKs), which participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also several subcellular compartments, including the nucleus. Nuclear structural changes are frequently observed during transcription, cell differentiation, senescence, tumorigenesis, and cell cycle. However, little is known about signal transduction in the alteration of chromatin texture. Here, we develop a pixel imaging method for quantitatively evaluating chromatin structural changes. Growth factor stimulation increases euchromatic hypocondensation and concomitant heterochromatic hypercondensation in G{sub 1} phase, and the levels reach a plateau by 30 min, sustain for at least 5 h and return to the basal levels after 24 h. Serum-activated SFKs in the nucleus were more frequently detected in the euchromatin areas than the heterochromatin areas. Nuclear expression of kinase-active SFKs, but not unrelated Syk kinase, drastically increases both euchromatinization and heterochromatinization in a manner dependent on the levels of nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation. However, growth factor stimulation does not induce chromatin structural changes in SYF cells lacking SFKs, and reintroduction of one SFK member into SYF cells can, albeit insufficiently, induce chromatin structural changes. These results suggest that nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation by SFKs plays an important role in chromatin structural changes upon growth factor stimulation.

  12. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Grønlund, Mette

    2015-07-01

    Two pathways exist for plant Pi uptake from soil: via root epidermal cells (direct pathway) or via associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the two pathways interact in a complex manner. This study investigated distal and local effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake and root growth, at different soil P levels. Medicago truncatula was grown at three soil P levels in split-pots with or without AM fungal inoculation and where one root half grew into soil labelled with (33)P. Plant genotypes included the A17 wild type and the mtpt4 mutant. The mtpt4 mutant, colonized by AM fungi, but with no functional mycorrhizal pathway for Pi uptake, was included to better understand effects of AM colonization per se. Colonization by AM fungi decreased expression of direct Pi transporter genes locally, but not distally in the wild type. In mtpt4 mutant plants, direct Pi transporter genes and the Pi starvation-induced gene Mt4 were more highly expressed than in wild-type roots. In wild-type plants, less Pi was taken up via the direct pathway by non-colonized roots when the other root half was colonized by AM fungi, compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Colonization by AM fungi strongly influenced root growth locally and distally, and direct root Pi uptake activity locally, but had only a weak influence on distal direct pathway activity. The responses to AM colonization in the mtpt4 mutant suggested that in the wild type, the increased P concentration of colonized roots was a major factor driving the effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake. PMID:25944927

  13. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  14. Phase-space growth rates, local Lyapunov spectra, and symmetry breaking for time-reversible dissipative oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, Carol G.; Grond, Florian

    2008-08-01

    We investigate and discuss the time-reversible nature of phase-space instabilities for several flows, x˙=f(x). The flows describe thermostated oscillator systems in from two through eight phase-space dimensions. We determine the local extremal phase-space growth rates, which bound the instantaneous comoving Lyapunov exponents. The extremal rates are point functions which vary continuously in phase space. The extremal rates can best be determined with a "singular-value decomposition" algorithm. In contrast to these precisely time-reversible local "point function" values, a time-reversibility analysis of the comoving Lyapunov spectra is more complex. The latter analysis is nonlocal and requires the additional storing and playback of relatively long (billion-step) trajectories. All the oscillator models studied here show the same time reversibility symmetry linking their time-reversed and time-averaged "global" Lyapunov spectra. Averaged over a long-time-reversed trajectory, each of the long-time-averaged Lyapunov exponents simply changes signs. The negative/positive sign of the summed-up and long-time-averaged spectra in the forward/backward time directions is the microscopic analog of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. This sign changing of the individual global exponents contrasts with typical more-complex instantaneous "local" behavior, where there is no simple relation between the forward and backward exponents other than the local (instantaneous) dissipative constraint on their sum. As the extremal rates are point functions, they too always satisfy the sum rule.

  15. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamin

    1988-01-01

    The development is described of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-globe analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. This region is embedded in an anisotropic continuum (representing the bulk composite) which is modeled by conventional finite elements. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, interface conditions, etc. on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system. The results are compared with those predicted by the models developed by Marshall et al. (1985) and by Budiansky et al. (1986).

  16. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  17. THE LOCAL EXPRESSION AND ABUNDANCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR (IGF) BINDING PROTEINS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE ARE REGULATED BY AGE AND GENDER BUT NOT LOCAL IGF-I "IN VIVO"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We wished to determine whether sustained IGF-I production in skeletal muscle increases local IGF binding protein (IGFBP) abundance, thereby mitigating the long-term stimulation of muscle growth by IGF-I. Muscle growth of transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I in muscle (SIS2) and of wild-type (Wt) m...

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor in bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, I L; Umapathysivam, K; Tilley, W D; Rodgers, R J

    1995-12-29

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2) controls cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs and tissues. In the ovary, cells proliferate and differentiate during folliculogenesis and during formation of the corpus luteum. While previous studies have inferred a role for bFGF in these processes, the precise contribution of bFGF to follicular activation or recruitment has not been established. For this reason, bFGF was immunolocalized in bovine follicles, using anti-bFGF immunoglobulin specific for the 1-24-amino acid terminus of the 18-kDa peptide. Basic FGF was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of oocytes from bovine primordial and primary follicles. Strong immunostaining was also observed in corpora lutea, the ovarian surface epithelium, and smooth muscle cells surrounding blood vessels, while substantial levels of immunostaining were also present in cells of the theca interna. In most of the healthy antral follicles examined, the three or so layers of granulosa cells which were closest to the basement membrane were also stained, with greatest levels of staining at the most basal region of each cell. Atretic antral follicles had significant and uniform levels of immunostaining throughout the theca interna and the membrana granulosa. Immunostaining as described above was reduced to background levels when the primary specific immunoglobulin was preabsorbed with a 350 molar excess of peptide comprising the NH2-terminal 24 amino acids of bFGF. Based upon our previous observations and those reported here, we propose that basic fibroblast growth factor is synthesized by immature oocytes, especially those from primordial and primary follicles, and that bFGF has a potential role in activating follicle growth via stimulation of granulosa cell proliferation and follicular basement membrane synthesis. PMID:8824888

  19. DOE/BES/NSET annual report on growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Raid Edward; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Shelnutt, John Allen; Yang, Yi; Nuttall, H. Eric; Watt, Richard K.; Singl, Anup K.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Wang, Zhongchun; van Swol, Frank B.; Pereira, Eulalia; Qiu, Yan; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Xu, Huifang; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2003-10-01

    Our overall goal is to understand and develop a novel light-driven approach to the controlled growth of unique metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures to provide metal nucleation and growth centers. Photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location and morphology of the metal nanostructures grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods used for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, the photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition and the synthesis of the new nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, the University of New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled synthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on three thematic research areas: (1) the creation of nanoscale structures for realizing novel phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding nanoscale processes in the environment, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation. Our goals for FY03 have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic platinum nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and its receptor during odontogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cobo, J; Hernández, L C; del Valle, M E; Vijande, M; Vega, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in developing teeth has been immunohistochemically studied in rat embryos (E-16 to E-21). Both EGF and EGFr showed a similar pattern of distribution. A very weak immunostaining was observed in the dental germ cells during the bud, cap, and bell teeth stages, as well as in few ectomesenchymal cells. In developed, but not erupted teeth, a moderate immunoreactivity for EGF and EGFr was present in the odontoblasts, in the ameloblasts and in the internal epithelial cells, but it was stronger in the dentine. In addition, the presence of EGF/EGFr was also observed in the intercalated ducts of salivary glands, primarily the submaxillary gland, in the maxillary bone cells, and in the cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. These results suggest that EGF has little or no effect during the early periods of tooth differentiation, whereas it is probably involved in the production of dentine. Moreover, EGF/EGFr seem to participate in the maturation and differentiation of other embryonic tissues such as tissues of the nervous system and bone. PMID:1397071

  1. Solutions for a local equation of anisotropic plant cell growth: an analytical study of expansin activity.

    PubMed

    Pietruszka, Mariusz

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a generalization of the Lockhart equation for plant cell/organ expansion in the anisotropic case. The intent is to take into account the temporal and spatial variation in the cell wall mechanical properties by considering the wall 'extensibility' (Φ), a time- and space-dependent parameter. A dynamic linear differential equation of a second-order tensor is introduced by describing the anisotropic growth process with some key biochemical aspects included. The distortion and expansion of plant cell walls initiated by expansins, a class of proteins known to enhance cell wall 'extensibility', is also described. In this approach, expansin proteins are treated as active agents participating in isotropic/anisotropic growth. Two-parameter models and an equation for describing α- and β-expansin proteins are proposed by delineating the extension of isolated wall samples, allowing turgor-driven polymer creep, where expansins weaken the non-covalent binding between wall polysaccharides. We observe that the calculated halftime (t(1/2) = εΦ(0) log 2) of stress relaxation due to expansin action can be described in mechanical terms. PMID:21227964

  2. Effect of saline irrigation on growth characteristics and mineral composition of two local halophytes under Saudi environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Alshammary, Saad F

    2008-09-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the growth characteristics and mineral composition of two local halophytes (Atriplex halimus and Salvadora persica) under saline irrigation at Kind Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Research Station Al-Muzahmyia, Riyadh. The experiment treatments were one soil (sandy), four irrigation waters of different salinities (2000, 8000, 12000 and 16000 mg L(-1) TDS), two halophytes (Salvadora persica and Atriplex halimus) and one irrigation level (irrigation at 50% depletion of moisture at field capacity). Mean fresh biomass yield and fresh plant root weight of A. halimus increased while that of S. persica decreased significantly with increasing irrigation water salinity in all the treatments. Soil salinity increased significantly with increasing water salinity. A positive correlation (r = 0.987) existed between the irrigation water salinity and the soil salinity resulting from saline irrigation. The plant tissue protein contents increased in A. halimus, but decreased in S. persica with increasing irrigation water salinity. The Na ion uptake by plant roots was significantly less than K in A. halimus compared to S. persica which indicated adjustment of plants to high soil salinity and high Na ion concentration for better growth. The order of increasing salt tolerance was A. halimus > S. persica under the existing plant growing conditions. Among the two halophytes, A. halimus showed great potential for establishing gene banks of local species, because it has more forage value due to high protein contents than S. persica for range animals. PMID:19266925

  3. Mathematical Modeling Reveals That Changes to Local Cell Density Dynamically Modulate Baseline Variations in Cell Growth and Drug Response.

    PubMed

    Greene, James M; Levy, Doron; Herrada, Sylvia P; Gottesman, Michael M; Lavi, Orit

    2016-05-15

    Cell-to-cell variations contribute to drug resistance with consequent therapy failure in cancer. Experimental techniques have been developed to monitor tumor heterogeneity, but estimates of cell-to-cell variation typically fail to account for the expected spatiotemporal variations during the cell growth process. To fully capture the extent of such dynamic variations, we developed a mechanistic mathematical model supported by in vitro experiments with an ovarian cancer cell line. We introduce the notion of dynamic baseline cell-to-cell variation, showing how the emerging spatiotemporal heterogeneity of one cell population can be attributed to differences in local cell density and cell cycle. Manipulation of the geometric arrangement and spatial density of cancer cells revealed that given a fixed global cell density, significant differences in growth, proliferation, and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis rates were observed based solely on cell movement and local conditions. We conclude that any statistical estimate of changes in the level of heterogeneity should be integrated with the dynamics and spatial effects of the baseline system. This approach incorporates experimental and theoretical methods to systematically analyze biologic phenomena and merits consideration as an underlying reference model for cell biology studies that investigate dynamic processes affecting cancer cell behavior. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2882-90. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933088

  4. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    PubMed Central

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

  5. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  6. Investigation on relationship between epicentral distance and growth curve of initial P-wave propagating in local heterogeneous media for earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    In the earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the epicenter location and magnitude of earthquakes are estimated using the amplitude growth rate of initial P-waves. It has been empirically pointed out that the growth rate becomes smaller as epicentral distance becomes far regardless of the magnitude of earthquakes. So, the epicentral distance can be estimated from the growth rate using this empirical relationship. However, the growth rates calculated from different earthquakes at the same epicentral distance mark considerably different values from each other. Sometimes the growth rates of earthquakes having the same epicentral distance vary by 104 times. Qualitatively, it has been considered that the gap in the growth rates is due to differences in the local heterogeneities that the P-waves propagate through. In this study, we demonstrate theoretically how local heterogeneities in the subsurface disturb the relationship between the growth rate and the epicentral distance. Firstly, we calculate seismic scattered waves in a heterogeneous medium. First-ordered PP, PS, SP, and SS scatterings are considered. The correlation distance of the heterogeneities and fractional fluctuation of elastic parameters control the heterogeneous conditions for the calculation. From the synthesized waves, the growth rate of the initial P-wave is obtained. As a result, we find that a parameter (in this study, correlation distance) controlling heterogeneities plays a key role in the magnitude of the fluctuation of the growth rate. Then, we calculate the regional correlation distances in Japan that can account for the fluctuation of the growth rate of real earthquakes from 1997 to 2011 observed by K-NET and KiK-net. As a result, the spatial distribution of the correlation distance shows locality. So, it is revealed that the growth rates fluctuate according to the locality. When this local fluctuation is taken into account, the accuracy of the estimation of epicentral distances from initial P

  7. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-01-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier–Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. PMID:24664988

  8. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Sustained local delivery of bioactive nerve growth factor in the central nervous system via tunable diblock copolypeptide hydrogel depots.

    PubMed

    Song, Bingbing; Song, Jinsuk; Zhang, Shanshan; Anderson, Mark A; Ao, Yan; Yang, Chu-Ya; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2012-12-01

    Biomaterial vehicles that can provide sustained, site-specific molecular delivery in the central nervous system (CNS) have potential for therapeutic and investigative applications. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo proof of principle tests of diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) to serve as depots for sustained local release of protein effector molecules. We tested two DCH, K(180)L(20) and E(180)L(20), previously shown to self-assemble into biocompatible, biodegradable deposits that persist four to eight weeks after injection into mouse forebrain. In vitro tests demonstrated sustained release from dialysis cassettes of the representative protein, lysozyme, dissolved in K(180)L(20) or E(180)L(20) hydrogels. Release time in vitro varied in relation to DCH charge and mechanical properties, and ionic strength of the media. To evaluate bioactive protein delivery in vivo, we used nerve growth factor (NGF) and measured the size of mouse forebrain cholinergic neurons, which respond to NGF with cellular hypertrophy. For in vivo tests, the storage modulus of DCH depots was tuned to just below that of CNS tissue. In comparison with NGF injected in buffer, depots of NGF dissolved in either K(180)L(20) or E(180)L(20) provided significantly longer delivery of NGF bioactivity, maintaining hypertrophy of local forebrain cholinergic neurons for at least 4 weeks and inducing hypertrophy a further distance away (up to 5 mm) from injection sites. These findings show that depots of DCH injected into CNS can provide sustained delivery within the blood-brain barrier of a bioactive protein growth factor that exerts a predicted, quantifiable effect on local cells over a prolonged subacute time. PMID:22985994

  10. Elimination of aggressive behavior in male mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Demas, G E; Kriegsfeld, L J; Blackshaw, S; Huang, P; Gammie, S C; Nelson, R J; Snyder, S H

    1999-10-01

    Male mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) display increased aggressive behavior compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Specific pharmacological inhibition of nNOS with 7-nitroindazole also augments aggressive behavior. We report here that male mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding endothelial NOS (eNOS(-/-)) display dramatic reductions in aggression. The effects are selective, because an extensive battery of behavioral tests reveals no other deficits. In the resident-intruder model of aggression, resident eNOS(-/-) males show virtually no aggression. Latency for aggression onset is 25-30 times longer in eNOS(-/-) males compared with WT males in the rare instances of aggressive behaviors. Similarly, a striking lack of aggression is noted in tests of aggression among groups of four mice monitored in neutral cages. Although eNOS(-/-) mice are hypertensive ( approximately 14 mmHg blood pressure elevation), hypertension does not appear responsible for the diminished aggression. Reduction of hypertension with hydralazine does not change the prevalence of aggression in eNOS(-/-) mice. Extensive examination of brains from eNOS(-/-) male mice reveals no obvious neural damage from chronic hypertension. In situ hybridization in WT animals reveals eNOS mRNA in the brain associated exclusively with blood vessels and no neuronal localizations. Accordingly, vascular eNOS in the brain appears capable of influencing behavior with considerable selectivity. PMID:10493775

  11. Growth of linear Ni-filled carbon nanotubes by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, Takuya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The cylindrical geometry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allows them to be filled with metal catalysts; the resulting metal-filled CNTs possess different properties depending on the filler metal. Here we report the synthesis of Ni-filled CNTs in which Ni is situated linearly and homogeneously by local arc discharge in liquid ethanol. The structural characteristics of synthesized Ni-filled CNTs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the relationship between pyrolysis conditions and the length and diameter of Ni-filled CNTs was examined. The encapsulated Ni was identified by a TEM-equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and found to have a single-crystal fcc structure by nano-beam diffraction. The features of linear Ni-filled CNT are expected to be applicable to probes for magnetic force microscopy.

  12. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  13. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  14. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area. PMID:20390357

  15. 3D growth rates from tomographic images: local measurements for a better understanding of snow metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flin, F.; Calonne, N.; Denis, R.; Caneill, R.; Bernard, L.; Anne, D.; Philip, A.; Roulle, J.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Geindreau, C.

    2015-12-01

    Once deposited on the ground, snow forms a complex porous material whose microstructure constantly transforms over time. These evolutions, which strongly impact the physical and mechanical properties of snow (e.g. Srivastava et al, 2010; Calonne et al, 2014) need to be considered in details for an accurate snowpack modeling. However, some of the physical mechanisms involved in metamorphism are still poorly understood.To address this problem, several investigations combining X-ray tomography and 3D micro-modeling have been carried out (e.g. Flin et al, 2003; Kämpfer and Plapp, 2009; Pinzer et al, 2012) but precise comparisons between experimentation and modeling remain difficult. One of the difficulties comes from the lack of high resolution time-lapse series for experiments occurring with very well-defined boundary conditions, and from which precise measurements of the interfacial growth rates can be done.Thanks to a recently developed cryogenic cell (Calonne et al, 2015), we conducted in situ time-lapse tomographic experiments on several snow and ice samples under various conditions (isothermal metamorphism at -7°C, temperature gradient metamorphism at -2°C under a TG of 18 K/m, air cavity migration in a single crystal at -4°C under a TG of 50 K/m). The non-destructive nature of X-ray microtomography yielded series of 8 micron resolution images that were acquired with a 2 to 12 h time step. An image analysis method was then developed to estimate the normal growth rates on each point of the ice-air interface and applied to the series obtained.The analysis of the results and their comparison to those of existing models (e.g. Flin et al, 2003; Flin and Brzoska, 2008) give interesting outlooks for the understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in snow metamorphism. References:Calonne, N., et al (2015), Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3911-3918.Calonne, N., et al (2014), The Cryosphere, 8, 2255-2274.Flin, F. and J.-B. Brzoska (2008), Ann. Glaciol., 49, 17-21.Flin

  16. Lithium Behavior during Growth of Metasedimentary Garnets from the Cignana UHP Locality, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, G. E.; Tsujimori, T.; Ota, T.; Shimaki, Y.; Kunihiro, T.; Carlson, W. D.; Nakamura, E.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated major and trace element concentrations and δ7Li in garnets in Lago di Cignana metasedimentary rocks (peak conditions ~550˚C, 2.5-3.0 GPa), following the EPMA-SIMS approach of Tsujimori et al. (2014; IMA conference abstract). Previous work on the devolatilization history of these rocks (Bebout et al., 2013; Cook-Kollars et al., 2014; both in Chemical Geology) provides a petrologic and geochemical context for this study. Lithium is of interest as a tracer of fluid-rock interactions and because of its potential to isotopically fractionate during diffusional processes. All garnets are almandine-rich with strongly decreasing MnO and increasing MgO toward rims. HREEs, Y, and Li also show strong zoning, with elevated concentrations in cores (15-50 ppm Li) and marked high-concentration anomalies (up to 117 ppm Li, 5500 ppm Y), with little or no major element shift, as growth annuli at which some garnets have elevated δ7Li. In all garnets, rutile inclusions appear abruptly at annuli and outward toward rims, accompanied by inclusions of a Ca- and LREE-rich phase and decreased Nb concentrations in garnet. These relationships appear to reflect prograde garnet-forming reaction(s) that in part involved titanite breakdown to stabilize rutile, which resulted in delivery of more abundant Y and HREEs at surfaces of growing garnets to produce growth annuli. The co-enrichment of Li and Y+REEs is attributed to their mutual incorporation via a charge-coupled substitution (Carlson et al., 2014; American Mineralogist); thus the increased Li uptake is a passive consequence of the elevated concentrations of Y+REEs. Distributions of δ7Li are complex, with most garnets showing only subtle core-to-rim variation other than at Y+REE annuli. At annuli, some garnets display elevated δ7Li (by up to 8‰), while others in the same rock do not. Small-scale fluctuations in δ7Li may correlate with abrupt shifts in major and trace element concentrations, suggesting that changes in

  17. Laterally applied Ethrel causes local increases in radial growth and indole-3-acetic acid concentration in Abies balsamea shoots.

    PubMed

    Eklund, L; Anthony Little, C H

    1996-05-01

    The terminal (1-year-old) shoot of quiescent, two-year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) seedlings was ringed with lanolin containing 0, 1 or 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel, an ethylene-generating compound, and cultured for 6 weeks under environmental conditions favorable for growth. Bud break and the elongation of the current-year terminal shoot were monitored, and the subjacent previous-year terminal shoot that had been treated with Ethrel was harvested to measure stem radial growth by microscopy, shoot ethylene evolution by gas chromatography, and cambial region indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with the lanolin controls, Ethrel at 1 and 10 mg g(-1) did not affect bud break or longitudinal growth, but stimulated tracheid production and bark increment up to about 2-fold at the application site, though not above or below it. In addition, the 1 and 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatments increased the cambial region IAA concentration about 3-fold and the evolution of ethylene at least 40-fold at the application site, compared with unwounded portions of both treated and control shoots. The 10 mg g(-1) Ethrel treatment also stimulated ethylene evolution about 10-fold, both above and below the application site. However, this stimulation was not associated with an elevation in cambial region IAA concentration. Similarly, the lanolin control treatment increased ethylene evolution at the application site about 10-fold, without affecting the cambial region IAA concentration. Our results suggest that the localized stimulation of radial growth in woody shoots ringed with Ethrel is mediated by an increase in IAA concentration, which in turn is induced by a threshold, abnormally high concentration of Ethrel-derived ethylene. PMID:14871721

  18. Bud-Localization of CLB2 mRNA Can Constitute a Growth Rate Dependent Daughter Sizer.

    PubMed

    Spiesser, Thomas W; Kühn, Clemens; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Maintenance of cellular size is a fundamental systems level process that requires balancing of cell growth with proliferation. This is achieved via the cell division cycle, which is driven by the sequential accumulation and destruction of cyclins. The regulatory network around these cyclins, particularly in G1, has been interpreted as a size control network in budding yeast, and cell size as being decisive for the START transition. However, it is not clear why disruptions in the G1 network may lead to altered size rather than loss of size control, or why the S-G2-M duration also depends on nutrients. With a mathematical population model comprised of individually growing cells, we show that cyclin translation would suffice to explain the observed growth rate dependence of cell volume at START. Moreover, we assess the impact of the observed bud-localisation of the G2 cyclin CLB2 mRNA, and find that localised cyclin translation could provide an efficient mechanism for measuring the biosynthetic capacity in specific compartments: The mother in G1, and the growing bud in G2. Hence, iteration of the same principle can ensure that the mother cell is strong enough to grow a bud, and that the bud is strong enough for independent life. Cell sizes emerge in the model, which predicts that a single CDK-cyclin pair per growth phase suffices for size control in budding yeast, despite the necessity of the cell cycle network around the cyclins to integrate other cues. Size control seems to be exerted twice, where the G2/M control affects bud size through bud-localized translation of CLB2 mRNA, explaining the dependence of the S-G2-M duration on nutrients. Taken together, our findings suggest that cell size is an emergent rather than a regulatory property of the network linking growth and proliferation. PMID:25910075

  19. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  20. Planting local seed for growth to nationwide E/PO efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N.; Beisser, K.; Mendez, F.; Cockrell, D.; Wilhide, B.

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is the home to hundreds of scientists and engineers, all involved in research, design and implementation of space missions. Many of these people actively seek out ways to raise awareness and interest in the local community by visiting schools, giving public lectures and supporting events held at the laboratory. During the past few years, APL has begun to foster a number of firm partnerships with organizations to further these community opportunities and provide a test bed for both formal and informal education activities through the Space Department E/PO office One of our ongoing partnerships is with the Maryland Science Center in Baltimore. A continual challenge faced by museums is how to stay current and allow visitors to experience the immediacy and excitement of scientific discovery. To help meet these challenges, the Maryland Science Center houses "SpaceLink", the Nation's first space, science and astronomy update center. Part media center, part discovery room, and part newsroom, the exhibit is a multi-purpose Professional Development Site for educators and a "classroom of the future" for K 12 students. APL scientists and- engineers regularly support SpaceLink's flexible programming, including scientist in residence, monthly credited seminars for educators (Teachers' Thursdays), a menu of Classroom Programs on request, Distance Learning Teacher Presentations, and special Live Events to highlight mission milestones and space-related anniversaries. This allows the guest scientists and engineers to interact directly with the public. These events also compliment the APL exhibits housed at the Science Center. JHU/APL offers an exciting environment for the study of applications in space by hosting the annual Maryland Summer Center for Space Science sponsored by the Maryland State Department of Education. Rising 6t h and 7t h grade students learn to harness the power of technology and keep pace with

  1. Localized CVD growth of oriented and individual carbon nanotubes from nanoscaled dots prepared by lithographic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigolo, B.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Faerber, J.; Arabski, J.; Gangloff, L.; Legagneux, P.; Lezec, H.; LeNormand, F.

    2008-04-01

    Using a combination of top-down lithographic techniques, isolated, individual and oriented multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were grown on nickel or iron nanoscaled dots. In the first step of the process, micron-sized catalytic metallic dots (either iron or nickel) were prepared using UV lithography. MWNTs were then synthesized from these catalysts using a direct current plasma-assistance and hot-filament-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. Samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. It turns out that the splitting up of the micron-sized dot is favored in the iron case and that the surface diffusion of the metal is enhanced using ammonia in the gaseous mixture during the CVD process. The results are discussed giving arguments for the understanding of the MWNT growth mechanism. In a second step, a focused ion beam (FIB) procedure is carried out in order to reduce the initial dot size down to submicronic scale and subsequently to grow one single MWNT per dot. It is found that nickel is most appropriate to control the size of the dot. Dots of size 200 nm ± 40 nm are then required to grow individual MWNTs.

  2. Unique behavior of Trypanosoma dionisii interacting with mammalian cells: invasion, intracellular growth, and nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Miriam Pires de Castro; Cortez, Mauro; Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Haapalainen, Edna Freymuller; Yoshida, Nobuko; Mortara, Renato Arruda

    2009-04-01

    The phylogenetic proximity between Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) dionisii suggests that these parasites might explore similar strategies to complete their life cycles. T. cruzi is the etiological agent of the life-threatening Chagas' disease, whereas T. dionisii is a bat trypanosome and probably not capable of infecting humans. Here we sought to compare mammalian cell invasion and intracellular traffic of both trypanosomes and determine the differences and similarities in this process. The results presented demonstrate that T. dionisii is highly infective in vitro, particularly when the infection process occurs without serum and that the invasion is similarly affected by agents known to interfere with T. cruzi invasion process. Our results indicate that the formation of lysosomal-enriched compartments is part of a cell-invasion mechanism retained by related trypanosomatids, and that residence and further escape from a lysosomal compartment may be a common requisite for successful infection. During intracellular growth, parasites share a few epitopes with T. cruzi amastigotes and trypomastigotes. Unexpectedly, in heavily infected cells, amastigotes and trypomastigotes were found inside the host cell nucleus. These findings suggest that T. dionisii, although sharing some features in host cell invasion with T. cruzi, has unique behaviors that deserve to be further explored. PMID:19283898

  3. Tissue localization of transforming growth factor-beta1 in pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma.

    PubMed

    Asakura, S; Colby, T V; Limper, A H

    1996-11-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma is characterized by infiltration of the lungs with fibronodular lesions containing specialized Langerhans' cells. In some patients, progressive pulmonary fibrosis leads to significant respiratory impairment. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) promotes fibrosis by enhancing the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The role of TGF-beta1 in promoting fibrosis in the setting of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma is currently unknown. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the extent and distribution of TGF-beta1 and the extracellular matrix components type I collagen and decorin, a TGF-beta1-binding proteoglycan. Lung biopsies from 11 patients with pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma were evaluated. In biopsies with active inflammatory lesions containing Langerhans' cells, hyperplastic type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages within and surrounding the fibronodular lesions contained abundant TGF-beta1. Langerhans' cells were consistently devoid of immunoreactive TGF-beta1. Active inflammatory lesions also exhibited staining for decorin, in a loosely organized distribution. Advanced fibrotic lesions of eosinophilic granuloma, containing minimal inflammatory cells and few or no Langerhans' cells, exhibited weak or absent staining for TGF-beta1 within either hyperplastic type 2 pneumocytes or alveolar macrophages. The fibroconnective tissues of these advanced fibrotic lesions consistently revealed dense staining for decorin. Through their actions on extracellular matrix protein accumulation, TGF-beta1 and the TGF-beta1-binding proteoglycan decorin may modulate fibrotic repair accompanying pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. PMID:8912775

  4. Bio-Nano-Magnetic Materials for Localized Mechanochemical Stimulation of Cell Growth and Death.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Devrim; Dennis, Cindi L; Lee, Gil U

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising new tools for therapeutic applications, such as magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy and targeted drug delivery. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that a force application with magnetic tweezers can also affect cell fate, suggesting a therapeutic potential for magnetically modulated mechanical stimulation. The magnetic properties of nanoparticles that induce physical responses and the subtle responses that result from mechanically induced membrane damage and/or intracellular signaling are evaluated. Magnetic particles with various physical, geometric, and magnetic properties and specific functionalization can now be used to apply mechanical force to specific regions of cells, which permit the modulation of cellular behavior through the use of spatially and time controlled magnetic fields. On one hand, mechanochemical stimulation has been used to direct the outgrowth on neuronal growth cones, indicating a therapeutic potential for neural repair. On the other hand, it has been used to kill cancer cells that preferentially express specific receptors. Advances made in the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanomaterials and a better understanding of cellular mechanotransduction mechanisms may support the translation of mechanochemical stimulation into the clinic as an emerging therapeutic approach. PMID:26780501

  5. Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.

  6. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Robert M; Middeldorp, Christel M; Cherny, Stacey S; Krapohl, Eva; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Corley, Robin; Rhee, Soo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard R; Hewitt, John K; Sham, Pak; Plomin, Robert; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2016-07-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were available for 10,765 twin pairs at age 7, for 8,557 twin pairs at age 9/10, and for 7,176 twin pairs at age 12. In TEDS, parental ratings of conduct disorder from the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) were available for 6,897 twin pairs at age 7, for 3,028 twin pairs at age 9 and for 5,716 twin pairs at age 12. In both studies, stability and heritability of aggressive behavioral problems was high. Heritability was on average somewhat, but significantly, lower in TEDS (around 60%) than in NTR (between 50% and 80%) and sex differences were slightly larger in the NTR sample. In both studies, the influence of shared environment was similar: in boys shared environment explained around 20% of the variation in aggression across all ages while in girls its influence was absent around age 7 and only came into play at later ages. Longitudinal genetic correlations were the main reason for stability of aggressive behavior. Individual differences in CBCL-Aggressive Behavior and SDQ-Conduct disorder throughout childhood are driven by a comparable but significantly different genetic architecture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786601

  7. Stability of Physical and Psychological Adolescent Dating Aggression across Time and Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…

  8. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  9. Effects of local defect growth in direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Shmayda, W. T.; Harding, D. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Goncharov, V. N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-08-15

    Spherically symmetric, low-adiabat (adiabat α ≲ 3) cryogenic direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] yield less than 10% of the neutrons predicted in one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations suggest that this performance degradation can be explained assuming perturbations from isolated defects of submicron to tens-of-micron scale on the outer surface or inside the shell of implosion targets. These defects develop during the cryogenic filling process and typically number from several tens up to hundreds for each target covering from about 0.2% to 1% of its surface. The simulations predict that such defects can significantly perturb the implosion and result in the injection of about 1 to 2 μg of the hot ablator (carbon-deuterium) and fuel (deuterium-tritium) materials from the ablation surface into the targets. Both the hot mass injection and perturbations of the shell reduce the final shell convergence ratio and implosion performance. The injected carbon ions radiatively cool the hot spot, reducing the fuel temperature, and further reducing the neutron yield. The negative effect of local defects can be minimized by decreasing the number and size of these defects and/or using more hydrodynamically stable implosion designs with higher shell adiabat.

  10. The WIP1 Oncogene Promotes Progression and Invasion of Aggressive Medulloblastoma Variants

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Meghan C.; Remke, Marc; Lee, Juhyun; Gandhi, Khanjan; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Castellino, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, is comprised of four disease variants. The WIP1 oncogene is overexpressed in Group 3 and 4 tumors, which contain medulloblastomas with the most aggressive clinical behavior. Our data demonstrate increased WIP1 expression in metastatic medulloblastomas, and inferior progression-free and overall survival of patients with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of genes involved in tumor metastasis, including the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, in medulloblastoma cells with high WIP1 expression. Stimulation with the CXCR4 ligand SDF1ααactivated PI-3 kinase signaling, and promoted growth and invasion of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells in a p53-dependent manner. When xenografted into the cerebellum of immunodeficient mice, medulloblastoma cells with stable or endogenous high WIP1 expression exhibited strong expression of CXCR4 and activated AKT in primary and invasive tumor cells. WIP1 or CXCR4 knock-down inhibited medulloblastoma growth and invasion. WIP1 knock-down also improved the survival of mice xenografted with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. WIP1 knock-down inhibited cell surface localization of CXCR4 by suppressing expression of the G protein receptor kinase 5, GRK5. Restoration of wild-type GRK5 promoted Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4 and inhibited the growth of WIP1-stable medulloblastoma cells. Conversely, GRK5 knock-down inhibited Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4, increased cell surface localization of CXCR4, and promoted the growth of medulloblastoma cells with low WIP1 expression. These results demonstrate cross-talk among WIP1, CXCR4, and GRK5, which may be important for the aggressive phenotype of a subclass of medulloblastomas in children. PMID:24632620

  11. Localization, growth, and inactivation of Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeño peppers.

    PubMed

    Liao, C-H; Cooke, P H; Niemira, B A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been implicated in one of the largest foodborne illness outbreaks in the summer of 2008. The objective of this study was to investigate representative groups of native microflora and the distribution, growth, and inactivation of experimentally-inoculated Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeño peppers. Two genetically modified strains of Salm. Saintpaul producing either green- or red-fluorescent protein were constructed and used in the study. Microbiological analyses showed that jalapeño peppers contained an average of 5.6 log units of total aerobic count and 3.5, 1.8, and 1.9 log units, respectively, of enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast/mold per gram of tissue. Strains typical of Pseudomonas accounted for 8.3% of total aerobic count, and 0.2% of which exhibited pectolytic activity. On inoculated peppers, a vast majority (>90%) of Salm. Saintpaul was recovered from stem/calyx and only a small proportion recovered from fleshy pods. Growth of Salm. Saintpaul on peppers was indicated by an increase in the population of 3 log units after incubation of samples at 20 degrees C for 48 h. Fluorescent Salm. Saintpaul aggregates could be readily detected on stem/calyx using stereofluorescence imaging microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data presented showed that Salm. Saintpaul could survive for at least 8 wk on peppers stored at 4 degrees C. Immersion of inoculated peppers in 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxy acetic acid for 10 min could reduce the number of Salm. Saintpaul on stem/calyx by 1.5 to 1.7 and that on flesh by 2.1 to 2.4 log units. Practical Application: Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks. The vast majority of Salmonella Saintpaul recovered from inoculated jalapeño peppers (>90%) was from stem/calyx. Salmonella increased by 3 log units during storage at 68 degrees F (20

  12. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  13. Developmental Associations between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…

  14. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  15. The Development of Aggression within Sibling Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    1995-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined responses to physically aggressive conflicts among siblings. Found that parents respond to half of children's aggression (especially if there is crying). Most parent and child responses were simple commands to stop the aggression. Reasoning was used less often, and physical intervention, rarely. Aggression was higher…

  16. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  17. Brain oxytocin correlates with maternal aggression: link to anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Oliver J; Meddle, Simone L; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Douglas, Alison J; Neumann, Inga D

    2005-07-20

    The oxytocinergic system is critically involved in the regulation of maternal behavior, which includes maternal aggression. Because aggression has been linked to anxiety, we investigated the maternal aggression and the role of brain oxytocin in lactating Wistar rats selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) or low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) during the 10 min maternal defense test. HAB dams displayed more maternal aggression against a virgin intruder compared with LAB dams, resulting in more defensive behavior and higher anxiety of HAB-defeated virgins. The different levels of aggression were accompanied by opposite oxytocin release patterns within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN; HAB, increase; LAB, decrease). Furthermore, oxytocin release was higher within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of HAB dams compared with LABs. A direct correlation between the offensive behavior displayed during the maternal defense test and local oxytocin release was found in both the PVN and CeA. Using retrodialysis, blockade of endogenous oxytocin action by infusion of an oxytocin receptor antagonist (des-Gly-NH2,d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT) into the PVN or CeA reduced maternal aggression of HAB dams, whereas infusion of synthetic oxytocin into the PVN tended to increase aggression toward the intruder in LAB dams. There were no significant differences in oxytocin receptor mRNA expression or oxytocin receptor binding between lactating HAB and LAB dams. Therefore, differences in intracerebral release patterns of oxytocin, rather than differences at the level of oxytocin receptors, are critical for the regulation of maternal aggressive behavior. PMID:16033890

  18. Attributional bias and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Hudley, C; Friday, J

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student

  19. Nucleation and reaction rates controlled by local reaction volume and reaction-induced stress - spinel layer growth as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Lutz C.; Milke, Ralf; Dohmen, Ralf; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We observed the growth of spinel sensu stricto (MgAl2O4) between periclase (MgO) and corundum (Al2O3) in thin films deposited by the pulsed laser deposition method on crystallographically oriented single crystal substrates. The starting samples consisted of cut and ultra polished single crystals of either corundum (parallel (0001)) or periclase (parallel (111)) and an amorphous source layer of the respective reactant that in the very first stages of the experiments became polycrystalline. The cutting direction in the substrate minerals ensures that the substrate phases start to react along their close-packed hexagonal oxygen layers which allows topotactical growth of the newly formed spinel. The entire layer setup on the substrate crystals was only a few 100 nm thick. The growth of these spinel product layers was monitored in-situ using a heating attachment and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. From the reacted samples we took electron transparent foils by the focused ion beam method and analysed them ex-situ by TEM. At 1000°C we found a difference in spinel growth rate between one and two orders of magnitude between the two substrates, all other parameters held constant. At 900 and 1000 °C spinel had formed after one hour by 0.004 nm/s (900°C) and 0.034 nm/s (1000°C) on corundum substrate, while on periclase substrate the reaction had gone completely through the Al2O3 source layer transforming it to spinel by at least 15-30 times higher reaction rates (boundary values) and probably even faster. At 800°C no reaction occurred between periclase layers and corundum single crystals, whereas spinel crystallized at a (linearized) rate of 46 nm/h on periclase single crystals. We explain our findings by the local reaction volume at the periclase-corundum interface. Many studies (including this one) have established that spinel grows by cation exchange in a rather immobile oxygen sublattice. This mechanism implies a negative volume change at the Sp-Per interface (by -13

  20. Localized delivery of fibroblast growth factor–2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor reduces spontaneous seizures in an epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Beatrice; Marconi, Peggy; Zucchini, Silvia; Berto, Elena; Binaschi, Anna; Bozac, Aleksandra; Buzzi, Andrea; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Magri, Eros; Mora, Graciela Navarro; Rodi, Donata; Su, Tao; Volpi, Ilaria; Zanetti, Lara; Marzola, Andrea; Manservigi, Roberto; Fabene, Paolo F.; Simonato, Michele

    2009-01-01

    A loss of neurons is observed in the hippocampus of many patients with epilepsies of temporal lobe origin. It has been hypothesized that damage limitation or repair, for example using neurotrophic factors (NTFs), may prevent the transformation of a normal tissue into epileptic (epileptogenesis). Here, we used viral vectors to locally supplement two NTFs, fibroblast growth factor–2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), when epileptogenic damage was already in place. These vectors were first characterized in vitro, where they increased proliferation of neural progenitors and favored their differentiation into neurons, and they were then tested in a model of status epilepticus-induced neurodegeneration and epileptogenesis. When injected in a lesioned hippocampus, FGF-2/BDNF expressing vectors increased neuronogenesis, embanked neuronal damage, and reduced epileptogenesis. It is concluded that reduction of damage reduces epileptogenesis and that supplementing specific NTFs in lesion areas represents a new approach to the therapy of neuronal damage and of its consequences. PMID:19366663

  1. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, Dolores; Lorente, Mar; Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Torres, Sofía; García-Taboada, Elena; Aberturas, María Del Rosario; Molpeceres, Jesús; Velasco, Guillermo; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w) of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies. PMID:23349970

  2. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in locally invasive prostate cancer is prognostic for radiotherapy outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Melanie M.L.; Hiley, Crispin T.; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Bottomley, Ian C.; West, Catharine; Cowan, Richard A.; Stratford, Ian J. . E-mail: ian.j.stratford@manchester.ac.uk

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important hypoxia-inducible pro-angiogenic protein that has been linked with an adverse survival outcome after radiotherapy in other cancer types: we hypothesized that this may also occur in prostate cancer. A retrospective study was, therefore, carried out to evaluate the potential of tumor VEGF expression to predict radiotherapy outcome in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced (T3 N0 M0) tumors of Gleason score {>=}6, and who received radiotherapy alone as primary treatment for their disease, were studied. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was assessed on pretreatment diagnostic tumor biopsies using a semiquantitative immunohistochemical scoring system. The results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic factors and patient outcome including biochemical failure and disease-specific mortality. Results: High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis: in univariate log rank analysis, VEGF was the only significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (p = 0.035). High VEGF expression also associated with increased Gleason score (p = 0.02), but not posttreatment biochemical failure. Conclusion: High tumor expression of VEGF identified patients at high risk of failure of treatment with radiotherapy. These patients might benefit from additional treatment approaches incorporating anti-angiogenic or hypoxia-specific agents.

  3. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor as a predictor of tumor downstaging in locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun-Sang . E-mail: k423j@cnu.ac.kr; Kim, Jin-Man; Li, Shengjin; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Yeo, Seung-Gu; Nam, Ji Sook; Cho, Moon-June

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To examine retrospectively whether levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression can predict tumor downstaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 183 patients with rectal cancer (cT3-T4 or N+) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy consisted of 50.4 Gy of pelvic radiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin bolus intravenous chemotherapy in 94 patients or oral capecitabine and leucovorin in 89 patients. EGFR expression in pretreatment paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. EGFR expression was determined from the intensity and extent of staining. Tumor downstaging was defined as a reduction of at least one T-stage level. Results: Tumor downstaging occurred in 97 patients (53%), and the tumors showed a pathologic complete response in 27 patients (15%). Positive EGFR expression was observed in 140 (76%) of 183 patients. EGFR expression levels were low in 113 patients (62%) and high in 70 patients (38%). On logistic regression analysis, the significant predictive factor for increased tumor downstaging was a low level of EGFR expression and preoperative chemotherapy using oral capecitabine (odds ratio, 0.437; p 0.012 vs. odds ratio, 3.235; p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A high level of EGFR expression may be a significant predictive molecular marker for decreased tumor downstaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.

  5. Local immunotherapy via delivery of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β antagonist for treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Christopher B; Rai, Reena; Faubel, Sarah; Burdick, Jason A; Soranno, Danielle E

    2015-05-28

    Obstructive nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in children. The tissue injury resulting from initial dilation precipitates a deleterious cascade of macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and fibrosis to produce a resultant dysfunctional tissue. We propose to abate this tissue remodeling process through immunotherapy administered via the local and sustained delivery of interleukin-10 (IL-10; anti-inflammatory) and anti-transforming growth factor β (anti-TGFβ; anti-fibrotic). Shear-thinning, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels were formed through supramolecular guest-host interactions and used to contain IL-10, anti-TGFβ, or both molecules together. Degradation assays demonstrated that diffusive molecule release was associated with concurrent hydrogel erosion and was sustained for up to 3weeks in vitro. Erosion was likewise monitored in vivo by non-invasive optical imaging, where gel localization to the affected tissue was observed with near complete clearance by day 18. Hydrogels were applied to a murine model of chronic kidney disease, with subcapsular hydrogel injections acting as a delivery depot. Quantitative histological analysis (days 7, 21, and 35) was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Notably, results demonstrated reduced macrophage infiltration beyond day 7 in treatment groups and reduced apoptosis at day 21, relative to untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction disease model. Fibrosis was reduced at the 35day timepoint in groups treated with IL-10 or anti-TGFβ alone, but not with the combination therapy. Rather, dual delivery of IL-10 and anti-TGFβ resulted in a paradoxical hastening of fibrosis, warranting further investigation. Localized immunotherapy is a novel approach to treat kidney disease and shows promise as a translatable therapy. PMID:25804871

  6. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  7. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  8. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Beiderbeck, Daniela I.; Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB) and high (HAB) levels of innate anxiety-related behavior, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB). Male LAB, HAB, and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior toward a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test). Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of NPS (1 nmol) significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS) into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS (1 nmol). The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression in HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats. PMID:24910598

  9. Glucocorticoid interaction with aggression in non-mammalian vertebrates: reciprocal action.

    PubMed

    Summers, Cliff H; Watt, Michael J; Ling, Travis L; Forster, Gina L; Carpenter, Russ E; Korzan, Wayne J; Lukkes, Jodi L; Overli, Oyvind

    2005-12-01

    Socially aggressive interaction is stressful, and as such, glucocorticoids are typically secreted during aggressive interaction in a variety of vertebrates, which may both potentiate and inhibit aggression. The behavioral relationship between corticosterone and/or cortisol in non-mammalian (as well as mammalian) vertebrates is dependent on timing, magnitude, context, and coordination of physiological and behavioral responses. Chronically elevated plasma glucocorticoids reliably inhibit aggressive behavior, consistent with an evolutionarily adaptive behavioral strategy among subordinate and submissive individuals. Acute elevation of plasma glucocorticoids may either promote an actively aggressive response via action in specialized local regions of the brain such as the anterior hypothalamus, or is permissive to escalated aggression and/or activity. Although the permissive effect of glucocorticoids on aggression does not suggest an active role for the hormone, the corticosteroids may be necessary for full expression of aggressive behavior, as in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. These effects suggest that short-term stress may generally be best counteracted by an actively aggressive response, at least for socially dominant proactive individuals. An acute and active response may be evolutionarily maladaptive under chronic, uncontrollable and unpredictable circumstances. It appears that subordinate reactive individuals often produce compulsorily chronic responses that inhibit aggression and promote submissive behavior. PMID:16298361

  10. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  11. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  12. Prefrontal cortex lesions and MAO-A modulate aggression in penetrating traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, M.; Krueger, F.; Hodgkinson, C.; Raymont, V.; Ferrier, C.; Goldman, D.; Strenziok, M.; Guida, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the interaction between brain lesion location and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in the genesis of aggression in patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI). Methods: We enrolled 155 patients with PTBI and 42 controls drawn from the Vietnam Head Injury Study registry. Patients with PTBI were divided according to lesion localization (prefrontal cortex [PFC] vs non-PFC) and were genotyped for the MAO-A polymorphism linked to low and high transcriptional activity. Aggression was assessed with the aggression/agitation subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-a). Results: Patients with the highest levels of aggression preferentially presented lesions in PFC territories. A significant interaction between MAO-A transcriptional activity and lesion localization on aggression was revealed. In the control group, carriers of the low-activity allele demonstrated higher aggression than high-activity allele carriers. In the PFC lesion group, no significant differences in aggression were observed between carriers of the 2 MAO-A alleles, whereas in the non-PFC lesion group higher aggression was observed in the high-activity allele than in the low-activity allele carriers. Higher NPI-a scores were linked to more severe childhood psychological traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology in the control and non-PFC lesion groups but not in the PFC lesion group. Conclusions: Lesion location and MAO-A genotype interact in mediating aggression in PTBI. Importantly, PFC integrity is necessary for modulation of aggressive behaviors by genetic susceptibilities and traumatic experiences. Potentially, lesion localization and MAO-A genotype data could be combined to develop risk-stratification algorithms and individualized treatments for aggression in PTBI. PMID:21422455

  13. Growth Management and Agriculture: An Examination of Local Efforts to Manage Growth and Preserve Farmland in Wisconsin Cities, Villages, and Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Daniel; Green, Gary Paul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effectiveness of growth management policies in Wisconsin cities, villages, and towns. Unlike most other studies, we consider the impact of growth management policies on agriculture, specifically the preservation of farmland, in addition to population growth. Our analysis examines these relationships separately in towns…

  14. Genetic control of rhizomes and genomic localization of a major-effect growth habit QTL in perennial wildrye.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lan; Larson, Steve R; Mott, Ivan W; Jensen, Kevin B; Staub, Jack E

    2014-06-01

    Rhizomes are prostrate subterranean stems that provide primitive mechanisms of vegetative dispersal, survival, and regrowth of perennial grasses and other monocots. The extent of rhizome proliferation varies greatly among grasses, being absent in cereals and other annuals, strictly confined in caespitose perennials, or highly invasive in some perennial weeds. However, genetic studies of rhizome proliferation are limited and genes controlling rhizomatous growth habit have not been elucidated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizome spreading were compared in reciprocal backcross populations derived from hybrids of rhizomatous creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) and caespitose basin wildrye (L. cinereus), which are perennial relatives of wheat. Two recessive QTLs were unique to the creeping wildrye backcross, one dominant QTL was unique to the basin wildrye backcross, and one additive QTL was detectable in reciprocal backcrosses with high log odds (LOD = 31.6) in the basin wildrye background. The dominant QTL located on linkage group (LG)-2a was aligned to a dominant rhizome orthogene (Rhz3) of perennial rice (Oryza longistamina) and perennial sorghum (Sorghum propinquum). Nonparametric 99 % confidence bounds of the 31.6-LOD QTL were localized to a distal 3.8-centiMorgan region of LG-6a, which corresponds to a 0.7-Mb region of Brachypodium Chromosome 3 containing 106 genes. An Aux/IAA auxin signal factor gene was located at the 31.6-LOD peak, which could explain the gravitropic and aphototropic behavior of rhizomes. Findings elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling rhizome development and architectural growth habit differences among plant species. Results have possible applications to improve perennial forage and turf grasses, extend the vegetative life cycle of annual cereals, such as wheat, or control the invasiveness of highly rhizomatous weeds such as quackgrass (Elymus repens). PMID:24509730

  15. Regulation and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor within the mammary glands during the transition from late gestation to lactation.

    PubMed

    VanKlompenberg, M K; Manjarín, R; Donovan, C E; Trott, J F; Hovey, R C

    2016-01-01

    The vascular network within the developing mammary gland (MG) grows in concert with the epithelium to prepare for lactation, although the mechanisms coordinating this vascular development are unresolved. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mediates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the MG during pregnancy and lactation, where its expression is upregulated by prolactin. Given our previous finding that late-gestational hyperprolactinemia induced by domperidone (DOM) increased subsequent milk yield from gilts, we sought to establish changes in vascular development during late gestation and lactation in the MGs of these pigs and determine whether DOM altered MG angiogenesis and the factors regulating it. Gilts received either no treatment (n = 6) or DOM (n = 6) during late gestation, then had their MG biopsied from late gestation through lactation to assess microvessel density, VEGF-A distribution and messenger RNA expression, and aquaporin (AQP) gene expression. Microvessel density in the MG was unchanged during gestation then increased between days 2 and 21 of lactation (P < 0.05). The local expression of messenger RNA for VEGF-A120, VEGF-A147, VEGF-A164, VEGF-A164b, VEGF-A188, VEGF receptors-1 and -2, and AQP1 and AQP3 all generally increased during the transition from gestation to lactation (P < 0.05). Immunostaining localized VEGF-A to the apical cytoplasm of secretory epithelial cells, consistent with a far greater concentration of VEGF-A in colostrum and/or milk vs plasma (P < 0.0001). There was no effect of DOM on any of the variables analyzed. In summary, we found that vascular development in the MG increases during lactation in first-parity gilts and that VEGF-A is a part of the mammary secretome. Although late-gestational hyperprolactinemia increases milk yield, there was no evidence that it altered vascular development. PMID:26490114

  16. Localization of a Rho GTPase Implies a Role in Tip Growth and Movement of the Generative Cell in Pollen Tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J. K.; Yang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The Rho family GTPases function as key molecular switches, controlling a variety of actin-dependent cellular processes, such as the establishment of cell polarity, cell morphogenesis, and movement in diverse eukaryotic organisms. A novel subfamily of Rho GTPases, Rop, has been identified in plants. Protein gel blot and RNA gel blot hybridization analyses indicated that one of these plant Rho GTPases, Rop1, is expressed predominantly in the male gametophyte (pollen and pollen tubes). Cell fractionation analysis of pollen tubes showed that Rop is partitioned into soluble and particulate fractions. The particulate Rop could be solubilized with detergents but not with salts, indicating that it is tightly bound to membranes. The membrane association appears to result from membrane anchoring via a geranylgeranyl group because an in vitro isoprenylation assay demonstrated that Rop1Ps is geranylgeranylated. Subcellular localization, using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, showed that Rop is highly concentrated in the cortical region of the tube apex and in the periphery of the generative cell. The cortical Rop protein at the apex forms a gradient with decreasing concentration from tip to base and appears to be associated with the plasma membrane. These results suggest that the apical Rop GTPase may be involved in the signaling mechanism that controls the actin-dependent tip growth of pollen tubes. Localization of the Rop GTPase to the periphery of the generative cell is analogous to that of myosin, suggesting that the Rop GTPase plays an important role in the modulation of an actomyosin motor system involved in the movement of the generative cell. PMID:12239385

  17. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  18. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  19. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  20. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  1. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  2. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  3. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  4. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  5. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    PubMed

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines. PMID:24506013

  6. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated. PMID:25857854

  8. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  9. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  10. Investigating Three Explanations of Women's Relationship Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated explanations of women's partner aggression in a sample of 358 women. Women completed measures of physical aggression, control, and fear. Three explanations of women's partner aggression were explored: (a) that its use is associated with fear, (b) that it is reciprocal, and (c) that it is coercive. Each explanation received…

  11. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  12. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  13. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  14. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  15. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  16. Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma.

    PubMed

    Görgün, Ömer; Salduz, Ahmet; Kebudi, Rejin; Özger, Harzem; Bilgiç, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation. PMID:27499324

  17. Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

  18. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  19. Effects of Aggressive vs. Nonaggressive Films on the Aggressive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Charles

    Examined was the effect of viewing an aggressive film on the behavior of 22 moderately and mildly mentally retarded children (5-11 years old). Ss' doll playing was observed after they viewed a nonaggressive and an aggressive film. Results supported the hypothesis that Ss would exhibit more aggressive behavior following the aggressive than the…

  20. Grain Growth Pinning and Strain Localization: Implications for Plagioclase Flow Laws and Strength of the Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, L.; Hirth, G.

    2005-12-01

    The rheology of the lower crust remains poorly understood despite its importance for understanding the strength of plates, driving forces for plate motion, and how strain is translated up to and/or down from the brittle upper crust. In this study we evaluate the applicability of experimental flow laws using insights from the analysis of naturally deformed gabbros from lower oceanic crust (Hole 735B, Southwest Indian Ridge). For comparison with experimentally-derived flow laws, we evaluate stress, temperature, and deformation mechanism in the SWIR samples. Strain is localized in discrete shear zones, and we assume a strain rate of 10-12 to 10-14 s-1. Differential stress ranges from ~20 to 150 MPa, estimated by grain size piezometry with the empirical relationship of Twiss (1977). Syn-deformation temperatures are 800-950 °C, calculated by Fe-Mg-Ca exchange between recrystallized orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs using QUILF (Andersen et al., 1993). Finally, deformation mechanisms were analyzed by measuring the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) with an electron back scattered detector (EBSD) on a scanning electron microscope. Monophase layers within the shear zones have LPOs indicative of deformation by dislocation creep at all grain sizes (down to 12.5 μm). Polyphase layers have random or very weak fabrics implying dominance of diffusion creep, even in samples with a relatively coarse grain size (well within the dislocation creep field). Plagioclase grains in the polyphase layers are smaller than those in monophase layers indicating that grain growth is apparently inhibited by clinopyroxene at grain boundaries. The variation in plagioclase grain size fits models that account for the size and abundance of a pinning phase. We conclude: 1) Flow law parameters for dry An100 (Rybacki and Dresen, 2000) agree well with natural polyphase gabbro shear zones. This is a relatively `strong' flow law that predicts viscosities higher than olivine flow laws for a wet upper

  1. Change in the Growth Rate of Localized Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Response to Gemcitabine, Bevacizumab, and Radiation Therapy on MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, Pedram; Yaghmai, Vahid; Tochetto, Sandra M.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Miller, Frank H.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Small, William

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To depict treatment response to chemoradiotherapy by comparing tumor growth rate between treated and untreated patients and to compare depicted response with objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 guideline. Methods and Materials: This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Volume doubling time (DT) of histologically confirmed locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma was calculated in 16 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and 10 untreated patients by incorporating interscan interval ({Delta}t) and tumor volume at baseline (V0) and follow-up (V1) obtained by semiautomated segmentation into the following equation: DT = {Delta}t . log 2/log (V1/V0). Reciprocal of doubling time (RDT), which is the linear representation of tumor growth rate, was calculated by use of the following equation: RDT = 365/DT. The lowest RDT value of 2.42 in untreated patients was considered as the cutoff value for depiction of treatment response. Depicted response rate was defined as the proportion of patients with an RDT value of less than 2.42. Depicted response was compared with objective response according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in mean RDT between treated (range, -7.12 to 3.27; mean, -1.27; median, -1.30) and untreated (range, 2.42 to 10.74; mean, 5.33; median, 4.26) patients (p < 0.05). Reciprocal of doubling time was less than 2.42 in 14 treated patients, which corresponded to a depicted response rate of 87.50% as opposed to the objective response rate of 18.75% according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline (p < 0.05) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response rate of 62.50% (p > 0.05). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was concordant with RDT and RECIST response in 12 patients (75.00%) ({kappa}, 0.38) and 9 patients (56.25%) ({kappa}, 0

  2. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  3. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  4. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  5. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  6. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  7. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  8. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

  9. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  10. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  11. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal…

  12. Instrumental and Reactive Functions and Overt and Relational Forms of Aggression: Developmental Trajectories and Prospective Associations during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Kiefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescent self-reported instrumental-overt, instrumental-relational, reactive-overt, and reactive-relational aggression during middle school ("N" = 384; 12-14 years; 53% boys). Growth modeling indicated average increases in instrumental-relational aggression, and decreases in reactive-overt and…

  13. MicroRNA 146a locally mediates distal axonal growth of dorsal root ganglia neurons under high glucose and sildenafil conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Longfei; Wang, Lei; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Szalad, Alexandra; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-08-01

    Axonal loss contributes to induction of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, ameliorates neurological dysfunction in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the direct effect of high glucose and sildenafil on axonal growth has not been extensively investigated. Using rat primary dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons cultured in a microfluidic chamber, we investigated the effect of axonal application of high glucose and sildenafil on distal axonal growth. We found that axonal, but not cell body, application of high glucose locally inhibited distal axonal growth. However, axonal application of sildenafil overcame high glucose-reduced axonal growth. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis of distal axonal samples revealed that high glucose reduced axonal miR-146a levels and substantially increased miR-146a target genes, IRAK1 and TRAF6 in the axon. In contrast, sildenafil significantly reversed high glucose-reduced miR-146a levels and high glucose-increased IRAK1 and TRAF6. Gain- and loss-of function of miR-146a in DRG neurons revealed that miR-146a mediated the local effect of high glucose on the distal axonal growth. These in vitro data provide new insights into molecular mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27167084

  14. Effect of Statins and Anticoagulants on Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Moein; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Zilli, Thomas; Van Nguyen, Thu; Guay, Jean-Pierre; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Taussky, Daniel

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Statins and anticoagulants (ACs) have both been associated with a less-aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and a better outcome after treatment of localized PCa. The results of these studies might have been confounded because patients might often take both medications. We examined their respective influence on PCa aggressiveness at initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 381 patients treated with either external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy for low-risk (n = 152), intermediate-risk (n = 142), or high-risk (n = 87) localized PCa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate an association between these drug classes and prostate cancer aggressiveness. We tested whether the concomitant use of statins and ACs had a different effect than that of either AC or statin use alone. Results: Of the 381 patients, 172 (45.1%) were taking statins and 141 (37.0%) ACs; 105 patients (27.6%) used both. On univariate analysis, the statin and AC users were associated with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (p = .017) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = .0022). On multivariate analysis, statin use was associated with a PSA level <10 ng/mL (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.8; p = .012) and a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.83; p = .03). The use of ACs was associated with a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.59, p = .02). Conclusion: Both AC and statins have an effect on PCa aggressiveness, with statins having a more stringent relationship with the PSA level, highlighting the importance of considering statin use in studies of PCa aggressiveness.

  15. Male–male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yukie; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, male–male aggression peaks at intermediate levels of local average relatedness. Assuming that aggression is costly and directed toward nonrelatives and that competition for reproduction acts within the colony, benefits of aggressive behavior are maximized in colonies with a mix of related and unrelated competitors because aggression hurts nonkin often, thereby favoring reproduction of kin. This leads to a dome-shaped relation between male–male aggression and average relatedness. This prediction has been tested with bacteria in the laboratory, but not with organisms in the field. We study how male–male aggression varies with relatedness in the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis miscanthi. We sampled 25 populations across a wide geographic range between Taiwan and Japan, representing a gradient of high to low within-population relatedness. For each population the weaponry of males was measured as the length of the first pair of legs, and male–male aggression was tested by placing pairs of nonsibling males together and scoring the frequency of male death over a given period. As these two morphological and behavioral variables correlate strongly, they both reflect the intensity of male–male conflict. Our data on the social spider mite show that male–male aggression as well as weapon size strongly peak at intermediate, average relatedness, thereby confirming theoretical predictions. Inclusive fitness theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, aggression should peak at intermediate levels of average relatedness in the colony. Here, we study how male–male aggression varies with average relatedness in naturally occurring colonies of the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis miscanthi. In support of theory, male–male aggression and weapon size strongly peak at intermediate average relatedness. PMID:24567830

  16. The cost of male aggression and polygyny in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Leah R; González-Suárez, Manuela; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Young, Julie K; Sabo, John L

    2010-01-01

    In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June-August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and viability. By using 4 years of data on behavior and demography of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we found that male behavior and spatial dynamics--aggression and territory size--are significantly related to female fecundity. Higher rates of male aggression and larger territory sizes were associated with lower estimates of female fecundity within the same year. Female aggression was significantly and positively related to fecundity both within the same year as the behavior was measured and in the following year. These results indicate that while male aggression and defense of territories may increase male fecundity, such interactions may cause a reduction in the overall population growth rate by lowering female fecundity. Females may attempt to offset male-related reductions in female fecundity by increasing their own aggression-perhaps to defend pups from incidental injury or mortality. Thus in polygynous mating systems, male aggression may increase male fitness at the cost of female fitness and overall population viability. PMID:20808931

  17. Local gate leakage current induced by inhomogeneous epitaxial growth in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomotaka; Wakejima, Akio; Egawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    We found that inhomogeneous epitaxial growth in a superlattice near a Si substrate creates an area where local leakage current occurs at the interface between an AlGaN surface and a Schottky electrode. Here, electroluminescence (EL) through a transparent gate of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor enables us to identify the area in the entire gate periphery. Further, the superlattice near the Si substrate supports clear observation of inhomogeneous growth under the EL spots. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy profile indicates that a Ga-rich layer was grown in the early stage of inhomogeneous area creation.

  18. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. PMID:26916604

  19. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  20. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  1. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627

  2. FgKin1 kinase localizes to the septal pore and plays a role in hyphal growth, ascospore germination, pathogenesis, and localization of Tub1 beta-tubulins in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongping; Zhang, Hongchang; Qi, Linlu; Zhang, Shijie; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yimei; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-12-01

    The Kin1/Par-1/MARK kinases regulate various cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Kin1 orthologs are well conserved in fungal pathogens but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we show that KIN1 is important for pathogenesis and growth in two phytopathogenic fungi and that FgKin1 regulates ascospore germination and the localization of Tub1 β-tubulins in Fusarium graminearum. The Fgkin1 mutant and putative FgKIN1(S172A) kinase dead (nonactivatable) transformants were characterized for defects in plant infection, sexual and asexual reproduction, and stress responses. The localization of FgKin1 and two β-tubulins were examined in the wild-type and mutant backgrounds. Deletion of FgKIN1 resulted in reduced virulence and defects in ascospore germination and release. FgKin1 localized to the center of septal pores. FgKIN1 deletion had no effect on Tub2 microtubules but disrupted Tub1 localization. In the mutant, Tub1 appeared to be enriched in the nucleolus. In Magnaporthe oryzae, MoKin1 has similar functions in growth and infection and it also localizes to septal pores. The S172A mutation had no effect on the localization and function of FgKIN1 during sexual reproduction. These results indicate that FgKIN1 has kinase-dependent and independent functions and it specifically regulates Tub1 β-tubulins. FgKin1 plays a critical role in ascospore discharge, germination, and plant infection. PMID:25078365

  3. CO2 laser-induced precipitation of CdSxSe1-x nanoparticles in a borosilicate glass: A new approach for the localized growth of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinowski, Christophe; Robbe-Cristini, Odile; Bernard, Rémy; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Boussekey, Luc; Bouazaoui, Mohamed; Capoen, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    A novel method allowing the local growth of semiconductor nanoparticles in dense silicate glasses is presented. In this method combining a continuous middle-infrared laser irradiation and a heat-treatment in open air, a transparent melt-quenched borosilicate glass containing CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals was annealed at a temperature below the softening point. Simultaneously, a continuous infrared laser irradiation at 10.6 μm was applied, acting as a thermal addition. Resonant Raman, photoluminescence and absorption spectra reveal the local growth of CdSxSe1-x nanoparticles, with a homogeneous composition and average particle radii ranging from 1.9 to 5.5 nm. These results demonstrate the feasibility of coupling a laser irradiation with an appropriate heat-treatment in order to achieve the spatial organization of nanostructures in vitreous materials.

  4. Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

  5. Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

  6. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes. PMID:23674672

  7. Problems in the study of rodent aggression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J; Wall, Philip M; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Laboratory research has produced detailed descriptions of aggression and defense patterns in the rat, mouse, and hamster, showing strong similarities, but also some differences, across these species. Research on target sites for attack, in conjunction with analyses of the situational antecedents of attack behaviors and of responsivity of these to conditions that elicit fear, has also provided a strong basis for analysis of offensive and defensive aggression strategies and for identification of combinations of these modalities such as may occur in maternal aggression. These patterns have been empirically differentiated from phenomena such as play fighting or predation and compared for laboratory rodents and their wild ancestors. An array of tasks, suitable for use with pharmacological and experimental manipulations, is available for analysis of both aggression and defense. These developments should produce a firm basis for research using animal models to analyze a broad array of aggression-related phenomena, including systematic approaches to understanding the normal antecedents and consequences of each of several differentiable types of aggressive behavior. Despite this strong empirical and analytic background, laboratory animal aggression research has been in a period of decline, spanning several decades, relative to comparable research focusing on areas such as sexual behavior or stress. Problems that may have contributed to the relative neglect of aggression research include confusion about the interpretation of different tasks for eliciting aggression; difficulties and labor intensiveness of observational measures needed for an adequate differentiation of offensive and defensive behaviors; analytic difficulties stemming from the sensitivity of offensive aggression to the inhibitory effects of fear or defensiveness; lack of a clear relationship between categories of aggressive behavior as defined in animal studies and those used in human aggression research; and

  8. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  9. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  10. Long term outcome of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a short weekly chemotherapy regimen (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, vincristine, and prednisone) and involved field radiotherapy: result of a Gruppo Italiano Multiregionale per lo Studio dei Linfomi e Leucenie (GIMURELL) study.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Maria Giuseppina; Mamusa, Angela Maria; Vitolo, Umberto; Freilone R, Roberto; Dessalvi, Paolo; Orsucci, Lorella; Tonso, Anna; Levis, Alessandro; Liberati, Marina; Lay, Giancarlo; Angelucci, Emanuele

    2009-09-01

    Recently, management of limited stage diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) is trending toward a low intensity chemotherapy approach. Since 1993 we have used a brief weekly (6 weeks) chemotherapy scheme (Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Bleomycin, Vincristine, and Prednisone = ACOP-B) followed by involved field radiotherapy in 207 consecutive patients with well defined localized DLCL without age limit (median 57 years, range 18-85). Treatment was completed as designed in 183 of 207 patients (88%). One hundred and ninety-nine patients (96%) achieved complete remission. At a median follow-up of 66 months 170 patients are alive (82%), 168 of them free of disease. Twenty-nine patients experienced relapse after achieving a complete remission. Kaplan-Meier, risk of relapse was 24% after 13 years. Thirty (14.5%) patients have died, 14 (6.8%) due to lymphoma progression, one due to regimen toxicity and 15 (7.2%) from other causes while remaining in complete remission. The probability of overall survival and event free survival at 13 years was 78% (95% CI 70-87%) and 63% (95% CI 50-75), respectively. Crude rate of secondary malignancy was 5.26 /1000 person-years. The ACOP-B regimen plus involved field radiotherapy is well tolerated both short and long term and is an effective chemotherapy scheme for very well defined limited stage aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas in all age categories. PMID:19579074

  11. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  12. Polyphenols in brewed green tea inhibit prostate tumor xenograft growth by localizing to the tumor and decreasing oxidative stress and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Wang, Piwen; Said, Jonathan; Magyar, Clara; Castor, Brandon; Doan, Ngan; Tosity, Carmen; Moro, Aune; Gao, Kun; Li, Luyi; Heber, David

    2012-11-01

    It has been demonstrated in various animal models that the oral administration of green tea (GT) extracts in drinking water can inhibit tumor growth, but the effects of brewed GT on factors promoting tumor growth, including oxidant damage of DNA and protein, angiogenesis and DNA methylation, have not been tested in an animal model. To explore these potential mechanisms, brewed GT was administered instead of drinking water to male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with androgen-dependent human LAPC4 prostate cancer cell subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor volume was decreased significantly in mice consuming GT, and tumor size was significantly correlated with GT polyphenol (GTP) content in tumor tissue. There was a significant reduction in hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor protein expression. GT consumption significantly reduced oxidative DNA and protein damage in tumor tissue as determined by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio and protein carbonyl assay, respectively. Methylation is known to inhibit antioxidative enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase pi to permit reactive oxygen species promotion of tumor growth. GT inhibited tumor 5-cytosine DNA methyltransferase 1 mRNA and protein expression significantly, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth by reactivation of antioxidative enzymes. This study advances our understanding of tumor growth inhibition by brewed GT in an animal model by demonstrating tissue localization of GTPs in correlation with inhibition of tumor growth. Our results suggest that the inhibition of tumor growth is due to GTP-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis in the LAPC4 xenograft prostate tumor in SCID mice. PMID:22405694

  13. Mitochondrial localization of fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase is required for its lysine acetylation and for cellular stress resistance and respiratory growth

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shirai, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is acetylated. {yields} The mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is required for the acetylation of MnSOD. {yields} The MTS is not crucial for MnSOD activity, but is important for respiratory growth. {yields} Posttranslational regulation of MnSOD differs between budding and fission yeast. -- Abstract: Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is localized in the mitochondria and is important for oxidative stress resistance. Although transcriptional regulation of MnSOD has been relatively well studied, much less is known about the protein's posttranslational regulation. In budding yeast, MnSOD is activated after mitochondrial import by manganese ion incorporation. Here we characterize posttranslational modification of MnSOD in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast MnSOD is acetylated at the 25th lysine residue. This acetylation was diminished by deletion of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that MnSOD is acetylated after import into mitochondria. Mitochondrial localization of MnSOD is not essential for the enzyme activity, but is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and growth under respiratory conditions of fission yeast. These results suggest that, unlike the situation in budding yeast, S. pombe MnSOD is already active even before mitochondrial localization; nonetheless, mitochondrial localization is critical to allow the cell to cope with reactive oxygen species generated inside or outside of mitochondria.

  14. PiSCP1 and PiCDPK2 Localize to Peroxisomes and Are Involved in Pollen Tube Growth in Petunia Inflata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Yoon, Gyeong Mee; McCubbin, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Petunia inflata small CDPK-interacting protein 1 (PiSCP1) was identified as a pollen expressed PiCDPK1 interacting protein using the yeast two hybrid system and the interaction confirmed using pull-down and phosphorylation assays. PiSCP1 is pollen specific and shares amino acid homology with uncharacterized proteins from diverse species of higher plants, but no protein of known function. Expression of PiSCP1-GFP in vivo inhibited pollen tube growth and was shown to localize to peroxisomes in growing pollen tubes. As PiCDPK1 is plasma membrane localized, we investigated the localization of a second isoform, PiCDPK2, and show that it co-localizes to peroxisomes with PiSCP1 and that the two proteins interact in the yeast 2 hybrid interaction assay, suggesting that interaction with the latter CDPK isoform is likely the one of biological relevance. Both PiCDPK2 and PiSCP1 affect pollen tube growth, presumably by mediating peroxisome function, however how they do so is currently not clear. PMID:27137367

  15. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  16. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  17. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  18. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  19. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  20. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  1. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  2. Mitochondrial localization, ELK-1 transcriptional regulation and Growth inhibitory functions of BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maniccia, Anna W; Lewis, Catherine; Begum, Nurjahan; Xu, Jingyao; Cui, Jianqi; Chipitsyna, Galina; Aysola, Kartik; Reddy, Vaishali; Bhat, Ganapathy; Fujimura, Yasuo; Henderson, Beric; Reddy, E. Shyam P.; Rao, Veena N.

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in families with breast and ovarian cancer. Several BRCA1 splice variants are found in different tissues, but their subcellular localization and functions are poorly understood at the moment. We previously described BRCA1 splice variant BRCA1a to induce apoptosis and function as a tumor suppressor of triple negative breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study we have analyzed the function of BRCA1 isoforms (BRCA1a and BRCA1b) and compared them to the wild type BRCA1 protein using several criteria like studying expression in normal and tumor cells by RNase protection assays, sub cellular localization/fractionation by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis, transcription regulation of biological relevant proteins and growth suppression in breast cancer cells. We are demonstrating for the first time that ectopically expressed GFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a, and BRCA1b proteins are localized to the mitochondria, repress ELK-1 transcriptional activity and possess antiproliferative activity on breast cancer cells. These results suggest that the exon 9,10 and 11 sequences (aa 263 – 1365) which contain two nuclear localization signals, p53, Rb, c-Myc, γ- tubulin, Stat, Rad 51, Rad 50 binding domains, angiopoietin-1 repression domain are not absolutely required for mitochondrial localization and growth suppressor function of these proteins. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer, we can speculate that the mitochondrial localization of BRCA1 proteins may be functionally significant in regulating both the mitochondrial DNA damage as well as apoptotic activity of BRCA1 proteins and mislocalization causes cancer. PMID:19170108

  3. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  4. The neurobiology of abnormal manifestations of aggression--a review of hypothalamic mechanisms in cats, rodents, and humans.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    Aggression research was for long dominated by the assumption that aggression-related psychopathologies result from the excessive activation of aggression-promoting brain mechanisms. This assumption was recently challenged by findings with models of aggression that mimic etiological factors of aggression-related psychopathologies. Subjects submitted to such procedures show abnormal attack features (mismatch between provocation and response, disregard of species-specific rules, and insensitivity toward the social signals of opponents). We review here 12 such laboratory models and the available human findings on the neural background of abnormal aggression. We focus on the hypothalamus, a region tightly involved in the execution of attacks. Data show that the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling attacks (general activation levels, local serotonin, vasopressin, substance P, glutamate, GABA, and dopamine neurotransmission) undergo etiological factor-dependent changes. Findings suggest that the emotional component of attacks differentiates two basic types of hypothalamic mechanisms. Aggression associated with increased arousal (emotional/reactive aggression) is paralleled by increased mediobasal hypothalamic activation, increased hypothalamic vasopressinergic, but diminished hypothalamic serotonergic neurotransmission. In aggression models associated with low arousal (unemotional/proactive aggression), the lateral but not the mediobasal hypothalamus is over-activated. In addition, the anti-aggressive effect of serotonergic neurotransmission is lost and paradoxical changes were noticed in vasopressinergic neurotransmission. We conclude that there is no single 'neurobiological road' to abnormal aggression: the neural background shows qualitative, etiological factor-dependent differences. Findings obtained with different models should be viewed as alternative mechanisms rather than conflicting data. The relevance of these findings for understanding and treating of aggression

  5. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.

  6. Daily Associations among Anger Experience and Intimate Partner Aggression within Aggressive and Nonaggressive Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate partner aggression using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner aggression perpetration among male and female participants as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both Actor and Partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily Partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among females who reported high anger and males, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in Actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive females. Previously aggressive males and females consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high Actor anger experience. Results emphasize the importance of both Actor and Partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

  7. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605

  8. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  9. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  10. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  11. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  12. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  13. Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

  14. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  15. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  16. Hypoglycemia and aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Benton, D

    1988-08-01

    The popular notion that a tendency to develop low levels of blood glucose is the cause of a range of behavioral problems is reviewed. It is concluded that it is inappropriate to use the glucose tolerance test as a test of the tendency to develop reactive hypoglycemia. Instead, a meal tolerance test, in which glucose is administered in the presence of fat and protein, should be the method of choice. The use of a meal tolerance test strongly suggests that reactive hypoglycemia rarely results, except in a few exceptional individuals. Three situations are described in which a correlation between a tendency to develop moderately low levels of blood glucose during a glucose tolerance test (not hypoglycemic values) and the tendency to act aggressively have been reported. The significance of these data is unclear but several possible mechanisms by which glucose may influence behavior are discussed. PMID:3053477

  17. Pediatric aggressive giant cell granuloma of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung Tae; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a non-neoplastic osseous proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. Although a benign disease process, GCG can be locally destructive. It is extremely rare to have a pediatric case of GCG occurring in the nasal cavity with intracranial invasion. Presentation of case We report a case of an aggressive and recurrent giant cell granuloma with intracranial invasion in a 10 years old female patient which was completely excised with endoscopic craniofacial resection. Discussion A literature review on pathogenesis, diagnosis and management is also performed. Conclusion The most common treatment for giant cell granuloma is surgery, ranging from simple curettage to resection. However, it must be completely excised in cases of aggressive and extensive lesion because of the high recurrence rate after incomplete removal. PMID:26433924

  18. Apical sterol-rich membranes are essential for localizing cell end markers that determine growth directionality in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Norio; Higashitsuji, Yuhei; Konzack, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, hyphal extension depends on the continuous delivery of vesicles to the growing tip. Here, we describe the identification of two cell end marker proteins, TeaA and TeaR, in Aspergillus nidulans, corresponding to Tea1 and Mod5 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Deletion of teaA or teaR caused zig-zag-growing and meandering hyphae, respectively. The Kelch-repeat protein TeaA, the putatively prenylated TeaR protein, and the formin SepA were highly concentrated in the Spitzenkörper, a vesicle transit station at the tip, and localized along the tip membrane. TeaA localization at tips depended on microtubules, and TeaA was required for microtuble convergence in the hyphal apex. The CENP-E family kinesin KipA was necessary for proper localization of TeaA and TeaR, but not for their transportation. TeaA and TeaR localization were interdependent. TeaA interacted in vivo with TeaR, and TeaA colocalized with SepA. Sterol-rich membrane domains localized at the tip in teaA and teaR mutants like in wild type, and filipin treatment caused mislocalization of both proteins. This suggests that sterol-rich membrane domains determine cell end factor destinations and thereby polarized growth. PMID:18003978

  19. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  20. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  1. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  2. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  3. Students' Attitude to Aggression in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettenborn, Harry; Lautsch, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 2,553 students' attitudes toward aggression in schools. Finds differentiated results based on demographic data and with the students' personal involvement in the aggressive acts as either the perpetrator or victim. Discusses practical consequences of the study for schools. (CFR)

  4. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  5. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  6. School-Based Aggression Replacement Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Becky Sue; Striepling-Goldstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a potent K-12 intervention that responds to many of the developmental and natural needs of aggressive and antisocial students. Woven into the curriculum preventatively or as a stand-alone course in response to an antisocial school climate, ART facilitates the learning necessary to reach and provide lasting…

  7. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  8. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  9. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  10. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  11. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  12. The Prevention of Social Aggression among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…

  13. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  14. Intercommunity differences in aggression among Zapotec children.

    PubMed

    Fry, D P

    1988-08-01

    Patterns of play aggression and serious aggression were compared in 2 neighboring Zapotec Indian communities that have different levels of adult violence. Social learning theory provided the basis for predicting that levels of agonistic behavior among children would parallel levels of violence among adults. Ethological methods were employed to observe 3-8-year-old children (N = 48). An examination of physical aggression and nonphysical threatening showed that agonism generally was more severe among the children of the more aggressive community. That is, children from the more aggressive community engaged in more actual fighting (p = .005) and play fighting (p = .0001) than their counterparts from the other community. On the other hand, children from the less aggressive community used more noncontact threatening than the children from the more aggressive community (p = .0001). These findings suggest that community differences in levels of violence are perpetuated as Zapotec children learn community-appropriate patterns for expressing aggression and continue to express these patterns as adults. Possible functions of play fighting are also discussed. PMID:3168610

  15. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  16. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe.

  17. The Cost of Male Aggression and Polygyny in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Leah R.; González-Suárez, Manuela; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Young, Julie K.; Sabo, John L.

    2010-01-01

    In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June–August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and viability. By using 4 years of data on behavior and demography of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we found that male behavior and spatial dynamics—aggression and territory size—are significantly related to female fecundity. Higher rates of male aggression and larger territory sizes were associated with lower estimates of female fecundity within the same year. Female aggression was significantly and positively related to fecundity both within the same year as the behavior was measured and in the following year. These results indicate that while male aggression and defense of territories may increase male fecundity, such interactions may cause a reduction in the overall population growth rate by lowering female fecundity. Females may attempt to offset male-related reductions in female fecundity by increasing their own aggression—perhaps to defend pups from incidental injury or mortality. Thus in polygynous mating systems, male aggression may increase male fitness at the cost of female fitness and overall population viability. PMID:20808931

  18. The Herschel exploitation of local galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) - V. Strengthening the case for substantial interstellar grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, L.; Gomez, H. L.; Andersen, A. C.; Smith, M. W. L.; De Looze, I.; Baes, M.; Viaene, S.; Gentile, G.; Fritz, J.; Spinoglio, L.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the implications of the distributions of dust and metals in the disc of M31. We derive mean radial dust distributions using a dust map created from Herschel images of M31 sampling the entire far-infrared peak. Modified blackbodies are fit to approximately 4000 pixels with a varying, as well as a fixed, dust emissivity index (β). An overall metal distribution is also derived using data collected from the literature. We use a simple analytical model of the evolution of the dust in a galaxy with dust contributed by stellar sources and interstellar grain growth, and fit this model to the radial dust-to-metals distribution across the galaxy. Our analysis shows that the dust-to-gas gradient in M31 is steeper than the metallicity gradient, suggesting interstellar dust growth is (or has been) important in M31. We argue that M31 helps build a case for cosmic dust in galaxies being the result of substantial interstellar grain growth, while the net dust production from stars may be limited. We note, however, that the efficiency of dust production in stars, e.g. in supernovae ejecta and/or stellar atmospheres, and grain destruction in the interstellar medium may be degenerate in our simple model. We can conclude that interstellar grain growth by accretion is likely at least as important as stellar dust production channels in building the cosmic dust component in M31.

  19. Role of dietary phytochemicals in modulating local innate immunity and as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics to reduce inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the EU and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutiny as consumer...

  20. Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change: A Workshop for State and Local Decision-Makers--Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    From November 8/9, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted a workshop titled "Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change." The Office of Research and Development (ORD) organized the meeting, which was held in Research Triangle Park, Nort...

  1. Inter- and intraspecific aggression in the invasive longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is a highly invasive species that can aggressively displace other ant species. We conducted laboratory assays to examine interspecies aggression of A. gracilipes versus 15 sympatric ant species found in the urban environment and disturbed habitat in Malaysia: Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Pheidole parva Mayr, Crematogaster sp., Solenopsis geminata (F.), Tapinoma indicum (Forel), Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.), Technomyrmnex butteli Forel, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), Oecophylla smaragdina (F), Camponotus sp., and Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon). A. gracilipes showed aggressive behavior toward all opponent species, except the smallest M. orientale. Opponent species size (body size, head width, and mandible width) was significantly correlated with A. gracilipes aggression level and mortality rate. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. gracilipes aggression level and the mortality of the opponent species. The results suggest that invasive populations of A. gracilipes would have the greatest impact on larger ant species. In addition, we examined the intraspecific aggression of A. gracilipes. We found that A. gracilipes from different localities in Malaysia showed intraspecific aggression toward one another. This finding differs from the results of studies conducted in Christmas Island earlier. Differences in the genetic variability among populations may explain these differing results. PMID:21061979

  2. The biguanides metformin and phenformin inhibit angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells.

    PubMed

    Orecchioni, Stefania; Reggiani, Francesca; Talarico, Giovanna; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Noonan, Douglas M; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Albini, Adriana; Bertolini, Francesco

    2015-03-15

    The human white adipose tissue (WAT) contains progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer (BC) angiogenesis, local and metastatic progression. The biguanide Metformin (Met), commonly used for Type 2 diabetes, might have activity against BC and was found to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We studied Met and another biguanide, phenformin (Phe), in vitro and in vivo in BC models. In vitro, biguanides activated AMPK, inhibited Complex 1 of the respiratory chain and induced apoptosis of BC and WAT endothelial cells. In coculture, biguanides inhibited the production of several angiogenic proteins. In vivo, biguanides inhibited local and metastatic growth of triple negative and HER2+ BC in immune-competent and immune-deficient mice orthotopically injected with BC. Biguanides inhibited local and metastatic BC growth in a genetically engineered murine model model of HER2+ BC. In vivo, biguanides increased pimonidazole binding (but not HIF-1 expression) of WAT progenitors, reduced tumor microvessel density and altered the vascular pericyte/endothelial cell ratio, so that cancer vessels displayed a dysplastic phenotype. Phe was significantly more active than Met both in vitro and in vivo. Considering their safety profile, biguanides deserve to be further investigated for BC prevention in high-risk subjects, in combination with chemo and/or targeted therapy and/or as post-therapy consolidation or maintenance therapy for the prevention of BC recurrence. PMID:25196138

  3. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    PubMed

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22909910

  4. Correlates and outcomes associated with aggression and victimization among elementary-school children in a low-income urban context.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-02-01

    Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This study examined the correlates, interplay, and consequences of aggression and victimization among children in a low-income urban context. Data were collected in the spring of grades 1, 2, and 3. The final sample included 333 children (59.5 % girls, M = 6.46 years). Each year, children completed sociometric and peer assessments in their classrooms. A cross-lagged panel model with extended effects showed that aggression was relatively stable over time, whereas victimization was less stable. Aggression and victimization became increasingly less correlated over time. Further, early victimization negatively predicted later aggression for boys, but positively for girls. Growth curve modeling showed that initial aggression and victimization were associated with initial behavioral and relational problems. Early aggression, but not victimization, predicted relative stable or increasing in behavioral and relational problems over time. The results underscore the importance of a developmental perspective on early childhood aggression and victimization in high-risk contexts, in order to understand their implications for adjustment in adolescence. PMID:23196376

  5. Basosquamous carcinoma: is it an aggressive tumor?

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulug; Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Vardar, Enver

    2015-04-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumour that is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases. This impression has been perpetuated in the literature, despite limited scientific data and conflicting results of some authors. This present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of this tumour and follow-up of a series of basosquamous carcinoma. Basosquamous carcinoma patients who underwent surgical excision between January 2000 and February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Their medical files were reviewed and the corresponding routinely stained sections (with hematoxylin-eosin) were re-evaluated by two pathologists. Thirty-five patients with basosquamous carcinoma were operated on in this period. Most tumurs were located in the head and neck area (94%), and the mean age of the patients was 69.8 years. Margin involvements were seen in 11 patients (31.4%) and all of them underwent re-excision. There was only one local recurrence. There was neither regional lymph node nor distant metastasis in this series. The recurrence rate of basosquamous carcinoma is found as 4%, lower than that of most other similar studies. Further pathologic studies are needed to better classify basosquamous carcinoma and to increase consistency between the results of studies. Surgical excision and regular follow-up are considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:25139415

  6. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. PMID:26075351

  7. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    PubMed

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:17444525

  8. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22122549

  9. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  10. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  11. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  12. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  13. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics.

  14. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1–100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  15. Exploration of the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods by the localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Li, Yujie; Ling, Yunyang; Lai, Yangwei; Wu, Chuanliu; Zhao, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin silica coating (UTSC) has emerged as an effective way to improve the compatibility and stability of nanoparticles without attenuating their intrinsic optical properties. Exploration strategies to probe the growth process of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of nanoparticles would represent a valuable innovation that would benefit the development of ultrathin silica coated nanoparticles and their relevant applications. In this work, we report a unique, very effective and straightforward strategy for probing the growth of ultrathin silica shells on the surface of gold nanorods (Au NRs), which exploits the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a reporting signal. The thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on the surface of Au NRs can be quantitatively measured and predicted in the range of 0.5-3.5 nm. It is demonstrated that the LSPR shift accurately reflects the real-time change in the thickness of the ultrathin silica shells on Au NRs during the growth process. By using the developed strategy, we further analyze the growth of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs via feeding of Na2SiO3 in a stepwise manner. The responsiveness analysis of LSPR also provides important insight into the shielding effect of UTSC on the surface of Au NRs that is not accessible with conventional strategies. This LSPR-based strategy permits exploration of the surface-mediated sol-gel reactions of silica from a new point of view.

  16. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-09-30

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm{sup −1} were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  17. Aggressive fibromatosis of the leg and sacrococcygeal region: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fuwen; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Guoru; Wang, Qiqi; Yun, Bo; Han, Yaoguang; Deng, Rui; Wu, Linqing; Wang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare soft tissue tumor that composes of myofibroblasts that arise from musculoaponeurotic structures. It usually affects the abdominal wall but may be also found in other less common sites including the head and neck, submucosa of the oral cavity, spinal, haunch and limbs, especially, the limbs and sacrococcygeal region are rare locations. We described two cases of aggressive fibromatosis. One was 3-year-old girl with aggressive fibromatosis arising from the right leg region. The other was 20-year-old female arising from in the sacrococcygeal region. They were resected with satisfied results. Pathological examination showed that they were composed of fibroblasts, fibrocytes and bundles of collagen fiber. The aggressive fibromatosis, although rare, should be differentiated from some other soft tissue tumors with similar histological features and different localizations of intra-abdominal, abdominal wall and extra-abdominal. PMID:25755801

  18. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. PMID:25644367

  19. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305

  20. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  1. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  2. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  3. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  4. An examination of social cognitive theory with differences among sexually aggressive, physically aggressive and nonaggressive children in state care.

    PubMed

    Burton, D L

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of boys in Washington State care (37 sexually aggressive, 17 physically aggressive, and 15 nonaggressive) are compared on measures of behavior and cognition. Bandura's Social Cognition theory is offered as a possible explanation for sexual aggression by children. Two theory-based hypothesis are tested. First, are sexually aggressive children cognitively deficient when compared to the other groups? Second, do the sexually aggressive children have cognitive distortions about their behavior and about sex? Similarities were found in the aggressive and sexually aggressive groups on several measures. Physically aggressive boys were found to have some sexual behavior problems. Sexually aggressive boys were also found to be physically aggressive. Physically aggressive boys were found to have the least severe and least frequent victimization history. No support was found for the first hypothesis, while some evidence of cognitive distortions regarding both social behavior and sex was found in the sexually aggressive children. Discussion and some implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:10418769

  5. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  6. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  7. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  8. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  9. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  10. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits.

    PubMed

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur. PMID:24697384

  11. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur.

  12. Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy: A Rare Condition, a Common Misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento-Gonçalves, I.; Ramada, D.; Amaro, T.; Tiago-Silva, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. Although benign in the majority of the cases, these neoplasms usually present a locally infiltrative nature and high rates of recurrence. Due to its rarity, misdiagnosis is a common problem. Case Presentation. We present one case of aggressive angiomyxoma in a 25-year-old pregnant woman. The patient presented with a large vaginal mass that was interpreted as a vaginal cyst. We performed surgical resection of the neoplasm and the correct diagnosis was only achieved after histological examination. With this case, we highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients with genital and perineal masses of unknown origin and the impact of a correct preoperative diagnosis in patient's management and follow-up. Conclusion. Although aggressive angiomyxoma is rare, it should be considered in differential diagnosis of pelviperineal masses in young women. Its positivity to estrogen and progesterone receptors can justify enlargement and recurrence during pregnancy, although few cases are reported. Early recognition demands high index of suspicion for both gynaecologists and pathologists. Wide surgical excision with tumor free margins is the basis of curative treatment. Adjuvant therapy may be necessary for residual or recurrent tumors. Long-term follow-up is recommended. PMID:27274877

  13. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  14. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression. PMID:23398093

  15. Mild hypoglycaemia and questionnaire measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Kumari, N; Brain, P F

    1982-01-01

    A glucose-tolerance test was given to a group of males who did not have a history involving aggressive behaviour or abnormal glucose metabolism. In these subjects a significant correlation was found between the tendency to become mildly hypoglycaemic and scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study. A factor analysis of the data found that both scores on the aggression questionnaires and the measure of hypoglycaemia were similarly weighted. These results extent to normal subjects the finding that there is a relationship between hypoglycaemia and aggressiveness, a result previously found in psychiatric patients. PMID:7104424

  16. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  17. Changes in gene expression and cellular localization of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in the ovaries during ovary development of the yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kentaro; Gen, Koichiro; Izumida, Daisuke; Kazeto, Yukinori; Hotta, Takuro; Takashi, Toshinori; Aono, Hideaki; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    A method of controlling the somatic growth and reproduction of yellowtail fish (Seriola quinqueradiata) is needed in order to establish methods for the efficient aquaculture production of the species. However, little information about the hormonal interactions between somatic growth and reproduction is available for marine teleosts. There is accumulating evidence that insulin-like growth factor (IGF), a major hormone related somatic growth, plays an important role in fish reproduction. As the first step toward understanding the physiological role of IGF in the development of yellowtail ovaries, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of IGF-1 and IGF-2 in the ovary during development. We histologically classified the maturity of two-year-old females with ovaries at various developmental stages into the perinucleolar (Pn), yolk vesicle (Yv), primary yolk (Py), secondary yolk and tertiary yolk (Ty) stages, according to the most advanced type of oocyte present. The IGF-1 gene expression showed constitutively high levels at the different developmental stages, although IGF-1 mRNA levels tended to increase from the Py to the Ty stage with vitellogenesis, reaching maximum levels during the Ty stage. The IGF-2 mRNA levels increased as ovarian development advanced. Using immunohistochemistry methods, immunoreactive IGF-1 was mainly detected in the theca cells of ovarian follicles during late secondary oocyte growth, and in part of the granulosa cells of Ty stage oocytes. IGF-2 immunoreactivity was observed in all granulosa cells in layer in Ty stage oocytes. These results indicate that follicular IGFs may be involved in yellowtail reproduction via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. PMID:26764214

  18. Analysis of multiple genetic polymorphisms in aggressive- and slow-growing abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Duellman, Tyler; Warren, Christopher L.; Matsumura, Jon; Yang, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) suggests that some remain slow in growth rate while many develop a more accelerated growth rate reaching a threshold for intervention. We hypothesized that different mechanisms are responsible for AAA that remain slow-growth and never become actionable versus the aggressive-AAA that require intervention may be reflected by distinct associations with genetic polymorphisms. Methods 168 control and 141 AAA subjects all with ultrasound or CT imaging studies covering about 5 years were identified and the AAA growth rate determined from the serial imaging data. Genetic polymorphisms all previously reported as showing significant correlation with AAA: angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) (rs5186), interleukin-10 (IL-10) (rs1800896), methyl-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (rs1801133), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (rs1466535), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (rs1799752) and several MMP9 SNPs with functional effects on the expression or function were determined by analysis of the genomic DNA. Results AAA subjects were classified as slow-growth rate- (<3.25 mm /yr; n=81) vs. aggressive-AAA (growth rate >3.25 mm /yr, those presenting with a rupture, or those with maximal aortic diameter >5.5 cm (male) or >5.0 cm (female); n=60) and discriminating confounds between the groups identified by logistic regression. Analyses identified MMP9 p-2502 SNP (P=0.029, OR=0.54 (0.31-0.94)) as a significant confound discriminating between control- vs. slow-growth AAA, MMP-9 D165N (P=0.035) and LRP1 (P=0.034) between control vs. aggressive-AAA, and MTHFR (P=0.048, OR=2.99 (1.01-8.86)), MMP9 p-2502 (P=0.037, OR=2.19 (1.05-4.58), and LRP1 (P=0.046, OR= 4.96 (1.03-23.9)) as the statistically significant confounds distinguishing slow- vs. aggressive-AAA. Conclusion Logistic regression identified different genetic confounds for the slow-growth rate-and aggressive-AAA indicating a potential for different

  19. Cellular localization of the activated EGFR determines its effect on cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, Dustin C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2008-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates diverse cell functions that are dependent upon cell type, the presence of downstream effectors, and receptor density. In addition to activating biochemical pathways, ligand stimulation causes the EGFR to enter the cell via clathrin-coated pits. Endocytic trafficking influences receptor signaling by controlling the duration of EGFR phosphorylation and coordinating the receptor's association with downstream effectors. To better understand the individual contributions of cell surface and cytosolic EGFRs on cell physiology, we used EGF that was conjugated to 900 nm polystyrene beads (EGF-beads). EGF-beads can stimulate the EGFR and retain the activated receptor at the plasma membrane. In MDA-MB-468 cells, a breast cancer cell line that over-expresses the EGFR, only internalized, activated EGFRs stimulate caspase-3 and induce cell death. Conversely, signaling cascades triggered from activated EGFR retained at the cell surface inhibit caspase-3 and promote cell proliferation. Thus, through endocytosis, the activated EGFR can differentially regulate cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells.

  20. LASP1-S100A11 axis promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness by modulating TGFβ/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ya; Shao, Ziyun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Feifei; Luo, Yuhao; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Yanqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    LIM and SH3 protein 1(LASP1) can promote colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that LASP1 interacts with S100 calcium binding protein A11(S100A11) and enhances its expression in CRC. LASP1-S100A11 axis is essential for TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell aggressive phenotype. Clinically, S100A11 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of CRC cells. Overexpression of S100A11 in cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular compartments is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Introduction of cytoplasmic and nuclear S100A11 promotes aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro as well as growth and metastasis of CRC xenografts, whereas suppressing S100A11 abrogates these effects. Furthermore, we identify flotillin-1 (FLOT1) and histone H1 as downstream factors for cytoplasmic and nuclear pathway of S100A11, which are required for LASP1-S100A11 axis-mediated EMT and CRC progression. These findings indicate S100A11, combined with LASP1, plays a critical role in promoting CRC metastasis via its subcellular effectors, FLOT1 and histone H1. PMID:27181092

  1. LASP1-S100A11 axis promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness by modulating TGFβ/Smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya; Shao, Ziyun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Feifei; Luo, Yuhao; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Yanqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    LIM and SH3 protein 1(LASP1) can promote colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that LASP1 interacts with S100 calcium binding protein A11(S100A11) and enhances its expression in CRC. LASP1-S100A11 axis is essential for TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell aggressive phenotype. Clinically, S100A11 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of CRC cells. Overexpression of S100A11 in cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular compartments is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Introduction of cytoplasmic and nuclear S100A11 promotes aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro as well as growth and metastasis of CRC xenografts, whereas suppressing S100A11 abrogates these effects. Furthermore, we identify flotillin-1 (FLOT1) and histone H1 as downstream factors for cytoplasmic and nuclear pathway of S100A11, which are required for LASP1-S100A11 axis-mediated EMT and CRC progression. These findings indicate S100A11, combined with LASP1, plays a critical role in promoting CRC metastasis via its subcellular effectors, FLOT1 and histone H1. PMID:27181092

  2. DNMT3B7 Expression Promotes Tumor Progression to a More Aggressive Phenotype in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brambert, Patrick R.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Hameed, Rabia; Desai, Charmi V.; Calafiore, Gianfranco; Godley, Lucy A.; Raimondi, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, have been shown to promote breast cancer progression. However, the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation is not well understood. We have previously identified an aberrant splice form of a DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B7, expressed in virtually all cancer cell lines but at very low levels in normal cells. Furthermore, aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells have been shown to express increased levels of DNMT3B7 compared to poorly invasive MCF-7 cells, indicating that DNMT3B7 may have a role in promoting a more invasive phenotype. Using data gathered from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that DNMT3B7 expression is increased in breast cancer patient tissues compared to normal tissue. To determine the mechanism by which DNMT3B7 was functioning in breast cancer cells, two poorly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T-47D, were stably transfected with a DNMT3B7 expression construct. Expression of DNMT3B7 led to hypermethylation and down-regulation of E-cadherin, altered localization of β-catenin, as well as increased adhesion turnover, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. The novel results presented in this study suggest a role for DNMT3B7 in the progression of breast cancer to a more aggressive state and the potential for future development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25607950

  3. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Goyal, Sharad; Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin

  4. Mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index: A potential biomarker to predict progression from indolent to aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vayalil, Praveen K.; Landar, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is influenced by alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and changes in the microenvironment occurring during tumorigenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial function will be stably and dynamically altered at each stage of the prostate tumor development. We tested this hypothesis in RWPE-1 cells and its tumorigenic clones with progressive malignant characteristics (RWPE-1 < WPE-NA22 < WPE-NB14 < WPE-NB11 < WPE-NB26) using high-throughput respirometry. Our studies demonstrate that mitochondrial content do not change with increasing malignancy. In premalignant cells (WPE-NA22 and WPE-NB14), OXPHOS is elevated in presence of glucose or glutamine alone or in combination compared to RWPE-1 cells and decreases with increasing malignancy. Glutamine maintained higher OXPHOS than glucose and suggests that it may be an important substrate for the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells. Glycolysis significantly increases with malignancy and follow a classical Warburg phenomenon. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is significantly lower in tumorigenic clones and invasive WPE-NB26 does not utilize FAO at all. In this paper, we introduce for the first time the mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index (MOBI), a mathematical representation of oncobioenergetic profile of a cancer cell, which increases significantly upon transformation into localized premalignant form and rapidly falls below the normal as they become aggressive in prostate tumorigenesis. We have validated this in five prostate cancer cell lines and MOBI appears to be not related to androgen dependence or mitochondrial content, but rather dependent on the stage of the cancer. Altogether, we propose that MOBI could be a potential biomarker to distinguish aggressive cancer from that of indolent disease. PMID:26515588

  5. Alcohol Expectancies and Evaluations of Aggression in Alcohol-Related Intimate-Partner Verbal and Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191

  6. Effect of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on Growth and Biochemical Composition of a Local Isolate of Nostoc calcicola.

    PubMed

    Khajepour, Fateme; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Rasoul; Markou, Giorgos

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensity (21, 42, and 63 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiod (8:16, 12:12, and 16:8 h light/dark) on the biomass production and its biochemical composition (total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC), total protein, and carbohydrates) of a local isolate of Nostoc calcicola. The results revealed that N. calcicola prefers dim light; however, the most of the levels of light intensity and photoperiod investigated did not have a significant impact on biomass production. Increasing light intensity biomass content of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein decreased, while total carotenoids and carbohydrate increased. The same behavior was observed also when light duration (photoperiod) increased. The interaction effect of increasing light intensity and photoperiod resulted in an increase of carbohydrate and total carotenoids, and to the decrease of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein content. The results indicate that varying the light regime, it is capable to manipulate the biochemical composition of the local isolate of N. calcicola, producing either valuable phycobiliproteins or proteins under low light intensity and shorter photoperiods, or producing carbohydrates and carotenoids under higher light intensities and longer photoperiods. PMID:26100389

  7. AtAGP18 is localized at the plasma membrane and functions in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhu; Yang, Jie; Showalter, Allan M

    2011-04-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a family of highly glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). AtAGP17, 18 and 19 comprise the lysine-rich classical AGP subfamily in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of GFP-AtAGP17/18/19 fusion proteins in Arabidopsis revealed localization of the fusion proteins on the plant cell surface of different organs. Subcellular localization of the fusion proteins at the plasma membrane was further determined by plasmolysis of leaf trichome cells. To elucidate AtAGP17/18/19 function(s), these AGPs were expressed without the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag under the control of 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. In contrast to AtAGP17/AtAGP19 overexpressors which showed phenotypes identical to wild-type plants, AtAGP18 overexpressors displayed several phenotypes distinct from wild-type plants. Specifically, these overexpressors had smaller rosettes and shorter stems and roots, produced more branches and had less viable seeds. Moreover, these AtAGP18 overexpressors exhibited similar phenotypes to tomato LeAGP-1 overexpressors, suggesting these two AGP genes may have similar function(s) in Arabidopsis and tomato. PMID:21165646

  8. Uterine adenolipoleiomyoma: a tumor with potential of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    An unusual uterine adenolipoleiomyoma forming intramural and subserosal masses and recurring within 16 months in the form of huge coalescent uterine masses is described. Histology showed the mass to be composed of benign-appearing smooth muscle, mature adipose tissue, and bland endocervical-type glands. The recurrent adenolipoleiomyoma contained, in addition, benign-appearing endometrial-type glands and stroma and showed small foci of atypically proliferating endocervical-type epithelium. This is the fourth report of adenolipoleiomyoma within the uterus, the second with an intramural location, and the first with an aggressive behavior in the form of massive local recurrence. PMID:18317215

  9. The Essential Phosphoinositide Kinase MSS-4 Is Required for Polar Hyphal Morphogenesis, Localizing to Sites of Growth and Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P2. In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P2 localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P2 that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N. crassa MSS-4

  10. The Rho-GEF Rom2p Localizes to Sites of Polarized Cell Growth and Participates in Cytoskeletal Functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Brendan D.; Padmanabha, Ramesh; Snyder, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Rom2p is a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rho1p and Rho2p GTPases; Rho proteins have been implicated in control of actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. ROM2 and RHO2 were identified in a screen for high-copy number suppressors of cik1Δ, a mutant defective in microtubule-based processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A Rom2p::3XHA fusion protein localizes to sites of polarized cell growth, including incipient bud sites, tips of small buds, and tips of mating projections. Disruption of ROM2 results in temperature-sensitive growth defects at 11°C and 37°C. rom2Δ cells exhibit morphological defects. At permissive temperatures, rom2Δ cells often form elongated buds and fail to form normal mating projections after exposure to pheromone; at the restrictive temperature, small budded cells accumulate. High-copy number plasmids containing either ROM2 or RHO2 suppress the temperature-sensitive growth defects of cik1Δ and kar3Δ strains. KAR3 encodes a kinesin-related protein that interacts with Cik1p. Furthermore, rom2Δ strains exhibit increased sensitivity to the microtubule depolymerizing drug benomyl. These results suggest a role for Rom2p in both polarized morphogenesis and functions of the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:9348527

  11. Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, C.; Smith, E. G.; Oswald, F.; Burt, J.; Tchernov, D.; Wiedenmann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are a prevalent group of host pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colours of many reef-building corals. They have been suggested to contribute to the striking coloration changes of different corals species in response to wounding and infestation with epibionts/parasites. In order to elucidate the physiological processes underlying the potentially disease-related colour changes, we have analysed spatial and temporal expression patterns of GFP-like proteins and other biomarkers in corals from the Red Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf and Fiji both in their natural habitat and under specific laboratory conditions. The expression of distinct GFP-like proteins and the growth marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen was upregulated in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies as well as in disturbed colony parts. Furthermore, phenoloxidase activity increased in these proliferating tissues. It is thus demonstrated that locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals and, moreover, these processes can be detected utilizing the excellent biomarker properties of GFP-like proteins. Finally, the results of this work suggest an additional vulnerability of corals in predicted future scenarios of increased ocean acidification, warming and eutrophication that are anticipated to reduce coral growth capacity.

  12. Effects of deindividuating situational cues and aggressive models on subjective deindividuation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Prentice-Dunn, S; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    This experiment demonstrated that a subjective state of deindividuation mediates the effect of deindividuating situational cues on aggression displayed by small groups (n = 4) of coacting aggressors. The deindividuated state was composed of two factors, Self-Awareness and Altered Experiencing, both of which had a causal influence on aggressive behavior. These data are interpreted in terms of deindividuation theories which assume that certain input variables reduce self-awareness and concern about social evaluation and thereby weaken the restraints against expressing antisocial behavior. Also as predicted, compared with a no-model control condition, a high-aggressive model disinhibited overt displays of aggression, whereas a low-aggressive model inhibited aggression among both individuated and deindividuated group members. PMID:7411390

  13. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  14. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  15. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  16. mRNAs and Protein Synthetic Machinery Localize into Regenerating Spinal Cord Axons When They Are Provided a Substrate That Supports Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kalinski, Ashley L.; Sachdeva, Rahul; Gomes, Cynthia; Lee, Seung Joon; Shah, Zalak; Houle, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Although intra-axonal protein synthesis is well recognized in cultured neurons and during development in vivo, there have been few reports of mRNA localization and/or intra-axonal translation in mature CNS axons. Indeed, previous work indicated that mature CNS axons contain much lower quantities of translational machinery than PNS axons, leading to the conclusion that the capacity for intra-axonal protein synthesis is linked to the intrinsic capacity of a neuron for regeneration, with mature CNS neurons showing much less growth after injury than PNS neurons. However, when regeneration by CNS axons is facilitated, it is not known whether the intra-axonal content of translational machinery changes or whether mRNAs localize into these axons. Here, we have used a peripheral nerve segment grafted into the transected spinal cord of adult rats as a supportive environment for regeneration by ascending spinal axons. By quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with immunofluorescence to unambiguously distinguish intra-axonal mRNAs, we show that regenerating spinal cord axons contain β-actin, GAP-43, Neuritin, Reg3a, Hamp, and Importin β1 mRNAs. These axons also contain 5S rRNA, phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, eIF2α translation factor, and 4EBP1 translation factor inhibitory protein. Different levels of these mRNAs in CNS axons from regenerating PNS axons may relate to differences in the growth capacity of these neurons, although the presence of mRNA transport and likely local translation in both CNS and PNS neurons suggests an active role in the regenerative process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although peripheral nerve axons retain the capacity to locally synthesize proteins into adulthood, previous studies have argued that mature brain and spinal cord axons cannot synthesize proteins. Protein synthesis in peripheral nerve axons is increased during regeneration, and intra-axonally synthesized proteins have been shown to contribute to nerve regeneration

  17. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  18. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  19. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression. PMID:27111213

  20. Coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 promotes aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lindsey Ulkus; Rider, Leah; Nieto, Cera; Romero, Lina; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Loda, Massimo; Lucia, M Scott; Wu, Min; Shi, Lihong; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Nolley, Rosalie; Pac, Colton; Chen, Haitao; Peehl, Donna M; Xu, Jianfeng; Liu, Wennuan; Costello, James C; Cramer, Scott D

    2015-03-15

    Prostate cancer subtypes are poorly defined and functional validation of drivers of ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancer has not been conducted. Here, we identified an ETS(-) subtype of aggressive prostate cancer (ERG(-)MAP3K7(del)CHD1(del)) and used a novel developmental model and a cell line xenograft model to show that cosuppression of MAP3K7 and CHD1 expression promotes aggressive disease. Analyses of publicly available prostate cancer datasets revealed that MAP3K7 and CHD1 were significantly codeleted in 10% to 20% of localized tumors and combined loss correlated with poor disease-free survival. To evaluate the functional impact of dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss, we suppressed Map3k7 and/or Chd1 expression in mouse prostate epithelial progenitor/stem cells (PrP/SC) and performed tissue recombination experiments in vivo. Dual shMap3k7-shChd1 PrP/SC recombinants displayed massive glandular atypia with regions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma apparent. Combined Map3k7-Chd1 suppression greatly disrupted normal prostatic lineage differentiation; dual recombinants displayed significant androgen receptor loss, increased neuroendocrine differentiation, and increased neural differentiation. Clinical samples with dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss also displayed neuroendocrine and neural characteristics. In addition, dual Map3k7-Chd1 suppression promoted E-cadherin loss and mucin production in recombinants. MAP3K7 and CHD1 protein loss also correlated with Gleason grade and E-cadherin loss in clinical samples. To further validate the phenotype observed in the PrP/SC model, we suppressed MAP3K7 and/or CHD1 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Dual shMAP3K7-shCHD1 LNCaP xenografts displayed increased tumor growth and decreased survival compared with shControl, shMAP3K7, and shCHD1 xenografts. Collectively, these data identify coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 as a unique driver of aggressive prostate cancer development. PMID:25770290

  1. The local expression and abundance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins in skeletal muscle are regulated by age and gender but not local IGF-I in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William T; Rosenberger, Judy; Lopez, Rusmely; Gomez, Adam; Cummings, Kathleen K; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2005-12-01

    We wished to determine whether sustained IGF-I production in skeletal muscle increases local IGF binding protein (IGFBP) abundance, thereby mitigating the long-term stimulation of muscle growth by IGF-I. Muscle growth of transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I in muscle (SIS2) and of wild-type (Wt) mice was compared. At 3, 5, 10, and 20 wk of age, hind-limb muscle weights and IGFBP-3, -4, -5, and -6 mRNA and protein abundances were quantified. Additional mice were injected with IGF-I or LR3-IGF-I, and phosphorylation of the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) was compared. Muscle mass was 20% greater in SIS2 compared with Wt mice by 10 wk of age (P < 0.01), and this difference was maintained to 20 wk. IGFBP mRNA and protein abundances were unaffected by genotype. IGFBP-4 and -5 protein abundances increased with age, whereas for IGFBP-3 and -6, there was a sexual dimorphic response (P < 0.01); after 5 wk of age, IGFBP-3 decreased in males but increased in females, whereas IGFBP-6 decreased in females and remained unchanged in males. These protein expression patterns resulted from differences at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. LR3-IGF-I stimulated IGF-1R phosphorylation to a greater extent than IGF-I at both 5 and 10 wk of age (P < 0.01), regardless of gender or genotype (P > 0.21). Thus, variations in local IGF-I levels do not appear to regulate muscle IGFBP expression. The age- and gender-specific differences in muscle IGFBP expression are not sufficient to alter the response of the muscle to the IGFs but may impact the IGF-independent effects of these IGFBPs. PMID:16166219

  2. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Protein localization of epidermal growth factor in sheep ovaries and improvement of follicle survival and antrum formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Santos, L P; Barros, V R P; Cavalcante, A Y P; Menezes, V G; Macedo, T J S; Santos, J M S; Araújo, V R; Queiroz, M A A; Matos, M H T

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize EGF protein expression in ovine ovaries and to verify the effect of EGF on the in vitro development of isolated pre-antral follicles. After collection, ovarian tissue was fixed for immunohistochemical analysis. Additional pairs of ovaries were collected, and secondary follicles were cultured for 18 days in α-MEM(+) (control) alone or supplemented with EGF (1, 10 or 50 ng/ml). The immunostaining for EGF was observed in oocytes from pre-antral and antral follicles, in granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus and mural cells of antral follicles. After 18 days, the results showed that treatment with 50 ng/ml EGF significantly increased the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared with the control group (α-MEM(+) ) and significantly reduced the precocious extrusion of oocytes and increased the percentage of antral follicles compared with the control and 1 ng/ml EGF. All the treatments induced a progressive and significant increase of the follicular diameter throughout the period of culture. However, there were no significant differences in follicular diameter or in the daily growth rate among treatments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of EGF in ovine ovaries. Moreover, 50 ng/ml EGF increased the percentage of normal follicles and improved antrum formation in isolated ovine follicles after 18 days of in vitro culture. PMID:25130906

  4. Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Aaron N.; Stach, Christopher S.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted factors of Staphylococcus aureus can activate host signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) contributes to mucosal cytokine production through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands and subsequent EGFR activation. The secreted hemolysin, α-toxin, can also induce EGFR signaling and directly interacts with ADAM10, a sheddase of EGFR ligands. The current work explores the role of EGFR signaling in menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS), a disease mediated by TSST-1. The data presented show that TSST-1 and α-toxin induce ADAM- and EGFR-dependent cytokine production from human vaginal epithelial cells. TSST-1 and α-toxin also induce cytokine production from an ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa (PVM) model. EGFR signaling is responsible for the majority of IL-8 production from PVM in response to secreted toxins and live S. aureus. Finally, data are presented demonstrating that inhibition of EGFR signaling with the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 significantly increases survival in a rabbit model of mTSS. These data indicate that EGFR signaling is critical for progression of an S. aureus exotoxin-mediated disease and may represent an attractive host target for therapeutics. PMID:27414801

  5. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1): localization and in vitro inhibition of promastigotes growth by polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Carvalho-Campos, Cristiane; Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Detoni, Michelle Lima; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; Marques, Marcos José; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Diniz, Vanessa Álvaro; Corte-Real, Suzana; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity was recently characterized in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (Lb), and an antigenic conserved domain (r82-121) from the specific NTPDase 1 isoform was identified. In this work, mouse polyclonal antibodies produced against two synthetic peptides derived from this domain (LbB1LJ, r82-103; LbB2LJ, r102-121) were used. The anti-LbB1LJ or anti-LbB2LJ antibodies were immobilized on protein A-sepharose and immunoprecipitated the NTPDase 1 of 48 kDa and depleted approximately 40% of the phosphohydrolytic activity from detergent-homogenized Lb preparation. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical microscopy identified the NTPDase 1 on the parasite surface and in its subcellular cytoplasmic vesicles, mitochondria, kinetoplast and nucleus. The ATPase and ADPase activities of detergent-homogenized Lb preparation were partially inhibited by anti-LbB1LJ antibody (43-79%), which was more effective than that inhibition (18-47%) by anti-LbB2LJ antibody. In addition, the immune serum anti-LbB1LJ (67%) or anti-LbB2LJ (33%) was cytotoxic, significantly reducing the promastigotes growth in vitro. The results appoint the conserved domain from the L. braziliensis NTPDase as an important target for inhibitor design and the potential application of these biomolecules in experimental protocols of disease control. PMID:22921497

  6. Effects of Aggression on Achievement: Does Conflict with the Teacher Make It Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah; Miles, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined different explanations for negative associations between aggression and academic achievement using data collected from 403 children from low-income families followed from kindergarten or first grade (ages 6 and 7 years) through fifth grade (ages 10-11 years). Most results of growth curve analyses examining change…

  7. The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48 Month Old Children of Alcoholic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ellen P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive…

  8. Brainworks: Birth to Kindergarten--The Aggression Component. A Question/Answer Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipelt, Kathy; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    This document takes a look at the roots of aggression. Constant exposure to violence in the media along with the drug culture has played a pivotal role in the growth of violence among youth. The poor nurturing of the very young contributes to the problem, and early trauma can inhibit children's concentration, impede learning, hinder attachment,…

  9. Neighborhood Context and the Development of Aggression in Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfossen, Beth; Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard; Sokoloff, Natalie; Doering, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We examine the roles of neighborhood characteristics in the development of the aggressive behavior of 1,409 urban boys and girls between the first and seventh grades. The multilevel, longitudinal growth analyses find strong neighborhood effects in all models, while controlling for individual-level variables. Results indicated that the effects of…

  10. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  11. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  12. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  13. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  14. Growth Associated Protein 43 Is Expressed in Skeletal Muscle Fibers and Is Localized in Proximity of Mitochondria and Calcium Release Units

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Simone; Morabito, Caterina; Paolini, Cecilia; Boncompagni, Simona; Pilla, Raffaele; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Mariggiò, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP43), also known as B-50 or neuromodulin, is involved in mechanisms controlling pathfinding and branching of neurons during development and regeneration. For many years this protein was classified as neuron-specific, but recent evidences suggest that a) GAP43 is expressed in the nervous system not only in neurons, but also in glial cells, and b) probably it is present also in other tissues. In particular, its expression was revealed in muscles from patients affected by various myopathies, indicating that GAP43 can no-longer considered only as a neuron-specific molecule. We have investigated the expression and subcellular localization of GAP43 in mouse satellite cells, myotubes, and adult muscle (extensor digitorum longus or EDL) using Western blotting, immuno-fluorescence combined to confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Our in vitro results indicated that GAP43 is indeed expressed in both myoblasts and differentiating myotubes, and its cellular localization changes dramatically during maturation: in myoblasts the localization appeared to be mostly nuclear, whereas with differentiation the protein started to display a sarcomeric-like pattern. In adult fibers, GAP43 expression was evident with the protein labeling forming (in longitudinal views) a double cross striation reminiscent of the staining pattern of other organelles, such as calcium release units (CRUs) and mitochondria. Double immuno-staining and experiments done in EDL muscles fixed at different sarcomere lengths, allowed us to determine the localization, from the sarcomere Z-line, of GAP43 positive foci, falling between that of CRUs and of mitochondria. Staining of cross sections added a detail to the puzzle: GAP43 labeling formed a reticular pattern surrounding individual myofibrils, but excluding contractile elements. This work leads the way to further investigation about the possible physiological and structural role of GAP43 protein in adult fiber

  15. LLW-3-6 and Celecoxib Impacts Growth in Prostate Cancer Cells and Subcellular Localization of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    YEROKUN, TOKUNBO; WINFIELD, LEYTE L.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation in human prostate carcinomas, PC3 and MDA-PCa-2b, was analyzed for cells treated with LLW-3-6 and celecoxib in the presence and absence of sulfasalazine. LLW-3-6 was more potent than celecoxib at mediating a dose-dependent reduction of viable PC3 cells. Co-treatment with a non-lethal dose of sulfasalazine diminished the potency of both drugs in this cell line. The effects of the drugs in MDA-PCa-2b cells were less significant than those observed in the PC3 cells. Localization of COX-2 in LLW-3-6- and CBX-treated PC3 cells is consistent with protein aggregation known for cells responding to stress stimuli. To complement this, an analysis of the theoretical binding interactions of LLW-3-6 was completed to illustrate the potential of LLW-3-6 to bind to COX-2 in a manner similar to that of celecoxib. Studies to further define the mechanism of action for LLW-3-6 are ongoing. PMID:25202054

  16. Expression of Wnt Receptors in Adult Spiral Ganglion Neurons: Frizzled 9 Localization at Growth Cones of Regenerating Neurites

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. M.; Kang, Y.-J.; Christensen, B. L.; Feng, A. S.; Kollmar, R.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about signaling pathways, besides those of neurotrophic factors, that are operational in adult spiral ganglion neurons. In patients with sensorineural hearing loss, such pathways could eventually be targeted to stimulate and guide neurite outgrowth from the remnants of the spiral ganglion towards a cochlear implant, thereby improving the fidelity of sound transmission. To systematically identify neuronal receptors for guidance cues in the adult cochlea, we conducted a genome-wide cDNA microarray screen with two-month-old CBA/CaJ mice. A meta-analysis of our data and those from older mice in two other studies revealed the presence of neuronal transmembrane receptors that represent all four established guidance pathways—ephrin, netrin, semaphorin, and slit—in the mature cochlea as late as 15 months. In addition, we observed the expression of all known receptors for the Wnt morphogens, whose neuronal guidance function has only recently been recognized. In situ hybridizations located the mRNAs of the Wnt receptors frizzled 1, 4, 6, 9, and 10 specifically in adult spiral ganglion neurons. Finally, frizzled 9 protein was found in the growth cones of adult spiral ganglion neurons that were regenerating neurites in culture. We conclude from our results that adult spiral ganglion neurons are poised to respond to neurite damage, owing to the constitutive expression of a large and diverse collection of guidance receptors. Wnt signaling, in particular, emerges as a candidate pathway for guiding neurite outgrowth towards a cochlear implant after sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:19716861

  17. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  18. Linkage of functional and structural anomalies in the left amygdala of reactive-aggressive men

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky, Feggy; Diaz, Karla; Romero, Cesar; Borja, Karina; Santos, Yusniel; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala structural and functional abnormalities have been associated to reactive aggression in previous studies. However, the possible linkage of these two types of anomalies has not been examined. We hypothesized that they would coincide in the same localizations, would be correlated in intensity and would be mediated by reactive aggression personality traits. Here violent (n = 25) and non-violent (n = 29) men were recruited on the basis of their reactive aggression. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits were also assessed. Gray matter concentration (gmC) and reactivity to fearful and neutral facial expressions were measured in dorsal and ventral amygdala partitions. The difference between responses to fearful and neutral facial expressions was calculated (F/N-difference). Violent individuals exhibited a smaller F/N-difference and gmC in the left dorsal amygdala, where a significant coincidence was found in a conjunction analysis. Moreover, the left amygdala F/N-difference and gmC were correlated to each other, an effect mediated by reactive aggression but not by CU. The F/N-difference was caused by increased reactivity to neutral faces. This suggests that anatomical anomalies within local circuitry (and not only altered input) may underlie the amygdala hyper-reactivity to social signals which is characteristic of reactive aggression. PMID:22956672

  19. Effect of local application of epidermal growth factor on innate immunity and cell composition of destruction focus in experimental thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Osikov, M V; Telesheva, L F; Likhacheva, A G

    2014-07-01

    The effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on innate immunity and cellular composition of the destruction focus in the third-degree (IIIA) burn (skin contact with an object heated to 100°C; 4% body surface) was studied in experiments on outbred albino rats. On days 7-28 after burn, blood count of phagocytes and their absorbing capacity and oxygen-dependent metabolism increased, which correlated with the increase in serum IL-1β level and neutrophil count in the destruction focus. Local application of rhEGF led to earlier (on day 14) normalization of the count and functional activity of blood phagocytes and decrease in serum IL-1β level and accelerated neutrophil and lymphocyte replacement with fibroblasts in the focus of injury. PMID:25065306

  20. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression. PMID:15203299

  1. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954

  2. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  3. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  4. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  5. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  6. [Zinc metabolism--a factor in canine aggression?].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Behne, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of zinc-deficiency as a factor in canine aggression, we examined sera of dangerously aggressive dogs and of behaviourally normal (non-aggressive) dogs for their zinc-contents. The results showed distinctly higher zinc-concentrations (mean +/- SD) in aggressive dogs (1.69 +/- 0.49 micrograms/ml) than in normal non aggressive dogs (0.76 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml). PMID:12894678

  7. Associations between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Rodgers, Carie S.; Lebeck, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and psychopathology and aggression in intimate relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Method: Forty-four pregnant women who were recruited from an obstetric clinic and local advertising periodical completed questionnaires about childhood…

  8. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  9. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  10. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. PMID:26158924

  11. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions. PMID:16600064

  12. Local Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehling, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    As critics complain about higher education's shortcomings, trustees may need to communicate their institution's economic, cultural, and intellectual contributions to the local community. The most obvious and easily understood benefit is purchasing power, but it also contributes to small business growth, individual quality of life, the social,…

  13. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    island mitigation strategies. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rationale decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  14. Spatial Growth Modeling and High Resolution Remote Sensing Data Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    with USGS lkm land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  15. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled With Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Johnson, H.; Khan, M.

    2006-05-01

    compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta's growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  16. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27256152

  17. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

  18. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-28

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  19. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 7 (ERK7), a Novel ERK with a C-Terminal Domain That Regulates Its Activity, Its Cellular Localization, and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Mark K.; Kuo, Wen-Liang; Hershenson, Marc B.; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play distinct roles in a variety of cellular signaling pathways and are regulated through multiple mechanisms. In this study, a novel 61-kDa member of the MAP kinase family, termed extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7 (ERK7), has been cloned and characterized. Although it has the signature TEY activation motif of ERK1 and ERK2, ERK7 is not activated by extracellular stimuli that typically activate ERK1 and ERK2 or by common activators of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. Instead, ERK7 has appreciable constitutive activity in serum-starved cells that is dependent on the presence of its C-terminal domain. Interestingly, the C-terminal tail, not the kinase domain, of ERK7 regulates its nuclear localization and inhibition of growth. Taken together, these results elucidate a novel type of MAP kinase whereby interactions via its C-terminal tail, rather than extracellular signal-mediated activation cascades, regulate its activity, localization, and function. PMID:9891064

  20. Low temperature inhibits pollen tube growth by disruption of both tip-localized reactive oxygen species and endocytosis in Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Bin; Wang, Chun-Lei; Wu, Ju-You; Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Xue-Ting; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) negatively affects fertilization processes of flowering plants. Pollen tube growth is generally inhibited under LT stress; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this inhibition remain(s) largely unknown. Pollen tubes are tip-growing and the presence of tip-localized reactive oxygen species (ROS) is necessary for cellular functioning. Disruption of tip-localized ROS was observed in pear pollen tubes in vitro under low temperature of 4 °C (LT4). Diphenylene iodonium chloride, an NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, suppressed hydrogen peroxide formation in the cell walls of the subapical region in pear pollen tubes. Under LT4 stress, ROS disruption in pear pollen tubes mainly resulted from decreased NOX activity in the plasma membrane, indicating that NOX was the main source of ROS in this process. Moreover, LT4 remarkably decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP production. The endocytosis, an energy-dependent process, disruption in pear pollen tubes under LT4 may be mediated by mitochondrial metabolic dysfunctions. Our data showed ROS and endocytosis events in pear pollen tubes responding to LT4 stress. PMID:24321875