Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive local growth

  1. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  2. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  3. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia Furtado; Huang, Hong; McAninley, Suzanna; Alfant, Barnett; Harrison, Peter; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Walker, Clay; Shaddox, Luciana Macchion

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteinases reported to mediate multiple functions associated with periodontal destruction and inflammation. We have previously reported high MMP levels in African-American children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). However, little is known about MMP reductions in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after therapy. This study aimed to evaluate MMP levels in the GCF following treatment of LAP and to correlate these levels with clinical response. Methods GCF samples were collected from 29 African-American individuals diagnosed with LAP. GCF was collected from one diseased site (pocket depth [PD]>4mm, bleeding on probing [BoP] and clinical attachment level [CAL] ≥2mm) and one healthy site (PD≤3mm, no BoP) from each individual at baseline, 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, which consisted of full-mouth SRP and systemic antibiotics. The volume of GCF was controlled using a calibrated gingival fluid meter and levels of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 were assessed using fluorometric kits. Results MMP-1, 8, 9 12, and 13 levels were reduced significantly up to 6 months, at which point were comparable with healthy sites. Significant correlations were noted between MMP-2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 levels and % of sites with PD>4mm. MMP-3, 12 and 13 levels also correlated with mean pocket depth of affected sites. Conclusion Treatment of LAP with SRP and systemic antibiotics was effective in reducing the local levels specific MMPs in African-American individuals, which correlated positively with some clinical parameters. PMID:23537121

  4. Trajectories of male sexual aggression from adolescence through college: A latent class growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Swartout, Kevin M; Swartout, Ashlyn G; Brennan, Carolyn L; White, Jacquelyn W

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of male college students report engaging in some form of sexual coercion by the end of their fourth year of college. White and Smith (2004) found that negative childhood experiences-childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence-predicted sexual aggression perpetrated before college, but not during the subsequent college years, a puzzling finding in view of the reasonably consistent rates of sexual aggression from adolescence to the first 2 years of college. The current study takes a person-centered approach to sexual aggression in an attempt to resolve this discrepancy. We examined the possibility of cohesive subgroups of men in terms of their frequency of sexual aggression across the pre-college and college years. A series of latent class growth models were fit to an existing longitudinal dataset of sexual experiences collected across four time points-pre-college through year 3 of college. A four-trajectory model fit the data well, exhibiting significantly better fit than a three-trajectory model. The four trajectories are interpreted as men who perpetrate sexual aggression at (1) low (71.5% of the sample), (2) moderate (21.2%), (3) decreasing (4.2%), and (4) increasing (3.1%) frequencies across time. Negative childhood experiences predicted membership of the decreasing trajectory, relative to the low trajectory, but did not predict membership of the increasing trajectory, explaining the discrepancy uncovered by White and Smith. Implications for primary prevention of sexual aggression are discussed.

  5. Effects of physical education, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on adolescent aggressive behavior: A latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghyun; Chiu, Weisheng; Won, Doyeon

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal influence of physical education classes, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on aggressive behavior among South Korean adolescents. Data were drawn from the Korea Youth Panel Survey. We used latent growth curve modeling to explain the growth trajectory of adolescent aggressive behaviors and a multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in aggressive behavior. The results indicated that adolescents' aggressive behavior significantly changed with age. There were significant gender-based differences in the level of and changes in aggressive behavior over time. Both extracurricular sports activities and leisure satisfaction had significant influences on the changes in adolescents' aggressive behavior with age, whereas physical education classes did not.

  6. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Derek E; Goriely, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process.

  7. Targeting Resources for Local Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing state and federal dollars on targeted areas, the Kentucky Appalachian Community Development Initiative helps communities in eastern Kentucky fund their own strategies for economic growth. In Hindman, the project focuses on creating the Kentucky School of Crafts, to train master artisans; supporting the Kentucky Appalachian Artisan Center;…

  8. Intercolony aggression within and among local populations of the invasive ant, Myrmica rubra (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in coastal Maine.

    PubMed

    Garnas, Jeffrey R; Drummond, Francis A; Groden, Eleanor

    2007-02-01

    Myrmica rubra L. was introduced into New England in the early 20th century, and at present, has a patchy distribution in parts of northeastern North America, including records from 31 communities in Maine. M. rubra is highly polygynous, and colonies reproduce vegetatively, forming dense local populations where conditions are favorable. Using mobile nests and baited arenas in a series of field aggression bioassays, we tested patterns of internest tolerance within and among local populations on Mt. Desert Island, ME. We found that foragers originating from fragments of the same colony or from neighboring nests retained a high level of intraspecific tolerance over several months, whereas significant intercolony aggression among workers was present between colonies within the same local patch separated by approximately 10 m. Within populations, aggression score values were found to increase linearly with internest distance within a site. Aggression was highest between colonies from spatially different populations on the island and was higher still when nests were assayed against colonies at an off-island site 70 km away in Castine, ME. These data strongly suggest a multicolonial organization within and among local populations of M. rubra in parts of its introduced range. These findings contradict the loss of intraspecific aggression and unicolonial social structure over large geographic areas that have previously been observed in other invasive ant species, particularly Linepithema humile Mayr.

  9. Deconstructing the externalizing spectrum: Growth patterns of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional behavior, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation between school entry and early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior. PMID

  10. Aggressiveness of Fusarium species and impact of root infection on growth and yield of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Arias, María M Díaz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium spp. are commonly isolated from soybean roots but the pathogenic activity of most species is poorly documented. Aggressiveness and yield impact of nine species of Fusarium were determined on soybean in greenhouse (50 isolates) and field microplot (19 isolates) experiments. Root rot severity and shoot and root dry weights were compared at growth stages V3 or R1. Root systems were scanned and digital image analysis was conducted; yield was measured in microplots. Disease severity and root morphology impacts varied among and within species. Fusarium graminearum was highly aggressive (root rot severity >90%), followed by F. proliferatum and F. virguliforme. Significant variation in damping-off (20 to 75%) and root rot severity (<20 to >60%) was observed among F. oxysporum isolates. In artificially-infested microplots, root rot severity was low (<25%) and mean yield was not significantly reduced. However, there were significant linear relationships between yield and root symptoms for some isolates. Root morphological characteristics were more consistent indicators of yield loss than root rot severity. This study provides the first characterization of aggressiveness and yield impact of Fusarium root rot species on soybean at different plant stages and introduces root image analysis to assess the impact of root pathogens on soybean.

  11. Modeling Growth in Boys' Aggressive Behavior across Elementary School: Links to Later Criminal Involvement, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2003-01-01

    The present study used general growth mixture modeling to identify pathways of antisocial behavior development within an epidemiological sample of urban, primarily African American boys. Teacher-rated aggression, measured longitudinally from 1st to 7th grade, was used to define growth trajectories. Three high-risk trajectories (chronic high,…

  12. Association of Interleukin-17 polymorphism (-197G/A) in chronic and localized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Harshal Liladhar; Warad, Shivaraj; Ashok, Nipun; Baroudi, Kusai; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 17(IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by Th17 cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible association between IL-17 A genetic polymorphism at (-197A/G) and susceptibility to chronic and localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) in an Indian population. The study was carried out on 105 subjects, which included 35 LAgP patients, 35 chronic periodontitis patients and 35 healthy controls. Blood samples were drawn from the subjects and analyzed for IL-17 genetic polymorphism at (-197A/G), by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A statistically significant difference was seen in the genotype distribution among chronic periodontitis patients, LAgP patients and healthy subjects. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles among chronic periodontitis patients, LAgP patients and healthy subjects. The odds ratio for A allele versus G allele was 5.1 between chronic periodontitis patients and healthy controls, and 5.1 between LAgp patients and healthy controls. Our study concluded that IL-17 A gene polymorphism at (-197A/G) is linked to chronic periodontitis and LAgP in Indian population. The presence of allele A in the IL-17 gene polymorphism (-197A/G) can be considered a risk factor for chronic periodontitis and LAgP.

  13. Regional, State, and Local Opportunities for Funding Smart Growth Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page lists some regional, state, and local funding resources that local and state governments, communities, and nongovernmental organizations can use to plan and implement smart growth strategies.

  14. Novel Nuclear Localization of Fatty Acid Synthase Correlates with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Allison A.; Rycyna, Kevin J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Datiri, Yeipyeng J.; Basudan, Ahmed M.; Sobek, Kathryn M.; Cummings, Jessica L.; Basse, Per H.; Bacich, Dean J.; O'Keefe, Denise S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase not only increases production of fatty acids in tumors but also contributes to the transformed phenotype by conferring growth and survival advantages. In addition, increased fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer correlates with poor prognosis, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are not completely understood. Because fatty acid synthase is expressed at low levels in normal cells, it is currently a major target for anticancer drug design. Fatty acid synthase is normally found in the cytosol; however, we have discovered that it also localizes to the nucleus in a subset of prostate cancer cells. Analysis of the fatty acid synthase protein sequence indicated the presence of a nuclear localization signal, and subcellular fractionation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of patient prostate tumor tissue and LNCaPs confirmed nuclear localization of this protein. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of prostate cancer tissue indicated that nuclear localization of fatty acid synthase correlates with Gleason grade, implicating a potentially novel role in prostate cancer progression. Possible clinical implications include improving the accuracy of prostate biopsies in the diagnosis of low- versus intermediate-risk prostate cancer and the uncovering of novel metabolic pathways for the therapeutic targeting of androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:24907642

  15. Teacher-Child Relationship, Parenting, and Growth in Likelihood and Severity of Physical Aggression in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…

  16. AT9283, a novel aurora kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaobing; Cooke, Laurence S; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Squires, Matthew; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2012-06-15

    Aurora kinases are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in regulating the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Auroras are overexpressed in numerous tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are validated oncology targets. AT9283, a pan-aurora inhibitor inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that AT9283 had potent activity against Aurora B in a variety of aggressive B-(non-Hodgkin lymphoma) B-NHL cell lines. Cells treated with AT9283 exhibited endoreduplication confirming the mechanism of action of an Aurora B inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with AT9283 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner and inhibited cell proliferation with an IC(50) < 1 μM. It is well known that inhibition of auroras (A or B) synergistically enhances the effects of microtubule targeting agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis. We evaluated whether AT9283 in combination with docetaxel is more efficient in inducing apoptosis than AT9283 or docetaxel alone. At very low doses (5 nM) apoptosis was doubled in the combination (23%) compared to AT9283 or docetaxel alone (10%). A mouse xenograft model of mantle cell lymphoma demonstrated that AT9283 at 15 mg/kg and docetaxel (10 mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, AT9283 at 20 mg/kg and AT9283 (15 or 20 mg/kg) plus docetaxel (10 mg/kg) demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival. Together, our results suggest that AT9283 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in B-cell NHL and warrant early phase clinical trial evaluation.

  17. Localized severe aggressive periodontitis. Disease progression and tooth preservation: a short case report over 14 years.

    PubMed

    Pelka, Matthias; Petschelt, Anselm

    2009-04-01

    A case of a 31-year-old female with aggressive periodontitis over 14 years is presented. From 1993 to 2000, no periodontal therapy occurred; disease development and progression could be reconstructed upon radiographic findings. In 2000, full-mouth disinfection therapy and antibiotic therapy was performed, as well as regenerative surgical treatments. Seven years after surgical treatment, stable periodontal conditions and clear bone regeneration in the surgical areas was evident.

  18. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  19. Nonsyndromic localized aggressive periodontitis of primary dentition: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Muppa, Radhika; Nallanchakrava, Srinivas; Chinta, Mahesh; Manthena, Ravi Teja

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva and tissues of the periodontium. It is characterized by pocket formation and destruction of supporting alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases of aggressive nature are not very common in children. They are usually associated with systemic conditions. The present case report is of a 5-year-old male child who reported with rapid attachment loss and bony defects of the gingiva and supporting structures. His family and medical history gave no contribution for the diagnosis. Blood investigations did not reveal any abnormality. The microbial examination of culture revealed the presence of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The treatment objective in the present case was to prevent the further progress of the condition, restore esthetic and function in the child which would psychologically benefit the child. PMID:27307682

  20. Individual growth trajectories of sibling Brycon moorei raised in isolation since egg stage, and their relationship with aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baras, E; Lucas, M C

    2010-09-01

    The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression.

  1. Evaluation of Penicillium expansum isolates for aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in usual and less common fruit hosts.

    PubMed

    Neri, Fiorella; Donati, Irene; Veronesi, Francesca; Mazzoni, David; Mari, Marta

    2010-10-15

    Experiments were carried out in vivo and in vitro with four isolates of Penicillium expansum (I 1, E 11, C 28 and I 12) to evaluate their aggressiveness, growth and patulin accumulation in both usual (pears and apples) and less common hosts (apricots, peaches, strawberries and kiwifruits) of the pathogen. The 75% of isolates showed the ability to cause blue mould in all tested hosts. In particular, C 28 and I 1 were the most and the least aggressive isolates, respectively (52.9 and 10.6% infection and 20.7 and 15.4 mm lesion diameters). 'Candonga' strawberries and 'Pinkcot' apricots showed the largest lesion diameters (29.8 and 25.3 mm), followed by 'Conference' pears, 'Spring Crest' peaches and 'Abate Fetel' pears. With the exception of 'Candonga' strawberries, the formation of colonies and mycelial growth of P. expansum isolates on fruit puree agar media (PAMs) was stimulated in comparison to a standard growth medium (malt extract agar, MEA). Two of the most aggressive isolates in our assays (I 12 and C 28) showed the greatest accumulation of patulin both in vitro and in vivo, while the least aggressive isolate (I 1) produced patulin only in a few growth media and cvs. Patulin concentration on fruit PAMs was higher than patulin detected in infected fruit tissues. Apple PAMs were the more favorable substrates for patulin accumulation in vitro (maximum concentration 173.1 and 74.1 μg/mL in 'Pink Lady and 'Golden Delicious' PAMs, respectively) and 'Pink Lady' apples inoculated with the isolate E 11 showed the greatest accumulation of patulin in the whole in vivo assay (33.9 μg/mL). However, infected tissue of cv Golden Delicious showed lower average accumulation of patulin (1.7 μg/mL) than that of cv Pink Lady (19.1 μg/mL), and no significant differences in patulin concentrations were found among 'Golden Delicious' apples and tested cvs of pears, kiwifruits and strawberries. Peaches were highly susceptible to patulin accumulation, showing average concentrations

  2. Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Robert; Kasprzewska, Ania; Fleming, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    A classical view is that leaf shape is the result of local promotion of growth linked to cell proliferation. However, an alternative hypothesis is that leaf form is the result of local repression of growth in an otherwise growing system. Here we show that leaf form can indeed be manipulated in a directed fashion by local repression of growth. We show that targeting expression of an inhibitor of a cyclin-dependent kinase (KRP1) to the sinus area of developing leaves of Arabidopsis leads to local growth repression and the formation of organs with extreme lobing, including generation of leaflet-like organs. Directing KRP1 expression to other regions of the leaf using an miRNA target sequence tagging approach also leads to predictable novel leaf forms, and repression of growth in the leaf margin blocks the outgrowth of lobes, leading to a smoother perimeter. In addition, we show that decreased growth around the perimeter and across the leaf abaxial surface leads to a change in 3D form, as predicted by mechanical models of leaf growth. Our analysis provides experimental evidence that local repression of growth influences leaf shape, suggesting that it could be part of the mechanism of morphogenesis in plants in the context of an otherwise growing system.

  3. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  4. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  5. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A.; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  6. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  7. Laplacian networks: Growth, local symmetry, and shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devauchelle, O.; Szymczak, P.; Pecelerowicz, M.; Cohen, Y.; Seybold, H. J.; Rothman, D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by river networks and other structures formed by Laplacian growth, we use the Loewner equation to investigate the growth of a network of thin fingers in a diffusion field. We first review previous contributions to illustrate how this formalism reduces the network's expansion to three rules, which respectively govern the velocity, the direction, and the nucleation of its growing branches. This framework allows us to establish the mathematical equivalence between three formulations of the direction rule, namely geodesic growth, growth that maintains local symmetry, and growth that maximizes flux into tips for a given amount of growth. Surprisingly, we find that this growth rule may result in a network different from the static configuration that optimizes flux into tips.

  8. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.

  9. Increased β‑catenin and c-myc expression predict aggressive growth of non-functioning pituitary adenomas: An assessment using a tissue microarray-based approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhui; Wu, Youtu; Yu, Shengyuan; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2017-04-01

    Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) account for 80% of pituitary adenomas with the majority of these exhibiting recurrences post-surgery. Overexpression of β-catenin and c‑myc is common in numerous invasive tumors. The present study sought to investigate the correlation of β‑catenin and c‑myc expression levels with aggressive growth and recurrence of NFPAs, using immunohistochemical examination of tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays comprised 212 NFPAs specimens and 10 healthy specimens as controls. NFPAs were categorized as non‑aggressive or aggressive. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to determine the expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc. Correlation of the expression levels of β‑catenin and c‑myc with clinicopathological parameters, including aggressiveness and recurrence, were assessed by univariate, multivariate and logistic regression analysis. Increased expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc was detected in the majority of aggressive NFPAs specimens (71.1 and 88.7%, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between β‑catenin and c‑myc expression and aggressiveness [P=0.001, Odds Ratio (OR)=4.011; P<0.001, OR=30.833]. Only β‑catenin expression demonstrated a significant correlation with recurrence in NFPAs (P=0.021, OR=2.571). β‑catenin and c‑myc were demonstrated to be potential biomarkers for aggressive NFPAs and in the future, β-catenin may serve as a marker for aggressive behavior and recurrence in NFPAs.

  10. Interface Shape Control Using Localized Heating during Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Croll, A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical calculations were performed to assess the effect of localized radial heating on the melt-crystal interface shape during vertical Bridgman growth. System parameters examined include the ampoule, melt and crystal thermal conductivities, the magnitude and width of localized heating, and the latent heat of crystallization. Concave interface shapes, typical of semiconductor systems, could be flattened or made convex with localized heating. Although localized heating caused shallower thermal gradients ahead of the interface, the magnitude of the localized heating required for convexity was less than that which resulted in a thermal inversion ahead of the interface. A convex interface shape was most readily achieved with ampoules of lower thermal conductivity. Increasing melt convection tended to flatten the interface, but the amount of radial heating required to achieve a convex interface was essentially independent of the convection intensity.

  11. Local translation of RhoA regulates growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Llewellyn J.; Macosko, Evan Z.; Jeromin, Andreas; Urquhart, Erica R.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal development requires highly coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton within the developing axon. This dynamic regulation manifests itself in axonal branching, turning, and pathfinding, presynaptic differentiation, and growth cone collapse and extension. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), a secreted guidance cue that primarily acts to repel axons from inappropriate targets, induces cytoskeletal rearrangements that results in growth cone collapse 1. These effects require intra-axonal mRNA translation. Here we show that transcripts for RhoA, a small GTPase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton, are localized to developing axons and growth cones, and this localization is mediated by an axonal targeting element located in the RhoA 3’UTR. Sema3A induces intra-axonal translation of RhoA mRNA and this local translation of RhoA is necessary and sufficient for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse. These studies indicate that local RhoA translation regulates the neuronal cytoskeleton and identify a novel mechanism for the regulation of RhoA signaling. PMID:16107849

  12. Aggressive nutrition in extremely low birth weight infants: impact on parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis and growth

    PubMed Central

    Lochmann, Ruth; Unterasinger, Lukas; Weber, Michael; Berger, Angelika; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a frequently observed pathology in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Its pathogenesis is determined by the composition and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as the tolerance of enteral feeds (EF). “Aggressive” nutrition is increasingly used in ELBW infants to improve postnatal growth. Little is known about the effect of “aggressive” nutrition on the incidence of PNAC. We analyzed the influence of implementing an “aggressive” nutritional regimen on the incidence of PNAC and growth in a cohort of ELBW infants. Methods ELBW infants were nourished using a “conservative” (2005–6; n = 77) or “aggressive” (2007–9; n = 85) nutritional regimen that differed in the composition of PN after birth as well as the composition and timing of advancement of EFs. We analyzed the incidence of PNAC (conjugated bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dl (25 µmol/l)) corrected for confounders of cholestasis (i.e., NEC and/or gastrointestinal surgery, sepsis, birth weight, Z-score of birth weight, time on PN and male sex), growth until discharge (as the most important secondary outcome) and neonatal morbidities. Results The incidence of PNAC was significantly lower during the period of “aggressive” vs. “conservative “nutrition (27% vs. 46%, P < 0.05; adjusted OR 0.275 [0.116–0.651], P < 0.01). Body weight (+411g), head circumference (+1 cm) and length (+1 cm) at discharge were significantly higher. Extra-uterine growth failure (defined as a Z-score difference from birth to discharge lower than −1) was significantly reduced for body weight (85% vs. 35%), head circumference (77% vs. 45%) and length (85% vs. 65%) (P < 0.05). The body mass index (BMI) at discharge was significantly higher (11.1 vs. 12.4) using “aggressive” nutrition and growth became more proportionate with significantly less infants being discharged below the 10th BMI percentile (44% vs. 9%), while the percentage of

  13. Local calcium changes regulate the length of growth cone filopodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su; Geddis, Matthew S; Rehder, Vincent

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in growth cones can act as an important regulator of growth cone behavior. Here we investigated whether there is a spatial and temporal correlation between [Ca(2+)](i) and one particular aspect of growth cone behavior, namely the regulation of growth cone filopodia. Calcium was released from the caged compound NP-EGTA (o-nitrophenyl EGTA tetrapotassium salt) to simulate a signaling event in the form of a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In three different experimental paradigms, we released calcium either globally (within an entire growth cone), regionally (within a small area of the lamellipodium), or locally (within a single filopodium). We demonstrate that global photolysis of NP-EGTA in growth cones caused a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) throughout the growth cone and elicited subsequent filopodial elongation that was restricted to the stimulated growth cone. Pharmacological blockage of either calmodulin or the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, inhibited the effect of uncaging calcium, suggesting that these enzymes are acting downstream of calcium. Regional uncaging of calcium in the lamellipodium caused a regional increase in [Ca(2+)](i), but induced filopodial elongation on the entire growth cone. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) locally within an individual filopodium resulted in the elongation of only the stimulated filopodium. These findings suggest that the effect of an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) on filopodial behavior depends on the spatial distribution of the calcium signal. In particular, calcium signals within filopodia can cause filopodial length changes that are likely a first step towards directed filopodial steering events seen during pathfinding in vivo.

  14. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  15. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Ku, Amy W.; Bucsek, Mark J.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Vardam-Kaur, Trupti; Kim, Minhyung; Fisher, Daniel T.; Camoriano, Marta; Khoury, Thaer; Skitzki, Joseph J.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Evans, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA) in a preclinical mouse model. Experimental Design Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma. Results Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen). Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Conclusion Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant

  16. Growth of heat trace coefficients for locally symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkey, P.; Miatello, R. J.

    2012-10-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the heat trace coefficients an as n → ∞ for the scalar Laplacian in the context of locally symmetric spaces. We show that if a locally symmetric space is modeled on a noncompact type symmetric space X = G/K such that G has one conjugacy class of Cartan subgroups then these coefficients are O(C^n/n!) for some C > 0. In contrast, we prove that for even dimensional locally rank 1-symmetric spaces, one has |an| ≈ C'n . n! for some C' > 0. We conjecture this is the growth for general noncompact type symmetric spaces unless all Cartan subgroups in G are conjugate. These spaces also have the distinguishing property that the Huygens principle for the shifted wave equation holds (n odd). These examples show that growth estimates conjectured by Berry and Howls ["High orders of the Weyl expansion for quantum billiards: Resurgence of periodic orbits and the Stokes phenomenon," Proc. R. Soc. London A 447, 527-555 (1994), 10.1098/rspa.1994.0154] are sharp. We also construct examples of locally symmetric spaces which are not irreducible, which are not flat, and so that only a finite number of the an is non-zero.

  17. Effects of Spatial Localization on Microbial Consortia Growth.

    PubMed

    Venters, Michael; Carlson, Ross P; Gedeon, Tomas; Heys, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia are commonly observed in natural and synthetic systems, and these consortia frequently result in higher biomass production relative to monocultures. The focus here is on the impact of initial spatial localization and substrate diffusivity on the growth of a model microbial consortium consisting of a producer strain that consumes glucose and produces acetate and a scavenger strain that consumes the acetate. The mathematical model is based on an individual cell model where growth is described by Monod kinetics, and substrate transport is described by a continuum-based, non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion model where convective transport is negligible (e.g., in a biofilm). The first set of results focus on a single producer cell at the center of the domain and surrounded by an initial population of scavenger cells. The impact of the initial population density and substrate diffusivity is examined. A transition is observed from the highest initial density resulting in the greatest cell growth to cell growth being independent of initial density. A high initial density minimizes diffusive transport time and is typically expected to result in the highest growth, but this expected behavior is not predicted in environments with lower diffusivity or larger length scales. When the producer cells are placed on the bottom of the domain with the scavenger cells above in a layered biofilm arrangement, a similar critical transition is observed. For the highest diffusivity values examined, a thin, dense initial scavenger layer is optimal for cell growth. However, for smaller diffusivity values, a thicker, less dense initial scavenger layer provides maximal growth. The overall conclusion is that high density clustering of members of a food chain is optimal under most common transport conditions, but under some slow transport conditions, high density clustering may not be optimal for microbial growth.

  18. Effects of Spatial Localization on Microbial Consortia Growth

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Michael; Carlson, Ross P.; Gedeon, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia are commonly observed in natural and synthetic systems, and these consortia frequently result in higher biomass production relative to monocultures. The focus here is on the impact of initial spatial localization and substrate diffusivity on the growth of a model microbial consortium consisting of a producer strain that consumes glucose and produces acetate and a scavenger strain that consumes the acetate. The mathematical model is based on an individual cell model where growth is described by Monod kinetics, and substrate transport is described by a continuum-based, non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion model where convective transport is negligible (e.g., in a biofilm). The first set of results focus on a single producer cell at the center of the domain and surrounded by an initial population of scavenger cells. The impact of the initial population density and substrate diffusivity is examined. A transition is observed from the highest initial density resulting in the greatest cell growth to cell growth being independent of initial density. A high initial density minimizes diffusive transport time and is typically expected to result in the highest growth, but this expected behavior is not predicted in environments with lower diffusivity or larger length scales. When the producer cells are placed on the bottom of the domain with the scavenger cells above in a layered biofilm arrangement, a similar critical transition is observed. For the highest diffusivity values examined, a thin, dense initial scavenger layer is optimal for cell growth. However, for smaller diffusivity values, a thicker, less dense initial scavenger layer provides maximal growth. The overall conclusion is that high density clustering of members of a food chain is optimal under most common transport conditions, but under some slow transport conditions, high density clustering may not be optimal for microbial growth. PMID:28045924

  19. The pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor variation with disease progression and aggressiveness in colorectal cancer depends on tumor location

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGIORGIS, PETROS C.; ZIZI, ADAMANTIA E.; TSELENI, SOPHIA; OIKONOMAKIS, IOANNIS N.; NIKITEAS, NIKOLAOS I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains unclear despite the recent development of anti-EGFR treatments for metastatic disease. The heterogeneity of CRC may account for this discrepancy; proximal and distal CRC has been found to be genetically and clinicopathologically different. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tumor location on the association of EGFR with the conventional prognostic indicators (stage and grade) in CRC. Immunohistochemical assessment of EGFR was retrospectively performed in 119 primary CRC specimens and data were correlated with tumor stage and grade in the proximal and distal tumor subset. The molecular combination of EGFR with p53 (previously assessed in this sample) was similarly analyzed. EGFR positivity was detected in 34, 30 and 35% of the entire cohort, proximal and distal tumors, respectively. The pattern of EGFR clinicopathological correlation was found to differ by site. A reduction in the frequency of EGFR(+) with progression of stage and/or worsening of grade was observed proximally, whereas an opposite trend was recorded distally. Proximal tumors with stage I or with indolent features (stage I, well-differentiated) exhibited a significantly higher proportion of EGFR positivity than other tumors of this location (p=0.023 and p=0.022, respectively) or corresponding distal tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.035, respectively). Moreover, the co-existence of EGFR and high p53 staining (accounting for 11% of cases) was found in a significantly higher proportion of stage IV tumors compared to other stages (p=0.004), although only for the distal subset. Proximal and distal tumors showed various patterns of EGFR variation with disease progression and aggressiveness. This disparity provides further support to the hypothesis that these particular subsets of CRC are distinct tumor entities. It may also be suggestive of a potentially different therapeutic approach according to

  20. HSPH1 inhibition downregulates Bcl-6 and c-Myc and hampers the growth of human aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zappasodi, Roberta; Ruggiero, Giusi; Guarnotta, Carla; Tortoreto, Monica; Tringali, Cristina; Cavanè, Alessandra; Cabras, Antonello D; Castagnoli, Lorenzo; Venerando, Bruno; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Gianni, Alessandro M; De Braud, Filippo; Tripodo, Claudio; Pupa, Serenella M; Di Nicola, Massimo

    2015-03-12

    We have shown that human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) express heat shock protein (HSP)H1/105 in function of their aggressiveness. Here, we now clarify its role as a functional B-NHL target by testing the hypothesis that it promotes the stabilization of key lymphoma oncoproteins. HSPH1 silencing in 4 models of aggressive B-NHLs was paralleled by Bcl-6 and c-Myc downregulation. In vitro and in vivo analysis of HSPH1-silenced Namalwa cells showed that this effect was associated with a significant growth delay and the loss of tumorigenicity when 10(4) cells were injected into mice. Interestingly, we found that HSPH1 physically interacts with c-Myc and Bcl-6 in both Namalwa cells and primary aggressive B-NHLs. Accordingly, expression of HSPH1 and either c-Myc or Bcl-6 positively correlated in these diseases. Our study indicates that HSPH1 concurrently favors the expression of 2 key lymphoma oncoproteins, thus confirming its candidacy as a valuable therapeutic target of aggressive B-NHLs.

  1. Identification of a novel BET bromodomain inhibitor-sensitive, gene regulatory circuit that controls Rituximab response and tumour growth in aggressive lymphoid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Emadali, Anouk; Rousseaux, Sophie; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Rome, Claire; Duley, Samuel; Hamaidia, Sieme; Betton, Patricia; Debernardi, Alexandra; Leroux, Dominique; Bernay, Benoit; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Combes, Florence; Ferri, Elena; McKenna, Charles E; Petosa, Carlo; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Ferro, Myriam; Gressin, Rémy; Callanan, Mary B; Khochbin, Saadi

    2013-01-01

    Immuno-chemotherapy elicit high response rates in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma but heterogeneity in response duration is observed, with some patients achieving cure and others showing refractory disease or relapse. Using a transcriptome-powered targeted proteomics screen, we discovered a gene regulatory circuit involving the nuclear factor CYCLON which characterizes aggressive disease and resistance to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab, in high-risk B-cell lymphoma. CYCLON knockdown was found to inhibit the aggressivity of MYC-overexpressing tumours in mice and to modulate gene expression programs of biological relevance to lymphoma. Furthermore, CYCLON knockdown increased the sensitivity of human lymphoma B cells to Rituximab in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, this effect could be mimicked by in vitro treatment of lymphoma B cells with a small molecule inhibitor for BET bromodomain proteins (JQ1). In summary, this work has identified CYCLON as a new MYC cooperating factor that autonomously drives aggressive tumour growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism is amenable to next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition, thereby providing a new combination therapy rationale for high-risk lymphoma. The nuclear factor CYCLON is a new MYC cooperating factor that drives tumor growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism can be targeted by next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition downstream of MYC. PMID:23828858

  2. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  3. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  4. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  5. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  6. PDGF-D promotes cell growth, aggressiveness, angiogenesis and EMT transformation of colorectal cancer by activation of Notch1/Twist1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhuang; Yuan, Wenzheng; Wu, Liang; Tang, Qiang; Xia, Qinghua; Ji, Jintong; Liu, Zhengyi; Ma, Zhijun; Zhou, Zili; Cheng, Yifeng; Shu, Xiaogang

    2017-02-07

    Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) plays a crucial role in the progression of several cancers. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Our study showed that PDGF-D was highly expressed in CRC tissues and was positively associated with the clinicopathological features. Down-regulation of PDGF-D inhibited the tumor growth, migration and angiogenesis of SW480 cells in vitro and in vivo. Whereas up-regulation of PDGF-D promoted the malignant behaviors of HCT116 cells. Moreover, PDGF-D up-regulated the expression of Notch1 and Twist1 in CRC cells. In addition, PDGF-D expression promoted Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was accompanied with decreased E-cadherin and increased Vimentin expression. Consistently, PDGF-D, Notch1, and Twist1 are obviously up-regulated in transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) treated HCT116 cells. Since Notch1 and Twist1 play an important role in EMT and tumor progression, we examined whether there is a correlation between Notch1 and Twist1 in EMT status. Our results showed that up-regulation of Notch1 was able to rescue the effects of PDGF-D down-regulation on Twist1 expression in SW480 cells, whereas down-regulation of Notch1 reduced Twist1 expression in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, we found that Twist1 promoted EMT and aggressiveness of CRC cells. These results suggest that PDGF-D promotes tumor growth and aggressiveness of CRC, moreover, down-regulation of PDGF-D inactivates Notch1/Twist1 axis, which could reverse EMT and prevent CRC progression.

  7. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance.

  8. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity.

  9. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P.; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L.; Zotto, Valeria Dal; Carter, James E.; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity. PMID:25868978

  10. Local Solutions in the Estimation of Growth Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, John R.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Finite mixture models are well known to have poorly behaved likelihood functions featuring singularities and multiple optima. Growth mixture models may suffer from fewer of these problems, potentially benefiting from the structure imposed on the estimated class means and covariances by the specified growth model. As demonstrated here, however,…

  11. [The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a model of gene regulation and a marker of tumour aggressiveness. An obvious therapeutic target?].

    PubMed

    Grépin, Renaud; Pagès, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    VEGF represents a model of gene expression regulation. RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3 Kinase pathways, activated in response to growth factors stimulation or by oncogenes, contribute to its expression by activating transcription factors or inactivating proteins implicated in degradation of its mRNA. These factors (Sp1/Sp3, HIF-1 and TTP) constitute molecular markers of tumor aggressiveness. VEGF is overexpressed in solid or hematologic tumors. Thus, numerous compounds regulating angiogenesis by targeting VEGF have been developed. However, their effects are not as spectacular as expected. The existence of anti-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF could be a cause of their less potent activity. These different points are discussed in this review article.

  12. Suicide plus immune gene therapy prevents post-surgical local relapse and increases overall survival in an aggressive mouse melanoma setting.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Marcela S; Combe, Kristell; Duchene, Adriana G; Wei, Ming X; Glikin, Gerardo C; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E

    2014-09-01

    In an aggressive B16-F10 murine melanoma model, we evaluated the effectiveness and antitumor mechanisms triggered by a surgery adjuvant treatment that combined a local suicide gene therapy (SG) with a subcutaneous genetic vaccine (Vx) composed of B16-F10 cell extracts and lipoplexes carrying the genes of human interleukin-2 and murine granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Pre-surgical SG treatment, neither alone nor combined with Vx was able to slow down the fast evolution of this tumor. After surgery, both SG and SG + Vx treatments, significantly prevented (in 50% of mice) or delayed (in the remaining 50%) post-surgical recurrence, as well as significantly prolonged recurrence-free (SG and SG + Vx) and overall median survival (SG + Vx). The treatment induced the generation of a pseudocapsule wrapping and separating the tumor from surrounding host tissue. Both, SG and the subcutaneous Vx, induced this envelope that was absent in the control group. On the other hand, PET scan imaging of the SG + Vx group suggested the development of an effective systemic immunostimulation that enhanced (18)FDG accrual in the thymus, spleen and vertebral column. When combined with surgery, direct intralesional injection of suicide gene plus distal subcutaneous genetic vaccine displayed efficacy and systemic antitumor immune response without host toxicity. This suggests the potential value of the assayed approach for clinical purposes.

  13. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798

  14. Overexpression of the growth-hormone-releasing hormone gene in acromegaly-associated pituitary tumors. An event associated with neoplastic progression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, K.; Kovacs, K.; Stefaneanu, L.; Scheithauer, B.; Killinger, D. W.; Lioyd, R. V.; Smyth, H. S.; Barr, A.; Thorner, M. O.; Gaylinn, B.; Laws, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical behavior of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors is known to vary greatly; however, the events underlying this variability remain poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that tumor overexpression of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene is one prognostically informative event associated with the clinical aggressiveness of somatotroph pituitary tumors. Accumulation of GHRH mRNA transcripts was demonstrated in 91 of a consecutive series of 100 somatotroph tumors by in situ hybridization; these findings were corroborated by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein translation was confirmed by Western blotting. By comparison, transcript accumulation was absent or negligibly low in 30 normal pituitary glands. GHRH transcripts were found to preferentially accumulate among clinically aggressive tumors. Specifically, GHRH mRNA signal intensity was 1) linearly correlated with Ki-67 tumor growth fractions (r = 0.71; P < 0.001), 2) linearly correlated with preoperative serum GH levels (r = 0.56; p = 0.01), 3) higher among invasive tumors (P < 0.001), and 4) highest in those tumors in which post-operative remission was not achieved (P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression, a model of postoperative remission likelihood was derived wherein remission was defined by the single criterion of suppressibility of GH levels to less than 2 ng/ml during an oral glucose tolerance test. In this outcome model, GHRH mRNA signal intensity proved to be the most important explanatory variable overall, eclipsing any and all conventional clinicopathological predictors as the single most significant predictor of postoperative remission; increases in GHRH mRNA signal were associated with marked declines in remission likelihood. The generalizability of this outcome model was further validated by the model's significant performance in predicting postoperative remission in a random sample of 30 somatotroph tumors treated at

  15. Who benefits from local job growth: migrants or the original residents?

    PubMed

    Bartik, T J

    1993-01-01

    "This paper surveys research on whether the new jobs resulting from growth in a local economy (e.g. a metropolitan area) go to in-migrants or the original local residents. The empirical evidence suggests that around one-quarter of the new jobs from local growth increases the labour force participation rates of local residents in the long-run. These long-run effects may occur because local growth provides residents with valuable employment experience. Research also suggests that minorities benefit most from growth and that higher wage industries provide greater employment benefits for local residents." The geographical focus is on developed countries, particularly the United States. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  16. Correlation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Detection with Clinical/Immunoinflammatory Profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Using a 16S rRNA Microarray Method: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia F.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Huang, Hong; Paster, Bruce J.; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M.; Shaddox, Luciana M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) correlates with the clinical and immunoinflammatory profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), as determined by by 16S rRNA gene-based microarray. Subjects and Methods Subgingival plaque samples from the deepest diseased site of 30 LAP patients [PD ≥ 5 mm, BoP and bone loss] were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for 14 cyto/chemokines. Peripheral blood was obtained and stimulated in vitro with P.gingivalis and E.coli to evaluate inflammatory response profiles. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were also measured. Results Aa was detected in 56% of LAP patients and was shown to be an indicator for different bacterial community structures (p<0.01). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cyto/chemokines were detected in LPS-stimulated blood samples in both Aa-detected and Aa-non-detected groups (p>0.05). Clinical parameters and serum LPS levels were similar between groups. However, Aa-non-detected GCF contained higher concentration of IL-8 than Aa-detected sites (p<0.05). TNFα and IL1β were elevated upon E.coli LPS stimulation of peripheral blood cells derived from patients with Aa-detected sites. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the detection of Aa in LAP affected sites, did not correlate with clinical severity of the disease at the time of sampling in this cross-sectional study, although it did associate with lower local levels of IL-8, a different subgingival bacterial profile and elevated LPS-induced levels of TNFα and IL1β. PMID:24376864

  17. Local Calcium Entry and the Guidance of Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    The role of calcium in developing cells is illustrated. The Fucus egg, a brown algae is used to describe this phenomenom. Results of local calcium entry and forced calcium entry into the eggs are given.

  18. Heparin localization and fine structure regulate Burkitt's lymphoma growth

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, David; Lynn, David M.; Berry, Eric; Sasisekharan, Ram; Langer, Robert . E-mail: rlanger@mit.edu

    2006-09-29

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell malignancy associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Mounting evidence has implicated heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) in the initiation, severity, and progression of the malignancy. The importance of HSGAGs in regulating BL cell growth was therefore examined. Extracellular exogenous heparin inhibited cell growth >30%, while heparin internalized with poly({beta}-amino ester)s promoted proliferation up to 58%. The growth-modulating effects of heparin and internalized heparin were dependent on cell surface HSGAGs, PI3K, and Erk/Mek. Treatment of cells with protamine sulfate or with heparinases potently inhibited proliferation, with the greatest effects induced by heparinase I. Cell surface HSGAGs therefore play an important role in regulating BL proliferation and may offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Cytokine and Growth Factor Responses After Radiotherapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Gaber, M. Waleed

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the time course and clinical significance of cytokines and peptide growth factors in pediatric patients with ependymoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We measured 15 cytokines and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-{gamma}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-{alpha}) from 30 patients before RT and 2 and 24 h, weekly for 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of RT. Two longitudinal models for the trend of log-transformed measurements were fitted, one during treatment and one through 12 months. Results: During RT, log IL-8 declined at a rate of -0.10389/wk (p = 0.0068). The rate of decline was greater (p = 0.028) for patients with an infratentorial tumor location. The decline in IL-8 after RT was significant when stratified by infratentorial tumor location (p = 0.0345) and more than one surgical procedure (p = 0.0272). During RT, the decline in log VEGF was significant when stratified by the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After RT, the log VEGF declined significantly at a rate of -0.06207/mo. The decline was significant for males (p = 0.0222), supratentorial tumors (p = 0.0158), one surgical procedure (p = 0.0222), no ventriculoperitoneal shunt (p = 0.0005), and the absence of treatment failure (p = 0.0028). Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 declined significantly during RT and the decline differed according to tumor location. The angiogenesis factor VEGF declined significantly during the 12 months after RT. The decline was greater in males, those without a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and in those with favorable disease factors, including one surgical procedure, supratentorial tumor location, and

  20. A Microchip for Quantitative Analysis of CNS Axon Growth under Localized Biomolecular Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Sunja; Park, Su Inn; Choe, Yoonsuck; Li, Jianrong; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Growth capability of neurons is an essential factor in axon regeneration. To better understand how microenvironments influence axon growth, methods that allow spatial control of cellular microenvironments and easy quantification of axon growth are critically needed. Here, we present a microchip capable of physically guiding the growth directions of axons while providing physical and fluidic isolation from neuronal somata/dendrites that enables localized biomolecular treatments and linear axon growth. The microchip allows axons to grow in straight lines inside the axon compartments even after the isolation; therefore, significantly facilitating the axon length quantification process. We further developed an image processing algorithm that automatically quantifies axon growth. The effect of localized extracellular matrix components and brain-derived neurotropic factor treatments on axon growth was investigated. Results show that biomolecules may have substantially different effects on axon growth depending on where they act. For example, while chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan causes axon retraction when added to the axons, it promotes axon growth when applied to the somata. The newly developed microchip overcomes limitations of conventional axon growth research methods that lack localized control of biomolecular environments and are often performed at a significantly lower cell density for only a short period of time due to difficulty in monitoring of axonal growth. This microchip may serve as a powerful tool for investigating factors that promote axon growth and regeneration. PMID:24161788

  1. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts.

  2. A consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis is present in sites prior to bone loss in a longitudinal study of localized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J; Dewhirst, Floyd E

    2013-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  3. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  4. Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Existing knowledge of growth patterns in the living fetal human brain is based upon in utero imaging studies by MRI and ultrasound, which describe overall growth and provided mainly qualitative findings. However, formation of the complex folded cortical structure of the adult brain requires, in part, differential rates of regional tissue growth. To better understand these local tissue growth patterns, we applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis techniques to 40 normal fetal human brains covering a period of primary sulcal formation (20-28 gestational weeks). Growth patterns were mapped by quantifying tissue locations that were expanding more or less quickly than the overall cerebral growth rate, which reveal increasing structural complexity. We detected increased local relative growth rates in the formation of the pre- and post-central gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and opercula, which differentiated between the constant growth rate in underlying cerebral mantle and the accelerating rate in the cortical plate undergoing folding. Analysis focused on the cortical plate revealed greater volume increases in parietal and occipital regions compared to the frontal lobe. Cortical plate growth patterns constrained to narrower age ranges showed that gyrification, reflected by greater growth rates, was more pronounced after 24 gestational weeks. Local hemispheric volume asymmetry was located in the posterior peri-Sylvian area associated with structural lateralization in the mature brain. These maps of fetal brain growth patterns construct a spatially specific baseline of developmental biomarkers with which to correlate abnormal development in the human. PMID:21414909

  5. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, John A.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  6. Local air quality constraints on energy growth, 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report examines the potential future conflict between energy growth and environmental protection, from the perspective of siting constraints imposed by requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. County-level projections of additional utility powerplant capacity and increases in industrial coal, oil, and gas consumption are derived for the period 1985 to 1990. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, after the application of appropriate control systems, are converted to changes in ambient air quality using a proportional modeling approach. These changes are then compared with Nonattainment and Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements, and the energy activity is considered to be constrained if a violation is projected. Total percentages of constrained energy activity are developed for the nation, and the geographical patterns of significant impacts are presented.

  7. Local growth laws for channels cut by springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A. P.; Devauchelle, O.; Abrams, D. M.; Rothman, D.

    2009-12-01

    The growth of a river network records the interplay between flowing water and flowing sediment. A complete interpretation of a river network therefore requires an understanding of how water is focused toward different parts of the network, how the topography responds, and how this response depends on the environment. In many networks, the interplay between flowing water and flowing sediment is obscured by the strong influence of the initial topography. However, when a ravine is cut by a spring, groundwater is focused due to variations in the shape of the water table rather than variations in the topography. Thus, in a seepage channel, sediment flux is only coupled to water flux at the channel. Here we report comparisons of theoretical predictions with field observation and analysis from a high-resolution LIDAR map to reveal the dependence of sediment flux on water flux in a kilometer-scale, seepage-channel network near Bristol, Florida. A comparison between predicted and observed fluxes demonstrates that the focusing of water depends only on the two-dimensional shape of the network. Thus, Darcy's law gives the flux of groundwater into each section of the network. The flux of water focused to a point shows a strong linear relationship with the slope of the channel wall at that point. Assuming linear diffusion, seepage channels remove sediment at a rate proportional to the flux of water. Moreover, small variations in the proportionality coefficient over the scale of the network are themselves proportional to variations in the average solar radiation, suggesting that the diffusion coefficient of the topography is higher in areas that receive more sunlight. Abrams, D. M., Lobkovsky, A. E., Petroff, A. P., Straub, K. M., McElroy, B., Mohrig, D. C., Kudrolli, A, and Rothman, D. H., Growth laws for channel networks incised by groundwater flow, Nature Geoscience 2, 193-196, March 2009.

  8. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    SciTech Connect

    Purdie, J.

    1995-09-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

  9. Scaling of local slopes, conservation laws, and anomalous roughening in surface growth.

    PubMed

    López, Juan M; Castro, Mario; Gallego, Rafael

    2005-04-29

    We argue that symmetries and conservation laws greatly restrict the form of the terms entering the long wavelength description of growth models exhibiting anomalous roughening. This is exploited to show by dynamic renormalization group arguments that intrinsic anomalous roughening cannot occur in local growth models. However, some conserved dynamics may display superroughening if a given type of term is present.

  10. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  11. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  12. Deletion of muscle GRP94 impairs both muscle and body growth by inhibiting local IGF production.

    PubMed

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Park, SooHyun; James, Jose K; Makarewich, Catherine A; Philippou, Anastassios; Eletto, Davide; Lei, Hanqin; Brisson, Becky; Ostrovsky, Olga; Li, Zihai; Argon, Yair

    2012-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical for development and growth of skeletal muscles, but because several tissues produce IGFs, it is not clear which source is necessary or sufficient for muscle growth. Because it is critical for production of both IGF-I and IGF-II, we ablated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in murine striated muscle to test the necessity of local IGFs for normal muscle growth. These mice exhibited smaller skeletal muscles with diminished IGF contents but with normal contractile function and no apparent endoplasmic reticulum stress response. This result shows that muscles rely on GRP94 primarily to support local production of IGFs, a pool that is necessary for normal muscle growth. In addition, body weights were ∼30% smaller than those of littermate controls, and circulating IGF-I also decreased significantly, yet glucose homeostasis was maintained with little disruption to the growth hormone pathway. The growth defect was complemented on administration of recombinant IGF-I. Thus, unlike liver production of IGF-I, muscle IGF-I is necessary not only locally but also globally for whole-body growth.

  13. Identification of axon-enriched microRNAs localized to growth cones of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yukio; Gross, Christina; Xing, Lei; Goshima, Yoshio; Bassell, Gary J

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that localized mRNAs in axons and growth cones play an important role in axon extension and pathfinding via local translation. A few studies have revealed the presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) in axons, which may control local protein synthesis during axon development. However, so far, there has been no attempt to screen for axon-enriched miRNAs and to validate their possible localization to growth cones of developing axons from neurons of the central nervous system. In this study, the localization of miRNAs in axons and growth cones in cortical neurons was examined using a "neuron ball" culture method that is suitable to prepare axonal miRNAs with high yield and purity. Axonal miRNAs prepared from the neuron ball cultures of mouse cortical neurons were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Among 375 miRNAs that were analyzed, 105 miRNAs were detected in axons, and six miRNAs were significantly enriched in axonal fractions when compared with cell body fractions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that two axon-enriched miRNAs, miR-181a-1* and miR-532, localized as distinct granules in distal axons and growth cones. The association of these miRNAs with the RNA-induced silencing complex further supported their function to regulate mRNA levels or translation in the brain. These results suggest a mechanism to localize specific miRNAs to distal axons and growth cones, where they could be involved in local mRNA regulation. These findings provide new insight into the presence of axonal miRNAs and motivate further analysis of their function in local protein synthesis underlying axon guidance.

  14. Transcriptional activation of hedgehog pathway components in aggressive hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Wendling-Keim, Danielle S; Wanie, Lynn; Grantzow, Rainer; Kappler, Roland

    2017-03-31

    Infantile hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm and is one of the most common tumors diagnosed in young children. Although most hemangiomas are harmless and involute spontaneously, some show severe progression, leading to serious complications, such as high output cardiac failure, ulcerations, compression of the trachea or deprivation amblyopia, depending on their size and localization. However, the pathogenesis and cause of hemangioma are largely unknown to date. The goal of this study was to identify markers that could predict hemangiomas with aggressive growth and severe progression that would benefit from early intervention. By using a PCR-based screening approach, we first confirmed that previously known markers of hemangioma, namely FGF2 and GLUT1, are highly expressed in hemangioma. Nevertheless, these genes did not show any differential expression between severely progressing tumors and mild tumors. However, transcriptional upregulation of several Hedgehog signaling components, comprising the ligand Sonic Hedgehog (SHH),the transcription factor GLI2 and its target gene FOXA2 were detected in extremely aggressive hemangioma specimens during the proliferation phase. Notably, GLI2 was even overexpressed in involuting hemangiomas if they showed an aggressive growth pattern. In conclusion, our data suggest that overexpression of the Hedgehog components SHH, GLI2 and FOXA2 might be used as markers of an aggressive hemangioma that would benefit from too early intervention, while FGF2 and GLUT1 are more general markers of hemangiomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of the local geomagnetic field affects reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Wei, Shufeng; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yuxia; Chen, Chuanfang; Song, Tao

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the geomagnetic field-removed environment on Arabidopsis growth was investigated by cultivation of the plants in a near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field (45 µT) for the whole growth period under laboratory conditions. The biomass accumulation of plants in the near-null magnetic field was significantly suppressed at the time when plants were switching from vegetative growth to reproductive growth compared with that of plants grown in the local geomagnetic field, which was caused by a delay in the flowering of plants in the near-null magnetic field. At the early or later growth stage, no significant difference was shown in the biomass accumulation between the plants in the near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field. The average number of siliques and the production of seeds per plant in the near-null magnetic field was significantly lower by about 22% and 19%, respectively, than those of control plants. These resulted in a significant reduction of about 20% in the harvest index of plants in the near-null magnetic field compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that the removal of the local geomagnetic field negatively affects the reproductive growth of Arabidopsis, which thus affects the yield and harvest index.

  16. A Child with Local Lipohypertrophy following Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; de Kruiff, Chris C.

    2016-01-01

    Local lipohypertrophy due to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration is a rare phenomenon. Here, we report a case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a paraumbilical swelling, approximately one year after the start of rhGH treatment for short stature due to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity. Ultrasound imaging revealed an asymmetric distribution of subcutaneous fat tissue at the rhGH administration site, indicating local lipohypertrophy. After sparing her routine injection site and alternating other sites, the swelling disappeared within 6 months. Although the precise cause of local lipohypertrophy resulting from rhGH administration is still unclear, it might be related to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity. PMID:27803832

  17. Actin disruption alters the localization of tau in the growth cones of cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Zmuda, J F; Rivas, R J

    2000-08-01

    Cultured cerebellar granule neurons initially extend a single axon, followed by the extension of a second axon to attain a bipolar morphology. Differentiation culminates with the extension of several short dendrites from the cell body. In the present study, we determined the location of the dephosphorylated form of the microtubule-associated protein tau (dtau) within the growth cones of newly forming axons and examined whether this localization was influenced by the actin cytoskeleton. Following elongation of the initial axon at 2-3 days in vitro, dtau immunoreactivity was present along the entire length of the axon, becoming most intense just proximal to the growth cone. Dtau labeling dropped off dramatically along the microtubules of the growth cone and was undetectable along the most distal tips of these microtubules. As the initial axon continued to elongate at 3-4 days in vitro, the actin-rich growth cone peripheral domain characteristically underwent a dramatic reduction in size. Dtau immunoreactivity extended all the way to the most distal tips of the microtubules in the growth cones of these cells. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin A mimicked the effects of this characteristic reduction in growth cone size with regard to dtau localization in the growth cone. Depolymerization of filamentous actin caused the collapse of the peripheral domain and allowed dtau to bind all the way to the most distal tips of microtubules in the axon. Upon removal of the drugs, the peripheral domain of the growth cone rapidly re-formed and dtau was once again excluded from the most distal regions of growth cone microtubules. These findings suggest a novel role for actin in determining the localization of the microtubule-associated protein &tgr; within the growth cones of neurons.

  18. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-04-10

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression.

  19. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression. PMID:28393871

  20. Role of the actin bundling protein fascin in growth cone morphogenesis: localization in filopodia and lamellipodia.

    PubMed

    Cohan, C S; Welnhofer, E A; Zhao, L; Matsumura, F; Yamashiro, S

    2001-02-01

    Growth cones at the distal tips of growing nerve axons contain bundles of actin filaments distributed throughout the lamellipodium and that project into filopodia. The regulation of actin bundling by specific actin binding proteins is likely to play an important role in many growth cone behaviors. Although the actin binding protein, fascin, has been localized in growth cones, little information is available on its functional significance. We used the large growth cones of the snail Helisoma to determine whether fascin was involved in temporal changes in actin filaments during growth cone morphogenesis. Fascin localized to radially oriented actin bundles in lamellipodia (ribs) and filopodia. Using a fascin antibody and a GFP fascin construct, we found that fascin incorporated into actin bundles from the beginning of growth cone formation at the cut end of axons. Fascin associated with most of the actin bundle except the proximal 6--12% adjacent to the central domain, which is the region associated with actin disassembly. Later, during growth cone morphogenesis when actin ribs shortened, the proximal fascin-free zone of bundles increased, but fascin was retained in the distal, filopodial portion of bundles. Treatment with tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which phosphorylates fascin and decreases its affinity for actin, resulted in loss of all actin bundles from growth cones. Our findings suggest that fascin may be particularly important for the linear structure and dynamics of filopodia and for lamellipodial rib dynamics by regulating filament organization in bundles.

  1. Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicolás; Obied, Khalid El Tayeb El; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the transverse flow velocity component perpendicular to the imaging beam. Based on the measured velocities we calculate the shear-rates in the flow channel. We show the relation between the measured biofilm structure and flow velocities as biofilm growth progresses over the course of 48 hours. PMID:27699116

  2. Defect-mediated snaking: A new growth mechanism for localized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Burke, J.; Knobloch, E.

    2010-10-01

    Stationary spatially localized patterns in parametrically driven systems are studied, focusing on the 2:1 and 1:1 resonance tongues as described by the forced complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Homoclinic snaking is identified in both cases and the nature of the growth of the localized structures along the snaking branches is described. The structures grow from a central defect that inserts new rolls on either side, while pushing existing rolls outwards. This growth mechanism differs fundamentally from that found in other systems exhibiting homoclinic snaking in which new rolls are added at the fronts that connect the structure to the background homogeneous state.

  3. Local and Remote Growth Factor Effects After Primate Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brock, J.H.; Rosenzweig, E.S.; Blesch, A.; Moseanko, R.; Havton, L.A.; Edgerton, V.R.; Tuszynski, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Primate models of spinal cord injury differ from rodent models in several respects, including the relative size and functional neuroanatomy of spinal projections. Fundamental differences in scale raise the possibility that retrograde injury signals, and treatments applied at the level of the spinal cord that exhibit efficacy in rodents, may fail to influence neurons at the far greater distances of primate systems. Thus, we examined both local and remote neuronal responses to neurotrophic factor-secreting cell grafts placed within sites of right C7 hemisection lesions in the rhesus macaque. Six months after gene delivery of BDNF and NT-3 into C7 lesion sites, we found both local effects of growth factors on axonal growth, and remote effects of growth factors reflected in significant reductions in axotomy-induced atrophy of large pyramidal neurons within the primary motor cortex. Further examination in a rodent model suggested that BDNF, rather than NT-3, mediated remote protection of corticospinal neurons in the brain. Thus, injured neural systems retain the ability to respond to growth signals over the extended distances of the primate CNS, promoting local axonal growth and preventing lesion-induced neuronal degeneration at a distance. Remote cortical effects of spinally-administered growth factors could “prime” the neuron to respond to experimental therapies that promote axonal plasticity or regeneration. PMID:20660255

  4. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production.

  5. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  6. Crystallographic Mechanism of Local Lattice Turn Under Growth of Single Crystals of Refractory Nickel Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kablov, D. E.; Kraposhin, V. S.; Talis, A. L.

    2017-03-01

    Amechanism of local formation of crystals of random orientation in growth of single-crystal billets of refractory nickel alloys for blades of gas turbine engines is suggested. Aturn of the lattice is initiated at the place of contact between the initial melt and the surface of hard particles of NbC carbide and/or TiN nitride.

  7. Local weather conditions have complex effects on the growth of blue tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R

    2016-08-01

    Adverse weather conditions are expected to result in impaired nestling development in birds, but empirical studies have provided equivocal support for such a relationship. This may be because the negative effects of adverse weather conditions are masked by parental effects. Globally, ambient temperatures, rainfall levels and wind speeds are all expected to increase in a changing climate and so there is a need for a better understanding of the relationship between weather conditions and nestling growth. Here, we describe a correlative study that examined the relationships between local temperatures, rainfall levels and wind speeds and the growth of individual blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings in relation to their hatching order and sex. We found that changes in a range of morphological characters were negatively related to both temperature and wind speed, but positively related to rainfall. These patterns were further influenced by the hatching order of the nestlings but not by nestling sex. This suggests that the predicted changes in local weather conditions may have complex effects on nestling growth, but that parents may be able to mitigate the adverse effects via adaptive parental effects. We therefore conclude that local weather conditions have complex effects on avian growth and the implications for patterns of avian growth in a changing climate are discussed.

  8. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  9. Monodispersed calcium carbonate nanoparticles modulate local pH and inhibit tumor growth in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Avik; Raliya, Ramesh; Tian, Limei; Akers, Walter; Ippolito, Joseph E.; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Biswas, Pratim; Achilefu, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    The acidic extracellular environment of tumors potentiates their aggressiveness and metastasis, but few methods exist to selectively modulate the extracellular pH (pHe) environment of tumors. Transient flushing of biological systems with alkaline fluids or proton pump inhibitors is impractical and nonselective. Here we report a nanoparticles-based strategy to intentionally modulate the pHe in tumors. Biochemical simulations indicate that the dissolution of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) in vivo increases pH asymptotically to 7.4. We developed two independent facile methods to synthesize monodisperse non-doped vaterite nano-CaCO3 with distinct size range between 20 and 300 nm. Using murine models of cancer, we demonstrate that the selective accumulation of nano-CaCO3 in tumors increases tumor pH over time. The associated induction of tumor growth stasis is putatively interpreted as a pHe increase. This study establishes an approach to prepare nano-CaCO3 over a wide particle size range, a formulation that stabilizes the nanomaterials in aqueous solutions, and a pH-sensitive nano-platform capable of modulating the acidic environment of cancer for potential therapeutic benefits.The acidic extracellular environment of tumors potentiates their aggressiveness and metastasis, but few methods exist to selectively modulate the extracellular pH (pHe) environment of tumors. Transient flushing of biological systems with alkaline fluids or proton pump inhibitors is impractical and nonselective. Here we report a nanoparticles-based strategy to intentionally modulate the pHe in tumors. Biochemical simulations indicate that the dissolution of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) in vivo increases pH asymptotically to 7.4. We developed two independent facile methods to synthesize monodisperse non-doped vaterite nano-CaCO3 with distinct size range between 20 and 300 nm. Using murine models of cancer, we demonstrate that the selective accumulation of nano-CaCO3

  10. A non-local model for cancer stem cells and the tumour growth paradox.

    PubMed

    Borsi, I; Fasano, A; Primicerio, M; Hillen, T

    2015-11-20

    The tumour growth paradox refers to the observation that incomplete treatment of cancers can enhance their growth. As shown here and elsewhere, the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) can explain this effect. CSC are less sensitive to treatments, hence any stress applied to the tumour selects for CSC, thereby increasing the fitness of the tumour. In this paper, we use a mathematical model to understand the role of CSC in the progression of cancer. Our model is a rather general system of integro-differential equations for tumour growth and tumour spread. Such a model has never been analysed, and we prove results on local and global existence of solutions, their uniqueness and their boundedness. We show numerically that this model exhibits the tumour growth paradox for all parameters tested. This effect becomes more relevant for small renewal rate of the CSC.

  11. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  12. Acceleration and localization of subcritical crack growth in a natural composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Zaiser, M.; Graham, C. C.

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic failure of natural and engineered materials is often preceded by an acceleration and localization of damage that can be observed indirectly from acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the nucleation and growth of microcracks. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of the statistical properties and spatiotemporal characteristics of AE signals generated during triaxial compression of a sandstone sample. We demonstrate that the AE event amplitudes and interevent times are characterized by scaling distributions with shapes that remain invariant during most of the loading sequence. Localization of the AE activity on an incipient fault plane is associated with growth in AE rate in the form of a time-reversed Omori law with an exponent near 1. The experimental findings are interpreted using a model that assumes scale-invariant growth of the dominating crack or fault zone, consistent with the Dugdale-Barenblatt "process zone" model. We determine formal relationships between fault size, fault growth rate, and AE event rate, which are found to be consistent with the experimental observations. From these relations, we conclude that relatively slow growth of a subcritical fault may be associated with a significantly more rapid increase of the AE rate and that monitoring AE rate may therefore provide more reliable predictors of incipient failure than direct monitoring of the growing fault.

  13. Nuclear localization signal sequence is required for VACM-1/CUL5-dependent regulation of cellular growth.

    PubMed

    Willis, Angelica N; Dean, Shirley E Bradley; Habbouche, Joe A; Kempers, Brian T; Ludwig, Megan L; Sayfie, Aaron D; Lewis, Steven P; Harrier, Stephanie; DeBruine, Zachary J; Garrett, Richard; Burnatowska-Hledin, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    VACM-1/CUL5 is a member of the cullin family of proteins involved in the E3 ligase-dependent degradation of diverse proteins that regulate cellular proliferation. The ability of VACM-1/CUL5 to inhibit cellular growth is affected by its posttranslational modifications and its localization to the nucleus. Since the mechanism of VACM-1/CUL5 translocation to the nucleus is not clear, the goal of this project was to determine the role that the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) we identified in the VACM-1/CUL5 ((640)PKLKRQ(646)) plays in the cellular localization of VACM-1/CUL5 and its effect on cellular growth. We used site-directed mutagenesis to change Lys642 and Lys644 to Gly and the mutated cDNA constructs were transfected into COS-1 cells. Mutation of the NLS in VACM-1/CUL5 significantly reduced its localization to the nucleus and compromised its effect on cellular growth. We have shown previously that the antiproliferative effect of VACM-1/CUL5 could be reversed by mutation of PKA-specific phosphorylation sequence ((S730A)VACM-1/CUL5), which was associated with its increased nuclear localization and modification by NEDD8. Thus, we examined whether these properties can be controlled by the NLS. The mutation of NLS in (S730A)VACM-1/CUL5 cDNA compromised its proliferative effect and reduced its localization to the nucleus. The immunocytochemistry results showed that, in cells transfected with the mutant cDNAs, the nuclear NEDD8 signal was decreased. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates, however, showed that VACM-1/CUL5 neddylation was not affected. Together, these results suggest that the presence of the NLS, both in VACM-1/CUL5 and in (S730A)VACM-1/CUL5 sequences, is critical for their control of cell proliferation.

  14. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  15. Nanopattern formation using localized plasma for growth of single-standing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Abdi, Yaser

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel method for formation of self-organized single-standing carbon nanotubes by customizing a plasma-based process. The growth of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition provides suitable grounds to utilize plasma-solid interactions for nanopatterning. The bulk plasma is utilized to fabricate carbon nanotubes on the prepatterned Ni catalyst which in turn can confine the plasma to the growth region. The plasma localization leads to a dielectrophoretic force exerted on Ni atoms and can be engineered in order to grow a specific pattern of self-organized single-standing carbon nanotubes. Numerical simulations based on the plasma localization and dielectrophoretic force confirmed the experimental results. This method provides a simple and cost-effective approach to obtain nanopatterned arrays of carbon nanotubes which can be used for fabrication of photonic and phononic crystals, self-gated field emission-based transistors and displays.

  16. The effects of local chemistry on the growth and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jason M.

    Though carbon nanotubes have been actively studied for fifteen years, their interaction with their local environment is still an active area of research. Since every atom in a single-walled nanotube is a surface atom, changes in the local chemistry can have large effects on nanotube properties. This feature has been exploited in a number of attempts at using nanotubes for various sensor applications, but it is important for every application, from transistors to composites. Nanotubes will always feel their environment; and environmental effects must be understood in order to control them. In the course of this thesis research, I have investigated local chemical effects on the growth and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. During the catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes, the transition metal catalyst must remain active. Interactions with the substrate, particularly silicon, can lead to non-catalytic compounds that prevent nanotube growth. By controlling the thickness of the silicon dioxide diffusion barrier, high yield nanotube growth from iron catalysts can be achieved on ultra-thin (>4 nm) oxides. Once the nanotube is placed into an electronic device, local chemistry can again affect the nanotube properties. Using ozone oxidation as a model for covalent functionalization, I show that the disruption of the conjugated pi band in the nanotube lattice leads to drastic reductions in the conductivity. Though there are a large number of other potential causes for the conductivity reduction; the use of several experimental techniques, from electrical transport to optical and electron spectroscopies, enables each of them to be excluded as the dominant processes. The conductivity in a nanotube transistor can also be controlled by the local chemistry. This is demonstrated by functionalizing nanotube transistors with an organic chromophore. Photoisomerization of the chromophore changes the molecular dipole moments and causes a change in the local electrostatic

  17. The SPA2 protein of yeast localizes to sites of cell growth

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A yeast gene, SPA2, was isolated with human anti-spindle pole autoantibodies. The SPA2 gene was fused to the Escherichia coli trpE gene, and polyclonal antibodies were prepared to the fusion protein. Immunofluorescence experiments indicate that the SPA2 gene product has a sharply polarized distribution in yeast cells. In budded cells the SPA2 protein is present at the tip of the bud; in unbudded cells, it is localized to one edge of the cell. When a-cells are induced to form schmoos with alpha-factor, the SPA2 protein is found at the tip of the schmoo. These areas of SPA2 localization correspond to cellular sites expected to be involved in bud formation and/or cell growth. The SPA2 antigen is present in a-cells, alpha-cells, and a/alpha-diploid cells, but is absent in mutant cells in which the SPA2 gene has been disrupted. spa2 mutant cells are viable, but display defects in the direction and control of cell growth. Compared to wild-type cells, spa2 mutant cells have slightly altered budding patterns. Entry into stationary phase is impaired for spa2 mutants, and mutants with one particular allele, spa2-7, form multiple buds under nutrient-limiting conditions. Thus, SPA2 is a newly identified yeast gene that is involved in the direction and control of cell division, and whose gene product localizes to the site of cell growth. PMID:2647769

  18. p27 Nuclear localization and growth arrest caused by perlecan knockdown in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Katsuya; Oka, Kiyomasa; Matsumoto, Kunio; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2010-02-12

    Perlecan, a secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of the vascular basement membrane and participates in angiogenesis. Here, we used small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of perlecan expression to investigate the regulatory function of perlecan in the growth of human vascular endothelial cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced ERK phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression were unchanged by perlecan deficiency in endothelial cells; however, perlecan deficiency inhibited the Rb protein phosphorylation and DNA synthesis induced by bFGF. By contrast to cytoplasmic localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in control endothelial cells, p27 was localized in the nucleus and its expression increased in perlecan-deficient cells, which suggests that p27 mediates inhibition of Rb phosphorylation. In addition to the well-characterized function of perlecan as a co-receptor for heparin-binding growth factors such as bFGF, our results suggest that perlecan plays an indispensible role in endothelial cell proliferation and acts through a mechanism that involves subcellular localization of p27.

  19. Local supersaturation dictated branching and faceting of submicrometer PbS particles with cubic growth habit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhu; Leng, Mei; Liu, Dan; Chen, Fanglin; Li, Chengyu; Wang, Cheng

    2014-11-03

    Hierarchical cubelike submicrometer PbS particles consisting of truncated octahedrons, cuboctahedrons, and cubes were prepared in ethylene glycol solution under favorable high mole ratio of thiourea (Tu) to Pb(AC)2 (R(S/Pb)) via a pumping process. A qualitative analysis based on the classical nucleation theory coupled with the crystal growth theory is employed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena. By varying the concentration of reactants, R(S/Pb), and reaction temperature, it is possible to tune the local supersaturation degree (LSD), which is determined by the number of nuclei and overall growth unit (or concentration), surrounding each growing particle that dictates the branching and faceting of PbS particle. Relatively high LSD that is required for branching growth could be achieved at lower concentration of Tu and reaction temperature. Increasing the concentration of Tu and reaction temperature resulted in less LSD and yielded cubic PbS particles.

  20. Recruitment of myeloid but not endothelial precursor cells facilitates tumor re-growth after local irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Sergey V.; Kamoun, Walid S.; Huang, Yuhui; Dawson, Michelle R.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor neovascularization and growth may be promoted by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which include endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) and “vascular modulatory” myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor re-growth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC recruitment in breast and lung carcinoma xenograft models after local irradiation (LI). We depleted the bone marrow by including whole body irradiation (WBI) of 6Gy as part of a total tumor dose of 21Gy, and compared the growth delay with the one achieved after LI of 21Gy. In both models, including WBI induced longer tumor growth delays. Moreover, including WBI increased lung tumor control probability by LI. Exogenous delivery of BMDCs from radiation-naïve donors partially abrogated the WBI effect. Myeloid BMDCs, primarily macrophages, rapidly accumulated in tumors after LI. Intratumoral expression of SDF-1α, a chemokine that promotes tissue retention of BMDCs, was noted 2 days after LI. Conversely, treatment with an inhibitor of SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 (AMD3100) with LI significantly delayed tumor re-growth. However, when administered starting from 5 days post-LI, AMD3100 treatment was ineffective. Lastly, with restorative bone marrow transplantation of Tie2-GFP-labeled BMDC population we observed an increased number of monocytes but not EPCs in tumors that recurred following LI. Our results suggest that an increase in intratumoral SDF-1α triggered by local irradiation recruits myelomonocyte/macrophage which promote tumor re-growth. PMID:20631066

  1. Global Optimization, Local Adaptation, and the Role of Growth in Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

    2016-09-01

    Highly optimized complex transport networks serve crucial functions in many man-made and natural systems such as power grids and plant or animal vasculature. Often, the relevant optimization functional is nonconvex and characterized by many local extrema. In general, finding the global, or nearly global optimum is difficult. In biological systems, it is believed that such an optimal state is slowly achieved through natural selection. However, general coarse grained models for flow networks with local positive feedback rules for the vessel conductivity typically get trapped in low efficiency, local minima. In this work we show how the growth of the underlying tissue, coupled to the dynamical equations for network development, can drive the system to a dramatically improved optimal state. This general model provides a surprisingly simple explanation for the appearance of highly optimized transport networks in biology such as leaf and animal vasculature.

  2. Predicting change in children's aggression and victimization using classroom-level descriptive norms of aggression and pro-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Sterett H; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E

    2009-08-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed.

  3. A prospective study of reduced-dose three-course CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy for patients 70 years old or more with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, Naoto . E-mail: shikama@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Oguchi, Masahiko; Isobe, Koichi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Tamaki, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kodaira, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Kagami, Yoshikazu

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We conducted a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced-dose three-course CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) followed by involved-field radiotherapy for elderly patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary endpoint was compliance with the combined modality. Methods and Materials: This study included untreated patients, {>=}70 years old, with diffuse aggressive lymphoma, Stage IA or contiguous nonbulky Stage IIA. 80%-CHOP (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m{sup 2}, doxorubicin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, vincristine 1.1 mg/m{sup 2}, and prednisolone at 80 mg/day for 5 days) was repeated every 3 weeks. After three cycles of chemotherapy, involved-field radiotherapy was performed with a radiation dose of 30-50 Gy in 15-28 fractions. Results: Twenty-four patients with a median age of 75 years (range, 70-84 years) were enrolled. The compliance rate of the protocol study was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.6-97.3). Three patients received only two cycles of chemotherapy because of toxicity or second neoplasm. There were no deaths caused by severe toxicity. The 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 83.1% (95% CI, 75.4-90.8) and 82.9% (95% CI, 75.1-90.6), respectively. Conclusion: Three-course 80%-CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy may be safe for administration to elderly patients over 70 years old. The next step is to evaluate three-course 80%-CHOP and rituximab followed by radiotherapy in elderly patients with localized disease.

  4. Neural Progenitor Cells Promote Axonal Growth and Alter Axonal mRNA Localization in Adult Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Jin, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures. This growth-promoting effect of NPC-conditioned medium was also seen in injury-conditioned neurons. DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs showed altered expression of regeneration-associated genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We found that levels of GAP-43 mRNA increased in DRG cell bodies and axons. However, hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) mRNA decreased in the cell bodies of DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs, which is distinct from the increase in cell body HAMP mRNA levels seen in DRGs after injury conditioning. Endogenous GAP-43 and β-actin mRNAs as well as reporter RNAs carrying axonally localizing 3'UTRs of these transcripts showed significantly increased levels in distal axons in the DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs. These results indicate that axon growth promoted by NPCs is associated not only with enhanced transcription of growth-associated genes but also can increase localization of some mRNAs into growing axons. PMID:28197547

  5. A Case Report of Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy: Do Hormones Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi-Son; Vitez, Sally F.; Van Gurp, James; Misra, Neeti

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive tumor that generally affects the perineum and pelvis of reproductive age females. Aggressive angiomyxoma is often misdiagnosed, resulting in the delay of the treatment. Case reports show increased growth of the tumor during pregnancy, thus suggesting a hormonal dependency. We report this rare condition in a 29-year-old primigravid female with a growing mass on the right labium majus at 20 weeks' gestation. The patient also developed a smaller mass on the left labium majus at 37 weeks' gestation. The patient underwent a primary cesarean section with resection of the right labial mass, with a final diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma. The lesion on her left labium majus resolved spontaneously postpartum. This case report supports a hormonal involvement in this tumor. PMID:27974982

  6. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  7. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  8. Co-localization of growth QTL with differentially expressed candidate genes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kocmarek, Andrea L; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2015-09-01

    We tested whether genes differentially expressed between large and small rainbow trout co-localized with familial QTL regions for body size. Eleven chromosomes, known from previous work to house QTL for weight and length in rainbow trout, were examined for QTL in half-sibling families produced in September (1 XY male and 1 XX neomale) and December (1 XY male). In previous studies, we identified 108 candidate genes for growth expressed in the liver and white muscle in a subset of the fish used in this study. These gene sequences were BLASTN aligned against the rainbow trout and stickleback genomes to determine their location (rainbow trout) and inferred location based on synteny with the stickleback genome. Across the progeny of all three males used in the study, 63.9% of the genes with differential expression appear to co-localize with the QTL regions on 6 of the 11 chromosomes tested in these males. Genes that co-localized with QTL in the mixed-sex offspring of the two XY males primarily showed up-regulation in the muscle of large fish and were related to muscle growth, metabolism, and the stress response.

  9. Dissection of Ras-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Aggressive Tumor Growth of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells: Evidence for a Potential Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Plattner, Rina; Der, Channing J.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of multiple signaling pathways is required to trigger the full spectrum of in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits associated with neoplastic transformation by oncogenic Ras. To determine which of these pathways are important for N-ras tumorigenesis in human cancer cells and also to investigate the possibility of cross talk among the pathways, we have utilized a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), which contains an endogenous mutated allele of the N-ras gene, and its derivative (MCH603c8), which lacks the mutant N-ras allele. We have stably transfected MCH603c8 and HT1080 cells with activating or dominant-negative mutant cDNAs, respectively, of various components of the Raf, Rac, and RhoA pathways. In previous studies with these cell lines we showed that loss of mutant Ras function results in dramatic changes in the in vitro phenotypic traits and conversion to a weakly tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. We report here that only overexpression of activated MEK contributed significantly to the conversion of MCH603c8 cells to an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking the constitutive activation of the Raf-MEK, Rac, or RhoA pathway alone is not sufficient to block the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype of HT1080, despite affecting a number of in vitro-transformed phenotypic traits. We have also demonstrated the possibility of bidirectional cross talk between the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and the Rac-JNK or RhoA pathway. Finally, overexpression of activated MEK in MCH603c8 cells appears to result in the activation of an as-yet-unidentified target(s) that is critical for the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:11094080

  10. Organization and chromosomal localization of the human platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, K; Stenman, G; Honda, H; Sahlin, P; Andersson, A; Miyazono, K; Heldin, C H; Ishikawa, F; Takaku, F

    1991-01-01

    Human platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (hPD-ECGF) is a novel angiogenic factor which stimulates endothelial cell growth in vitro and promotes angiogenesis in vivo. We report here the cloning and sequencing of the gene for hPD-ECGF and its flanking regions. This gene is composed of 10 exons dispersed over a 4.3-kb region. Its promoter lacks a TATA box and a CCAAT box, structures characteristic of eukaryotic promoters. Instead, six copies of potential Sp1-binding sites (GGGCGG or CCGCCC) were clustered just upstream of the transcription start sites. Southern blot analysis using genomic DNAs from several vertebrates suggested that the gene for PD-ECGF is conserved phylogenetically among vertebrates. The gene for hPD-ECGF was localized to chromosome 22 by analysis of a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines. Images PMID:2005900

  11. Saturation of SRS-LDI with Non-local Growth of SRS Driven Electron Plasma Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, A.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.

    2000-10-01

    Experimental observations have shown the coupling of SRS and Langmuir decay interaction (LDI), in ICF experiments where the SRS backscattering is dependent on the damping of ion acoustic waves.(Juan P. Fernandez, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.) 77, 2702 (1996); R. K. Kirkwood, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 13, (1996). A model 3-wave interaction equations for LDI with a growing EPW (driven by SRS) and its non-local Landau damping, gives a simple description of the effect of LDI on the saturation of SRS and its dependence on IAW damping. ( A. Salcedo, A. Bers, A. K. Ram, in Proc. 1st IFSA), Bordeaux, France (1999), pp. 343-348. We present results on the extension of this model to include the non-local growth of the SRS driven EPW, and a comparison with simulations of the full five-wave interaction equations for SRS coupled to LDI. (J. A. Heikkinen, J. Karttunen, Phys. Fluids) 29 (4), (1986).

  12. The Pasinetti-Solow Growth Model with Optimal Saving Behaviour: A Local Bifurcation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendatore, P.; Palmisani, C.

    We present a discrete time version of the Pasinetti-Solow economic growth model. Workers and capitalists are assumed to save on the basis of rational choices. Workers face a finite time horizon and base their consumption choices on a life-cycle motive, whereas capitalists behave like an infinitely-lived dynasty. The accumulation of both capitalists' and workers' wealth through time is reduced to a two-dimensional map whose local asymptotic stability properties are studied. Various types of bifurcation emerge (flip, Neimark-Sacker, saddle-node and transcritical): a precondition for chaotic dynamics.

  13. Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor Expression Is Associated with NOTCH1 Mutation, Trisomy 12 and Aggressive Clinical Course in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Maura, Francesco; Mosca, Laura; Fabris, Sonia; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Barbieri, Marzia; D’Anca, Marianna; Manzoni, Martina; Colombo, Monica; Massucco, Carlotta; Reverberi, Daniele; Gentile, Massimo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Bossio, Sabrina; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Musolino, Caterina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Morabito, Fortunato; Ferrarini, Manlio; Neri, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    IGF1R is emerging as an important gene in the pathogenesis of many solid and haematological cancers and its over-expression has been reported as frequently associated with aggressive disease and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we performed an investigation of the role of IGF1R expression in a large and representative prospective series of 217 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients enrolled in the multicentre O-CLL1 protocol (clinicaltrial.gov #NCT00917540). High IGF1R gene expression was significantly associated with IGHV unmutated (IGHV-UM) status (p<0.0001), high CD38 expression (p<0.0001), trisomy 12 (p<0.0001), and del(11)(q23) (p=0.014). Interestingly, higher IGF1R expression (p=0.002) characterized patients with NOTCH1 mutation (c.7541_7542delCT), identified in 15.5% of cases of our series by next generation sequencing and ARMS-PCR. Furthermore, IGF1R expression has been proven as an independent prognostic factor associated with time to first treatment in our CLL prospective cohort. These data suggest that IGF1R may play an important role in CLL biology, in particular in aggressive CLL clones characterized by IGHV-UM, trisomy 12 and NOTCH1 mutation. PMID:25786252

  14. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  15. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  16. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  17. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  18. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  19. ESCRT-II controls retinal axon growth by regulating DCC receptor levels and local protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Konopacki, Filip A; Wong, Hovy Ho-Wai; Dwivedy, Asha; Bellon, Anaïs; Blower, Michael D; Holt, Christine E

    2016-04-01

    Endocytosis and local protein synthesis (LPS) act coordinately to mediate the chemotropic responses of axons, but the link between these two processes is poorly understood. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a key regulator of cargo sorting in the endocytic pathway, and here we have investigated the role of ESCRT-II, a critical ESCRT component, in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. We show that ESCRT-II is present in RGC axonal growth cones (GCs) where it co-localizes with endocytic vesicle GTPases and, unexpectedly, with the Netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). ESCRT-II knockdown (KD) decreases endocytosis and, strikingly, reduces DCC in GCs and leads to axon growth and guidance defects. ESCRT-II-depleted axons fail to turn in response to a Netrin-1 gradient in vitro and many axons fail to exit the eye in vivo These defects, similar to Netrin-1/DCC loss-of-function phenotypes, can be rescued in whole (in vitro) or in part (in vivo) by expressing DCC. In addition, ESCRT-II KD impairs LPS in GCs and live imaging reveals that ESCRT-II transports mRNAs in axons. Collectively, our results show that the ESCRT-II-mediated endocytic pathway regulates both DCC and LPS in the axonal compartment and suggest that ESCRT-II aids gradient sensing in GCs by coupling endocytosis to LPS.

  20. In Silico Investigation of Angiogenesis with Growth and Stress Generation Coupled to Local Extracellular Matrix Density

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Lowell T.; Hoying, James B.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical interactions during angiogenesis, i.e., traction applied by neovessels to the extracellular matrix and the corresponding deformation, are important regulators of growth and neovascularization. We have previously designed, implemented, and validated a coupled model of angiogenesis in which a discrete microvessel growth model interacts with a continuous finite element mesh through the application of local remodeling sprout stresses (Edgar et al. in Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2014). However, the initial implementation of this framework does not take matrix density into account when determined these remodeling stresses and is therefore insufficient for the study of angiogenesis within heterogeneous matrix environments such as those found in vivo. The objective of this study was to implement sensitivity to matrix density in the active stress generation within AngioFE in order to allow the study of angiogenic growth within a heterogeneous density environment. We accomplished this by scaling active sprout stresses relative to local matrix density using a scaling factor previously determined from experimental data. We then exercised the new functionality of the model by simulating angiogenesis within four different scenarios: homogeneous density, a narrow gap model, and matrix density gradient, and a construct subjected to repeated loading/unloading and preconditioning. These numerical experiments predicted heterogeneous matrix density in the initially homogeneous case, the closure and alignment of microvessels along a low-density gap, the formation of a unique cap-like structure during angiogenesis within a density gradient, and the alignment of microvessels in the absence of applied load due to preconditioning. The result of these in silico investigations demonstrate how matrix heterogeneity affects neovascularization and matrix deformation and provides a platform for studying angiogenesis in complicated and multi-faceted mechanical environments that

  1. Subtle Gardeners: Inland Predators Enrich Local Topsoils and Enhance Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fedriani, José M.; Garrote, Pedro José; Delgado, María del Mar; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Inland vertebrate predators could enrich of nutrients the local top soils in the area surrounding their nests and dens by depositing faeces, urine, and prey remains and, thus, alter the dynamics of plant populations. Surprisingly, and in contrast with convincing evidence from coastal habitats, whether and how this phenomenon occurs in inland habitats is largely uncertain even though these habitats represent a major fraction of the earth's surface. We investigated during two consecutive breeding seasons the potential enrichment of the top-soils associated with inland ground-nesting eagle owls Bubo bubo, as well as its possible consequences in the growth of two common annual grasses in southern Spain. Top-soils associated with owl nests differed strongly and significantly from control top-soils in chemical parameters, mainly fertility-related properties. Specifically, levels of available phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic matter, and available potassium were 49.1, 5.6, 3.1, and 2.7 times higher, respectively, in top-soils associated with owl nests as compared to control top-soils. Germination experiments in chambers indicated that nutrient enrichment by nesting owls enhanced seedling growth in both annual grasses (Phalaris canariensis and Avena sativa), with seedling size being 1.4–1.3 times higher in owl nest top-soils than in control top-soils. Our experimental study revealed that pervasive inland, predatory birds can profoundly enrich the topsoil around their nests and, thus, potentially enhance local vegetation growth. Because diverse inland vertebrate predators are widespread in most habitats they have a strong potential to enhance spatial heterogeneity, impinge on plant communities, and exert an overlooked effect on primary productivity worldwide. PMID:26383647

  2. TOR signaling regulates planarian stem cells and controls localized and organismal growth.

    PubMed

    Peiris, T Harshani; Weckerle, Frank; Ozamoto, Elyse; Ramirez, Daniel; Davidian, Devon; García-Ojeda, Marcos E; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2012-04-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) controls an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that modulates cellular growth and division by sensing levels of nutrients, energy and stress. As such, TOR signaling is a crucial component of tissues and organs that translates systemic signals into cellular behavior. The ubiquitous nature of TOR signaling, together with the difficulty of analyzing tissue during cellular turnover and repair, have limited our understanding of how this kinase operates throughout the body. Here, we use the planarian model system to address TOR regulation at the organismal level. The planarian TOR homolog (Smed-TOR) is ubiquitously expressed, including stem cells (neoblasts) and differentiated tissues. Inhibition of TOR with RNA interference severely restricts cell proliferation, allowing the study of neoblasts with restricted proliferative capacity during regeneration and systemic cell turnover. Strikingly, TOR signaling is required for neoblast response to amputation and localized growth (blastema). However, in the absence of TOR signaling, regeneration takes place only within differentiated tissues. In addition, TOR is essential for maintaining the balance between cell division and cell death, and its dysfunction leads to tissue degeneration and lack of organismal growth in the presence of nutrients. Finally, TOR function is likely to be mediated through TOR Complex 1 as its disruption recapitulates signs of the TOR phenotype. Our data reveal novel roles for TOR signaling in controlling adult stem cells at a systemic level and suggest a new paradigm for studying TOR function during physiological turnover and regeneration.

  3. Global and local current sheet thickness estimates during the late growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Mcpherron, Robert L.; Huang, C. Y.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    The thinning and intensification of the cross tail current sheet during the substorm growth phase are analyzed during the CDAW 6 substorm (22 Mar. 1979) using two complementary methods. The magnetic field and current sheet development are determined using data from two spacecraft and a global magnetic field model with several free parameters. These results are compared with the local calculation of the current sheet location and structure previously done by McPherron et al. Both methods lead to the conclusion that an extremely thin current sheet existed prior to the substorm onset, and the thicknesses estimated by the two methods at substorm onset agree relatively well. The plasma data from the ISEE 1 spacecraft at 13 R(sub E) show an anisotropy in the low energy electrons during the growth phase which disappears just before the substorm onset. The global magnetic model results suggest that the field is sufficiently stretched to scatter such low energy electrons. The strong stretching may improve the conditions for the growth of the ion tearing instability in the near Earth tail at substorm onset.

  4. Local acting Sticky-trap inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor dependent pathological angiogenesis in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Iacovos P; Westenskow, Peter D; Hacibekiroglu, Sabiha; Greenwald, Alissa Cohen; Ballios, Brian G; Kurihara, Toshihide; Li, Zhijie; Warren, Carmen M; Zhang, Puzheng; Aguilar, Edith; Donaldson, Laura; Marchetti, Valentina; Baba, Takeshi; Hussein, Samer M; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Rini, James M; van der Kooy, Derek; Friedlander, Martin; Nagy, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Current therapeutic antiangiogenic biologics used for the treatment of pathological ocular angiogenesis could have serious side effects due to their interference with normal blood vessel physiology. Here, we report the generation of novel antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) biologics, termed VEGF “Sticky-traps,” with unique properties that allow for local inhibition of angiogenesis without detectable systemic side effects. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrated that Sticky-traps could locally inhibit angiogenesis to at least the same extent as the original VEGF-trap that also gains whole-body access. Sticky-traps did not cause systemic effects, as shown by uncompromised wound healing and normal tracheal vessel density. Moreover, if injected intravitreally, recombinant Sticky-trap remained localized to various regions of the eye, such as the inner-limiting membrane and ciliary body, for prolonged time periods, without gaining access either to the photoreceptors/choriocapillaris area or the circulation. These unique pharmacological characteristics of Sticky-trap could allow for safe treatment of pathological angiogenesis in patients with diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of pre-maturity. PMID:24705878

  5. The growth of aspherical structure in the universe - Is the Local Supercluster an unusual system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. D. M.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    The growth and subsequent collapse of homogeneous ellipsoidal perturbations in a uniform expanding background is considered as a simple model for the formation of large-scale aspherical structures in the observed universe. Numerical calculations of the evolution of such perturbations turn out to be well described by an approximate analytic solution of the equations of motion, and simple relationships are found between the initial shape of a perturbation and its shape and kinematic properties at the time of collapse. Perturbations do not change their shape significantly until they reach a density contrast of order unity. As a result, structures with the kinematic properties of the Local Supercluster should form much more commonly in a low-density universe than in a flat universe. The homogeneity of the local Hubble flow, the motion of the Milky Way with respect to the microwave background, and the flattening of the Local Supercluster can be successfully accounted for by these models, provided that the initial perturbation is sufficiently flattened. Viable models are obtained only if the ratio of the lengths of the two smaller axes of the initial perturbation is at least 3:1 in an Einstein-de Sitter universe or at least 1.8:1 in a universe for which the density parameter (Omega) is of order 0.1, when the protocluster pancakes.

  6. Testing the role of phenotypic plasticity for local adaptation: growth and development in time-constrained Rana temporaria populations.

    PubMed

    Lind, M I; Johansson, F

    2011-12-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be important for local adaptation, because it enables individuals to survive in a novel environment until genetic changes have been accumulated by genetic accommodation. By analysing the relationship between development rate and growth rate, it can be determined whether plasticity in life-history traits is caused by changed physiology or behaviour. We extended this to examine whether plasticity had been aiding local adaptation, by investigating whether the plastic response had been fixed in locally adapted populations. Tadpoles from island populations of Rana temporaria, locally adapted to different pool-drying regimes, were monitored in a common garden. Individual differences in development rate were caused by different foraging efficiency. However, developmental plasticity was physiologically mediated by trading off growth against development rate. Surprisingly, plasticity has not aided local adaptation to time-stressed environments, because local adaptation was not caused by genetic assimilation but on selection on the standing genetic variation in development time.

  7. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  8. Layer-controlled stylolite growth and the creation and destruction of local seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Pataki Rood, Daisy; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Aleksans, Janis; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    is destroyed. Stage one represents the nucleation of the stylolite in the layer and its initial growth until it reaches the boundaries of the layer. Typically the initial roughness development leads to a local variation of the position of the stylolite interface with respect to the upper or lower boundary of the layer. Stage two is represented by successive fast growth that is controlled by the pinning layer and the stylolite develops pronounced teeth. Stage three happens in cases where the layer disappears because it is also slowly dissolving. Once the layer is gone stylolite growth basically stops except for local variations in shape and rounding of teeth edges. The developing geometries influence the sealing capacity of stylolites significantly: collection of slow dissolving material in the stylolite does produce a potential seal, offset of a sealing layer due to pinning effects of that layer and the development of teeth can destroy the seal because of leakage across teeth sides and the destruction of a pinning layer due to dissolution destroys the seal completely.

  9. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  10. Growth and regression in bovine corpora lutea: regulation by local survival and death pathways.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, D J; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Lukasik, K; Galvão, A; Farberov, S; Zalman, Y; Meidan, R

    2013-09-01

    The bovine corpus luteum (CL) is a transient gland with a life span of only 18 days in the cyclic cow. Mechanisms controlling CL development and secretory function may involve factors produced both within and outside this gland. Although luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is the main trigger of ovulation and granulosa cells luteinization, many locally produced agents such as arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, growth factors and cytokines were shown to complement gonadotropins action in the process of CL development. Bovine CL is a highly vascular gland, where the very rapid angiogenesis rate (until Day 5 of the cycle) results in the development of a capillary network, endowing this gland with one of the highest blood flow rate per unit mass in the body. Angiogenesis in the developing CL is later followed by either controlled regression of the microvascular tree in the non-fertile cycle or maintenance and stabilization of the blood vessels, as seen during pregnancy. Different luteal cell types (both steroidogenic and accessory luteal cells: immune cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and fibroblasts) are involved in the pro- and/or anti-angiogenic responses. The balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic responses to the main luteolysin - prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) could be decisive in whether or not PGF2α induces CL regression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) may be one of the factors that modulate the angiogenic response to PGF2α. Manipulation of local production and action of FGF2 will provide new tools for reproductive management of dairy cattle. Luteolysis is characterized by a rapid decrease in progesterone production, followed by structural regression. Factors like endothelin-1, cytokines (tumour necrosis factorα, interferons) and nitric oxide were all shown to play critical roles in functional and structural regression of the CL by inhibiting steroidogenesis and inducting apoptosis.

  11. Localized CO2 Laser Treatment for Mitigation of 3(omega) Damage Growth in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R M; Penetrante, B M; Butler, J A; Hrubesh, L W

    2001-12-07

    A technique for inhibiting the growth of laser-induced surface damage on fused silica, initiated and propagated at the 351 nm laser wavelength, has been investigated. The technique exposes the damage sites to single pulses of a CO{sub 2} laser operating at the 10.6 {micro}m wavelength at or near beam focus. This method results in a very localized treatment of the laser damage site and modifies the site such that laser damage does not propagate further. A laser damage site initiated with a single pulse of 355 nm laser light at {approx} 45 J cm{sup -2} and 7.5 ns pulse duration grows rapidly upon further illumination at 8 J cm{sup -2} with 100% probability. Treatment of these sites with single pulses of 10.6 {micro}m laser light for one second at a power level of between 17 and 37 Watts with a beam diameter of 5 mm alters the damage site such that it does not grow with subsequent 351 nm laser illumination at 8 J cm{sup -2} 10 ns pulse duration for > 1000 shots. The technique has been found to be 100% effective at stopping the growth of the laser damage.

  12. An object localization optimization technique in medical images using plant growth simulation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Deblina; Paul, Anand; Kim, Jeong Hong; Kim, Mucheol

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of leukocyte images has drawn interest from fields of both medicine and computer vision for quite some time where different techniques have been applied to automate the process of manual analysis and classification of such images. Manual analysis of blood samples to identify leukocytes is time-consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells. In this article, the nature-inspired plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied to optimize the image processing technique of object localization of medical images of leukocytes. This paper presents a random bionic algorithm for the automated detection of white blood cells embedded in cluttered smear and stained images of blood samples that uses a fitness function that matches the resemblances of the generated candidate solution to an actual leukocyte. The set of candidate solutions evolves via successive iterations as the proposed algorithm proceeds, guaranteeing their fit with the actual leukocytes outlined in the edge map of the image. The higher precision and sensitivity of the proposed scheme from the existing methods is validated with the experimental results of blood cell images. The proposed method reduces the feasible sets of growth points in each iteration, thereby reducing the required run time of load flow, objective function evaluation, thus reaching the goal state in minimum time and within the desired constraints.

  13. Local Competition Between Foraging Relatives: Growth and Survival of Bruchid Beetle Larvae.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Tregenza, Tom

    2008-09-01

    Kin selection theory states that when resources are limited and all else is equal, individuals will direct competition away from kin. However, when competition between relatives is completely local, as is the case in granivorous insects whose larval stages spend their lives within a single seed, this can reduce or even negate the kin-selected benefits. Instead, an increase in competition may have the same detrimental effects on individuals that forage with kin as those that forage with non-kin. In a factorial experiment we assessed the effects of relatedness and competition over food on the survival and on fitness-related traits of the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Relatedness of competitors did not affect the survival of larvae. Larval survival substantially decreased with increasing larval density, and we found evidence that beetles maturing at a larger size were more adversely affected by competition, resulting in lower survival rates. Furthermore, females showed a reduction in their growth rate with increasing larval density, emerging smaller after the same development time. Males increased their growth rate, emerging earlier but at a similar size when food was more limited. Our results add to the growing number of studies that fail to show a relationship between relatedness and a reduction in competition between relatives in closed systems, and emphasize the importance of the scale at which competition between relatives occurs.

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 activation by stimulated macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, H.; Vodovotz, Y.; Cox, G. W.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) is secreted in a latent form consisting of mature TGF-beta noncovalently associated with its amino-terminal propeptide, which is called latency associated peptide (LAP). Biological activity depends upon the release of TGF-beta from the latent complex following extracellular activation, which appears to be the key regulatory mechanism controlling TGF-beta action. We have identified two events associated with latent TGF-beta (LTGF-beta) activation in vivo: increased immunoreactivity of certain antibodies that specifically detect TGF-beta concomitant with decreased immunoreactivity of antibodies to LAP. Macrophages stimulated in vitro with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide reportedly activate LTGF-beta via cell membrane-bound protease activity. We show through dual immunostaining of paraformaldehyde-fixed macrophages that such physiological TGF-beta activation is accompanied by a loss of LAP immunoreactivity with concomitant revelation of TGF-beta epitopes. The induction of TGF-beta immunoreactivity colocalized with immunoreactive betaglycan/RIII in activated macrophages, suggesting that LTGF-beta activation occurs on the cell surface. Confocal microscopy of metabolically active macrophages incubated with antibodies to TGF-beta and betaglycan/RIII prior to fixation supported the localization of activation to the cell surface. The ability to specifically detect and localize LTGF-beta activation provides an important tool for studies of its regulation.

  15. Locally applied nerve growth factor enhances bone consolidation in a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shuxia; Liu, Baolin; Lei, Delin; Zhao, Yinghua; Lu, Chao; Tan, Aixing

    2006-12-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is widely used in treating deformities, defects, and fractures of both long bones and craniofacial bones. Demands for acceleration of bone consolidation are increased in distraction osteogenesis. Nerve growth factor (NGF) can enhance innervation and bone regeneration in a fracture model and stimulate differentiation of osteoblastic cells. In this study, we tested the ability of locally applied NGF to enhance bone regeneration in a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Twenty rabbits underwent bilateral distraction osteogenesis with a rate of 0.5 mm per 12 h. Two times 0.04 mg human NGFbeta (hNGFbeta) in buffer was injected into the callus after distraction. The contralateral side received placebo injections. Rabbits were euthanized at consolidation times of 14 and 28 days. Specimens were subjected to radiography, callus dimensions measurement, mechanical testing, and bone histological and histomorphometric analysis. The maximum load, bone volume/total volume, mineral apposition rate of the 1st to 11th day, and mineralized bone percentage were significantly higher in the hNGFbeta side at 14 and 28 days (p<0.05). The data indicate that locally applied hNGFbeta can accelerate callus maturation and may be an option to shorten the consolidation period in distraction osteogenesis.

  16. A 3D-printed local drug delivery patch for pancreatic cancer growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hee-Gyeong; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Pati, Ruby Gupta; Park, Moon Nyeo; Shim, In Kyong; Lee, Chan Mi; Kim, Song Cheol; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-09-28

    Since recurrence and metastasis of pancreatic cancer has a worse prognosis, chemotherapy has been typically performed to attack the remained malignant cells after resection. However, it is difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentration at the tumor site with systemic chemotherapy. Numerous local drug delivery systems have been studied to overcome the shortcomings of systemic delivery. However, because most systems involve dissolution of the drug within the carrier, the concentration of the drug is limited to the saturation solubility, and consequently cannot reach the sufficient drug dose. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3D printing of a biodegradable patch incorporated with a high drug concentration would provide a versatile shape to be administered at the exact tumor site as well as an appropriate therapeutic drug concentration with a controlled release. Here, we introduce the 3D-printed patches composed of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide), polycaprolactone, and 5-fluorouracil for delivering the anti-cancer drug in a prolonged controlled manner and therapeutic dose. 3D printing technology can manipulate the geometry of the patch and the drug release kinetics. The patches were flexible, and released the drug over four weeks, and thereby suppressed growth of the subcutaneous pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice with minimized side effects. Our approach reveals that 3D printing of bioabsorbable implants containing anti-cancer drugs could be a powerful method for an effective local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to treatment of cancers.

  17. Ash1 Protein, an Asymmetrically Localized Transcriptional Regulator, Controls Filamentous Growth and Virulence of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, Diane O.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2002-01-01

    In response to a number of distinct environmental conditions, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a morphological transition from a round, yeast form to a series of elongated, filamentous forms. This transition is believed to be critical for virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Here we describe the characterization of C. albicans ASH1, a gene that encodes an asymmetrically localized transcriptional regulatory protein involved in this response. We show that C. albicans ash1 mutants are defective in responding to some filament-inducing conditions. We also show that Ash1p is preferentially localized to daughter cell nuclei in the budding-yeast form of C. albicans cell growth and to the hyphal tip cells in growing filaments. Thus, Ash1p “marks” newly formed cells and presumably directs a specialized transcriptional program in these cells. Finally, we show that ASH1 is required for full virulence of C. albicans in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. PMID:12446785

  18. Local Heterozygosity Effects on Nestling Growth and Condition in the Great Cormorant.

    PubMed

    Minias, Piotr; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Robert; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof

    Under inbreeding, heterozygosity at neutral genetic markers is likely to reflect genome-wide heterozygosity and, thus, is expected to correlate with fitness. There is, however, growing evidence that some of heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) can be explained by 'local effects', where noncoding loci are at linkage disequilibrium with functional genes. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between heterozygosity at seven microsatellite loci and two fitness-related traits, nestling growth rate and nutritional condition, in a recently bottlenecked population of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. We found that heterozygosity was positively associated with both nestling traits at the between-brood level, but the individual (within-brood) effects of heterozygosity were non-significant. We also found that only one locus per trait was primarily responsible for the significant multi-locus HFCs, suggesting a linkage disequilibrium with non-identified functional loci. The results give support for 'local effect' hypothesis, confirming that HFCs may not only be interpreted as evidence of inbreeding and that genetic associations between functional and selectively neutral markers could be much more common in natural populations than previously thought.

  19. Age, genotype and sex effects on growth performance of local chickens kept under improved management in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Kayang, Boniface B; Naazie, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    Characterisation of animal genetic resources has been recognised globally as an important step towards their sustainable use. Body weight data of local chickens (213 forest and 160 savannah chickens) and 183 French free-ranging SASSO T44 chickens kept under improved management were collected from hatch to 40 weeks of age and analysed to determine the effects of age, genotype and sex on their growth performance. At all ages, SASSO T44 chickens had significantly (P<0.05) higher weights (2.6-3.2 kg at 28 weeks) than the local chickens (1.2-1.7 kg at 28 weeks). The rate of growth at the earlier ages in the local genotypes (5.57-7.80 g/day) was lower than the range of 13.81-15.42 in SASSO T44 chickens. Except at hatch, savannah chickens were significantly heavier (P<0.05) than the forest chickens at all ages. Male chickens had significantly (P<0.05) superior growth rates than females across all genotypes except from the 20th to the 28th week. Growth trends in both sexes depicted linear increase in body weights; however, the rate of increase in body weights was higher in males as compared to females, thus showing clear sexual dimorphism. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the growth rates of SASSO T44 chickens and local genotypes at the later ages (20-28 weeks). Local chickens from the savannah zone had better growth rate than forest chickens. The significant effect of ecozone on the growth potential of local chickens is an indication that their productive potential could be improved through interventions in the environment such as provision of feed and some veterinary care.

  20. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  1. The TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor, Palomid 529, reduces tumor growth and sensitizes to docetaxel and cisplatin in aggressive and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Marampon, Francesco; Petini, Foteini; Biordi, Leda; Sherris, David; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Festuccia, Claudio

    2011-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is the development of chemo-resistant tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Palomid 529 (P529), a novel TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor, in association with docetaxel (DTX) and cisplatin (CP). This work utilizes a wide panel of prostatic cancer cell lines with or without basal activation of Akt as well as two in vivo models of aggressive HRPC. The blockade of Akt/mTOR activity was associated to reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Comparison of IC50 values calculated for PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative cell lines as well as the PTEN transfection in PC3 cells or PTEN silencing in DU145 cells revealed that absence of PTEN was indicative for a better activity of the drug. In addition, P529 synergized with DTX and CP. The strongest synergism was achieved when prostate cancer (PCa) cells were sequentially exposed to CP or DTX followed by treatment with P529. Treatment with P529 before the exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs resulted in a moderate synergism, whereas intermediated values of combination index were found when drugs were administered simultaneously. In vivo treatment of a combination of P529 with DTX or CP increased the percentage of complete responses and reduced the number of mice with tumor progression. Our results provide a rationale for combinatorial treatment using conventional chemotherapy and a Akt/mTOR inhibitor as promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of HRPC, a disease largely resistant to conventional therapies.

  2. Postdiffusion of oligo-peptide within exponential growth multilayer films for localized peptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefei; Ji, Jian

    2009-10-06

    efficient than the equivalent amount of free TAT peptide in the TAT uptake test. The postdiffusion of oligo-peptide within an exponential growth multilayer can serve as an effective approach for localized and sustained peptide delivery.

  3. Deficiency of the Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Impairs mRNA Localization and Local Translation in the Growth Cone of Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fallini, Claudia; Donlin-Asp, Paul G.; Rouanet, Jeremy P.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting spinal motor neurons. It is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in all tissues. The etiology of the specific defects in the motor circuitry in SMA is still unclear, but SMN has also been implicated in mediating the axonal localization of mRNA-protein complexes, which may contribute to the axonal degeneration observed in SMA. Here, we report that SMN deficiency severely disrupts local protein synthesis within neuronal growth cones. We also identify the cytoskeleton-associated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) mRNA as a new target of SMN and show that motor neurons from SMA mouse models have reduced levels of GAP43 mRNA and protein in axons and growth cones. Importantly, overexpression of two mRNA-binding proteins, HuD and IMP1, restores GAP43 mRNA and protein levels in growth cones and rescues axon outgrowth defects in SMA neurons. These findings demonstrate that SMN plays an important role in the localization and local translation of mRNAs with important axonal functions and suggest that disruption of this function may contribute to the axonal defects observed in SMA. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays a key role in assembling RNA/protein complexes that are essential for mRNA splicing. It remains unclear whether defects in this well characterized housekeeping function cause the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons observed in SMA. Here, we describe an additional role of SMN in regulating the axonal localization and local translation of the mRNA encoding growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). This study supports a model whereby SMN deficiency impedes transport and local translation of mRNAs important for neurite

  4. Moderating effects of family environment on the association between children’s aggressive beliefs and their aggression trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ANDREAS, JASMINA BURDZOVIC; WATSON, MALCOLM W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how children’s aggressive beliefs and their family environments combine to influence the development of child aggression from middle childhood into adolescence. We utilized a “variable-centered” empirical approach, specifically examining whether children’s aggressive beliefs represent a risk factor for their aggressive behaviors and whether this risk can be moderated by children’s family environment. These questions were tested with individual growth modeling, using the data from a community-representative sample of 440 mother–child dyads, interviewed four times over a 6-year study period. The accelerated longitudinal design of the study enabled examination of children’s aggression trajectories from age 7 to age 19. The results supported the hypothesis that elevated aggressive beliefs in children represent a risk factor for aggression, as higher aggressive beliefs were associated with greater aggression at the youngest age, as well as with increased aggression over time. However, as hypothesized, family environment moderated this association, such that changes in children’s aggression over time were contingent upon the interaction of their aggressive beliefs with family environment. Specifically, aggression was reduced in children with high aggressive beliefs if they experienced better than average family environment, which included less family conflict and more family cohesion. PMID:19144230

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  6. The development of aggression during adolescence: Sex differences in trajectories of physical and social aggression among youth in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the development of social aggression over time or described trajectories of aggressive behaviors for youth living in rural areas. We compared the timing and patterns of physical and social aggression and examined sex differences in development using five waves of in-school surveys administered over 2.5 years. The sample (N=5151) was 50.0% female, 52.1% white and 38.2% African-American. At baseline the average age was 13.1 years. Multilevel growth curve models showed that physical and social aggression followed curvilinear trajectories from ages 11 to 18, with increases in each type of aggression followed by subsequent declines. Physical aggression peaked around age 15; social aggression peaked around age 14. Boys consistently perpetrated more physical aggression than girls, but the trajectories were parallel. Girls and boys perpetrated the same amount of social aggression at all ages. We discuss implications for prevention programming to address the marked increases in both types of aggression observed during early adolescence. PMID:18521738

  7. Dual localization of Mdj1 in pathogenic fungi varies with growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Itala Bruna Z; Batista, Wagner L; Longo, Larissa V G; Mortara, Renato A; Puccia, Rosana

    2014-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Previously, we characterized the PbMDJ1 gene. This gene encodes P. brasiliensis chaperone Mdj1, which in yeast is a mitochondrial member of the J-domain family, whose main function is to regulate cognate Hsp70 activities. We produced rabbit polyclonal antibody antirecombinant PbMdj1 (rPbMdj1), which labeled the protein not only in mitochondria but also at the cell wall of P. brasiliensis yeasts of isolate Pb18. Here we used anti-rPbMdj1 in confocal microscopy to localize Mdj1 in Pb18 and other fungal isolates grown at different temperatures. Dual intracellular and cell surface pattern were initially seen in yeast-phase P. brasiliensis Pb3, Pb18 (control), P. lutzii Pb01, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Pb18 and Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae as well as Pb3 pseudo hyphae formed at 36°C were labeled predominantly along the cell surface. Preferential surface localization was observed by 72 h of yeast-mycelium thermotransition. It was interesting to observe that anti-rPbMdj1 concentrated at the surface tip and branching points of A. fumigatus hyphae grown at 36°C, suggesting a role in growth, whereas at 23°C, anti-rPbMdj1 was distributed along the hyphal surface. In Pb3, Pb18, and Pb01 mitochondrial extracts, the antibodies revealed a specific 55-kDa band, which corresponds to the processed Mdj1 size. The presence of Mdj1 on the fungal cell wall suggests that this protein could also play a role in the interaction with the host.

  8. Cellular localization of transforming growth factor-beta expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, K.; Flanders, K. C.; Phan, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased lung transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) gene expression, but cellular localization of the source of this expression has not been unequivocally established. In this study, lung fibrosis was induced in rats by endotracheal bleomycin injection on day 0 and, on selected days afterwards, lungs were harvested for in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical and histochemical analyses for TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein expression, and cell identification. The results show that control lungs express essentially no detectable TGF-beta 1 mRNA or protein in the parenchyma. Before day 3 after bleomycin treatment, scattered bronchiolar epithelial cells, mononuclear cells, and eosinophils expressed elevated levels of TGF-beta 1. Between days 3 and 14, there was a major increase in the number of eosinophils, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts strongly expressing TGF-beta 1 mRNA and protein. TGF-beta 1-producing cells were predominantly localized within areas of injury and active fibrosis. After day 14, the intensity and number of TGF-beta 1-expressing cells significantly declined and were predominantly found in fibroblasts in fibrotic areas. The expression of TGF-beta 1 protein was generally coincident with that for mRNA with the exception of bronchiolar epithelial cells in which strong protein expression was unaccompanied by a commensurate increase in mRNA. The study demonstrates that myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and eosinophils represent the major sources of increased lung TGF-beta 1 expression in this model of pulmonary fibrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7543734

  9. Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Johan P; Ostergård, Hannah; Ehrlén, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances.

  10. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions; however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion.

  11. Targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 suppresses aggressive growth of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many human malignant tumors. Notably, miR-21 was identified to contribute to tumorigenicity. To investigate the repressive effect of targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 on proliferation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We established the Tca8113-luc cell line with stable luciferase expression using pGL6-luciferase (pGL6-luc) plasmid transfection. TSCC xenograft models were characterized by high tumorigenicity rate and stable growth. Intratumor injection of Oligofectamine™-mediated AS-miR-21 significantly inhibited TSCC growth. The suppression of malignant phenotype was also accompanied by decreased photon signals, rare necrosis foci, smaller nucleuses, weakly stained nucleuses, atypia reversal and tumor angiogenesis reduction. Additionally, miR-21 expression was markedly decreased in TSCC xenografts and the apoptotic index was increased. Intratumor injection of AS-miR-21 into TSCC xenografts could reduce expression of miR-21, promote apoptosis of TSCC cells and inhibit TSCC proliferation. PMID:26191167

  12. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  13. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  14. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  15. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  16. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  17. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  18. National Health Service Corps Staffing and the Growth of the Local Rural Non-NHSC Primary Care Physician Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E., Jr.; Phillips, Robert L.; Smucny, John; Miyoshi, Thomas; Green, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Beyond providing temporary staffing, National Health Service Corps (NHSC) clinicians are believed by some observers to contribute to the long-term growth of the non-NHSC physician workforce of the communities where they serve; others worry that NHSC clinicians compete with and impede the supply of other local physicians. Purpose: To…

  19. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  20. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  1. Characterization and localization of nerve growth factor receptors in the embryonic otic vesicle and cochleovestibular ganglion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd, P.; Represa, J. )

    1989-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility that nerve growth factor (NGF) may play a role in the development of the inner ear. Primordia of the inner ear, the otic vesicle (OV) and cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG), were isolated from 72-hr (stage 19-20) quail embryos and examined for the presence of NGF receptors. Quantitative binding studies revealed that both OV and CVG exhibited specific 125I-NGF binding; levels of nonspecific binding were 6 to 26% of total binding. Scatchard analysis yielded a linear plot, indicating the presence of a single class of NGF receptor. The average binding constant (Kd) was 8.0 nM for OV and 8.6 nM for CVG, corresponding to the low affinity (site II) NGF receptor. Examination of light microscopic radioautographs indicated that most of the specific 125I-NGF binding was located in the ventromedial wall of the OV, with little or no binding in the lateral wall and endolymphatic primordia. These studies were corroborated by microdissection of OV, in which 70% of the radioactivity was found to be localized in the medial half of the OV. In CVG, specific 125I-NGF binding was more concentrated in the cochlear portion of the ganglion, with silver grains primarily over areas containing support cells and immature neurons. Quantitative binding studies with isolated cochlear and vestibular ganglia obtained from 144-hr (stage 29-30) quail embryos revealed that the cochlear ganglion exhibited three times more specific 125I-NGF binding than the vestibular ganglion. The presence of NGF receptors on OV and CVG suggests that these structures are responsive to and/or dependent upon NGF. The following paper examines the question of whether NGF serves either as a mitogen, a survival factor, or a differentiation factor in this system.

  2. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2/beta3 Integrin Expression Profile: Signature of Local Progression After Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Massabeau, Carole; Rouquette, Isabelle; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Mazieres, Julien; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Armand, Jean-Pierre; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Favre, Gilles; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: No biologic signature of chemoradiotherapy sensitivity has been reported for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alphavbeta3 integrin pathways control tumor radioresistance. We investigated whether the expression of the proteins involved in these pathways might be associated with the response to treatment and, therefore, the clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: FGF-2, beta3 integrin, angiopoietin-2, and syndecan-1 expression was studied using immunohistochemistry performed on biopsies obtained, before any treatment, from 65 patients exclusively treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced NSCLC. The response to treatment was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria using computed tomography at least 6 weeks after the end of the chemoradiotherapy. Local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were studied using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Among this NSCLC biopsy population, 43.7% overexpressed beta3 integrin (beta3{sup +}), 43% FGF-2 (FGF-2{sup +}), 41.5% syndecan-1, and 59.4% angiopoietin-2. Our results showed a strong association between FGF-2 and beta3 integrin expression (p = .001). The adjusted hazard ratio of local recurrence for FGF-2{sup +}/beta3{sup +} tumors compared with FGF-2{sup -}/beta3{sup -} tumors was 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.6, p = .005). However, the risk of local recurrence was not increased when tumors overexpressed beta3 integrin or FGF-2 alone. Moreover, the co-expression of these two proteins was marginally associated with the response to chemoradiotherapy and metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: The results of this study have identified the combined profile FGF-2/beta3 integrin expression as a signature of local control in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced

  3. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  4. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: clinical and pathologic review of 10 cases including a subset with aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Quick, Charles M; Howitt, Brooke E; Dal Cin, Paola; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is currently regarded as a neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and a wide anatomic distribution. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the female genital tract are rare, and to date reported cases behaved indolently. We describe, herein, 10 cases of uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, 3 of which had an aggressive clinical course. Subject age ranged from 29 to 73 years. Tumors were composed of spindle and epithelioid myofibroblastic cells admixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a variably myxoid stroma. Two growth patterns, myxoid and fascicular (leiomyoma-like), were noted. All tumors were positive for ALK expression by immunohistochemistry, which was stronger in the myxoid areas. Smooth muscle marker and CD10 expression was variable in extent, but typically positive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK rearrangements was positive in both fascicular and myxoid areas in all 8 cases tested. Three subjects showed clinical evidence of tumor aggressiveness as defined by extrauterine spread, local recurrence, or distant metastasis. Aggressive tumors were larger, had a higher proportion of myxoid stroma, and higher mitotic activity than indolent tumors. Tumor cell necrosis was seen only in cases with adverse outcome. This is the first report to describe aggressive biological behavior in uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. This diagnosis is often underappreciated and merits inclusion in the differential diagnosis of myxoid mesenchymal lesions of the uterus, particularly because patients with an aggressive course may benefit from targeted therapy.

  5. Detection and imaging of aggressive cancer cells using an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted filamentous plant virus-based nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chariou, Paul L; Lee, Karin L; Wen, Amy M; Gulati, Neetu M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2015-02-18

    Molecular imaging approaches and targeted drug delivery hold promise for earlier detection of diseases and treatment with higher efficacy while reducing side effects, therefore increasing survival rates and quality of life. Virus-based nanoparticles are a promising platform because their scaffold can be manipulated both genetically and chemically to simultaneously display targeting ligands while carrying payloads for diagnosis or therapeutic intervention. Here, we displayed a 12-amino-acid peptide ligand, GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI), on nanoscale filaments formed by the plant virus potato virus X (PVX). Bioconjugation was used to produce fluorescently labeled PVX-GE11 filaments targeted toward the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cell detection and imaging was demonstrated using human skin epidermoid carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (A-431, HT-29, MDA-MB-231), all of which upregulate EGFR to various degrees. Nonspecific uptake in ductal breast carcinoma (BT-474) cells was not observed. Furthermore, co-culture experiments with EGFR(+) cancer cells and macrophages indicate successful targeting and partitioning toward the cancer cells. This study lays a foundation for the development of EGFR-targeted filaments delivering contrast agents for imaging and diagnosis, and/or toxic payloads for targeted drug delivery.

  6. CKS1B, overexpressed in aggressive disease, regulates multiple myeloma growth and survival through SKP2- and p27Kip1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Colla, Simona; Wu, Xiaosong; Chen, Bangzheng; Stewart, James P.; Kuehl, W. Michael; Barlogie, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of CKS1B, a gene mapping within a minimally amplified region between 153 to 154 Mb of chromosome 1q21, is linked to a poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM). CKS1B binds to and activates cyclin-dependent kinases and also interacts with SKP2 to promote the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p27Kip1. Overexpression of CKS1B or SKP2 contributes to increased p27Kip1 turnover, cell proliferation, and a poor prognosis in many tumor types. Using 4 MM cell lines harboring MAF-, FGFR3/MMSET-, or CCND1-activating translocations, we show that lentiviral delivery of shRNA directed against CKS1B resulted in ablation of CKS1B mRNA and protein with concomitant stabilization of p27Kip1, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Although shRNA-mediated knockdown of SKP2 and forced expression of a nondegradable form of p27Kip1 (p27T187A) led to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis was modest. Of importance, while knockdown of SKP2 or overexpression of p27T187A induced cell cycle arrest in KMS28PE, an MM cell line with biallelic deletion of CDKN1B/p27Kip1, CKS1B ablation induced strong apoptosis. These data suggest that CKS1B influences myeloma cell growth and survival through SKP2- and p27Kip1-dependent and -independent mechanisms and that therapeutic strategies aimed at abolishing CKS1B function may hold promise for the treatment of high-risk disease for which effective therapies are currently lacking. PMID:17303695

  7. Sensitivity of tree ring growth to local and large-scale climate variability in a region of Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venegas-González, Alejandro; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Anholetto Júnior, Claudio Roberto; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between tree growth in two tropical species and local and large-scale climate variability in Southeastern Brazil. Tree ring width chronologies of Tectona grandis (teak) and Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) trees were compared with local (Water Requirement Satisfaction Index—WRSI, Standardized Precipitation Index—SPI, and Palmer Drought Severity Index—PDSI) and large-scale climate indices that analyze the equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (Trans-Niño Index-TNI and Niño-3.4-N3.4) and atmospheric circulation variations in the Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic Oscillation-AAO). Teak trees showed positive correlation with three indices in the current summer and fall. A significant correlation between WRSI index and Caribbean pine was observed in the dry season preceding tree ring formation. The influence of large-scale climate patterns was observed only for TNI and AAO, where there was a radial growth reduction in months preceding the growing season with positive values of the TNI in teak trees and radial growth increase (decrease) during December (March) to February (May) of the previous (current) growing season with positive phase of the AAO in teak (Caribbean pine) trees. The development of a new dendroclimatological study in Southeastern Brazil sheds light to local and large-scale climate influence on tree growth in recent decades, contributing in future climate change studies.

  8. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangchao; Gao, Shan; Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Robert, Hélène S; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-10-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al-induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress.

  9. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al–induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27716807

  10. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  11. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Szymańska, Kinga; Kaczorowski, Krzysztof; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Olchowy, Cyprian; Markiewicz, Bartosz D.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). Case Report We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Conclusions Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment. PMID:25866593

  12. Developmental Relations Between Alcohol and Aggressive Behavior Among Adolescents: Neighborhood and Sociodemographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout adolescence, alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviors are associated with multiple problematic outcomes. Few studies have examined neighborhood-level predictors and individual and family-level sociodemographic variables to describe longitudinal trajectories of these problem behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated the unique contributions of neighborhood and sociodemographic factors in the shared development of aggressive behaviors and drinking in adolescents. We analyzed alcohol consumption frequency and frequency of aggressive behaviors using parallel process latent growth curve models with demographic indicators and neighborhood constructs as predictors. At all ages, alcohol use and aggression positively covaried. Male gender was associated with both aggressive episodes and alcohol use at age 12. African American ethnicity was associated with higher levels of early aggression. Higher neighborhood income was associated with lower levels of early aggression. Findings lend support to current efforts to curb early initiation of alcohol use and aggression. PMID:26413037

  13. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  14. Growth-dependent catalase localization in Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T reflected by catalase activity of cells.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Takebe, Fumihiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Hara, Isao; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2013-01-01

    A psychrotolerant and H2O2-resistant bacterium, Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2(T), exhibits extraordinary H2O2 resistance and produces catalase not only intracellularly but also extracellularly. The intracellular and extracellular catalases exhibited the same enzymatic characteristics, that is, they exhibited the temperature-dependent activity characteristic of a cold-adapted enzyme, their heat stabilities were similar to those of mesophilic enzymes and very high catalytic intensity. In addition, catalase gene analysis indicated that the bacterium possessed the sole clade 1 catalase gene corresponding to intracellular catalase. Hence, intracellular catalase is secreted into the extracellular space. In addition to intracellular and extracellular catalases, the inner circumference of the cells showed the localization of catalase in the mid-stationary growth phase, which was observed by immunoelectron microscopy using an antibody against the intracellular catalase of the strain. The cells demonstrated higher catalase activity in the mid-stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase. The catalase localized in the inner circumference can be dissociated by treatment with Tween 60. Thus, the localized catalase is not tightly bound to the inner circumference of the cells and may play a role in the oxidative defense of the cells under low metabolic state.

  15. Increased expression of the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Ho; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Jane-Dar

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Varicocele is characterized by dilatation and tortuosity of the internal spermatic vein. Sonic hedgehog plays an important role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling under hypoxic stress. We studied the relationship and distribution of SHH and vascular endothelial growth factor in internal spermatic vein in patients diagnosed with varicocele. Methods Specimens of 1 cm were taken from the internal spermatic vein during left varicocele repair (N = 20). The control samples of ISV were obtained from eight male patients who underwent left inguinal herniorrhaphy. We analyzed the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor expression and distribution by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data were analyzed using the Student's t test. Results Immunoblotting showed higher expression of sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor proteins in varicocele veins than in the control group ( P < 0.05) which located over muscle layer and endothelium was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining. Both proteins with co-localization in the muscle layer and especially distributed in endothelium of varicocele veins were revealed under confocal microscopy. Conclusions These findings showed the upexpression of sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins which imply that the reducing hypoxia or using sonic hedgehog antagonists may be helpful for this vascular disease.

  16. Neuronal Cell Bodies Remotely Regulate Axonal Growth Response to Localized Netrin-1 Treatment via Second Messenger and DCC Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Agata; Kilinc, Devrim; Lee, Gil U.

    2017-01-01

    Netrin-1 modulates axonal growth direction and speed. Its best characterized receptor, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), is localized to growth cones, but also observed in the cell bodies. We hypothesized that cell bodies sense Netrin-1 and contribute to axon growth rate modulation, mediated by the second messenger system. We cultured mouse cortical neurons in microfluidic devices to isolate distal axon and cell body microenvironments. Compared to isolated axonal treatment, global Netrin-1 treatment decreased the axon elongation rate and affected the dynamics of total and membranous DCC, calcium, and cyclic nucleotides. Signals induced by locally applied Netrin-1 propagated in both anterograde and retrograde directions, demonstrated by the long-range increase in DCC and by the increased frequency of calcium transients in cell bodies, evoked by axonal Netrin-1. Blocking the calcium efflux from endoplasmic reticulum suppressed the membranous DCC response. Our findings support the notion that neurons sense Netrin-1 along their entire lengths in making axonal growth decisions. PMID:28105005

  17. The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

  18. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  19. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  20. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  1. Ameloblastoma: an aggressive lesion of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Suma, M S; Sundaresh, K J; Shruthy, R; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-10-09

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. Among all types of ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma is believed to be locally aggressive lesion that has the tendency for recurrence. In this report we present a large multicystic ameloblastoma in the left body-ramus region of the mandible in a 55-year-old woman. This large lesion was diagnosed with the help of CT and was successfully managed by hemimandibulectomy with simultaneous reconstruction using iliac crest bone.

  2. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Crawford; Manzello, Derek; Lirman, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms. PMID:28319134

  3. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Drury, Crawford; Manzello, Derek; Lirman, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms.

  4. Local growth of vertical aligned carbon nanotubes by laserinduced surface modification of coated silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, K.; Böhme, R.; Ruthe, D.; Rudolph, Th; Rauschenbach, B.

    2007-04-01

    The stimulation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) growth in a thermal CVD process using an acetylene/nitrogen gas mixture by KrF-excimer laser exposure of iron nitrate coated silicon is described. At moderate laser fluences of ~1 J/cm2 the growth of nanotube bundles up to 100 μm consisting of vertical aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNT) is observed. AFM measurements show the formation of nanoparticles in the laser-exposed areas. At this catalytic sites the nanotubes grow and sustain one another and forming the well-defined bundles. Via the laser exposure the control of the catalytic sites formation and consequently the nanotube growth and properties can be achieved.

  5. The exploring root--root growth responses to local environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Monshausen, Gabriele B; Gilroy, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Because of their sessile lifestyle, the areas which plants can access to forage for resources are confined to those which can be explored by growth. High sensitivity to environmental conditions coupled to the appropriate readjustment of growth and developmental responses are thus critical to plant survival. In this review, we focus on how roots perceive physical cues such as soil water status and mechanical properties and translate them into physiological signals to redirect organ growth and modulate root system architecture. Because the precise molecular identity of most of the sensors used by the root to sample the soil environment remain to be determined, the mechanisms underlying similar processes in microbes are providing important models for how these receptor systems may be functioning in plants.

  6. Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Funato, Mitsuru Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-11-15

    Screw dislocations in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.

  7. The Growth of Single-Sex Schools: Federal Policy Meets Local Needs and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    Changes to Title IX allowing the growth of single-sex schools have garnered media attention promoting the benefits of separating boys and girls. Alternately, civil rights groups such as the ACLU continue to oppose any type of school segregation. Within this context, a private philanthropy, the Foundation for the Education of Young Women (FEYW) has…

  8. Isolation characterization and growth of locally isolated hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria (eastern Algerian coast).

    PubMed

    Feknous, N; Branes, Z; Rouabhia, K; Batisson, I; Amblard, C

    2017-01-01

    The Algerian coastline is being exposed to several types of pollution, including that of hydrocarbons. This environment rich in oil could be the source of proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. The objective of the study is to isolate and identify indigenous bacterial strains from marine waters of two ports in the eastern Algerian coast and to test their growth in the presence of hydrocarbons with and without biostimulation throughout the intake of nitrogen and phosphate. Results recorded the highest level of both total hydrocarbons and phosphates in the port of Annaba, followed by El-Kala station and then the control station, while that of total nitrogen was vice versa. Fifty-three bacterial strains were identified from which four were selected to perform the growth tests. Results showed that the growth and the biodegradation differ from one species to another. Thus, the strains tested (Halomonas venusta NY-8, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum NB11-3A, Vibrio alginolyticus Pb-WC11099, and Dietzia sp. CNJ898 PL04) seem very active, in which better growth was obtained with the last two strains during nitrogen and phosphate supplementation. Such strains are suggested to participate a lot in the biodegradation of oil at polluted sites.

  9. The Effect of Created Local Hyperosmotic Microenvironment in Microcapsule for the Growth and Metabolism of Osmotolerant Yeast Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Yao, Shanjing

    2013-01-01

    Candida krusei is osmotolerant yeast used for the production of glycerol. Addition of osmolyte such as NaCl into culture medium can increase the production of glycerol from glucose, but osmolytes may burden the glycerol separation. A coencapsulation method was suggested to create local extracellular hyperosmotic stress for glycerol accumulation. Firstly, the influence of osmotic stress induced by the addition of PEG4000 on growth and metabolism of free cell was studied in detail. Glycerol accumulation could be improved by employing PEG4000 as osmoregulator. Secondly, cells and PEG4000 were coentrapped in NaCS/PDMDAAC capsules to create local hyperosmotic stress. The effects of local hyperosmotic microenvironment on the cell growth and metabolism were studied. The coentrapment method increased the glycerol concentration by 25%, and the glycerol concentration attained 50 gL−1 with productivity of 18.8 gL−1Day−1 in shake flask. More importantly, the glycerol could be directly separated from the encapsulated cells. The entrapped cells containing PEG4000 were also cultivated for 15 days in an airlift reactor. The yield and productivity were ca. 35% and 21 gL−1Day−1, respectively. PMID:24294610

  10. A Guide to Using Student Learning Objectives as a Locally-Determined Measure of Student Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, Ohio has made important education policy advances, with a focus on student learning and achievement, standards, and accountability. Ohio is serious about its commitment to quality schools and honors this commitment by providing Local Education Agencies (LEAs) a research-based, transparent, fair teacher evaluation system…

  11. Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov

    2006-01-15

    An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

  12. Please Come to New England: Slow Growth Spells Trouble for Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francese, Peter

    2002-01-01

    New England may be the wealthiest region in the United States, but it is also the oldest and slowest-growing, and among the least diverse. These peculiar demographic characteristics combined with New England's history of heavy reliance on local governments suggest future problems for the region's educational systems. Since most public schools in…

  13. Organizations and Local Development: Economic and Demographic Growth among Southern Counties during Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruef, Martin; Patterson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Under conditions of uncertainty, we predict that development will be tied to the idiosyncrasy of organizational forms represented within local regions. Our investigation applies this theory to data on 342 counties and 43,352 businesses in the U.S. South during Reconstruction, finding support for the thesis that organizational idiosyncrasy…

  14. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  15. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  16. Computational modelling of the scaffold-free chondrocyte regeneration: a two-way coupling between the cell growth and local fluid flow and nutrient concentration.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture process in a perfusion bioreactor provides enhanced nutrient supply as well as the flow-induced shear stress that may have a positive influence on the cell growth. Mathematical and computational modelling of such a culture process, by solving the coupled flow, mass transfer and cell growth equations simultaneously, can provide important insight into the biomechanical environment of a bioreactor and the related cell growth process. To do this, a two-way coupling between the local flow field and cell growth is required. Notably, most of the computational and mathematical models to date have not taken into account the influence of the cell growth on the local flow field and nutrient concentration. The present research aimed at developing a mathematical model and performing a numerical simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method to predict the chondrocyte cell growth without a scaffold on a flat plate placed inside a perfusion bioreactor. The model considers the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field, and the simulation has been performed for 174 culture days. To incorporate the cell growth into the model, a control-volume-based surface growth modelling approach has been adopted. The simulation results show the variation of local fluid velocity, shear stress and concentration distribution during the culture period due to the growth of the cell phase and also illustrate that the shear stress can increase the cell volume fraction to a certain extent.

  17. [Weight and height local growth charts of Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.

  18. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  20. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  1. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids

    PubMed Central

    Janampet, Razia Sultana; Malavath, Kishan Kumar; Neeradi, Rajanna; Chedurupalli, Satyanarayana; Thirunahari, Raghunandan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. Results: There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (p<0.05) in kids fed T2 ration with 50% replacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. Conclusion: It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects. PMID:27847410

  2. Estimation of median growth curves for children up two years old based on biresponse local linear estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamidah, Nur; Rifada, Marisa

    2016-03-01

    There is significant of the coeficient correlation between weight and height of the children. Therefore, the simultaneous model estimation is better than partial single response approach. In this study we investigate the pattern of sex difference in growth curve of children from birth up to two years of age in Surabaya, Indonesia based on biresponse model. The data was collected in a longitudinal representative sample of the Surabaya population of healthy children that consists of two response variables i.e. weight (kg) and height (cm). While a predictor variable is age (month). Based on generalized cross validation criterion, the modeling result based on biresponse model by using local linear estimator for boy and girl growth curve gives optimal bandwidth i.e 1.41 and 1.56 and the determination coefficient (R2) i.e. 99.99% and 99.98%,.respectively. Both boy and girl curves satisfy the goodness of fit criterion i.e..the determination coefficient tends to one. Also, there is difference pattern of growth curve between boy and girl. The boy median growth curves is higher than those of girl curve.

  3. On the growth of locally interacting plants: differential equations for the dynamics of spatial moments.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas P; Holland, E Penelope; Law, Richard; Plank, Michael J; Raghib, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Ecologists are faced with the challenge of how to scale up from the activities of individual plants and animals to the macroscopic dynamics of populations and communities. It is especially difficult to do this in communities of plants where the fate of individuals depends on their immediate neighbors rather than an average over a larger region. This has meant that algorithmic, agent-based models are typically used to understand their dynamics, although certain macroscopic models have been developed for neighbor-dependent, birth death processes. Here we present a macroscopic model that, for the first time, incorporates explicit, gradual, neighbor-dependent plant growth, as a third fundamental process of plant communities. The model is derived from a stochastic, agent-based model, and describes the dynamics of the first and second spatial moments of a multispecies, spatially structured plant community with neighbor-dependent growth, births, and deaths. A simple example shows that strong neighborhood space-filling during tree growth in an even-aged stand of Scots pine is well captured by the spatial-moment model. The space-filling has a spatial signature consistent with that observed in several field studies of forests. Small neighborhoods of interaction, nonuniform spacing of trees, and asymmetric competition all contribute to the buildup of a wide range of tree sizes with some large dominant individuals and many smaller ones.

  4. Two-Dimensional Visualization of Growth and Burst of the Edge-Localized Filaments in KSTAR H-Mode Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Donné, A. J. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2011-07-01

    The filamentary nature and dynamics of edge-localized modes (ELMs) in the KSTAR high-confinement mode plasmas have been visualized in 2D via electron cyclotron emission imaging. The ELM filaments rotating with a net poloidal velocity are observed to evolve in three distinctive stages: initial linear growth, interim quasisteady state, and final crash. The crash is initiated by a narrow fingerlike perturbation growing radially from a poloidally elongated filament. The filament bursts through this finger, leading to fast and collective heat convection from the edge region into the scrape-off layer, i.e., ELM crash.

  5. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-09-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression.

  6. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  7. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors.

    PubMed

    Cassill, Deby L; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  8. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  9. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  10. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  11. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Grønlund, Mette

    2015-07-01

    Two pathways exist for plant Pi uptake from soil: via root epidermal cells (direct pathway) or via associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the two pathways interact in a complex manner. This study investigated distal and local effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake and root growth, at different soil P levels. Medicago truncatula was grown at three soil P levels in split-pots with or without AM fungal inoculation and where one root half grew into soil labelled with (33)P. Plant genotypes included the A17 wild type and the mtpt4 mutant. The mtpt4 mutant, colonized by AM fungi, but with no functional mycorrhizal pathway for Pi uptake, was included to better understand effects of AM colonization per se. Colonization by AM fungi decreased expression of direct Pi transporter genes locally, but not distally in the wild type. In mtpt4 mutant plants, direct Pi transporter genes and the Pi starvation-induced gene Mt4 were more highly expressed than in wild-type roots. In wild-type plants, less Pi was taken up via the direct pathway by non-colonized roots when the other root half was colonized by AM fungi, compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Colonization by AM fungi strongly influenced root growth locally and distally, and direct root Pi uptake activity locally, but had only a weak influence on distal direct pathway activity. The responses to AM colonization in the mtpt4 mutant suggested that in the wild type, the increased P concentration of colonized roots was a major factor driving the effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake.

  12. Aggressive Chordomas: Clinical Outcome of 13 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Pala, Elisa; Calabrò, Teresa; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Katzouraki, Galatia; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Pneumaticos, Spyros G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    The authors reviewed the files of all patients with chordomas who were admitted and treated at their institutions from 1975 to 2012. Patients were categorized by early local recurrence and metastasis. Aggressive clinical behavior was defined as local recurrence and metastasis within 24 months of diagnosis and adequate treatment (wide en bloc resection with microscopically negative tumor margins). According to these criteria, 13 patients (14.3%) had aggressive chordomas, including 7 men and 6 women, with mean age of 54 years (range, 37-65 years) at diagnosis and treatment. All patients had preoperative tumor biopsy, followed by resection with partial (7 patients) or total sacrectomy (6 patients). In all cases, biopsy and histologic analysis of resected tumor specimens showed conventional chordomas. Resection margins were wide (grossly negative) in 6 patients and wide contaminated in 7 patients. Mean maximum tumor diameter was 11.8 cm (range, 5-21 cm). Mean follow-up was 43 months (range, 8-131 months). Rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and death were evaluated. At the last follow-up, all patients had local recurrence at a mean of 13 months (range, 5-22 months). Histologic examination of recurrent tumors showed a dedifferentiated chordoma with a fibrosarcoma component in 2 patients and no histologic change in the remaining patients. In addition, 8 patients had metastases at a mean of 13 months (range, 4-24 months) and died of their disease. All histologic findings of metastatic lesions were similar to those of primary tumors. Early diagnosis of aggressive tumors requires close follow-up of patients with chordomas. Metastasis is common, with resultant poor survival. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e248-e254.].

  13. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  14. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  15. DOE/BES/NSET annual report on growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Raid Edward; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Shelnutt, John Allen; Yang, Yi; Nuttall, H. Eric; Watt, Richard K.; Singl, Anup K.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Wang, Zhongchun; van Swol, Frank B.; Pereira, Eulalia; Qiu, Yan; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Xu, Huifang; Medforth, Craig J.; Song, Yujiang

    2003-10-01

    Our overall goal is to understand and develop a novel light-driven approach to the controlled growth of unique metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures to provide metal nucleation and growth centers. Photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location and morphology of the metal nanostructures grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods used for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, the photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition and the synthesis of the new nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, the University of New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled synthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on three thematic research areas: (1) the creation of nanoscale structures for realizing novel phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding nanoscale processes in the environment, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation. Our goals for FY03 have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic platinum nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient

  16. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and its receptor during odontogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cobo, J; Hernández, L C; del Valle, M E; Vijande, M; Vega, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in developing teeth has been immunohistochemically studied in rat embryos (E-16 to E-21). Both EGF and EGFr showed a similar pattern of distribution. A very weak immunostaining was observed in the dental germ cells during the bud, cap, and bell teeth stages, as well as in few ectomesenchymal cells. In developed, but not erupted teeth, a moderate immunoreactivity for EGF and EGFr was present in the odontoblasts, in the ameloblasts and in the internal epithelial cells, but it was stronger in the dentine. In addition, the presence of EGF/EGFr was also observed in the intercalated ducts of salivary glands, primarily the submaxillary gland, in the maxillary bone cells, and in the cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. These results suggest that EGF has little or no effect during the early periods of tooth differentiation, whereas it is probably involved in the production of dentine. Moreover, EGF/EGFr seem to participate in the maturation and differentiation of other embryonic tissues such as tissues of the nervous system and bone.

  18. Infrastructure mitigates the sensitivity of child growth to local agriculture and rainfall in Nepal and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shively, Gerald E

    2017-01-31

    This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous. At the mean, an increase of 1 SD in agricultural season rainfall is associated with a 0.05- to 0.25-point higher z-score, which translates into increases of roughly 4-13% for HAZ and 1-7% for WHZ. Nutrition sensitivity to rainfall is greater in Nepal, where rainfall is lower on average and wider ranging, than in Uganda. Health and transport infrastructure help to buffer children from the deleterious nutritional effects of precipitation shortfalls, underscoring the role of broadly based economic development in promoting child nutrition.

  19. Maize Root Growth and Localized Indol-3yl-Acetic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meuwly, Philippe; Pilet, Paul-Emile

    1987-01-01

    Resin beads loaded with indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were used as asymmetrical donors along the elongation zone of intact primary Zea mays L. roots. A strong curvature, towards and above the bead, occurred when IAA was applied at a mean distance of 2.20 mm from the tip. No curvature was detected after applications at 3.89 and 5.71 mm from the tip. Correspondence analysis, a new methodological approach in plant hormone studies, permitted the evaluation of the relative influence of several factors on the curvature observed for each root. The parameters considered were the initial growth rate, the exact location of the bead (1.64-2.73 millimeters from tip) and the quantity of IAA absorbed. Roots which grew rapidly bent earlier than slowly growing ones and the more basal the treatment was, the less curvature occurred. Surprisingly, the amount of IAA taken up (between 1.2 and 2.2 times the endogenous IAA content) was found to have no influence on either the time-course or the magnitude of this growth inhibition (curvature). The usefulness of this multivariate analysis is also discussed. PMID:16665595

  20. Infrastructure mitigates the sensitivity of child growth to local agriculture and rainfall in Nepal and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Gerald E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous. At the mean, an increase of 1 SD in agricultural season rainfall is associated with a 0.05- to 0.25-point higher z-score, which translates into increases of roughly 4–13% for HAZ and 1–7% for WHZ. Nutrition sensitivity to rainfall is greater in Nepal, where rainfall is lower on average and wider ranging, than in Uganda. Health and transport infrastructure help to buffer children from the deleterious nutritional effects of precipitation shortfalls, underscoring the role of broadly based economic development in promoting child nutrition. PMID:28096416

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  2. Effect of saline irrigation on growth characteristics and mineral composition of two local halophytes under Saudi environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Alshammary, Saad F

    2008-09-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the growth characteristics and mineral composition of two local halophytes (Atriplex halimus and Salvadora persica) under saline irrigation at Kind Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Research Station Al-Muzahmyia, Riyadh. The experiment treatments were one soil (sandy), four irrigation waters of different salinities (2000, 8000, 12000 and 16000 mg L(-1) TDS), two halophytes (Salvadora persica and Atriplex halimus) and one irrigation level (irrigation at 50% depletion of moisture at field capacity). Mean fresh biomass yield and fresh plant root weight of A. halimus increased while that of S. persica decreased significantly with increasing irrigation water salinity in all the treatments. Soil salinity increased significantly with increasing water salinity. A positive correlation (r = 0.987) existed between the irrigation water salinity and the soil salinity resulting from saline irrigation. The plant tissue protein contents increased in A. halimus, but decreased in S. persica with increasing irrigation water salinity. The Na ion uptake by plant roots was significantly less than K in A. halimus compared to S. persica which indicated adjustment of plants to high soil salinity and high Na ion concentration for better growth. The order of increasing salt tolerance was A. halimus > S. persica under the existing plant growing conditions. Among the two halophytes, A. halimus showed great potential for establishing gene banks of local species, because it has more forage value due to high protein contents than S. persica for range animals.

  3. Neuropilin 2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0308 TITLE: Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...14Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT... aggressive prostate cancer. Cancer Discov 2(10):906-921. 3. Gualberto A & Pollak M (2009) Emerging role of insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibitors in

  4. [Changed accumulation of active ingredient in different localities and growth period of Hemsleya zhejiangensis (Cucurbitaceae)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang-Wei; Lei, Zu-Pei; Wang, Wei-Min; Liang, Wei-qing; Zhou, Wei-Qing; Jin, Xiao-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the content of moisture, ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide of different tuber samples of Hemsleya zhejiangensis, from different localities, years and seasons, were detected based upon Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version. The samples of roots, stems and leaves in summer were detected as well. The results are mainly as follows. (1)With tuber quality increasing, the content of total saponins increased and then decreased. The individual quality of tubers getting 594.06 g, the content of total saponins reached the peak. (2) The content of active ingredients in different localities was significantly different, and the population of Wuyanling had the maximum content of total saponins and polysaccharide. (3) The content of active ingredients revealed stability between the years 2012 and 2013, but the content of polysaccharide was significantly different. The content in 2012 was higher than that of 2013. (4) The content of active ingredients reached the peak in autumn, which was the best harvest season. (5) Among different component content detection of nutritional organs, tubers had the maximum content of ethanol-soluble extractives, total saponins and polysaccharide. Leaves also contained higher content of ethanol-soluble extractives and total saponins than roots and stems. All of these provide theoretical basis for plant, harvest and production of H. zhejiangensis, which is an endemic, rare, and endangered medicinal plants.

  5. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  6. Phenotypic changes of acid adapted cancer cells push them toward aggressiveness in their evolution in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Damaghi, Mehdi; Gillies, Robert

    2016-09-16

    The inter- and intra-tumoral metabolic phenotypes of tumors are heterogeneous, and this is related to microenvironments that select for increased glycolysis. Increased glycolysis leads to decreased pH, and these local microenvironment effects lead to further selection. Hence, heterogeneity of phenotypes is an indirect consequence of altering microenvironments during carcinogenesis. In early stages of growth, tumors are stratified, with the most aggressive cells developing within the acidic interior of the tumor. However, these cells eventually find themselves at the tumor edge, where they invade into the normal tissue via acid-mediated invasion. We believe acid adaptation during the evolution of cancer cells in their niche is a Rubicon that, once crossed, allows cells to invade into and outcompete normal stromal tissue. In this study, we illustrate some acid-induced phenotypic changes due to acidosis resulting in more aggressiveness and invasiveness of cancer cells.

  7. Cellular distribution, subcellular localization and possible functions of basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors.

    PubMed

    Eckenstein, F P; Kuzis, K; Nishi, R; Woodward, W R; Meshul, C; Sherman, L; Ciment, G

    1994-01-13

    The distribution in the rat nervous system of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) was analysed by a combination of biochemical and anatomical methods. Acidic FGF (aFGF) was found to be present exclusively in specific neuronal populations, such as motor neurons and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Basic FGF (bFGF) was found in astrocytes and in neurons in hippocampal area CA2. Within labelled astrocytes and CA2-neurons, bFGF was detected in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The levels of intracellular bFGF were manipulated by antisense oligonucleotide treatment of cultures of developing neural crest cells. Results indicated that the amount of melanogenesis in the cultures is likely to be regulated by intracellular, possibly nuclear bFGF.

  8. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-01-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier–Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. PMID:24664988

  10. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  11. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  12. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  13. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  14. Lithium Behavior during Growth of Metasedimentary Garnets from the Cignana UHP Locality, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, G. E.; Tsujimori, T.; Ota, T.; Shimaki, Y.; Kunihiro, T.; Carlson, W. D.; Nakamura, E.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated major and trace element concentrations and δ7Li in garnets in Lago di Cignana metasedimentary rocks (peak conditions ~550˚C, 2.5-3.0 GPa), following the EPMA-SIMS approach of Tsujimori et al. (2014; IMA conference abstract). Previous work on the devolatilization history of these rocks (Bebout et al., 2013; Cook-Kollars et al., 2014; both in Chemical Geology) provides a petrologic and geochemical context for this study. Lithium is of interest as a tracer of fluid-rock interactions and because of its potential to isotopically fractionate during diffusional processes. All garnets are almandine-rich with strongly decreasing MnO and increasing MgO toward rims. HREEs, Y, and Li also show strong zoning, with elevated concentrations in cores (15-50 ppm Li) and marked high-concentration anomalies (up to 117 ppm Li, 5500 ppm Y), with little or no major element shift, as growth annuli at which some garnets have elevated δ7Li. In all garnets, rutile inclusions appear abruptly at annuli and outward toward rims, accompanied by inclusions of a Ca- and LREE-rich phase and decreased Nb concentrations in garnet. These relationships appear to reflect prograde garnet-forming reaction(s) that in part involved titanite breakdown to stabilize rutile, which resulted in delivery of more abundant Y and HREEs at surfaces of growing garnets to produce growth annuli. The co-enrichment of Li and Y+REEs is attributed to their mutual incorporation via a charge-coupled substitution (Carlson et al., 2014; American Mineralogist); thus the increased Li uptake is a passive consequence of the elevated concentrations of Y+REEs. Distributions of δ7Li are complex, with most garnets showing only subtle core-to-rim variation other than at Y+REE annuli. At annuli, some garnets display elevated δ7Li (by up to 8‰), while others in the same rock do not. Small-scale fluctuations in δ7Li may correlate with abrupt shifts in major and trace element concentrations, suggesting that changes in

  15. Planting local seed for growth to nationwide E/PO efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, N.; Beisser, K.; Mendez, F.; Cockrell, D.; Wilhide, B.

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is the home to hundreds of scientists and engineers, all involved in research, design and implementation of space missions. Many of these people actively seek out ways to raise awareness and interest in the local community by visiting schools, giving public lectures and supporting events held at the laboratory. During the past few years, APL has begun to foster a number of firm partnerships with organizations to further these community opportunities and provide a test bed for both formal and informal education activities through the Space Department E/PO office One of our ongoing partnerships is with the Maryland Science Center in Baltimore. A continual challenge faced by museums is how to stay current and allow visitors to experience the immediacy and excitement of scientific discovery. To help meet these challenges, the Maryland Science Center houses "SpaceLink", the Nation's first space, science and astronomy update center. Part media center, part discovery room, and part newsroom, the exhibit is a multi-purpose Professional Development Site for educators and a "classroom of the future" for K 12 students. APL scientists and- engineers regularly support SpaceLink's flexible programming, including scientist in residence, monthly credited seminars for educators (Teachers' Thursdays), a menu of Classroom Programs on request, Distance Learning Teacher Presentations, and special Live Events to highlight mission milestones and space-related anniversaries. This allows the guest scientists and engineers to interact directly with the public. These events also compliment the APL exhibits housed at the Science Center. JHU/APL offers an exciting environment for the study of applications in space by hosting the annual Maryland Summer Center for Space Science sponsored by the Maryland State Department of Education. Rising 6t h and 7t h grade students learn to harness the power of technology and keep pace with

  16. Bud-Localization of CLB2 mRNA Can Constitute a Growth Rate Dependent Daughter Sizer

    PubMed Central

    Spiesser, Thomas W.; Kühn, Clemens; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular size is a fundamental systems level process that requires balancing of cell growth with proliferation. This is achieved via the cell division cycle, which is driven by the sequential accumulation and destruction of cyclins. The regulatory network around these cyclins, particularly in G1, has been interpreted as a size control network in budding yeast, and cell size as being decisive for the START transition. However, it is not clear why disruptions in the G1 network may lead to altered size rather than loss of size control, or why the S-G2-M duration also depends on nutrients. With a mathematical population model comprised of individually growing cells, we show that cyclin translation would suffice to explain the observed growth rate dependence of cell volume at START. Moreover, we assess the impact of the observed bud-localisation of the G2 cyclin CLB2 mRNA, and find that localised cyclin translation could provide an efficient mechanism for measuring the biosynthetic capacity in specific compartments: The mother in G1, and the growing bud in G2. Hence, iteration of the same principle can ensure that the mother cell is strong enough to grow a bud, and that the bud is strong enough for independent life. Cell sizes emerge in the model, which predicts that a single CDK-cyclin pair per growth phase suffices for size control in budding yeast, despite the necessity of the cell cycle network around the cyclins to integrate other cues. Size control seems to be exerted twice, where the G2/M control affects bud size through bud-localized translation of CLB2 mRNA, explaining the dependence of the S-G2-M duration on nutrients. Taken together, our findings suggest that cell size is an emergent rather than a regulatory property of the network linking growth and proliferation. PMID:25910075

  17. Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.

  18. Bio-Nano-Magnetic Materials for Localized Mechanochemical Stimulation of Cell Growth and Death.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Devrim; Dennis, Cindi L; Lee, Gil U

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising new tools for therapeutic applications, such as magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy and targeted drug delivery. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that a force application with magnetic tweezers can also affect cell fate, suggesting a therapeutic potential for magnetically modulated mechanical stimulation. The magnetic properties of nanoparticles that induce physical responses and the subtle responses that result from mechanically induced membrane damage and/or intracellular signaling are evaluated. Magnetic particles with various physical, geometric, and magnetic properties and specific functionalization can now be used to apply mechanical force to specific regions of cells, which permit the modulation of cellular behavior through the use of spatially and time controlled magnetic fields. On one hand, mechanochemical stimulation has been used to direct the outgrowth on neuronal growth cones, indicating a therapeutic potential for neural repair. On the other hand, it has been used to kill cancer cells that preferentially express specific receptors. Advances made in the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanomaterials and a better understanding of cellular mechanotransduction mechanisms may support the translation of mechanochemical stimulation into the clinic as an emerging therapeutic approach.

  19. Specific Detection of Antigen-Binding Cells by Localized Growth of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Boris; Cox, David R.

    1971-01-01

    A new method for the enumeration of lymphoid cells with specific surface-receptors for antigen is described, based on the use of β-D-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23), either directly as an antigen or as a conjugated antigen. Binding of β-D-galactosidase is revealed by its activity in releasing riboflavin from a synthetic substrate, riboflavin-β-D-galactopyranoside. The riboflavin, inactive as a vitamin in the galactosidic form, becomes active when released by the enzyme, and can be detected by bioassay. Hence, lymphoid cells with receptors for β-D-galactosidase on their surface can be detected after they have been exposed to the enzyme, washed, and then plated in agar containing riboflavin-β-D-galactopyranoside, streptomycin, riboflavin-deficient medium, and a streptomycin-resistant strain of Streptococcus faecalis that requires riboflavin. Release of riboflavin is signalled by the growth of characteristic bacterial colonies over the cell that bound β-D-galactosidase. Images PMID:5002817

  20. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  1. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  2. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  3. Acute vascular endothelial growth factor expression during hypertrophy is muscle phenotype specific and localizes as a striated pattern within fibres.

    PubMed

    Parvaresh, Kevin C; Huber, Ashley M; Brochin, Robert L; Bacon, Phoebe L; McCall, Gary E; Huey, Kimberly A; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy requires the co-ordinated expression of locally acting growth factors that promote myofibre growth and concurrent adaptive changes in the microvasculature. These studies tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) expression are upregulated during the early stages of compensatory muscle growth induced by chronic functional overload (FO). Bilateral FO of the plantaris and soleus muscles was induced for 3 or 7 days in the hindlimbs of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per group) and compared with control (non-FO) rats. Relative muscle mass (in mg (kg body weight)(-1)) increased by 18 and 24% after 3 days and by 20 and 33% after 7 days in the plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. No differences in HB-EGF mRNA or protein were observed in either muscle of FO rats relative to control muscles. The VEGF mRNA was similar in the soleus muscles of FO and control rats, whereas a significant elevation occurred at 3 and 7 days of FO in the plantaris muscle. However, VEGF protein expression after 3 days of FO exhibited a differential response; expression in the soleus muscle decreased 1.6-fold, whereas that in the plantaris muscle increased 1.8-fold compared with the control muscle. After 7 days of FO, VEGF protein remained elevated within the plantaris muscle, but returned to basal levels in the soleus. Robust basal HB-EGF and VEGF protein expression was consistently seen in control muscles. In all groups, immunohistochemistry for VEGF protein displayed a distinct striated expression pattern within myofibres, with considerably less labelling in extracellular spaces. Constitutive expression of HB-EGF and VEGF in control myofibres is consistent with housekeeping roles for these growth factors in skeletal muscle tissue. However, the specific patterns of VEGF expression in these muscles during FO may reflect the chronic changes in neural recruitment between muscles

  4. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  5. Stability of Physical and Psychological Adolescent Dating Aggression across Time and Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…

  6. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  7. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  8. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  9. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  10. [Early sibling aggression in mammals and its hormonal correlates].

    PubMed

    Antonevich, A L; Naĭdenko, S V

    2007-01-01

    Early sibling aggression is a widespread phenomenon in birds. Ornithologists distinguish species with "obligate" and "facultative" siblicide. Sibling aggression was described in some mammal species: the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and the Iberian lynx (L. par-dinus). In all of them, sibling aggression corresponds well with the "facultative" siblicide model in birds. Sibling aggression was observed at the age of 36-64 days in both lynx species. It is usually restricted to a single fight and can change the hierarchical structure and growth rate of the kittens. In the spotted hyena and the domestic pig, the frequency and intensity of aggressive interactions between siblings are strongest during the first days of postnatal ontogeny and then decrease gradually. The newborns of these species are much developed than newborn lynx kittens. Usually adult lynx females, in contrast to hyenas and pigs, try to stop sibling fights. This is probably related to the larger parental investment at the time of the fight in lynxes (a kitten's body weight is about 10% of the mother's) than in pigs (0.5%) and hyenas (1.9%). Sibling aggression in spotted hyenas could be related to the high level of androstenedione and is not related to testosterone concentration. In the Eurasian lynx, female sibs attack their littermates slightly more often than male sibs do, and sibling aggression is not testosterone-dependent. Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands may play an important role in this phenomenon. The data available so far, however, do not positively confirm the presence of hormonal trigger effects in mammal sibling aggression.

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  12. Co-localization of neural cell adhesion molecule and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Vesterlund, Liselotte; Töhönen, Virpi; Hovatta, Outi; Kere, Juha

    2011-01-01

    During development there is a multitude of signaling events governing the assembly of the developing organism. Receptors for signaling molecules such as fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) enable the embryo to communicate with the surrounding environment and activate downstream pathways. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was first characterized as a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in the nervous system, but recent studies have shown that it is also a signaling receptor. Using a novel single oocyte adaptation of the proximity ligation assay, we here show a close association between NCAM and FGFR2 in mouse oocytes and 2-cell embryos. Real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of messenger RNA encoding key proteins in downstream signaling pathways in oocytes and early mouse embryos. In summary these findings show a co-localization of NCAM and FGFR2 in early vertebrate development with intracellular signaling pathways present to enable a cellular response.

  13. Growth mechanisms and origin of localized surface plasmon resonance coupled exciton effects in Cu2_xS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Savariraj, Dennyson A.; Kim, Hee-Je; Viswanathan, Kodakkal K.; Vijayakumar, M.; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2016-02-15

    Cu2-xS thin films prepared by template free single step wet chemical method on fluorine doped tin oxide substrate without any surfactant exhibts localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) coupled exciton effects. Cu2-xS thin films of unique surface morphology and free carrier density due to copper vacancy is controlled by the growth temperature and time. These selectively grown Cu2-xS thin films possess tunable band gap (2.6 - 1.4 eV) due to quantum size effect. Eventhough, all the samples show satellite peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra due to Cu vacancies, only the samples with higher oxygen concentration show LSPR in the near infrared region.

  14. Developmental Associations between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…

  15. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  16. Calcineurin-inhibition Results in Upregulation of Local Renin and Subsequent Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production in Renal Collecting Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Sziksz, Erna; Pap, Domonkos; Balicza-Himer, Leonóra; Boros, Szilvia; Magda, Balázs; Vannay, Ádám; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Fekete, Andrea; Peti-Peterdi, János; Szabó, Attila J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (Tac) and Cyclosporine A (CyA) calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are 2 effective immunosuppressants which are essential to prevent allograft rejection. Calcineurin inhibitors are known to be nephrotoxic. However, the precise mechanism of nephrotoxicity is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of CNIs on the local renal renin-angiotensin system in the collecting duct (CD). Methods Three-week-old mice were treated with either vehicle, CyA (2 mg/kg per day), Tac (0.075 mg/kg per day), CyA + Aliskiren (25 mg/kg per day), or Tac + Aliskiren for 3 weeks. Serum creatinine was measured. Renin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contents in CD were evaluated with flow cytometry and multiphoton microscopy. The diameter of vessels was assessed with multiphoton microscopy, and the amount of renal collagen was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Masson staining. Results The elevated level of serum creatinine in CNI groups was abolished by Aliskiren. Flow cytometric analysis found elevated renin content in principal cells, which was prevented by Aliskiren. This result was further confirmed with multiphoton microscopy. The VEGF content in CD correlated with reduced capillary diameter and with the formation of fibrotic islands. Conclusions Calcineurin inhibitors induce production of renin in the CD that may contribute to decreased renal blood flow. In turn, CD responds with increased VEGF production, resulting in disproportional vessel growth, further worsening the local hypoxia and striped fibrosis surrounding the CDs. Aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor blocks these effects and improves CNI-induced nephropathy by decreasing renin production in the CDs. Our data suggest that Aliskiren may be used for the prevention of CNI nephrotoxicity. PMID:26502369

  17. Nerve growth factor and associated nerve sprouting contribute to local mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of bone injury.

    PubMed

    Yasui, M; Shiraishi, Y; Ozaki, N; Hayashi, K; Hori, K; Ichiyanagi, M; Sugiura, Y

    2012-08-01

    To clarify the mechanism of tenderness after bone injury, we investigated changes in the withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, nerve distribution and nerve growth factor (NGF)-expression in a rat model of bone injury without immobilization for bone injury healing. Rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1) rats incised in the skin and periosteum, followed by drilling a hole in the tibia [bone lesion group (BLG)]; (2) those incised in the skin and periosteum without bone drilling [periosteum lesion group (PLG)]; and (3) those incised in the skin [skin lesion group (SLG)]. Mechanical hyperalgesia continued for 28 days at a lesion in the BLG, 21 days in PLG and 5 days in SLG after treatments, respectively. Endochondral ossification was observed on days 5-28 in BLG and on days 5-21 in PLG. Nerve growth appeared in deep connective tissue (DCT) at day 28 in BLG. Nerve fibres increased in both cutaneous tissue and DCT at day 7 in PLG, but they were not found at day 28. Mechanical hyperalgesia accompanied with endochondral ossification and nerve fibres increasing at the lesion in both BLG and PLG. NGF was expressed in bone-regenerating cells during the bone injury healing. Anti-NGF and trk inhibitor K252a inhibited hyperalgesia in the different time course. This study shows that localized tenderness coincides with the bone healing and involves NGF expression and nerve sprouting after bone injury. The findings present underlying mechanisms and provide pathophysiological relevance of local tenderness to determination of bone fracture and its healing.

  18. Effect of local neutralization of basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor by a specific antibody on the development of the corpus luteum in the cow.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromichi; Kamada, Daichi; Shirasuna, Koumei; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kida, Katsuya; Berisha, Bajram; Schams, Dieter; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-09-01

    Active angiogenesis and progesterone (P) synthesis occur in parallel during development of the corpus luteum (CL). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are known to stimulate angiogenesis and P synthesis in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of bFGF or VEGF on the CL development in the cow by using a specific antibody against bFGF or VEGF. bFGF antibody, VEGF antibody, or saline as a control (n = 4 cows/treatment) were injected directly into the CL immediately after ovulation (Day 1), and the treatment was continued for 3 times/day over 7 days. Luteal biopsies were applied on Day 8 of the estrous cycle to determine the expression of genes associated with P synthesis and angiogenesis. Intraluteal injections with the bFGF antibody or the VEGF antibody markedly decreased the CL volume, plasma P concentration and StAR mRNA expression. bFGF antibody treatment decreased the mRNA expression of bFGF, FGF receptor-1, VEGF120, and angiopoietin (ANPT)-1, and increased ANPT-2/ANPT-1 ratio. However, VEGF antibody treatment decreased ANPT-2 mRNA expression and ANPT-2/ANPT-1 ratio. These results indicate that local neutralization of bFGF or VEGF changes genes regulating angiogenesis and P synthesis, and remarkably suppresses the CL size and P secretion during the development of CL in the cow, supporting the concept that bFGF and VEGF control the CL formation and function.

  19. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in locally invasive prostate cancer is prognostic for radiotherapy outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Melanie M.L.; Hiley, Crispin T.; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Bottomley, Ian C.; West, Catharine; Cowan, Richard A.; Stratford, Ian J. . E-mail: ian.j.stratford@manchester.ac.uk

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important hypoxia-inducible pro-angiogenic protein that has been linked with an adverse survival outcome after radiotherapy in other cancer types: we hypothesized that this may also occur in prostate cancer. A retrospective study was, therefore, carried out to evaluate the potential of tumor VEGF expression to predict radiotherapy outcome in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced (T3 N0 M0) tumors of Gleason score {>=}6, and who received radiotherapy alone as primary treatment for their disease, were studied. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was assessed on pretreatment diagnostic tumor biopsies using a semiquantitative immunohistochemical scoring system. The results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic factors and patient outcome including biochemical failure and disease-specific mortality. Results: High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis: in univariate log rank analysis, VEGF was the only significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (p = 0.035). High VEGF expression also associated with increased Gleason score (p = 0.02), but not posttreatment biochemical failure. Conclusion: High tumor expression of VEGF identified patients at high risk of failure of treatment with radiotherapy. These patients might benefit from additional treatment approaches incorporating anti-angiogenic or hypoxia-specific agents.

  20. Influence of growth temperature on carrier localization in InGaN/GaN MQWs with strongly redshifted emission band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickevičius, J.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Aleksiejūnas, R.; Nomeika, K.; Grinys, T.; Kadys, A.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2017-02-01

    To shift the emission band to long wavelength side, InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using pulsed delivery of the metalorganic precursors at fixed parameters of the pulses but variable growth temperatures and by introducing short-period superlattices (SPSL) as buffer layers. By decreasing the growth temperatures for both SPSL and quantum wells down to 800 °C, a considerable shift of the photoluminescence (PL) band peak down to 2 eV is achieved at reasonably acceptable decrease in PL intensity at low carrier density. However, increase in the carrier density resulted in considerable blue shift of the band, and the efficiency droop onset occurred at rather low carrier densities. The comparison of the data on PL and differential optical transmittance, which were supported by structural analysis, revealed that the large red shift in the PL band position is predominantly caused by an increasing tail of localized states. Meanwhile, the efficiency droop effect in the samples under study is caused predominantly by the enhancement of nonradiative carrier recombination.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor as a predictor of tumor downstaging in locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun-Sang . E-mail: k423j@cnu.ac.kr; Kim, Jin-Man; Li, Shengjin; Yoon, Wan-Hee; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Yeo, Seung-Gu; Nam, Ji Sook; Cho, Moon-June

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To examine retrospectively whether levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression can predict tumor downstaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 183 patients with rectal cancer (cT3-T4 or N+) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy consisted of 50.4 Gy of pelvic radiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin bolus intravenous chemotherapy in 94 patients or oral capecitabine and leucovorin in 89 patients. EGFR expression in pretreatment paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. EGFR expression was determined from the intensity and extent of staining. Tumor downstaging was defined as a reduction of at least one T-stage level. Results: Tumor downstaging occurred in 97 patients (53%), and the tumors showed a pathologic complete response in 27 patients (15%). Positive EGFR expression was observed in 140 (76%) of 183 patients. EGFR expression levels were low in 113 patients (62%) and high in 70 patients (38%). On logistic regression analysis, the significant predictive factor for increased tumor downstaging was a low level of EGFR expression and preoperative chemotherapy using oral capecitabine (odds ratio, 0.437; p 0.012 vs. odds ratio, 3.235; p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A high level of EGFR expression may be a significant predictive molecular marker for decreased tumor downstaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.

  2. Growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH): Co-localization and action in the chicken testis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; López-Marín, Luz M; Carranza, Martha; Giterman, Daniel; Harvey, Steve; Arámburo, Carlos; Luna, Maricela

    2014-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) gene expression is not confined to the pituitary gland and occurs in many extrapituitary tissues, including the chicken testis. The regulation and function of GH in extrapituitary tissues is, however, largely unknown. The possibility that chicken testicular GH might be regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), as in the avian pituitary gland, was investigated in the present study. GHRH co-localized with GH in the germinal epithelium and in interstitial zones within the chicken testes, particularly in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In testicular cell cultures, exogenous human GHRH1-44 induced (at 1, 10 and 100nM) a dose-related increase in GH release. Western blot analysis showed a heterogeneous pattern in the GH moieties released during GHRH stimulation. 26kDa monomer GH was the most abundant moiety under basal conditions, but 15 and 17kDa isoforms were more abundant after GHRH stimulation. GHRH treatment also increased the abundance of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the testes. This may have been GH-mediated, since exogenous GH similarly increased the incorporation of ((3)H)-thymidine into cultured testicular cells and increased their metabolic activity, as determined by increased MTT reduction. Furthermore, GH and GHRH immunoneutralization blocked GHRH-stimulated proliferative activity. In summary, these results indicate that GHRH stimulates testicular GH secretion in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Data also demonstrate proliferative actions of GHRH on testicular cell number and suggest that this action is mediated by local GH production.

  3. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  4. Development of a dendritic cell-targeting lipopeptide as an immunoadjuvant that inhibits tumor growth without inducing local inflammation.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshimitsu; Nakajima, Hiroko; Nishizawa, Yasuko; Kodama, Ken; Sugiura, Kikuya; Inaba, Toshio; Inoue, Norimitsu

    2014-12-15

    Materials used for the past 30 years as immunoadjuvants induce suboptimal antitumor immune responses and often cause undesirable local inflammation. Some bacterial lipopeptides that act as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands activate immune cells as immunoadjuvants and induce antitumor effects. Here, we developed a new dendritic cell (DC)-targeting lipopeptide, h11c (P2C-ATPEDNGRSFS), which uses the CD11c-binding sequence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 to selectively and efficiently activate DCs but not other immune cells. Although the h11c lipopeptide activated DCs similarly to an artificial lipopeptide, P2C-SKKKK (P2CSK4), via TLR2 in vitro, h11c induced more effective tumor inhibition than P2CSK4 at low doses in vivo with tumor antigens. Even without tumor antigens, h11c lipopeptide significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. P2CSK4 was retained subcutaneously at the vaccination site and induced severe local inflammation in in vivo experiments. In contrast, h11c was not retained at the vaccination site and was transported into the tumor within 24 hr. The recruitment of DCs into the tumor was induced by h11c more effectively, while P2CSK4 induced the accumulation of neutrophils leading to severe inflammation at the vaccination site. Because CD11b+ cells, but not CD11c+ cells, produced neutrophil chemotactic factors such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in response to stimulation with TLR2 ligands, the DC-targeting lipopeptide h11c induced less MIP-2 production by splenocytes than P2CSK4. In this study, we succeeded in developing a novel immunoadjuvant, h11c, which effectively induces antitumor activity without adverse effects such as local inflammation via the selective activation of DCs.

  5. Local immunotherapy via delivery of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β antagonist for treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Christopher B; Rai, Reena; Faubel, Sarah; Burdick, Jason A; Soranno, Danielle E

    2015-05-28

    Obstructive nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in children. The tissue injury resulting from initial dilation precipitates a deleterious cascade of macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and fibrosis to produce a resultant dysfunctional tissue. We propose to abate this tissue remodeling process through immunotherapy administered via the local and sustained delivery of interleukin-10 (IL-10; anti-inflammatory) and anti-transforming growth factor β (anti-TGFβ; anti-fibrotic). Shear-thinning, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels were formed through supramolecular guest-host interactions and used to contain IL-10, anti-TGFβ, or both molecules together. Degradation assays demonstrated that diffusive molecule release was associated with concurrent hydrogel erosion and was sustained for up to 3weeks in vitro. Erosion was likewise monitored in vivo by non-invasive optical imaging, where gel localization to the affected tissue was observed with near complete clearance by day 18. Hydrogels were applied to a murine model of chronic kidney disease, with subcapsular hydrogel injections acting as a delivery depot. Quantitative histological analysis (days 7, 21, and 35) was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Notably, results demonstrated reduced macrophage infiltration beyond day 7 in treatment groups and reduced apoptosis at day 21, relative to untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction disease model. Fibrosis was reduced at the 35day timepoint in groups treated with IL-10 or anti-TGFβ alone, but not with the combination therapy. Rather, dual delivery of IL-10 and anti-TGFβ resulted in a paradoxical hastening of fibrosis, warranting further investigation. Localized immunotherapy is a novel approach to treat kidney disease and shows promise as a translatable therapy.

  6. Response of an aggressive periosteal aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the radius to denosumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Chantal; Fuchs, Bruno; Pfirrmann, Christian; Bridge, Julia A; Hofer, Silvia; Bode, Beata

    2014-01-20

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), once considered a reactive lesion, has been proven to be a neoplasia characterized by rearrangements of the USP6-gene. Aggressive local growth and recurrences are common and therapeutic options may be limited due to the vicinity of crucial structures. We describe a case of a locally aggressive, multinucleated giant cell-containing lesion of the forearm of a 21-year old woman, treated with denosumab for recurrent, surgically uncontrollable disease. Under the influence of this RANKL inhibitor, the tumor showed a marked reduction of the content of the osteoclastic giant cells and an extensive metaplastic osteoid production leading to the bony containment, mostly located intracortically in the proximal radius. The diagnosis of a periosteal ABC was confirmed by FISH demonstrating USP6 gene rearrangement on the initial biopsy. Function conserving surgery could be performed, enabling reconstruction of the affected bone. Inhibition of RANKL with denosumab may offer therapeutic option for patients not only with giant cell tumors but also with ABCs.

  7. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  8. The effect of locally administered anti-growth factor antibodies on neointimal hyperplasia formation in expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Paolo; di Marzo, Luca; Cucina, Alessandra; Borrelli, Valeria; Mosiello, Giovanni; Basile, Ursula; Iacovitti, Simonetta; Cavallaro, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    The selective blockage of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) by specific antibodies coated into expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts may diminish neointimal hyperplasia. Sixty pigs were divided into two groups (n = 30 each) and then further divided into five subgroups. Group 1 had a bilateral iliac artery ePTFE interposition graft precoated with Matrigel. Three subgroups (A, B, and C) received a specific monoclonal antibody against PDGF-BB, bFGF, or TGF-beta1. One (D) received all antibodies, and one served as control (nonimmune immunoglobulin G [IgG] isotypes) (E). Group 2 had a bilateral iliac artery endothelial cell (EC)-seeded ePTFE interposition graft precoated with Matrigel. Three subgroups (A, B, and C) received a specific antibody against PDGF-BB, bFGF, or TGF-beta1. One (D) received all antibodies, and one served as control (nonimmune IgG isotypes) (E). Light microscopy and immunohistochemical stain showed that neointimal hyperplasia formation was significantly reduced in subgroups D compared to the others (p < 0.05). In subgroups D, the different precoating influenced neointimal hyperplasia formation. It was more pronounced in the prosthesis precoated with EC and Matrigel (p < 0.05). In organ culture, the amount of PDGF-BB, bFGF, and TGF-beta1 release was reduced in subgroup D animals compared to the others (p < 0.05). In subgroups D, the release of PDGF-BB, bFGF, and TGF-beta1 depended on ePTFE seeding. A higher amount of these growth factors was released in the prostheses precoated with EC and Matrigel (p < 0.05), and the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index confirmed higher incorporation in this subgroup (p < 0.001). The combined use of locally administered anti-PDGF-BB, bFGF, and TGF-beta1 monoclonal antibodies reduces neointimal hyperplasia formation.

  9. Localization and enzymatic activity profiles of the proteases responsible for tachykinin-directed oocyte growth in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Masato; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Satake, Honoo

    2012-03-01

    We previously substantiated that Ci-TK, a tachykinin of the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis (Ci), triggered oocyte growth from the vitellogenic stage (stage II) to the post-vitellogenic stage (stage III) via up-regulation of the gene expression and enzymatic activity of the proteases: cathepsin D, carboxypeptidase B1, and chymotrypsin. In the present study, we have elucidated the localization, gene expression and activation profile of these proteases. In situ hybridization showed that the Ci-cathepsin D mRNA was present exclusively in test cells of the stage II oocytes, whereas the Ci-carboxypeptidase B1 and Ci-chymotrypsin mRNAs were detected in follicular cells of the stage II and stage III oocytes. Double-immunostaining demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of Ci-cathepsin D was largely colocalized with that of the receptor of Ci-TK, Ci-TK-R, in test cells of the stage II oocytes. Ci-cathepsin D gene expression was detected at 2h after treatment with Ci-TK, and elevated for up to 5h, and then slightly decreased. Gene expression of Ci-carboxypeptidase B1 and Ci-chymotrypsin was observed at 5h after treatment with Ci-TK, and then decreased. The enzymatic activities of Ci-cathepsin D, Ci-carboxypeptidase B1, and Ci-chymotrypsin showed similar alterations with 1-h lags. These gene expression and protease activity profiles verified that Ci-cathepsin D is initially activated, which is followed by the activation of Ci-carboxypeptidase B1 and Ci-chymotrypsin. Collectively, the present data suggest that Ci-TK directly induces Ci-cahtepsin D in test cells expressing Ci-TK receptor, leading to the secondary activation of Ci-chymotrypsin and Ci-carboxypeptidase B1 in the follicle in the tachykininergic oocyte growth pathway.

  10. Localization of a Rho GTPase Implies a Role in Tip Growth and Movement of the Generative Cell in Pollen Tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J. K.; Yang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The Rho family GTPases function as key molecular switches, controlling a variety of actin-dependent cellular processes, such as the establishment of cell polarity, cell morphogenesis, and movement in diverse eukaryotic organisms. A novel subfamily of Rho GTPases, Rop, has been identified in plants. Protein gel blot and RNA gel blot hybridization analyses indicated that one of these plant Rho GTPases, Rop1, is expressed predominantly in the male gametophyte (pollen and pollen tubes). Cell fractionation analysis of pollen tubes showed that Rop is partitioned into soluble and particulate fractions. The particulate Rop could be solubilized with detergents but not with salts, indicating that it is tightly bound to membranes. The membrane association appears to result from membrane anchoring via a geranylgeranyl group because an in vitro isoprenylation assay demonstrated that Rop1Ps is geranylgeranylated. Subcellular localization, using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, showed that Rop is highly concentrated in the cortical region of the tube apex and in the periphery of the generative cell. The cortical Rop protein at the apex forms a gradient with decreasing concentration from tip to base and appears to be associated with the plasma membrane. These results suggest that the apical Rop GTPase may be involved in the signaling mechanism that controls the actin-dependent tip growth of pollen tubes. Localization of the Rop GTPase to the periphery of the generative cell is analogous to that of myosin, suggesting that the Rop GTPase plays an important role in the modulation of an actomyosin motor system involved in the movement of the generative cell. PMID:12239385

  11. Regulation and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor within the mammary glands during the transition from late gestation to lactation.

    PubMed

    VanKlompenberg, M K; Manjarín, R; Donovan, C E; Trott, J F; Hovey, R C

    2016-01-01

    The vascular network within the developing mammary gland (MG) grows in concert with the epithelium to prepare for lactation, although the mechanisms coordinating this vascular development are unresolved. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) mediates angiogenesis and vascular permeability in the MG during pregnancy and lactation, where its expression is upregulated by prolactin. Given our previous finding that late-gestational hyperprolactinemia induced by domperidone (DOM) increased subsequent milk yield from gilts, we sought to establish changes in vascular development during late gestation and lactation in the MGs of these pigs and determine whether DOM altered MG angiogenesis and the factors regulating it. Gilts received either no treatment (n = 6) or DOM (n = 6) during late gestation, then had their MG biopsied from late gestation through lactation to assess microvessel density, VEGF-A distribution and messenger RNA expression, and aquaporin (AQP) gene expression. Microvessel density in the MG was unchanged during gestation then increased between days 2 and 21 of lactation (P < 0.05). The local expression of messenger RNA for VEGF-A120, VEGF-A147, VEGF-A164, VEGF-A164b, VEGF-A188, VEGF receptors-1 and -2, and AQP1 and AQP3 all generally increased during the transition from gestation to lactation (P < 0.05). Immunostaining localized VEGF-A to the apical cytoplasm of secretory epithelial cells, consistent with a far greater concentration of VEGF-A in colostrum and/or milk vs plasma (P < 0.0001). There was no effect of DOM on any of the variables analyzed. In summary, we found that vascular development in the MG increases during lactation in first-parity gilts and that VEGF-A is a part of the mammary secretome. Although late-gestational hyperprolactinemia increases milk yield, there was no evidence that it altered vascular development.

  12. Growth Management and Agriculture: An Examination of Local Efforts to Manage Growth and Preserve Farmland in Wisconsin Cities, Villages, and Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Daniel; Green, Gary Paul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effectiveness of growth management policies in Wisconsin cities, villages, and towns. Unlike most other studies, we consider the impact of growth management policies on agriculture, specifically the preservation of farmland, in addition to population growth. Our analysis examines these relationships separately in towns…

  13. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  14. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  15. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway as well as the family of RAS oncogenes and BRAF as a member of the RAF protein family and the aberrant expression of microRNAs miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b all play major roles in tumor initiation and progression of aggressive PTC. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC. PMID:24955023

  16. Acceleration of wound healing in gastric ulcers by local injection of neutralising antibody to transforming growth factor beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, H; Konturek, P; Hahn, E G; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of neutralising antibodies (NAs) to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) improves wound healing in experimental glomerulonephritis and dermal incision wounds. TGF beta 1 has been detected in the stomach, but despite the fact that this cytokine plays a central part in wound healing no information is available to determine if modulation of the TGF beta 1 profile influences the healing of gastric ulcers. This study examines gastric ulcer healing in the rat after local injection of NAs to TGF beta 1. METHOD: Chronic gastric ulcers were induced in Wistar rats by the application of 100% acetic acid to the serosal surface of the stomach. Immediately after ulcer induction and on day 2, NAs to TGF beta 1 (50 micrograms), TGF beta 1 (50 ng), saline or control antibodies (IgG; 50 micrograms) were locally injected into the subserosa. Controls received no subserosal injections. Animals were killed on day 5 or 11, the ulcer area was measured planimetrically, sections were embedded in paraffin wax, and stained with trichrome or haematoxylin and eosin. Depth of residual ulcer was assessed on day 11 by a scale of 0-3, the percentage of connective tissue was determined by a semiquantitative matrix score and granulocytes and macrophages in the ulcer bed were also assessed. RESULTS: The application of NAs to TGF beta 1 led to a significant acceleration of gastric ulcer healing on day 11 (0.6 (SD 0.8) v 3.7 (SD 2.6) mm2), a reduction in macrophages (23.7 (SD 22.6) v 38 (26) per 40 x power field) and granulocytes (8.5 (SD 5.6) v 20 (10) per 40 x power field), fewer histological residual ulcers (mean 1 (SD 0.9) v 2 (1.1)), a reduced matrix score, and a regenerative healing pattern. Excessive scarring was seen in the TGF beta 1 treated group. CONCLUSION: Further treatment of gastric ulcers may induce a new treatment modality by local injection of NA to TGF beta 1 in an attempt to accelerate and improve ulcer healing. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8991853

  17. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O'Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan; Cumpson, Peter

    2013-03-21

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  18. Developmental changes in growth, yield and volatile oil of some chinese garlic lines in comparison with the local cultivar "Balady".

    PubMed

    Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M

    2013-10-15

    Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines.

  19. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  20. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  1. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  2. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  3. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  4. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  5. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  7. Coupling of dispersal and aggression facilitates the rapid range expansion of a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Renée A.; Badyaev, Alexander V.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviors can facilitate colonization of a novel environment, but the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. On one hand, behavioral flexibility allows for an immediate response of colonizers to novel environments, which is critical to population establishment and persistence. On the other hand, integrated sets of behaviors that display limited flexibility can enhance invasion success by coupling behaviors with dispersal strategies that are especially important during natural range expansions. Direct observations of colonization events are required to determine the mechanisms underlying changes in behavior associated with colonization, but such observations are rare. Here, we studied changes in aggression on a large temporal and spatial scale across populations of two sister taxa of bluebirds (Sialia) to show that coupling of aggression and dispersal strongly facilitated the range expansion of western bluebirds across the northwestern United States over the last 30 years. We show that biased dispersal of highly aggressive males to the invasion front allowed western bluebirds to displace less aggressive mountain bluebirds. However, once mountain bluebirds were excluded, aggression of western bluebirds decreased rapidly across consecutive generations in concordance with local selection on highly heritable aggressive behavior. Further, the observed adaptive microevolution of aggression was accelerated by the link between dispersal propensity and aggression. Importantly, our results show that behavioral changes among populations were not caused by behavioral flexibility and instead strongly implicate adaptive integration of dispersal and aggression in facilitating the ongoing and rapid reciprocal range change of these species in North America. PMID:17827278

  8. Upper airway loading induces growth retardation and change in local chondrocyte IGF-I expression is reversed by stimulation of GH release in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Segev, Yael; Berdugo-Boura, Nilly; Porati, Orit; Tarasiuk, Ariel

    2008-11-01

    Chronic resistive airway loading (CAL) impairs growth in juvenile rats. The effects of CAL on epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) structure and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene expression have not been explored. Little is known about whether stimulants of endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion can normalize this growth impairment. This study explored the effect of CAL on circulating and EGP GH/IGF-I pathway GH and the effect of ritanserin (endogenous GH stimulant) on somatic growth and the GH/IGF-I axis. We hypothesized that CAL would lead to a decrease in body temperature (Tb) and alterations of GH/IGF-I pathways, consequently leading to growth retardation. The tracheae of 22-day-old male rats were obstructed by tracheal banding (38 sham-operated control, 42 CAL). Tibial EGP morphometry, liver and EGP IGF mRNA, and serum GH and IGF-I levels were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Tb and locomotion activity (MA) were measured with telemetric transmitters inserted into the abdominal cavity. CAL animals had lower Tb and MA despite preserved food consumption. CAL impaired both tibial and tail length gains. Tail and tibial length gains inversely correlated with tracheal resistance. Circulating GH and IGF-I, liver and EGP IGF-I mRNA, and EGP width were decreased in the CAL group. Ritanserin administration to CAL animals normalized circulating and local EGP GH and IGF-I levels and minimized the longitudinal growth impairment. We conclude that CAL causes growth delay associated with alterations in the GH/IGF-I axis. Stimulation of GH release by ritanserin restored both global and local GH/IGF-I pathways, yet growth parameters were only partially restored.

  9. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  10. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  11. TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Geng, Xiaoyu; He, Chunmei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Rong; Horst, Walter J; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.

  12. Change in the Growth Rate of Localized Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Response to Gemcitabine, Bevacizumab, and Radiation Therapy on MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, Pedram; Yaghmai, Vahid; Tochetto, Sandra M.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Miller, Frank H.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Small, William

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To depict treatment response to chemoradiotherapy by comparing tumor growth rate between treated and untreated patients and to compare depicted response with objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 guideline. Methods and Materials: This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Volume doubling time (DT) of histologically confirmed locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma was calculated in 16 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and 10 untreated patients by incorporating interscan interval ({Delta}t) and tumor volume at baseline (V0) and follow-up (V1) obtained by semiautomated segmentation into the following equation: DT = {Delta}t . log 2/log (V1/V0). Reciprocal of doubling time (RDT), which is the linear representation of tumor growth rate, was calculated by use of the following equation: RDT = 365/DT. The lowest RDT value of 2.42 in untreated patients was considered as the cutoff value for depiction of treatment response. Depicted response rate was defined as the proportion of patients with an RDT value of less than 2.42. Depicted response was compared with objective response according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in mean RDT between treated (range, -7.12 to 3.27; mean, -1.27; median, -1.30) and untreated (range, 2.42 to 10.74; mean, 5.33; median, 4.26) patients (p < 0.05). Reciprocal of doubling time was less than 2.42 in 14 treated patients, which corresponded to a depicted response rate of 87.50% as opposed to the objective response rate of 18.75% according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline (p < 0.05) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response rate of 62.50% (p > 0.05). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was concordant with RDT and RECIST response in 12 patients (75.00%) ({kappa}, 0.38) and 9 patients (56.25%) ({kappa}, 0

  13. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed.

    PubMed

    Tong, H B; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Wang, Q; Shi, S R

    2012-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed. In total, 840 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were placed into 4-m(2) cages in groups of 50 (low), 70 (medium), or 90 (high) birds. Each treatment was represented by 4 replicates (cages). The cages measured 2.84 × 1.42 m; half of the area of the cage (2 m(2)) was used from 1 to 28 d and the whole cage was used from 29 to 42 d. Stocking densities were 25, 35, and 45 birds/m(2) from 1 to 28 d and 12.5, 17.5, and 22.5 birds/m(2) from 29 to 42 d (low, medium, and high, respectively). Final production (live bird mass after fasting) per unit area was 14.46, 19.46, and 24.23 kg/m(2), respectively, at 42 d of age. Several immune parameters were evaluated, and the growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality were determined. Body weight at 28 and 42 d of age was significantly reduced as the stocking density increased (P < 0.05). A depression in daily weight gain was noticed from 1 to 28 d and 1 to 42 d of age, and daily feed intake decreased significantly in each period as density increased (P < 0.05). The feed/gain from 29 to 42 d and from 1 to 42 d of age decreased as density increased (P < 0.05). At 42 d, there was no effect of the stocking density on carcass, eviscerated carcass, breast, and abdominal fat yields (P > 0.05). The thigh yield of chickens in the medium-density group improved significantly (P < 0.05) compared with those of the other 2 groups. The water-loss rate, shear force, and meat color of the muscle were unaffected (P > 0.05) by the stocking density, but pH values increased slightly as density increased. No significant difference was noted in the immunological parameters, but the blood total protein and potassium were significantly affected by stocking density (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing the stocking density advantageously affected feed/gain and

  14. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  15. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  16. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  17. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  18. Analysis of blood flow and local expression of angiogenesis‑associated growth factors in infected wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Yan; Yu, Ai-Xi; Qi, Baiwen; Zhou, Min; Li, Zong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Yang

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the wound healing process. Increased angiogenesis and blood flow constitute a major mechanism of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), which has been shown to facilitate the healing of infected wounds. However, the effect on the expression of angiogensis‑related growth factor remains unknown. The goal of the current study was to investigate the angiogenic factor levels prior to and following NPWT in infected wounds. A total of 20 patients with infected wounds treated with NPWT were included in the study. Patients acted as their own control; the postoperative measurements of patients were considered as the experimental group, while preoperative measurements were considered as the controlled group. Blood flow was recorded prior to and during NPWT. A total of 10 angiogensis‑related growth factors were detected using a protein biochip array to analyze the change in protein levels prior to NPWT, and on the third day during NPWT. All wounds were successfully reconstructed by skin grafting or using local flaps following NPWT. NPWT resulted in significantly increased blood flow in the wound. There was a significant increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), EGF, platelet‑derived growth factor and angiotesin‑2 following NPWT, while basic fibroblast growth factor decreased significantly. NPWT affects the local expression of angiogenesis‑associated growth factors, which represents another mechanism to explain how NPWT accelerates wound healing.

  19. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  20. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  1. Temozolomide (Temodar®) and capecitabine (Xeloda®) treatment of an aggressive corticotroph pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Thearle, Marie S; Freda, Pamela U; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Isaacson, Steven R; Lee, Yoomi; Fine, Robert L

    2011-12-01

    Only rarely do corticotroph pituitary tumors become invasive leading to symptoms caused by compression of cranial nerves and other local structures. When aggressive pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do develop, conventional treatment options are of limited success. A 50-year-old man developed a giant invasive corticotroph pituitary tumor 2 years after initial presentation. His tumor and symptoms failed to respond to maximal surgical, radio-surgical, radiation and medical therapy and a bilateral adrenalectomy was done. He subsequently developed rapid growth of his tumor leading to multiple cranial nerve deficits. He was administered salvage chemotherapy with capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM), a novel oral chemotherapy regimen developed at our institution for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. After two cycles of CAPTEM, his tumor markedly decreased in size and ACTH levels fell by almost 90%. Despite further decreases in ACTH levels, his tumor recurred after 5 months with increased avidity on PET scan suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive phenotype. Temozolomide had been reported to be effective against other pituitary tumors and this case adds to this literature demonstrating its use along with capecitabine (CAPTEM) against a corticotroph tumor. Further evaluation of the CAPTEM regimen in patients with pituitary neuroendocrine tumors which fail to respond to classic treatments is warranted.

  2. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  3. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  4. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  5. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  6. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  7. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  8. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  9. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  11. Effect of Statins and Anticoagulants on Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Moein; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Zilli, Thomas; Van Nguyen, Thu; Guay, Jean-Pierre; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Taussky, Daniel

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Statins and anticoagulants (ACs) have both been associated with a less-aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and a better outcome after treatment of localized PCa. The results of these studies might have been confounded because patients might often take both medications. We examined their respective influence on PCa aggressiveness at initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 381 patients treated with either external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy for low-risk (n = 152), intermediate-risk (n = 142), or high-risk (n = 87) localized PCa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate an association between these drug classes and prostate cancer aggressiveness. We tested whether the concomitant use of statins and ACs had a different effect than that of either AC or statin use alone. Results: Of the 381 patients, 172 (45.1%) were taking statins and 141 (37.0%) ACs; 105 patients (27.6%) used both. On univariate analysis, the statin and AC users were associated with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (p = .017) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = .0022). On multivariate analysis, statin use was associated with a PSA level <10 ng/mL (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.8; p = .012) and a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.83; p = .03). The use of ACs was associated with a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.59, p = .02). Conclusion: Both AC and statins have an effect on PCa aggressiveness, with statins having a more stringent relationship with the PSA level, highlighting the importance of considering statin use in studies of PCa aggressiveness.

  12. Features of Social Attitudes and Value Orientations of Youths and Adolescents Prone to Auto-Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakhova, Valentina B.; Oschepkov, Aleksey A.; Lipatova, Nadezda V.; Popov, Pavel V.; Mkrtumova, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the growth of social symptoms of aggression directed forwards the Self, which is especially visible in environment of young people. The presented article is aimed at research relations between value orientations and social attitudes among youths and adolescents prone to auto-aggressive behavior. The…

  13. Instrumental and Reactive Functions and Overt and Relational Forms of Aggression: Developmental Trajectories and Prospective Associations during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Kiefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescent self-reported instrumental-overt, instrumental-relational, reactive-overt, and reactive-relational aggression during middle school ("N" = 384; 12-14 years; 53% boys). Growth modeling indicated average increases in instrumental-relational aggression, and decreases in reactive-overt and…

  14. Early sexual maturity in local boars of Northeastern India: age-related changes in testicular growth, epididymal sperm characteristics and peripheral testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Kadirvel, G; Khargharia, G; Sarma, Rumi G; Goswami, J; Basumatary, Rantu; Palaniappan, Kavitha; Bardoloi, R K

    2011-03-01

    The present study reports the age related changes in the peripheral testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal growth and development and cauda epididymal spermiogram in local pigs of Northeastern India, which attain sexual maturity around 3 months of age. Local boars (n = 20) were castrated at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age (4 boars per month) to study the testicular growth and development and the epididymal spermiogram. Blood samples, collected from local boars (n = 6) at monthly intervals from 2 to 6 months of age, were analyzed for testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay. Compared to Hampshire boars, significantly (P < 0.05) high testosterone levels were observed in the local boars as early as 2 months of age. The mean (± SEM) level of testosterone in the local boars at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was 11.89 ± 1.52, 20.45 ± 1.33 and 20.38 ± 2.0 ngml(-1), respectively. Though there was consistently significant (P < 0.05) difference in the body weight between Hampshire and local pigs, the same was not observed in case of testicular weight except at 3 and 6 months of age. In line with the above observation, the testis:body weight ratio (gram testis per kg body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the local boars compared to the Hampshire boars at any time of observation, which ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 in case of Hampshire and from 2.3 to 3.0 in local boars. The sperm concentration in the cauda epididymal fluid of local boars at 2, 3 and 6 months of age was 2255 ± 186.6, 3685 ± 103.8 and 4325 ± 146.2 million/ml, respectively and the sperm motility, viability and total abnormality was 73.3, 75.2 and 6.2%, respectively at 3 months of age. Taken together, the testosterone level, testicular growth and development and epididymal spermiogram indicate the trait of early sexual maturity in the local pigs as compared to Hampshire.

  15. The cost of male aggression and polygyny in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Leah R; González-Suárez, Manuela; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Young, Julie K; Sabo, John L

    2010-08-17

    In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June-August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and viability. By using 4 years of data on behavior and demography of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we found that male behavior and spatial dynamics--aggression and territory size--are significantly related to female fecundity. Higher rates of male aggression and larger territory sizes were associated with lower estimates of female fecundity within the same year. Female aggression was significantly and positively related to fecundity both within the same year as the behavior was measured and in the following year. These results indicate that while male aggression and defense of territories may increase male fecundity, such interactions may cause a reduction in the overall population growth rate by lowering female fecundity. Females may attempt to offset male-related reductions in female fecundity by increasing their own aggression-perhaps to defend pups from incidental injury or mortality. Thus in polygynous mating systems, male aggression may increase male fitness at the cost of female fitness and overall population viability.

  16. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  17. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Susan J; Campbell, Susan B; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-05-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at ages 8-11 in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were created by combining the highest rating for each item across mother and teacher reports. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using Latent Curve Models of RAgg with PAgg as a time-varying covariate, with all parameters allowed to vary by gender. Boys and girls had different growth parameters of RAgg. Girls' RAgg intercept was higher and the slope was not different from zero; boys' RAgg intercept was lower and the slope declined. Mother-child conflict in early childhood predicted RAgg intercept for both boys and girls, but maternal harsh control and sensitivity were also uniquely predictive for girls, whereas center care was uniquely predictive for boys. RAgg intercept predicted adolescent self-reports of depression for girls and delinquency and risk-taking for both boys and girls; the magnitude of the association with risk-taking was significantly greater for boys.

  18. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  19. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  20. Aggressive thyroid cancer: targeted therapy with sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Alda; Ferrari, Silvia M; Politti, Ugo; Mazzi, Valeria; Miccoli, Mario; Materazzi, Gabriele; Antonelli, Alessandro; Ulisse, Salvatore; Fallahi, Poupak; Miccoli, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar), is a multikinase inhibitor, which has demonstrated both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the activity of targets present in the tumoral cells (c-RAF [proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase], BRAF, (V600E)BRAF, c-KIT, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) and in tumor vessels (c-RAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β). Sorafenib was initially approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sorafenib has both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, against thyroid cancer cells. Furthermore, several completed (or ongoing) studies have evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in patients with papillary, follicular and medullary aggressive thyroid cancer. The results of the different studies showed good clinical responses and stabilization of the disease and suggested that sorafenib is a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced thyroid cancer that is not responsive to traditional therapeutic strategies (such as radioiodine). Currently, USA Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of sorafenib for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer.

  1. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  2. Long term outcome of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with a short weekly chemotherapy regimen (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, vincristine, and prednisone) and involved field radiotherapy: result of a Gruppo Italiano Multiregionale per lo Studio dei Linfomi e Leucenie (GIMURELL) study.

    PubMed

    Cabras, Maria Giuseppina; Mamusa, Angela Maria; Vitolo, Umberto; Freilone R, Roberto; Dessalvi, Paolo; Orsucci, Lorella; Tonso, Anna; Levis, Alessandro; Liberati, Marina; Lay, Giancarlo; Angelucci, Emanuele

    2009-09-01

    Recently, management of limited stage diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) is trending toward a low intensity chemotherapy approach. Since 1993 we have used a brief weekly (6 weeks) chemotherapy scheme (Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Bleomycin, Vincristine, and Prednisone = ACOP-B) followed by involved field radiotherapy in 207 consecutive patients with well defined localized DLCL without age limit (median 57 years, range 18-85). Treatment was completed as designed in 183 of 207 patients (88%). One hundred and ninety-nine patients (96%) achieved complete remission. At a median follow-up of 66 months 170 patients are alive (82%), 168 of them free of disease. Twenty-nine patients experienced relapse after achieving a complete remission. Kaplan-Meier, risk of relapse was 24% after 13 years. Thirty (14.5%) patients have died, 14 (6.8%) due to lymphoma progression, one due to regimen toxicity and 15 (7.2%) from other causes while remaining in complete remission. The probability of overall survival and event free survival at 13 years was 78% (95% CI 70-87%) and 63% (95% CI 50-75), respectively. Crude rate of secondary malignancy was 5.26 /1000 person-years. The ACOP-B regimen plus involved field radiotherapy is well tolerated both short and long term and is an effective chemotherapy scheme for very well defined limited stage aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas in all age categories.

  3. Identification and localization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) messenger RNAs in human hair follicle dermal papilla.

    PubMed

    Batch, J A; Mercuri, F A; Werther, G A

    1996-03-01

    The role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in hair follicle biology has recently been recognized, although their actions, sites of production, and modulation by the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have not to date been defined. IGF-I is essential for normal hair growth and development, and may be important in regulation of the hair growth cycle. In many culture systems, IGF-I actions are modulated by the IGFBPs. Thus, if IGFBPs are produced in the human hair follicle, they may play a role in targeting IGF-I to its receptor or may modulate IGF-I action by interaction with matrix proteins. We have used in situ hybridization to localize messenger RNA for the six IGFBPs in anagen hair follicles. Anti-sense and sense RNA probes for the IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to -6) were produced, and 5-micrometer sections of adult facial skin were probed. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 were identified, with predominantly IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA found in the dermal papilla, and to a lesser extent IGFBP-4 mRNA. IGFBP-4 mRNA was also found at the dermal papilla/epithelial matrix border. Messenger RNAs for both IGFBP-4 and -5 were also demonstrated in the dermal sheath surrounding the hair follicle. Messenger RNAs for IGFBP-1, -2, and -6 were not identified. These studies demonstrate specific localization of IGFBP mRNAs in hair follicles, suggesting that they each play specific roles in the local modulation of IGF action during the hair growth cycle.

  4. Knock-Down of a Tonoplast Localized Low-Affinity Nitrate Transporter OsNPF7.2 Affects Rice Growth under High Nitrate Supply

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Qiu, Diyang; Chen, Yi; Miller, Anthony J.; Fan, Xiaorong; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    The large nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) has been shown to transport diverse substrates, including nitrate, amino acids, peptides, phytohormones, and glucosinolates. However, the rice (Oryza sativa) root-specific family member OsNPF7.2 has not been functionally characterized. Here, our data show that OsNPF7.2 is a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter, that affects rice growth under high nitrate supply. Expression analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was mainly expressed in the elongation and maturation zones of roots, especially in the root sclerenchyma, cortex and stele. It was also induced by high concentrations of nitrate. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was localized on the tonoplast of large and small vacuoles. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that OsNPF7.2 was a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Knock-down of OsNPF7.2 retarded rice growth under high concentrations of nitrate. Therefore, we deduce that OsNPF7.2 plays a role in intracellular allocation of nitrate in roots, and thus influences rice growth under high nitrate supply. PMID:27826301

  5. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  6. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  7. Mitochondrial localization of fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase is required for its lysine acetylation and for cellular stress resistance and respiratory growth

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Shirai, Atsuko; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Fission yeast manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is acetylated. {yields} The mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is required for the acetylation of MnSOD. {yields} The MTS is not crucial for MnSOD activity, but is important for respiratory growth. {yields} Posttranslational regulation of MnSOD differs between budding and fission yeast. -- Abstract: Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is localized in the mitochondria and is important for oxidative stress resistance. Although transcriptional regulation of MnSOD has been relatively well studied, much less is known about the protein's posttranslational regulation. In budding yeast, MnSOD is activated after mitochondrial import by manganese ion incorporation. Here we characterize posttranslational modification of MnSOD in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fission yeast MnSOD is acetylated at the 25th lysine residue. This acetylation was diminished by deletion of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, suggesting that MnSOD is acetylated after import into mitochondria. Mitochondrial localization of MnSOD is not essential for the enzyme activity, but is crucial for oxidative stress resistance and growth under respiratory conditions of fission yeast. These results suggest that, unlike the situation in budding yeast, S. pombe MnSOD is already active even before mitochondrial localization; nonetheless, mitochondrial localization is critical to allow the cell to cope with reactive oxygen species generated inside or outside of mitochondria.

  8. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  9. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Lorant, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.

  10. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  11. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  12. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  13. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  14. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  15. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  16. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  17. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  18. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  19. Instrumenting the Conifers: A Look at Daily Tree Growth and Locally Observed Environmental Conditions Across Four Mountain Sites in the Central Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.; Johnson, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Tree growth is often used as a proxy for past environmental conditions or as an indicator of developing trends. Reconstructions of drought, precipitation, temperature, and other phenomena derived from tree-growth indices abound in scientific literature aimed at informing policy makers. Observations of tree recruitment or death in treeline populations are frequently tied to climatic fluctuation in cause-effect hypotheses. Very often these hypotheses are based on statistical relationships between annual-to-seasonal tree growth measurements and some environmental parameter measured or modeled off-site. Observation of daily tree growth in conjunction with in-situ environmental measurements at similar timescales takes us one step closer to quantifying the uncertainty in reconstruction or predictive studies. In four separate sites in two different mountain ranges in the central Great Basin, co-located observations of conifer growth activity and local atmospheric and soils conditions have been initiated. Species include Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine), Pinus flexilis (limber pine), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus monophylla (singleleaf pinyon pine), Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), Abies concolor (white fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Measurements of sub-hourly tree radial length change and sap flow activity are compared with a suite of in-situ observations including air temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture/water content. Subalpine study site located at 3360 m elevation in the Snake Range, Nevada

  20. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.

  1. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  2. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  3. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  4. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…

  6. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  7. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  8. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  9. Locally released retinoic acid leads to facial clefts in the chick embryo but does not alter the expression of receptors for fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Richman, J M; Delgado, J L

    1995-01-01

    Systemic administration of retinoic acid (RA) affects the growth of the upper beak of chick embryos; however, the mechanism for generating a cleft upper beak is not known. In the present study, we wished to elucidate the molecular basis of the retinoid-induced lip clefting. In order to ensure that facial prominences were locally exposed to levels of retinoid known to affect gene expression, we implanted beads soaked in different concentrations of RA in the right nasal pit or in the centre of the frontonasal mass. Beads soaked in 5 mg/ml RA placed in the right nasal pit caused full clefting of the upper beak with a deviation of the midline toward the right side of the face. The asymmetry was principally due to a decrease in size or total elimination of the right lateral nasal prominence. RA-soaked beads placed in the centre of the frontonasal mass created full bilateral clefts that were more symmetrical than those produced by beads in the nasal pit. Lower concentrations of retinoic acid produced less severe facial abnormalities. Control experiments show that the implanted bead itself has no effect on growth or fusion of the facial prominences. The specific effects of retinoids on facial growth may be due to a localized decrease in responsiveness to growth factors. Gene expression patterns for two fibroblast growth factor receptors (Cek-2, Cek-3, [chicken embryo kinase]) in normal and RA-treated embryos were examined by in situ hybridization. In normal embryos, Cek-2 and Cek-3 transcripts are expressed at very high levels in the mesenchyme directly adjacent to the eye. Cek-3 is additionally expressed in the centre of the frontonasal mass. The application of beads to the right nasal pit did not change the level of expression or distribution of transcripts for Cek-2 or Cek-3. This data suggests that retinoic acid may be affecting other aspects of the FGF receptor-ligand interaction.

  10. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  11. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  12. The development of aggression in 18 to 48 month old children of alcoholic parents.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive behavior at all time points compared to children with one or more alcoholic parents. Children in families with two alcoholic parents did not exhibit normative decreases in aggressive behavior from 3 to 4 years of age compared to nonalcoholic families. However, this association was no longer significant once a cumulative family risk score was added to the model. Children in families with high cumulative risk scores, reflective of high parental depression, antisocial behavior, negative affect during play, difficult child temperament, marital conflict, fathers' education, and hours spent in child care, had higher levels of aggression at 18 months than children in low risk families. These associations were moderated by child gender. Boys had higher levels of aggressive behavior at all ages than girls, regardless of group status. Cumulative risk was predictive of higher levels of initial aggressive behavior in both girls and boys. However, boys with two alcoholic parents had significantly less of a decline in aggression from 36 to 48 months compared to boys in the nonalcoholic group.

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with localized aggressive periodontitis and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Ajlan, Sumaiah Abdulbaqi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited medical condition that implies defects in steroid biosynthesis. The dental findings of a female patient with CAH are reported. The patient suffered from severe periodontal tissue destruction, obvious enamel defects, as well as some occlusal problems. The management approach is presented and the possibility of interrelation of her dental findings with her medical condition is discussed.

  14. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Wu, Yangsheng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Taixin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily. As an oocyte-derived growth factor, GDF9 plays key roles in regulating follicle development. In the present study, we identified a gdf9 homologue from the ovary of ricefield eel, and analyzed its expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Ricefield eel Gdf9 showed high homologies with those of other teleosts, especially perciformes fish. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ricefield eel gdf9 was expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis. The mRNA levels of gdf9 in the ovary were increased significantly at the pre-vitellogenic (PV) stage and then decreased significantly along with vitellogenesis. During the natural sex change, expression of ricefield eel gdf9 was peaked at the intersexual stages. The immunoreactivity for Gdf9 was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm of the oocytes in the ovary, particularly the oocytes at early stages, but not in the oogonia. Interestingly, strong immunoreactive signals were also detected in the degenerating oocytes in the intersexual gonad. Furthermore, the Gdf9 immunoreactivity was demonstrated for the first time to be localized in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes of ricefield eel, a teleost fish. Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels.

  15. The Herschel exploitation of local galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) - V. Strengthening the case for substantial interstellar grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, L.; Gomez, H. L.; Andersen, A. C.; Smith, M. W. L.; De Looze, I.; Baes, M.; Viaene, S.; Gentile, G.; Fritz, J.; Spinoglio, L.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the implications of the distributions of dust and metals in the disc of M31. We derive mean radial dust distributions using a dust map created from Herschel images of M31 sampling the entire far-infrared peak. Modified blackbodies are fit to approximately 4000 pixels with a varying, as well as a fixed, dust emissivity index (β). An overall metal distribution is also derived using data collected from the literature. We use a simple analytical model of the evolution of the dust in a galaxy with dust contributed by stellar sources and interstellar grain growth, and fit this model to the radial dust-to-metals distribution across the galaxy. Our analysis shows that the dust-to-gas gradient in M31 is steeper than the metallicity gradient, suggesting interstellar dust growth is (or has been) important in M31. We argue that M31 helps build a case for cosmic dust in galaxies being the result of substantial interstellar grain growth, while the net dust production from stars may be limited. We note, however, that the efficiency of dust production in stars, e.g. in supernovae ejecta and/or stellar atmospheres, and grain destruction in the interstellar medium may be degenerate in our simple model. We can conclude that interstellar grain growth by accretion is likely at least as important as stellar dust production channels in building the cosmic dust component in M31.

  16. Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change: A Workshop for State and Local Decision-Makers--Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    From November 8/9, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted a workshop titled "Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change." The Office of Research and Development (ORD) organized the meeting, which was held in Research Triangle Park, Nort...

  17. Role of dietary phytochemicals in modulating local innate immunity and as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics to reduce inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the EU and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutiny as consumer...

  18. Inter- and intraspecific aggression in the invasive longlegged ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kim-Fung; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The longlegged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is a highly invasive species that can aggressively displace other ant species. We conducted laboratory assays to examine interspecies aggression of A. gracilipes versus 15 sympatric ant species found in the urban environment and disturbed habitat in Malaysia: Monomorium pharaonis (L.), Monomorium floricola (Jerdon), Monomorium orientale Mayr, Monomorium destructor (Jerdon), Pheidole parva Mayr, Crematogaster sp., Solenopsis geminata (F.), Tapinoma indicum (Forel), Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.), Technomyrmnex butteli Forel, Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith), Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle), Oecophylla smaragdina (F), Camponotus sp., and Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon). A. gracilipes showed aggressive behavior toward all opponent species, except the smallest M. orientale. Opponent species size (body size, head width, and mandible width) was significantly correlated with A. gracilipes aggression level and mortality rate. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. gracilipes aggression level and the mortality of the opponent species. The results suggest that invasive populations of A. gracilipes would have the greatest impact on larger ant species. In addition, we examined the intraspecific aggression of A. gracilipes. We found that A. gracilipes from different localities in Malaysia showed intraspecific aggression toward one another. This finding differs from the results of studies conducted in Christmas Island earlier. Differences in the genetic variability among populations may explain these differing results.

  19. Increased axonal regeneration through a biodegradable amnionic tube nerve conduit: effect of local delivery and incorporation of nerve growth factor/hyaluronic acid media.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, J A; Warnke, P H; Pan, Y C; Shenaq, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors emphasize the possible pharmacological enhancement of axonal regeneration using a specific growth factor/ extracellular media incorporated in a biodegradable nonneural nerve conduit material. They investigated the early effects on nerve regeneration of continuous local delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the local incorporation of hyaluronic acid (HA) inside a newly manufactured nerve conduit material from fresh human amnionic membrane. Human amnionic membrane contains important biochemical factors that play a major neurotrophic role in the nerve regeneration process. The process of manufacturing a nerve conduit from fresh human amnionic membrane is described. This nerve conduit system was used in rabbits to bridge a 25-mm nerve gap over 3 months. NGF was released locally, over 28 days, at the distal end of the tube via a system of slow release, and HA was incorporated inside the lumen of the tube at the time of surgery. NGF/HA treatment promoted axonal regeneration across the amnionic tube nerve conduit (8,962 +/- 383 myelinated axons) 45% better than the nontreated amnionic tube group (6,180 +/- 353 myelinated axons). The authors demonstrate that NGF/HA media enhances additional axonal regeneration in the amnionic tube nerve conduit. This result is secondary to the effect of the amnion promoting biochemical factors, in combination with the NGF/HA effect on facilitating early events in the nerve regeneration process.

  20. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  1. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  2. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  3. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  4. Student Aggression: Prevention, Management, and Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…

  5. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  6. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  7. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  8. Canine aggression toward unfamiliar people and dogs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Lore I

    2008-09-01

    Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs and people is a common problem arising most commonly from fear and territoriality. A number of factors contribute to its development, including socialization deficits, hormones, and genetic and neurophysiologic components. These factors are discussed in this article, as are management and behavior modification approaches for controlling aggression.

  9. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  10. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  11. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  12. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  13. Issues in the Assessment of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehby, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes four major hypotheses related to aggressive behavior and reviews current means for assessment. Hypotheses suggest that aggressive behavior is the result of a social skills deficit, positive or negative reinforcement, environmental deficits, or deficits in the cognitive processing of social stimuli. Changes in assessment…

  14. The Cost of Male Aggression and Polygyny in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Leah R.; González-Suárez, Manuela; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Young, Julie K.; Sabo, John L.

    2010-01-01

    In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June–August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and viability. By using 4 years of data on behavior and demography of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we found that male behavior and spatial dynamics—aggression and territory size—are significantly related to female fecundity. Higher rates of male aggression and larger territory sizes were associated with lower estimates of female fecundity within the same year. Female aggression was significantly and positively related to fecundity both within the same year as the behavior was measured and in the following year. These results indicate that while male aggression and defense of territories may increase male fecundity, such interactions may cause a reduction in the overall population growth rate by lowering female fecundity. Females may attempt to offset male-related reductions in female fecundity by increasing their own aggression—perhaps to defend pups from incidental injury or mortality. Thus in polygynous mating systems, male aggression may increase male fitness at the cost of female fitness and overall population viability. PMID:20808931

  15. Family Process and Peer Deviance Influences on Adolescent Aggression: Longitudinal Effects across Early and Middle Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in sixth grade, 416 adolescents and their parents participated in four waves of data collection involving family observations and multiple-reporter assessments. Ecological theory and the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model guided the hypotheses and analyses. Lagged, growth curve models revealed that both hostile family interactions and peer deviance affiliation predicted adolescent aggression in the subsequent year. Family warmth played only a minor role in protecting against adolescent aggression. In hostile or low warmth families, peer deviance affiliation linked to a declining aggression trajectory consistent with the arena of comfort hypothesis. The longitudinal findings suggest a non-additive, synergistic interplay between family and peer contexts across time in adding nuance to the understanding adolescent aggression. PMID:22497273

  16. [Aggressive vertebral hemangiomas: optimization of management tactics].

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, M N; Manukovskiĭ, V A; Zharinov, G M; Kandyba, D V; Tsibirov, A A; Savello, A V; Svistov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Today vertebral hemangioma is not completely understood entity, neither its pathogenesis nor optimal treatment is determined. Nowadays in majority of clinics in this country ineffective radiotherapy remains the first-line treatment. We analyzed results of treatment of 205 patients (286 lesions) with aggressive hemangiomas operated in Department of Neurosurgery of Military Medical Academy and Department of Nuclear Medicine of of Russian Scientific Center of Radiological and Surgical Technologies (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) since 1999 till 2009. Percutaneus vertebroplasty was performed in 167 lesions, radiotherapy was applied in 119 aggressive hemangiomas. Vertebroplasty is more effective for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas in comparison with radiotherapy. Signs of hemangiomas aggression, indications for surgery, and tactics of management were determined. Use of percutaneous vertebroplasty for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas resulted in fast recovery of the patients. This procedure is minimally invasive, it reduces hospital stay and duration of recovery.

  17. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.

  18. Correlates and outcomes associated with aggression and victimization among elementary-school children in a low-income urban context.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-02-01

    Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This study examined the correlates, interplay, and consequences of aggression and victimization among children in a low-income urban context. Data were collected in the spring of grades 1, 2, and 3. The final sample included 333 children (59.5 % girls, M = 6.46 years). Each year, children completed sociometric and peer assessments in their classrooms. A cross-lagged panel model with extended effects showed that aggression was relatively stable over time, whereas victimization was less stable. Aggression and victimization became increasingly less correlated over time. Further, early victimization negatively predicted later aggression for boys, but positively for girls. Growth curve modeling showed that initial aggression and victimization were associated with initial behavioral and relational problems. Early aggression, but not victimization, predicted relative stable or increasing in behavioral and relational problems over time. The results underscore the importance of a developmental perspective on early childhood aggression and victimization in high-risk contexts, in order to understand their implications for adjustment in adolescence.

  19. A new macro model of traffic flow by incorporating both timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel macro model is derived from car-following model by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables by incorporating the timid and aggressive effects of optimal velocity on a single lane. Numerical simulation shows that the timid and aggressive macro model of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction waves and local cluster effects under small perturbation. Also, the results uncover that the aggressive effect can smoothen the front of the shock wave and the timid effect results in local press peak, which means that the timid effect hastens the process of congregation in the shock wave. The more timid traffic behaviors are, the smaller is the stable range. Furthermore, the research shows that the advantage of the aggressive effect over the timid one lies in the fact that the aggressive traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors at the same time.

  20. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.

  1. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    PubMed

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits polarized growth during two phases of its life cycle, budding and mating. The site for polarization during vegetative growth is determined genetically: a and alpha haploid cells exhibit an axial budding pattern, and a/alpha diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. During mating, each cell polarizes towards its partner to ensure efficient mating. SPA2 is required for the bipolar budding pattern (Snyder. M 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1419-1429; Zahner, J.A., H.A. Harkins, and J.R. Pringle. 1996. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1857-1870) and polarization during mating (Snyder, M., S. Gehrung, and B.D. Page. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114: 515-532). We previously identified mutants defective in PEA2 and SPA2 which alter cell polarization in the presence of mating pheromone in a similar manner (Chenevert, J., N. Valtz, and I. Herskowitz. 1994. Genetics, 136:1287-1297). Here we report the further characterization of these mutants. We have found that PEA2 is also required for the bipolar budding pattern and that it encodes a novel protein with a predicted coiled-coil domain. Pea2p is expressed in all cell types and is localized to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells in a pattern similar to Spa2p, Pea2p and Spa2p exhibit interdependent localization: Spa2p is produced in pea2 mutants but fails to localize properly; Pea2p is not stably produced in spa2 mutants. These results suggest that Pea2p and Spa2p function together as a complex to generate the bipolar budding pattern and to guarantee proper polarization during mating. PMID:8909546

  3. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies.

  4. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-09-30

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm{sup −1} were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  5. Novel ZnO microflowers on nanorod arrays: local dissolution-driven growth and enhanced light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were manipulated, via a low-temperature solution process, from pure nanorod arrays to complex nanostructures of microflowers on nanorod arrays with adjusted quantities of flowers. We proposed the mechanism of local dissolution-driven growth to rationally discuss the novel growth process. These nanostructures were used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Compared to pure nanorod arrays, the nanorod array-microflower hierarchical structures improved the power conversion efficiency from 0.41% to 0.92%, corresponding to a 124% efficiency increase. The enhancement of the efficiency was mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced surface area for higher dye loading and the improved light harvesting from efficient light scattering. Present results provide a promising route to improve the capability of light-harvesting for ZnO nanorod array-based DSSCs. PMID:24731603

  6. In situ doping of catalyst-free InAs nanowires with Si: Growth, polytypism, and local vibrational modes of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Emmanouil; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Huang, Chang-Ning; Trampert, Achim; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2013-09-01

    Growth and structural aspects of the in situ doping of InAs nanowires with Si have been investigated. The nanowires were grown catalyst-free on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The supply of Si influenced the growth kinetics, affecting the nanowire dimensions, but not the degree of structural polytypism, which was always pronounced. As determined by Raman spectroscopy, Si was incorporated as substitutional impurity exclusively on In sites, which makes it a donor. Previously unknown Si-related Raman peaks at 355 and 360 cm-1 were identified, based on their symmetry properties in polarization-dependent measurements, as the two local vibrational modes of an isolated Si impurity on In site along and perpendicular, respectively, to the c-axis of the wurtzite InAs crystal.

  7. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics.

  8. Growth of Silver Nanowires from Controlled Silver Chloride Seeds and Their Application for Fluorescence Enhancement Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sunwoong; Han, Hyeji; Bae, Jin Gook; Lee, Eun Yeol; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2017-04-07

    A "Polyol" method has granted low-cost and facile process-controllability for silver-nanowire (Ag-NW) synthesis. Although homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation and growth during Ag-NW synthesis are possible using polyol methods, heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Ag NW guarantees highly selective growth of nanostructures using silver chloride (AgCl) seeds, which provides a stable source of chloride ions (Cl-) and thermodynamic reversibility. In this paper, a microdroplet has been adopted to synthesize uniform AgCl seeds with different diameter that are used for seed-mediated Ag-NW synthesis. The concentration of two precursors (AgNO3 and NaCl) in the droplets is modulated to produce different sizes of AgCl seeds, which determines the diameter and length of Ag NWs. The process of the seed-mediated growth of Ag NWs has been monitored by observing the peak shift in the time-resolved UV-vis extinction spectrum. Furthermore, the distinct plasmonic property of Ag NWs for transverse and longitudinal localized-surface-plasmon-resonance (LSPR)-mediated fluorescence enhancement is utilized. The high aspect ratio and sharp tips work as simple antennas that induce the enhanced fluorescence emission intensity of a fluorophore, which can be applied in the fields of biological tissue imaging and therapy.

  9. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1–100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  10. Adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure alters lateral anterior hypothalamic serotonin-2A receptors in aggressive male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schwartzer, Jared J; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2009-05-16

    Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Serotonin (5-HT) modulates aggressive behavior and has been shown to be altered after chronic treatment with AAS. Furthermore, 5-HT type 2 receptors have been implicated in the control of aggression. For example, treatment with 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists suppress the generation of the offensive aggressive phenotype. However, it is unclear whether these receptors are sensitive to adolescent AAS exposure. The current study assessed whether treatment with AAS throughout adolescence influenced the immunohistochemical localization of 5-HT(2A) in areas of the hamster brain implicated in the control of aggression. Hamsters were administered AAS (5.0 mg/kg) each day throughout adolescence, scored for offensive aggression, and then examined for differences in 5-HT(2A)-immunoreactivity (5-HT(2A)-ir). When compared with non-aggressive oil-treated controls, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters showed significant increases in 5-HT(2A)-ir fibers in the lateral portion of the anterior hypothalamus (LAH). Further analysis revealed that AAS treatment also produced a significant increase in the number of cells expressing 5-HT(2A)-ir in the LAH. Together, these results support a role for altered 5-HT(2A) expression and further implicate the LAH as a central brain region important in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression.

  11. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  12. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  13. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  14. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  16. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-12-02

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Aggressive responding of male heroin addicts under methadone treatment: psychometric and neuroendocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Raggi, M A; Giusti, F; Delsignore, R; Bertacca, S; Brambilla, F

    2001-12-01

    Objective measures of experimentally-induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 methadone-treated heroin addicts, in comparison to 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were submitted to preliminary DSM IV interviews, Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses, and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participants. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response), or protecting their counter (escape response). Money-earning responses were significantly lower (t=4.38, P<0.001) and aggressive responses significantly higher (t=5.45; P<0.001) in methadone patients in comparison to controls. During the experimentally-induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations increased significantly less and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), significantly more in methadone subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamines changes, BDHI 'direct' and 'irritability' scores, MMPI 'psychopathic deviate' scores both in methadone subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between methadone doses, or exposure extent, and aggressiveness levels. Our findings suggest that heroin dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relationship with monoamines hyper-reactivity, also under methadone medication. Aggressiveness in methadone patients seems to be related more to the personality traits than to drug effects. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses, unexpectedly dissociated from catecholamines rise

  19. Lipid raft localization of epidermal growth factor receptor alters matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in SiHa cells via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zongfeng; Wang, Lina; Du, Juan; Li, Yuanbo; Yang, Huilun; Li, Chenxi; Li, Hui; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been identified as an important participant in tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) localization to lipid rafts on signaling pathways involved in the regulation of MMP-1 expression in SiHa cells, a cervical cancer cell line. EGFR activation by EGF specifically induced MMP-1 expression at both the messenger RNA and protein levels. Additionally, it was observed that EGFR localized to lipid rafts, and that the redistribution of EGFR induced by lipid raft disruption strengthened EGF-induced MMP-1 expression. MMP-1 induction was blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. Our results suggested that lipid rafts provide a platform to inhibit EGFR regulation of MMP-1 in SiHa cells through the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. PMID:28101233

  20. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy.

  1. Immunohistochemical study of the local inflammatory infiltrate in spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumour at different stages of growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J; Day, M J; Mozos, E

    1998-07-08

    In this study, the immunohistochemical distribution of CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD79 (B lymphocytes and plasma cells), IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG subclasses (IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) L1 (macrophages) and MHC Class II antigen was analysed in the inflammatory infiltrates associated with spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT) at different stages of growth. With all antibodies used, except IgM and IgA, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the infiltrate of CTVT undergoing spontaneous regression or with stable growth (14 cases), than in tumours undergoing progressive growth (nine cases). This result suggests that T lymphocytes in addition to B cells, plasma cells expressing IgG, IgG2 and IgG4, and macrophages participate in the effective immune response against CTVT and mediate spontaneous regression of the tumour. MHC Class II antigen was expressed by infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, and also by fibroblasts within and around the tumours. Class II was also expressed by a variable number of neoplastic cells, particularly those in regressing or stable tumours with a marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. This suggests that the expression of Class II by neoplastic cells is associated with the effective immune response and regression of CTVT.

  2. Bone mineralization is regulated by signaling cross talk between molecular factors of local and systemic origin: the role of fibroblast growth factor 23.

    PubMed

    Sapir-Koren, Rony; Livshits, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Body phosphate homeostasis is regulated by a hormonal counter-balanced intestine-bone-kidney axis. The major systemic hormones involved in this axis are parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). FGF23, produced almost exclusively by the osteocytes, is a phosphaturic hormone that plays a major role in regulation of the bone remodeling process. Remodeling composite components, bone mineralization and resorption cycles create a continuous influx-efflux loop of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) through the skeleton. This "bone Pi loop," which is formed, is controlled by local and systemic factors according to phosphate homeostasis demands. Although FGF23 systemic actions in the kidney, and for the production of PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D are well established, its direct involvement in bone metabolism is currently poorly understood. This review presents the latest available evidence suggesting two aspects of FGF23 bone local activity: (a) Regulation of FGF23 production by both local and systemic factors. The suggested local factors include extracellular levels of Pi and pyrophosphate (PPi), (the Pi/PPi ratio), and another osteocyte-derived protein, sclerostin. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, synthesized locally by bone cells, may contribute to regulation of FGF23 production. The systemic control is achieved via PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D endocrine functions. (b) FGF23 acts as a local agent, directly affecting bone mineralization. We support the assumption that under balanced physiological conditions, sclerostin, by para- autocrine signaling, upregulates FGF23 production by the osteocyte. FGF23, in turn, acts as a mineralization inhibitor, by stimulating the generation of the major mineralization antagonist-PPi.

  3. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  4. Localization of the Bacillus subtilis murB gene within the dcw cluster is important for growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Real, Gonçalo; Henriques, Adriano O

    2006-03-01

    The Bacillus subtilis murB gene, encoding UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase, a key enzyme in the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthetic pathway, is embedded in the dcw (for "division and cell wall") cluster immediately upstream of divIB. Previous attempts to inactivate murB were unsuccessful, suggesting its essentiality. Here we show that the cell morphology, growth rate, and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics of murB conditional mutants is a function of the expression level of murB. In one mutant, in which murB was insertionally inactivated in a merodiploid bearing a second xylose-inducible PxylA-murB allele, DivIB levels were reduced and a normal growth rate was achieved only if MurB levels were threefold that of the wild-type strain. However, expression of an extra copy of divIB restored normal growth at wild-type levels of MurB. In contrast, DivIB levels were normal in a second mutant containing an in-frame deletion of murB (DeltamurB) in the presence of the PxylA-murB gene. Furthermore, this strain grew normally with wild-type levels of MurB. During sporulation, the levels of MurB were highest at the time of synthesis of the spore cortex PG. Interestingly, the DeltamurB PxylA-murB mutant did not sporulate efficiently even at high concentrations of inducer. Since high levels of inducer did not interfere with sporulation of a murB(+)PxylA-murB strain, it appears that ectopic expression of murB fails to support efficient sporulation. These data suggest that coordinate expression of divIB and murB is important for growth and sporulation. The genetic context of the murB gene within the dcw cluster is unique to the Bacillus group and, taken together with our data, suggests that in these species it contributes to the optimal expression of cell division and PG biosynthetic functions during both vegetative growth and spore development.

  5. Nuclear Morphometry Identifies a Distinct Aggressive Cellular Phenotype in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Evan S.; Bartels, Peter H.; Prasad, Anil R.; Yozwiak, Michael L.; Bartels, Hubert G.; Einspahr, Janine G.; Alberts, David S.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    By identifying aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in patients who are at high risk for recurrences or second primaries after resection, intensive surveillance and therapy may decrease morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of nuclear morphometry (karyometry) in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We retrospectively analyzed cSCC lesions from 40 male patients. 22 patients had evidence of aggressive cSCC (local/regional recurrence or a second primary cSCC), and 18 patients were identified with similar ages and sites of disease as control patients with nonaggressive cSCC (no evidence of recurrence, metastasis, or second primary). We performed karyometric analysis to identify nuclear features that discriminate between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC nuclei. We used statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.0001) to compose a quantitative aggressive classification score (proportion of aggressive nuclei from 0% to 100%). For comparisons, we used Fisher’s exact test or Student t test. The mean age was 79 ± 7 years for aggressive cSCC and 80 ± 9 years for nonaggressive cSCC (P = 0.66). We analyzed a mean of 96 nuclei in each group. The mean classification score for aggressive cSCC was significantly higher (69% ± 6%) than for nonaggressive cSCC (28% ± 5%, P = 0.00002). Overall, the classification score accurately categorized 80% of our patients (P = 0.0004). In most patients, karyometry differentiated between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We found that classification scores, which provide information on individual lesions, could be used for risk stratification. PMID:21636541

  6. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  7. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305

  8. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  9. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  10. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses.

  11. Decreased expression of CYP27B1 correlates with the increased aggressiveness of ovarian carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    BROŻYNA, ANNA A.; JÓŹWICKI, WOJCIECH; JOCHYMSKI, CEZARY; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.

    2015-01-01

    CYP27B1 hydroxylates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in position C1α into biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol. CYP27B1 is expressed in normal tissues and tumors. Since calcitriol indicates anticancer activities and CYP27B1 expression can be deregulated during malignant progression, we analyzed its expression in ovarian cancers in relation to pathomorphological features of tumors and overall survival (OS). Expression of CYP27B1 was evaluated in 61 ovarian tumors, 18 metastases and 10 normal ovaries. Normal ovarian epithelium showed the highest levels CYP27B1 with a significant decrease in its expression in ovarian cancers. Both poorly differentiated primary tumors and metastases showed the lowest level of CYP27B1 expression, while non-metastasizing tumors showed a higher CYP27B1 level than tumors that developed metastases. The expression of CYP27B1 was positively correlated with a lower proliferation rate, lower dynamism of tumor growth and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte response. Furthermore, CYP27B1 expression was negatively correlated with tumor cell modeling of their microenvironment. CYP27B1 expression was also associated with longer OS time. In summary, our results suggest that local expression of CYP27B1 in ovarian tumor cells can modify their behavior and promote a less aggressive phenotype by affecting local concentrations of active of vitamin D levels within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25501638

  12. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  13. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  14. Cellular localization of the activated EGFR determines its effect on cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, Dustin C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2008-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates diverse cell functions that are dependent upon cell type, the presence of downstream effectors, and receptor density. In addition to activating biochemical pathways, ligand stimulation causes the EGFR to enter the cell via clathrin-coated pits. Endocytic trafficking influences receptor signaling by controlling the duration of EGFR phosphorylation and coordinating the receptor's association with downstream effectors. To better understand the individual contributions of cell surface and cytosolic EGFRs on cell physiology, we used EGF that was conjugated to 900 nm polystyrene beads (EGF-beads). EGF-beads can stimulate the EGFR and retain the activated receptor at the plasma membrane. In MDA-MB-468 cells, a breast cancer cell line that over-expresses the EGFR, only internalized, activated EGFRs stimulate caspase-3 and induce cell death. Conversely, signaling cascades triggered from activated EGFR retained at the cell surface inhibit caspase-3 and promote cell proliferation. Thus, through endocytosis, the activated EGFR can differentially regulate cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells.

  15. Localization, characterization, and quantification of insulin-like growth factor-I-binding sites in the ewe ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Monget, P.; Monniaux, D.; Durand, P. )

    1989-11-01

    To assess a potential role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the ewe ovary, the presence of IGF-I receptors and IGF-I-binding proteins was studied by binding assays performed on granulosa cell suspensions, in follicular fluid, and on ovarian sections. On the ovarian sections, labeling was quantified after autoradiography by microphotometry. Competition studies with IGF-I and insulin allowed us to estimate the relative proportions of binding proteins and type I receptors in the different compartments of the ewe ovary. Our results clearly show that saturable, specific, and high affinity IGF-I receptors are present on the ovine granulosa cells. At equilibrium for both granulosa cell suspensions and frozen sections, the Kd value was close to 2 nM. IGF-I binding proteins were also present in follicular fluid and stroma, thecal, and granulosa cells. At equilibrium for follicular fluid, the Kd value was 0.91 +/- 0.27 nM (mean +/- SE). Moreover, on frozen sections, it was shown that atresia of small follicles (less than 2 mm) was accompanied by a decrease in the number of IGF-I receptors and an increase in the number of IGF-I-binding proteins on granulosa cells. By contrast, this phenomenon was not observed in large follicles. These data indicate that granulosa cells of ewe ovary possess type I receptors, and IGF-I-binding proteins may modulate IGF-I action in the process of follicular growth and atresia.

  16. Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Marker for Local Relapse in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Goyal, Sharad; Harris, Lyndsay; Chung, Gina; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important protein involved in the process of angiogenesis that has been found to correlate with relapse-free and overall survival in breast cancer, predominantly in locally advanced and metastatic disease. A paucity of data is available on the prognostic implications of VEGF in early-stage breast cancer; specifically, its prognostic value for local relapse after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to assess VEGF expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with BCT and to correlate the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes with overexpression of VEGF. Methods and Materials: After obtaining institutional review board approval, the paraffin specimens of 368 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT between 1975 and 2005 were constructed into tissue microarrays with twofold redundancy. The tissue microarrays were stained for VEGF and read by a trained pathologist, who was unaware of the clinical details, as positive or negative according the standard guidelines. The clinical and pathologic data, long-term outcomes, and results of VEGF staining were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 6.5 years. VEGF expression was positive in 56 (15%) of the 368 patients. Although VEGF expression did not correlate with age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, histologic type, family history, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status, or HER-2 status, a trend was seen toward increased VEGF expression in the black cohort (26% black vs. 13% white, p = .068). Within the margin-negative cohort, VEGF did not predict for local relapse-free survival (RFS) (96% vs. 95%), nodal RFS (100% vs. 100%), distant metastasis-free survival (91% vs. 92%), overall survival (92% vs. 97%), respectively (all p >.05). Subset analysis revealed that VEGF was highly predictive of local RFS in node-positive, margin

  17. Aggression in Huntington's disease: a systematic review of rates of aggression and treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Caroline A; Sewell, Katherine; Brown, Anahita; Churchyard, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggression is commonly reported in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). While correlating factors for aggression are often speculated about, features that are associated with, and contribute to, aggression in this population have not been clearly determined. This systematic review investigates rates of aggression and treatment options for aggression in HD. A number of key findings were revealed. Studies reporting on rates of aggression revealed that its prevalence is high, falling between 22 and 66 percent in the majority of studies. Aggression may be more common in males with HD, and is also found in higher rates in individuals who experience frequent falls, have obsessive-compulsive symptoms and suicidal ideation. There is little research investigating antecedents for aggression in HD. A wide variety of psychotropic medications have been reported in the literature to treat individuals with HD and aggressive behaviour. However, due to methodological limitations, no treatment recommendations can be made, based on the current literature. Two non-medication therapies have been investigated, behaviour support and sensory modulation intervention. However, again, due to methodological limitations with these studies, further research is needed before they can be recommended as frontline interventions. This review highlights the need for further methodologically rigorous studies investigating the treatment of aggression in HD.

  18. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  19. Emotion regulation and childhood aggression: longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Röll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and aggressive behavior, moderating and mediating factors like gender and peer rejection have been established. Furthermore, results suggest emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior. Several directions for future research are pointed out to further validate and refine the reviewed relationships.

  20. A unique case of multiple non-ossifying fibromas with polyostotic monomelic distribution and aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Alessandro; Remoli, Cristina; Riminucci, Mara; Ippolito, Ernesto; Dimitriou, John

    2017-02-01

    Multiple non-ossifying fibromas (MNOFs) occur either isolated or in association with other anomalies, are usually localized in the long bones of the lower limbs, may be radiographically confused with other skeletal lesions, and tend to heal spontaneously with the completion of the skeletal growth. Segmental distribution, either monomelic or polymelic and ipsilateral, is rare and commonly observed in the context of developmental diseases known as "RASopathies", which are caused by mutations in genes that encode components or regulators within the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. We describe here the radiographic and pathologic features of an 18-year-old Caucasian boy, whose clinical history started at the age of 3 when the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was made on a lytic lesion of his left clavicle. Over the following 2 years, the patient developed polyostotic and monomelic lesions within the left humerus, radius, and ulna. No other skeletal and extra-skeletal anomalies were clinically detected. The lesions were interpreted as consistent with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and MNOFs and showed an unusually aggressive clinical course with progressive increase in size and coalescence. The definitive diagnosis of MNOFs was made after the exclusion of fibrous dysplasia by molecular analysis. The polyostotic and monomelic distribution of the lesions and the unusually aggressive clinical course contribute to make this case of MNOFs unique.

  1. LASP1-S100A11 axis promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness by modulating TGFβ/Smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya; Shao, Ziyun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Feifei; Luo, Yuhao; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Yanqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    LIM and SH3 protein 1(LASP1) can promote colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that LASP1 interacts with S100 calcium binding protein A11(S100A11) and enhances its expression in CRC. LASP1-S100A11 axis is essential for TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell aggressive phenotype. Clinically, S100A11 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of CRC cells. Overexpression of S100A11 in cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular compartments is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Introduction of cytoplasmic and nuclear S100A11 promotes aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro as well as growth and metastasis of CRC xenografts, whereas suppressing S100A11 abrogates these effects. Furthermore, we identify flotillin-1 (FLOT1) and histone H1 as downstream factors for cytoplasmic and nuclear pathway of S100A11, which are required for LASP1-S100A11 axis-mediated EMT and CRC progression. These findings indicate S100A11, combined with LASP1, plays a critical role in promoting CRC metastasis via its subcellular effectors, FLOT1 and histone H1. PMID:27181092

  2. Effect of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on Growth and Biochemical Composition of a Local Isolate of Nostoc calcicola.

    PubMed

    Khajepour, Fateme; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Rasoul; Markou, Giorgos

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensity (21, 42, and 63 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiod (8:16, 12:12, and 16:8 h light/dark) on the biomass production and its biochemical composition (total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC), total protein, and carbohydrates) of a local isolate of Nostoc calcicola. The results revealed that N. calcicola prefers dim light; however, the most of the levels of light intensity and photoperiod investigated did not have a significant impact on biomass production. Increasing light intensity biomass content of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein decreased, while total carotenoids and carbohydrate increased. The same behavior was observed also when light duration (photoperiod) increased. The interaction effect of increasing light intensity and photoperiod resulted in an increase of carbohydrate and total carotenoids, and to the decrease of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein content. The results indicate that varying the light regime, it is capable to manipulate the biochemical composition of the local isolate of N. calcicola, producing either valuable phycobiliproteins or proteins under low light intensity and shorter photoperiods, or producing carbohydrates and carotenoids under higher light intensities and longer photoperiods.

  3. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Misir Krpan, Ana; Dusek, Tina; Rakusic, Zoran; Solak, Mirsala; Kraljevic, Ivana; Bisof, Vesna; Ozretic, David; Kastelan, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma.

  4. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma. PMID:28357143

  5. A case of aggressive solid pseudopapillary neoplasm: Comparison of clinical and pathologic features with non-aggressive cases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Kojun; Okada, Katsuya; Aikawa, Masayasu; Koyama, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) may have an aggressive clinical course, but clinical predictors of this condition have not been thoroughly evaluated. We performed a retrospective study of 11 cases of SPN managed in our hospital between January 2007 and April 2015. Of these 11 cases, we encountered a single case with an aggressive clinical course. Histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical features were compared to identify predictors of poor prognosis. The 11 patients comprised four women and seven men with a median age of 41 years (range, 26-58 years). Clinical symptoms were nonspecific and the median tumor size was 4.6 cm (range, 1.4-18 cm). The patient with an aggressive clinical course developed multiple liver metastases within three months and died seven months after surgery. Pathological features of the tumor in this case included lymph node metastases, a diffuse growth pattern, extensive tumor necrosis, high mitotic rate, and immunohistochemistry. These features were not observed in patients who survived without recurrence at a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 6-82 months). Characteristic pathological features and a high proliferative index, as assessed by Ki-67 staining, may predict poor outcome in cases of SPN.

  6. Analysis of multiple genetic polymorphisms in aggressive- and slow-growing abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Duellman, Tyler; Warren, Christopher L.; Matsumura, Jon; Yang, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) suggests that some remain slow in growth rate while many develop a more accelerated growth rate reaching a threshold for intervention. We hypothesized that different mechanisms are responsible for AAA that remain slow-growth and never become actionable versus the aggressive-AAA that require intervention may be reflected by distinct associations with genetic polymorphisms. Methods 168 control and 141 AAA subjects all with ultrasound or CT imaging studies covering about 5 years were identified and the AAA growth rate determined from the serial imaging data. Genetic polymorphisms all previously reported as showing significant correlation with AAA: angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) (rs5186), interleukin-10 (IL-10) (rs1800896), methyl-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (rs1801133), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (rs1466535), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (rs1799752) and several MMP9 SNPs with functional effects on the expression or function were determined by analysis of the genomic DNA. Results AAA subjects were classified as slow-growth rate- (<3.25 mm /yr; n=81) vs. aggressive-AAA (growth rate >3.25 mm /yr, those presenting with a rupture, or those with maximal aortic diameter >5.5 cm (male) or >5.0 cm (female); n=60) and discriminating confounds between the groups identified by logistic regression. Analyses identified MMP9 p-2502 SNP (P=0.029, OR=0.54 (0.31-0.94)) as a significant confound discriminating between control- vs. slow-growth AAA, MMP-9 D165N (P=0.035) and LRP1 (P=0.034) between control vs. aggressive-AAA, and MTHFR (P=0.048, OR=2.99 (1.01-8.86)), MMP9 p-2502 (P=0.037, OR=2.19 (1.05-4.58), and LRP1 (P=0.046, OR= 4.96 (1.03-23.9)) as the statistically significant confounds distinguishing slow- vs. aggressive-AAA. Conclusion Logistic regression identified different genetic confounds for the slow-growth rate-and aggressive-AAA indicating a potential for different

  7. Mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index: A potential biomarker to predict progression from indolent to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Landar, Aimee

    2015-12-15

    Mitochondrial function is influenced by alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and changes in the microenvironment occurring during tumorigenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial function will be stably and dynamically altered at each stage of the prostate tumor development. We tested this hypothesis in RWPE-1 cells and its tumorigenic clones with progressive malignant characteristics (RWPE-1 < WPE-NA22 < WPE-NB14 < WPE-NB11 < WPE-NB26) using high-throughput respirometry. Our studies demonstrate that mitochondrial content do not change with increasing malignancy. In premalignant cells (WPE-NA22 and WPE-NB14), OXPHOS is elevated in presence of glucose or glutamine alone or in combination compared to RWPE-1 cells and decreases with increasing malignancy. Glutamine maintained higher OXPHOS than glucose and suggests that it may be an important substrate for the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells. Glycolysis significantly increases with malignancy and follow a classical Warburg phenomenon. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is significantly lower in tumorigenic clones and invasive WPE-NB26 does not utilize FAO at all. In this paper, we introduce for the first time the mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index (MOBI), a mathematical representation of oncobioenergetic profile of a cancer cell, which increases significantly upon transformation into localized premalignant form and rapidly falls below the normal as they become aggressive in prostate tumorigenesis. We have validated this in five prostate cancer cell lines and MOBI appears to be not related to androgen dependence or mitochondrial content, but rather dependent on the stage of the cancer. Altogether, we propose that MOBI could be a potential biomarker to distinguish aggressive cancer from that of indolent disease.

  8. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  9. Is familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma more aggressive than sporadic form?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Seulkee; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Jong Ju; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FPTMC) is now recognized more frequently. However, the biological behavior of FPTMC is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FPTMC and its biological aggressiveness. Methods Between March 2006 and July 2010, 2,414 patients underwent primary surgical therapy for PTMC and 149 (6.2%) were further classified as FPTMC. To determine the biological aggressiveness of FPTMC, we compared the clinicopathological features and prognosis between FPTMC and sporadic PTMC (SPTMC). Results The male-to-female ratio was higher in FPTMC than in sporadic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (SPTMC: 1:4.5 vs. 1:7.2, P = 0.041). The central lymph node (LN) metastasis rate was significantly higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (36.2% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.002). The local recurrence rate was also higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (4.5% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001). We identified familial occurrence in 6.2% of cases of PTMC. FPTMC is associated with a high rate of central LN metastasis and local recurrence. Conclusion These findings suggest that close follow-up can be beneficial in FPTMC patients to detect local recurrence. PMID:28289666

  10. The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mähs, Anette; Ischebeck, Till; Heilig, Yvonne; Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N

  11. Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, C.; Smith, E. G.; Oswald, F.; Burt, J.; Tchernov, D.; Wiedenmann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are a prevalent group of host pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colours of many reef-building corals. They have been suggested to contribute to the striking coloration changes of different corals species in response to wounding and infestation with epibionts/parasites. In order to elucidate the physiological processes underlying the potentially disease-related colour changes, we have analysed spatial and temporal expression patterns of GFP-like proteins and other biomarkers in corals from the Red Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf and Fiji both in their natural habitat and under specific laboratory conditions. The expression of distinct GFP-like proteins and the growth marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen was upregulated in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies as well as in disturbed colony parts. Furthermore, phenoloxidase activity increased in these proliferating tissues. It is thus demonstrated that locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals and, moreover, these processes can be detected utilizing the excellent biomarker properties of GFP-like proteins. Finally, the results of this work suggest an additional vulnerability of corals in predicted future scenarios of increased ocean acidification, warming and eutrophication that are anticipated to reduce coral growth capacity.

  12. Empathic deficits and alexithymia in trauma-related impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Teten, Andra L; Miller, Lisa A; Bailey, Sara D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Kent, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Our long term interest is to develop a developmental model of impulsive aggression based on a confluence of social, psychological and biological features. This approach incorporates neurobiological research, which has identified language processing deficits as a unique characteristic of impulsive aggressors and extends it to include emotional deficits. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we examined whether empathy and alexithymia were associated with impulsive aggression. Regressions were performed to explore the associations among impaired empathy, alexithymia, impulsive aggression, verbal and physical general aggression. Among impulsive aggressive veterans (n=38) recruited from a VA trauma clinic, alexithymia predicted impulsive aggression and empathic deficits predicted verbal aggression. Neither emotional awareness deficit predicted general physical aggression in this middle-aged sample. Results suggested that empathic deficits were associated with general verbal aggression, but alexithymia was uniquely associated with impulsive aggression. Consideration of alexithymia in impulsive aggression has implications for its etiology, prevention and treatment.

  13. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  14. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  15. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  16. Change trajectories of aggressive behavior among children in long-term residential care.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Benbenishty, Rami; Roziner, Ilan

    2017-03-01

    This study examined change trajectories of aggressive behaviors among children in long-term residential care in Israel and identified various child-, family-, and placement-related predictors of the change trajectories. Records of 799 children (average age at the beginning of the four years=10.4, 33.1% female) in their first four consecutive years in care were analyzed using the TRF aggressive behavior subscale (Achenbach, 1991) to measure the outcome variable. Children's and parents' characteristics and placement-related factors were used to explain variance in change trajectories. Latent Class Growth Analyses identified four aggressive behavior trajectories: 'stable-low' levels of aggressiveness over time (45% of the children), 'stable-high' levels (13%), 'improvement' (20%), and 'deterioration' (22%). Predictors of less resilient trajectories (i.e., stable-high or increasing aggressiveness) included mothers' difficulties and disabilities, children's attendance of special education classes, more intensive type of care, and non-immigrant status. The Attachment Theory, Life Course Perspective theories, and the General Strain Theory are used to interpret some of the findings of the study. Identifying the factors that predispose children to certain patterns of change may help direct resources to children at risk of having high or increasing levels of aggression while in residential care.

  17. Treating Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Forensic psychiatric units are high-risk environments for aggressive behavior. Many elements are necessary for the successful reduction or elimination of aggression in the process of creating a safe treatment environment. Many specific interventions have been attempted over the years with various degrees of, usually limited, success. Tolisano et al. present an integrated behavioral approach with solid theoretical underpinnings and opportunities to support significant safety improvements for select patients, albeit with several caveats.

  18. Nerve growth factor-induced changes in the intracellular localization of the protein kinase C substrate B-50 in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    High levels of the neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate, B-50 (= GAP43), are present in neurites and growth cones during neuronal development and regeneration. This suggests a hitherto nonelucidated role of this protein in neurite outgrowth. Comparable high levels of B- 50 arise in the pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line during neurite formation. To get insight in the putative growth-associated function of B-50, we compared its ultrastructural localization in naive PC12 cells with its distribution in nerve growth factor (NGF)- or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-treated PC12 cells. B-50 immunogold labeling of cryosections of untreated PC12 cells is mainly associated with lysosomal structures, including multivesicular bodies, secondary lysosomes, and Golgi apparatus. The plasma membrane is virtually devoid of label. However, after 48-h NGF treatment of the cells, B-50 immunoreactivity is most pronounced on the plasma membrane. Highest B- 50 immunoreactivity is observed on plasma membranes surrounding sprouting microvilli, lamellipodia, and filopodia. Outgrowing neurites are scattered with B-50 labeling, which is partially associated with chromaffin granules. In NGF-differentiated PC12 cells, B-50 immunoreactivity is, as in untreated cells, also associated with organelles of the lysosomal family and Golgi stacks. B-50 distribution in dbcAMP-differentiated cells closely resembles that in NGF-treated cells. The altered distribution of B-50 immunoreactivity induced by differentiating agents indicates a shift of the B-50 protein towards the plasma membrane. This translocation accompanies the acquisition of neuronal features of PC12 cells and points to a neurite growth- associated role for B-50, performed at the plasma membrane at the site of protrusion. PMID:2537833

  19. Local forest environment largely affects below-ground growth, clonal diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the temperate deciduous forest herb Paris quadrifolia.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

    2005-12-01

    Paris quadrifolia (herb Paris) is a long-lived, clonal woodland herb that shows strong differences in local population size and shoot density along an environmental gradient of soil and light conditions. This environmentally based structuring may be mediated by differences in clonal growth and seedling recruitment through sexual reproduction. To study the interrelationship between environmental conditions and spatial patterns of clonal growth, the spatial genetic structure of four P. quadrifolia populations growing in strongly contrasting sites was determined. In the first place, plant excavations were performed in order to (i) determine differences in below-ground growth of genets, (ii) investigate connectedness of ramets and (iii) determine total genet size. Although no differences in internode length were found among sites, clones in moist sites were much smaller (genets usually consisted of 1-3 interconnected shoots, most of them flowering) than genets in dry sites, which consisted of up to 15 interconnected shoots, the majority of which were vegetative. Further, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used. Clonal diversity was higher in populations located in moist and productive ash-poplar forests compared to those found in drier and less productive mixed forest sites (G/N: 0.27 and 0.14 and Simpson's D: 0.84 and 0.75, respectively). Patterns of spatial population genetic structure under dry conditions revealed several large clones dominating the entire population, whereas in moist sites many small genets were observed. Nevertheless, strong spatial genetic structure of the genet population was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate that patterns of clonal diversity and growth form of P. quadrifolia differ among environments. Limited seedling recruitment and large clone sizes due to higher connectedness of ramets explain the low clonal diversity in dry sites. In moist sites, higher levels of clonal diversity and small clone sizes

  20. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  1. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  2. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  3. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression.

  4. Impulsive-aggressive traits, serotonin function, and alcohol-enhanced aggression.

    PubMed

    Fulwiler, Carl; Eckstine, Joy; Kalsy, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is involved in most acts of violence, most people do not become violent when they drink. Individuals also respond differently to alcohol on laboratory measures of aggression. The objective of this study was to determine whether individual differences in the effects of alcohol on a laboratory measure of aggression are related to specific personality traits and/or serotonin function, as measured by prolactin response to pharmacochallenge. Psychometric scales for impulsiveness, aggression, and anger, as well as a probe for suspiciousness, were administered to 10 healthy male social drinkers. Trait serotonin function was determined by citalopram challenge. The effect of alcohol on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm was determined by comparing aggression scores with and without 1 g/kg alcohol. Impulsivity scores were significantly correlated with the change in aggressive responding after alcohol. Aggression, anger, and suspiciousness scores were not. Prolactin response did not predict the effect of alcohol on aggressive responding. The results suggest that trait impulsiveness may mediate the effects of alcohol on aggression in normal males.

  5. Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Aaron N.; Stach, Christopher S.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted factors of Staphylococcus aureus can activate host signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) contributes to mucosal cytokine production through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands and subsequent EGFR activation. The secreted hemolysin, α-toxin, can also induce EGFR signaling and directly interacts with ADAM10, a sheddase of EGFR ligands. The current work explores the role of EGFR signaling in menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS), a disease mediated by TSST-1. The data presented show that TSST-1 and α-toxin induce ADAM- and EGFR-dependent cytokine production from human vaginal epithelial cells. TSST-1 and α-toxin also induce cytokine production from an ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa (PVM) model. EGFR signaling is responsible for the majority of IL-8 production from PVM in response to secreted toxins and live S. aureus. Finally, data are presented demonstrating that inhibition of EGFR signaling with the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 significantly increases survival in a rabbit model of mTSS. These data indicate that EGFR signaling is critical for progression of an S. aureus exotoxin-mediated disease and may represent an attractive host target for therapeutics. PMID:27414801

  6. Marital Hostility, Hostile Parenting, and Child Aggression: Associations From Toddlerhood to School-Age

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Zhou, Yuchun; Kiselica, Andrew; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective The spillover hypothesis suggests that childhood aggression results from spillover of inter-parental conflict to poor parenting, which promotes aggressive child behavior. This study was designed to examine the spillover hypothesis in non-genetically related parent – child dyads from the toddler period through age 6. Method A sample of 361 sets of children, adoptive parents, and birth parents from the Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) was assessed from child age 9 months to 6 years on measures of adoptive parent financial strain, antisocial traits, marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child aggression. Structural equation modeling was used to examine links from financial strain, parent antisocial traits, and marital hostility in infancy and toddlerhood to hostile parenting and child aggression at age 4.5 and 6 years. Results Spillover of marital conflict from child age 18 to 27 months was associated with more parental hostility in mothers and fathers at 27 months. In turn, adoptive fathers’ parental hostility, but not mothers’, was associated with aggression in children at age 4.5 years. However, there was no significant spillover from hostile parenting at 4.5 years to child aggression at 6 years. Birth mother antisocial traits were unassociated with child aggression. Conclusion This study is the first to examine spillover of marital hostility to parenting to child aggression from toddlerhood through age 6 years in an adoption design, highlighting the impact of these environmental factors from the toddler to preschool period. The findings support the potential benefit of early identification of marital hostility. PMID:26903257

  7. Occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a dental school in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Chirley Roberta; Baumhardt, Simone Glesse; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a rare, severe and rapidly progressing periodontal disease. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance for establishing treatment in order to stop periodontal destruction and prevent tooth loss. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a Dental School in Brazil by means of a cross-sectional study. First, records from patients aged 15-36 years were consecutively scrutinized. Patients should not have systemic diseases. The search went up to 383 valid records. By means of periapical radiographs, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the bone crest was measured. Records in which there was severe bone loss or periodontal destruction incompatible with the age of the patient were selected. Patients with bone loss > or = 3mm were called to answer a questionnaire and undergo periodontal examination, in order to confirm or dismiss the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. From a total 383 records, 55.1% (211) were female and 44.9% (172) were male. In 3.9% (15) of the records, presumed diagnosis was aggressive periodontitis, and 12 out of those 15 eligible patients (80%) came in for clinical examination and confirmation or dismissal of the diagnosis. Aggressive periodontitis was diagnosed in 7 patients, corresponding to 1.8% of the total. Of these, 4 (1% of the total) presented generalized aggressive periodontitis and 3 (0.8% of the total) presented localized aggressive periodontitis. In 5 patients (1.3%) chronic periodontitis was diagnosed. It may be concluded, within the limits of the study, that aggressive periodontitis at this Dental School is compatible with world prevalence values, suggesting the need for periodontal diagnosis as from adolescence, considering the possible damage caused by this disease.

  8. Association between sleep disordered breathing and aggressiveness markers of malignant cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Nagore, Eduardo; Valero, Irene; Selma, Maria Jose; Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Montserrat, Josep-Maria; Carrera, Cristina; Pérez-Gil, Amalia; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Farré, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    Some recent studies have shown an association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and cancer mortality and incidence but no study has focused on a specific type of cancer. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between the severity of SDB and factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) aggressiveness. We performed a multicentre observational study in 82 consecutive patients diagnosed with CMM. 56 patients in whom melanoma measurements were available were finally included in the study. Melanoma measurements of aggressiveness included: tumour mitotic rate, Breslow index, presence of ulceration, stage of disease and growth rate of melanoma. A sleep study was performed in all the included patients. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the independent relationship between SDB severity (apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nocturnal oxygen desaturation indexes (ODI3% and ODI4%)) and measures of CMM aggressiveness. 60.7% of patients had SDB (AHI ≥ 5) and 14.3% severe obstructive sleep apnoea (AHI ≥ 30). In fully adjusted multivariate analyses, AHI (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), ODI3% (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) and ODI4% (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02-1.2) were independently associated with an increased melanoma growth rate. Furthermore, AHI, ODI4% and ODI3% were significantly correlated with other aggressiveness factors of CMM, such as Breslow index, presence of ulceration and mitotic index. SDB severity markers are associated with some aggressiveness markers of CMM.

  9. The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48 Month Old Children of Alcoholic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ellen P.; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the development of aggressive and oppositional behavior among alcoholic and nonalcoholic families using latent growth modeling. The sample consisted of 226 families assessed at 18, 24, 36, and 48 months of child age. Results indicated that children in families with nonalcoholic parents had the lowest levels of aggressive…

  10. Neighborhood Context and the Development of Aggression in Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanfossen, Beth; Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard; Sokoloff, Natalie; Doering, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We examine the roles of neighborhood characteristics in the development of the aggressive behavior of 1,409 urban boys and girls between the first and seventh grades. The multilevel, longitudinal growth analyses find strong neighborhood effects in all models, while controlling for individual-level variables. Results indicated that the effects of…

  11. Brainworks: Birth to Kindergarten--The Aggression Component. A Question/Answer Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipelt, Kathy; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    This document takes a look at the roots of aggression. Constant exposure to violence in the media along with the drug culture has played a pivotal role in the growth of violence among youth. The poor nurturing of the very young contributes to the problem, and early trauma can inhibit children's concentration, impede learning, hinder attachment,…

  12. Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Karin S.; Hirschstein, Miriam K.; Edstrom, Leihua V.; Snell, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal extension of a random control trial of the Steps to Respect antibullying program. Students in Grades 3-5 were surveyed (n = 624) and observed on the playground (n = 360). Growth curve models of intervention students showed 2-year declines in playground bullying, victimization, nonbullying aggression, destructive…

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor I and II in the endocrine pancreas of birds, reptiles, and amphibia.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, M; Broger, I; Brun, R; Zapf, J; Maake, C

    1995-12-01

    Immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) were sought in the endocrine pancreas of representative birds, reptiles, and amphibia using antisera specific for mammalian IGF-I and IGF-II and the classical islet hormones insulin (INS), glucagon (GLUC), somatostatin (SOM), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in double immunofluorescence. Both IGF-I and IGF-II immunoreactivities were present in the endocrine pancreas of all species. IGF-II immunoreactivity was exclusively found in INS-immunoreactive (-IR) cells, indicating evolutionary conservation of the islet IGF-II system. In contrast, IGF-I immunoreactivity was distributed differently among the species and never occurred in INS-IR cells. In the anuran Xenopus laevis, IGF-I immunoreactivity was present in islet cells showing coexistence of GLUC and PP immunoreactivities. In reptiles, the lizards (Lacerta viridis, Scincus officinalis) exhibited IGF-I immunoreactivity in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells and the snakes (Psamophis leniolatum, Coluber ravergieri) in SOM-IR and GLUC-IR cells. In birds, IGF-I immunoreactivity was located either in SOM-IR cells only (Gallus g. domesticus, Streptopelia roseogrisea) or in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells (Coturnix c. japonica). Thus, the distribution patterns of islet IGF-I immunoreactivities in birds, reptiles, and amphibia are equivalent to those in mammals and most bony fish. They differ, however, from those found in cartilaginous fish, cyclostomes, and protochordates, where a total or partial coexistence of IGF-I and INS immunoreactivities has been obtained. Therefore, the divergence of IGF-I and INS seems to have occurred early in vertebrate phylogeny. Furthermore, the existence of IGF-I immunoreactivity likely is common in the islets of all vertebrates. Finally, no phylogenetic trend to concentrate IGF-I immunoreactivity in a particular islet cell type is apparent.

  14. Social Problem-Solving and Self Esteem of Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    Secondary prevention programs for aggressive children should be based on research about processes which mediate children's expression of aggressive behavior. The relative importance of perceived competence, self-esteem, and social problem solving processes was investigated in 20 aggressive and 18 non-aggressive fourth and fifth grade boys. Teacher…

  15. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  16. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  17. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  18. Pathways to Aggression in Young, Highly Stressed Urban Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Sara E.; Cowen, Emory L.; Crean, Hugh F.; Wyman, Peter A.; Work, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Examined correlates of aggression in highly stressed urban children in second and third grade and again in third through fifth grade. Found that difficult temperament and lack of parental warmth related to aggression in early grades; learning problems and poor social skills related to aggression at both times. Early aggression predicted later…

  19. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  20. Linkage of functional and structural anomalies in the left amygdala of reactive-aggressive men

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky, Feggy; Diaz, Karla; Romero, Cesar; Borja, Karina; Santos, Yusniel; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala structural and functional abnormalities have been associated to reactive aggression in previous studies. However, the possible linkage of these two types of anomalies has not been examined. We hypothesized that they would coincide in the same localizations, would be correlated in intensity and would be mediated by reactive aggression personality traits. Here violent (n = 25) and non-violent (n = 29) men were recruited on the basis of their reactive aggression. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits were also assessed. Gray matter concentration (gmC) and reactivity to fearful and neutral facial expressions were measured in dorsal and ventral amygdala partitions. The difference between responses to fearful and neutral facial expressions was calculated (F/N-difference). Violent individuals exhibited a smaller F/N-difference and gmC in the left dorsal amygdala, where a significant coincidence was found in a conjunction analysis. Moreover, the left amygdala F/N-difference and gmC were correlated to each other, an effect mediated by reactive aggression but not by CU. The F/N-difference was caused by increased reactivity to neutral faces. This suggests that anatomical anomalies within local circuitry (and not only altered input) may underlie the amygdala hyper-reactivity to social signals which is characteristic of reactive aggression. PMID:22956672

  1. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  2. Associations between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Rodgers, Carie S.; Lebeck, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and psychopathology and aggression in intimate relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Method: Forty-four pregnant women who were recruited from an obstetric clinic and local advertising periodical completed questionnaires about childhood…

  3. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  4. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  5. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  6. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  7. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  8. Androgen deprivation therapy in combination with radiotherapy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2012-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has remained the main therapeutic option for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) for about 70 years. Several reports and our findings revealed that aggressive PCa can occur under a low dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level environment where the PCa of a low malignancy with high DHT dependency cannot easily occur. Low DHT levels in the prostate with aggressive PCa are probably sufficient to propagate the growth of the tumor, and the prostate with aggressive PCa can produce androgens from the adrenal precursors more autonomously than that with non-aggressive PCa does under the low testosterone environment with testicular suppression. In patients treated with ADT the pituitary-adrenal axis mediated by adrenocorticotropic hormone has a central role in the regulation of androgen synthesis. Several experimental studies have confirmed the potential benefits from the combination of ADT with radiotherapy (RT). A combination of external RT with short-term ADT is recommended based on the results of phase III randomized trials. In contrast, the combination of RT plus 6 months of ADT provides inferior survival as compared with RT plus 3 years of ADT in the treatment of locally advanced PCa. Notably, randomized trials included patients with diverse risk groups treated with older RT modalities, a variety of ADT scheduling and duration and, importantly, suboptimal RT doses. The use of ADT with higher doses of RT or newer RT modalities has to be properly assessed.

  9. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-28

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006–3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires “filling up” all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  10. The Rv1651c-encoded PE-PGRS30 protein expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits polar localization and modulates its growth profile.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2011-09-01

    Sequencing analysis of the complete genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv resulted in the identification of a novel multigene, the PE family of genes. The genes of the largest PE_PGRS subfamily of the PE family are mainly restricted to pathogenic mycobacteria, and their exact role in the biology of Mtb is not clearly understood. Based on their sequence homology, PE_PGRS proteins were initially thought to serve common functions. However, studies on individual proteins reveal that the individual proteins of this subfamily could be performing several unrelated tasks. In the present study, we investigated the function of PE_PGRS30 by expressing it in Mycobacterium smegmatis. PE_PGRS30 expression in M. smegmatis resulted in phenotypic changes with altered colony morphology and growth profile. The recombinant PE_PGRS30 showed polar localization and was found to be associated with the cell wall of M. smegmatis. Thus, the present study suggests that the prolonged lag phase of growth caused by the PE_PGRS30 may, in part, contribute to the latency of Mtb.

  11. Communication: Estimating the initial biasing potential for λ-local-elevation umbrella-sampling (λ-LEUS) simulations via slow growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Noah S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2014-11-01

    In a recent article [Bieler et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3006-3022 (2014)], we introduced a combination of the λ-dynamics (λD) approach for calculating alchemical free-energy differences and of the local-elevation umbrella-sampling (LEUS) memory-based biasing method to enhance the sampling along the alchemical coordinate. The combined scheme, referred to as λ-LEUS, was applied to the perturbation of hydroquinone to benzene in water as a test system, and found to represent an improvement over thermodynamic integration (TI) in terms of sampling efficiency at equivalent accuracy. However, the preoptimization of the biasing potential required in the λ-LEUS method requires "filling up" all the basins in the potential of mean force. This introduces a non-productive pre-sampling time that is system-dependent, and generally exceeds the corresponding equilibration time in a TI calculation. In this letter, a remedy is proposed to this problem, termed the slow growth memory guessing (SGMG) approach. Instead of initializing the biasing potential to zero at the start of the preoptimization, an approximate potential of mean force is estimated from a short slow growth calculation, and its negative used to construct the initial memory. Considering the same test system as in the preceding article, it is shown that of the application of SGMG in λ-LEUS permits to reduce the preoptimization time by about a factor of four.

  12. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process.

  13. The impact of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and phenolic compound accumulation and localization in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Janas, K M; Zielińska-Tomaszewska, J; Rybaczek, D; Maszewski, J; Posmyk, M M; Amarowicz, R; Kosińska, A

    2010-03-01

    Changes in phenolics (PhC) measured as UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC) and their localization as well as growth, lipid peroxidation (TBARS level), H(2)O(2) and Cu accumulation and other ions content in roots of two lentil cultivars (cv. Krak and cv. Tina) contrasting in Cu sensitivity were examined. The aim of this study was to reveal the importance of PhC in Cu tolerance. During Cu treatment, inhibition of growth and increases in lipid peroxidation in roots of both cultivars were observed, but the effects were more pronounced in cv. Tina (more sensitive) than in cv. Krak (less sensitive). Cu at 0.5 mM caused higher Cu and H(2)O(2) accumulation, but lower K(+) content and UVAC levels in the root tips of cv. Tina. Opposite changes were recorded in cv. Krak. Fluorescence microscopic analyses confirmed greater PhC accumulation in cv. Krak (less sensitive) than in cv. Tina (more sensitive) after Cu treatment and showed that these compounds accumulated particularly in vacuoles and the cell wall. Taken together, these results show that, in spite of the high concentration of Cu-stimulated PhC accumulation in cv. Krak, it was not sufficient to counteract the amount of ROS generated by the metal. The role of PhC in different reactions to Cu stress in lentil roots is discussed.

  14. Spatial Growth Modeling and High Resolution Remote Sensing Data Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    with USGS lkm land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  15. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    island mitigation strategies. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rationale decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  16. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled With Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Johnson, H.; Khan, M.

    2006-05-01

    compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta's growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  17. Analysis of Component of Aggression in the Stories of Elementary School Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamandar, Fateme; Jabbari, D. Susan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the content analysis of children's stories based on the components of aggression. Participants are 66 elementary school students (16 girls and 50 boys) selected from fourth and fifth grades, using the Relational and Overt Aggression Questionnaire; completed by the teachers. Draw a Story Test (Silver, 2005) is…

  18. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  19. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  20. Disentangling functions of online aggression: The Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ).

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal; Shaw, Thérèse

    2017-01-01

    Aggression in online contexts has received much attention over the last decade, yet there is a need for measures identifying the proximal psychological drivers of cyber-aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to present data on the newly developed Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ) designed to distinguish between four distinct types of cyber-aggression on dimensions of motivational valence and self-control. A sample 314 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results confirmed the predicted four-factor structure providing evidence for distinct and independent impulsive-aversive, controlled-aversive, impulsive-appetitive, and controlled-appetitive cyber-aggression types. Further analyses with the Berlin Cyberbullying Questionnaire, Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems Scale provide support for convergent and divergent validity. Understanding the motivations facilitating cyber-aggressive behavior could aid researchers in the development of new prevention and intervention strategies that focus on individual differences in maladaptive proximal drivers of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:74-84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes.

  2. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  3. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components.

  4. Enhancement of growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L.cv. Lucknow local) under the influence of fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bais, H P; Govindaswamy, S; Ravishankar, G A

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the possible production of coumarins in hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus L.cv. Lucknow local under the influence of microbial agents. Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytopthora parasitica var. nicotiana were cultured and their mycelial and medium filtrate were used for the elicitation of coumarin production. The media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v added to the MS basal medium led to the maximum growth of hairy roots of C. intybus, which was 1.57-fold higher than the untreated control on the 28th day of culture, along with maximum esculin and esculetin yields which were 4.06- and 3.71-fold higher than the control on the 28th day. The yields of esculin and esculetin in hairy root cultures of chicory strongly correlated with growth. To check the effect of these fungal elicitors on endogenous polyamine metabolism, titers of total endogenous polyamines were analyzed. It was confirmed that the media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration resulted in maximum accumulation of total endogenous polyamines, wherein endogenous spermine titers were found to be maximum as compared to endogenous spermidine and putrescine titers on the 28th day. Total endogenous spermine in the case of 1.0% MF v/v P. parasitica was 1.3-fold higher than that of the control on the 28th day of culture. Maximum growth index with greater length of primary root (17.61+/-0.18 cm) and greater number of secondary and tertiary roots was recorded for the medium filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration. This study also provided an insight into the morphological changes in terms of branching patterns, occurring in roots under the influence of these fungal elicitors.

  5. Nuclear Localization of CD26 Induced by a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Modulating of POLR2A Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kohji; Hayashi, Mutsumi; Madokoro, Hiroko; Nishida, Hiroko; Du, Wenlin; Ohnuma, Kei; Sakamoto, Michiie; Morimoto, Chikao; Yamada, Taketo

    2013-01-01

    CD26 is a type II glycoprotein known as dipeptidyl peptidase IV and has been identified as one of the cell surface markers associated with various types of cancers and a subset of cancer stem cells. Recent studies have suggested that CD26 expression is involved in tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. The CD26 is shown in an extensive intracellular distribution, ranging from the cell surface to the nucleus. We have previously showed that the humanized anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb), YS110, exhibits inhibitory effects on various cancers. However, functions of CD26 on cancer cells and molecular mechanisms of impaired tumor growth by YS110 treatment are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment with YS110 induced nuclear translocation of both cell-surface CD26 and YS110 in cancer cells and xenografted tumor. It was shown that the CD26 and YS110 were co-localized in nucleus by immunoelectron microscopic analysis. In response to YS110 treatment, CD26 was translocated into the nucleus via caveolin-dependent endocytosis. It was revealed that the nuclear CD26 interacted with a genomic flanking region of the gene for POLR2A, a subunit of RNA polymerase II, using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. This interaction with nuclear CD26 and POLR2A gene consequently led to transcriptional repression of the POLR2A gene, resulting in retarded cell proliferation of cancer cells. Furthermore, the impaired nuclear transport of CD26 by treatment with an endocytosis inhibitor or expressions of deletion mutants of CD26 reversed the POLR2A repression induced by YS110 treatment. These findings reveal that the nuclear CD26 functions in the regulation of gene expression and tumor growth, and provide a novel mechanism of mAb-therapy related to inducible translocation of cell-surface target molecule into the nucleus. PMID:23638030

  6. Chondrocyte-specific modulation of Cyp27b1 expression supports a role for local synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in growth plate development.

    PubMed

    Naja, Roy Pascal; Dardenne, Olivier; Arabian, Alice; St Arnaud, René

    2009-09-01

    The Cyp27b1 enzyme (25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase) that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D into the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], is expressed in kidney but also in other cell types such as chondrocytes. This suggests that local production of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could play an important role in the differentiation of these cells. To test this hypothesis, we engineered mutant mice that do not express the Cyp27b1 gene in chondrocytes. Inactivation of both alleles of the Cyp27b1 gene led to decreased RANKL expression and reduced osteoclastogenesis, increased width of the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate at embryonic d 15.5, increased bone volume in neonatal long bones, and increased expression of the chondrocytic differentiation markers Indian Hedgehog and PTH/PTHrP receptor. The expression of the angiogenic marker VEGF was decreased, accompanied by decreased platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 staining in the neonatal growth plate, suggesting a delay in vascularization. In parallel, we engineered strains of mice overexpressing a Cyp27b1 transgene in chondrocytes by coupling the Cyp27b1 cDNA to the collagen alpha(1)(II) promoter. The transgenic mice showed a mirror image phenotype when compared with the tissue-specific inactivation, i.e. a reduction in the width of the hypertrophic zone of the embryonic growth plate, decreased bone volume in neonatal long bones, and inverse expression patterns of chondrocytic differentiation markers. These results support an intracrine role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in endochondral ossification and chondrocyte development in vivo.

  7. Effects of local Polynesian plants and algae on growth and expression of two immune-related genes in orbicular batfish (Platax orbicularis).

    PubMed

    Reverter, Miriam; Saulnier, Denis; David, Rarahu; Bardon-Albaret, Agnès; Belliard, Corinne; Tapissier-Bontemps, Nathalie; Lecchini, David; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The emerging orbicular batfish (Platax orbicularis) aquaculture is the most important fish aquaculture industry in French Polynesia. However, bacterial infections are causing severe mortality episodes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find an effective management solution. Besides the supplying difficulty and high costs of veterinary drugs in French Polynesia, batfish aquaculture takes place close to the coral reef, where use of synthetic persistent drugs should be restricted. Medicinal plants and bioactive algae are emerging as a cheaper and more sustainable alternative to chemical drugs. We have studied the effect of local Polynesian plants and the local opportunistic algae Asparagopsis taxiformis on batfish when orally administered. Weight gain and expression of two immune-related genes (lysozyme g - Lys G and transforming growth factor beta - TGF-β1) were studied to analyze immunostimulant activity of plants on P. orbicularis. Results showed that several plants increased Lys G and TGF-β1 expression on orbicular batfish after 2 and 3 weeks of oral administration. A. taxiformis was the plant displaying the most promising results, promoting a weight gain of 24% after 3 weeks of oral administration and significantly increasing the relative amount of both Lys G and TGF-β1 transcripts in kidney and spleen of P. orbicularis.

  8. Effects of locally applied nerve growth factor to the inferior alveolar nerve histology in a rabbit model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Zhao, Y; Cheng, X; Yang, Y; Liu, G; Ma, Q; Shang, H; Tian, L; Lei, D

    2009-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is widely used in deformities and defects of the craniofacial bone. Accelerating inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) recovery would aid the process. Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a vital role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the ability of locally applied human NGF beta (hNGFbeta) to enhance the morphological recovery of the IAN in a rabbit model of mandibular DO was studied. Rabbits underwent bilateral DO with a rate of 0.5mm per 12h. Two doses of 40 microg hNGFbeta in buffer were injected into callus at the beginning the of consolidation time. The contralateral side received injections of placebo. Rabbits were killed at 14 and 28 days. IAN specimens were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. In both 14 and 28 days consolidation experiments, nerve histological analysis showed less degeneration and more regeneration in nerve fibers on the hNGFbeta treated side than the control side. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the myelinated fiber density on the hNGFbeta treated side was significantly higher than on the control side (p<0.01). The data indicate that locally applied hNGFbeta can accelerate the morphological recovery of the IAN and may play a role in reducing nerve injury in mandibular DO clinically.

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta expression by host cells is elicited locally by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus in hyporeactive patients independently from Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Korten, Simone; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Büttner, Dietrich W; Hoerauf, Achim

    2010-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key cytokine in immune regulation, cell differentiation, development, wound healing, and tissue remodelling. It mediates immunosuppression in filarial infections facilitating parasite persistence, while attenuating immunopathology, which is induced by migrating microfilariae. Immunosuppression rises with parasite burden, but it remains unknown whether filariae elicit local release of immunosuppressive cytokines. Therefore, using immunohistology, we investigated the expression of stable, released latent TGF-beta1 in subcutaneous nodules from highly infected, hyporeactive onchocerciasis patients, harbouring adult Onchocerca volvulus. Since many cell types produce TGF-beta, we elucidated the cellular source, distribution and dependency on the worms' sex, productivity and vitality. We found TGF-beta1 to be abundantly expressed by T cells, plasma/B cells, macrophages, mast cells, fibrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells, particularly in onchocercomas with productive or previously productive females, damaged, dead and resorbed adult worms or microfilariae. We conclude TGF-beta to be antigen induced by the filariae since expression was scarce around subcutaneous arthropods or cholesterol crystals in onchocercomas. Enhanced expression after ivermectin or endobacteria-depleting doxycycline treatment indicates induction to depend on filariae and not on Wolbachia endobacteria. TGF-beta(+) cells were reduced in HIV co-infection. This finding of local and sustained TGF-beta induction by vital and dead filariae, untreated and after treatment, adds new aspects to immunomodulation by helminths.

  10. Aggressive parenteral nutrition and growth velocity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ribed Sánchez, Almudena; Romero Jiménez, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Gómez de Orgaz, Ma Carmen; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Sanjurjo Sáez, María

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: La administración parenteral de nutrientes para mantener el crecimiento en recién nacidos representa un importante reto terapéutico. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de nutrición parenteral (NP) en un hospital de tercer nivel y evaluar el crecimiento postnatal en recién nacidos prematuros. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de 3 meses de duración. Se incluyeron niños ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología que iniciaron NP. Se recogieron datos demográficos, antropométricos, calorías diarias, ingesta de proteínas y componentes de la NP. La velocidad de crecimiento se midió mediante la media de la ganancia diaria de peso y se comparó con el crecimiento intrauterino. Resultados: 68 niños prematuros iniciaron NP durante el período de estudio. La mayoría de los niños (65%) nacieron por cesárea y la media de edad gestacional fue de 33 semanas. El 25% de los recién nacidos no recuperó el peso de nacimiento. El 75% restante recuperó el peso de nacimiento en el tercer día de NP y la media de la ganancia diaria de peso fue de 16 g/kg/d, con un rango de 12 a 22g/kg/d. A pesar de que la ganancia de peso se acercó a la tasa intrauterina, la mayoría de los niños nacidos con menos de 30 semanas de gestación no lograron la media de la población de referencia. La NP precoz e intensiva se administró con una media de 3, 11 y 3g/Kg/d de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y lípidos, respectivamente, alcanzando un máximo en el cuarto día de 4, 18, 4 g/kg/d, respectivamente. Discusión: La NP intensiva se utiliza en el ámbito hospitalario. Los recién nacidos prematuros alcanzaron antes el peso de nacimiento y presentaron una velocidad de crecimiento mayor que en otros estudios y similar al crecimiento intrauterino.

  11. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    PubMed

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms.

  12. Development of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I in head and brain of chick embryos: Autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Bassas, L.; Girbau, M.; Lesniak, M.A.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In whole brain of chick embryos insulin receptors are highest at the end of embryonic development, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors dominate in the early stages. These studies provided evidence for developmental regulation of both types of receptors, but they did not provide information on possible differences between brain regions at each developmental stage or within one region at different embryonic ages. We have now localized the specific binding of (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I in sections of head and brain using autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometric analysis. Embryos have been studied from the latter part of organogenesis (days 6 and 12) through late development (day 18, i.e. 3 days before hatching), and the binding patterns have been compared with those in the adult brain. At all ages the binding of both ligands was to discrete anatomical regions. Interestingly, while in late embryos and adult brain the patterns of (125I)insulin and (125I) IGF-I binding were quite distinct, in young embryos both ligands showed very similar localization of binding. In young embryos the retina and lateral wall of the growing encephalic vesicles had the highest binding of both (125I)insulin and (125I)IGF-I. In older embryos, as in the adult brain, insulin binding was high in the paleostriatum augmentatum and molecular layer of the cerebellum, while IGF-I binding was prominent in the hippocampus and neostriatum. The mapping of receptors in a vertebrate embryo model from early prenatal development until adulthood predicts great overlap in any possible function of insulin and IGF-I in brain development, while it anticipates differential localized actions of the peptides in the mature brain.

  13. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  14. Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy for the Management of Aggressive Fibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, Falk; Timke, Carmen; Oertel, Susanne; Hensley, Frank W.; Bischof, Marc; Muenter, Marc W.; Weitz, Juergen; Buchler, Markus W.; Lehner, Burkhard; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and Materials: Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients. Conclusion: Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.

  15. An aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva - A rare entity - A case report

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bishnu Prasad; Baruah, Dipankar; Medhi, Kaberee Bhuyan; Talukder, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive mesenchymal tumor predominantly presenting in women of reproductive age and also having a moderate-to-high risk for local relapse. Hence, it needs to be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors occurring in this region. We present here a case of a 40-year-old female presenting with a large, fleshy, pedunculated mass on the right labia majora. PMID:27721642

  16. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  17. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  18. Renal Medullary Carcinoma with an Aggressive Clinical Course: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalavar, Madhumati R.; Ali, Sami; Safarpour, Damoun; Kunnakkat, Saroj Davi

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, yet aggressive malignancy of the kidney that is found predominantly in young patients with African descent and sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and most specifically sickle cell trait. Due to its aggressive nature, most cases have metastasis or local invasion at the time of diagnosis. Prognosis is extremely poor with survival less than 1 year after diagnosis. Here we present a case of metastatic RMC in a 29-year-old African female. Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel, and initial shrinkage of the tumor, the patient died 5 months after diagnosis. PMID:28203160

  19. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to