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Sample records for aggressive management including

  1. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  2. Management of Aggressive and Violent Behavior in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Antisocial behavior patterns and the assessment and management of aggressive and violent behavior in the schools are discussed. Behavioral analysis of aggression should identify its antecedents and consequences to provide the basis for intervention. Intervention strategies include behavior enhancement contingencies, behavior reduction…

  3. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility. PMID:26427235

  4. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  5. Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Clive G; Gauthier, Serge; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Brodaty, Henry; Grossberg, George T; Robert, Philippe; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2009-05-01

    Agitation and aggression are frequently occurring and distressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These symptoms are disturbing for individuals with Alzheimer disease, commonly confer risk to the patient and others, and present a major management challenge for clinicians. The most widely prescribed pharmacological treatments for these symptoms-atypical antipsychotics-have a modest but significant beneficial effect in the short-term treatment (over 6-12 weeks) of aggression but limited benefits in longer term therapy. Benefits are less well established for other symptoms of agitation. In addition, concerns are growing over the potential for serious adverse outcomes with these treatments, including stroke and death. A detailed consideration of other pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer disease is, therefore, imperative. This article reviews the increasing evidence in support of psychological interventions or alternative therapies (such as aromatherapy) as a first-line management strategy for agitation, as well as the potential pharmacological alternatives to atypical antipsychotics-preliminary evidence for memantine, carbamazepine, and citalopram is encouraging.

  6. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  7. Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei Fen; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    In Singapore, anecdotal evidence suggests that nurses are concerned about managing aggressive incidents in the emergency department. In this study, registered nurses' perceptions of managing aggressive patients in an emergency department were explored. Ten registered nurses from the emergency department of an acute public hospital in Singapore were interviewed. Four overarching themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) impact of aggressive patients on nurses; (ii) nursing assessment of aggressive behaviors; (iii) nursing management of aggressive behaviors; and (iv) organizational support and responsiveness. Further research is required to better support nurses to deliver optimal care for aggressive patients and achieve positive and effective outcomes.

  8. Aggressively managing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Craig W

    2008-05-01

    Physicians have many options available for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Making decisions on types of pharmaceuticals to use and when to introduce them into the treatment regimen can be a complex process. In addition, nutrition and exercise must be considered in any comprehensive treatment plan. The author describes the case of an African American woman with uncontrolled T2DM, obesity, hyperlipidemia, low bone mass, menopausal symptoms, stage 3 chronic kidney disease, distal sensory neuropathy, and background retinopathy. An aggressive, comprehensive treatment plan developed for this patient included pharmaceuticals (triple oral therapy: metformin, pioglitazone hydrochloride, and sitagliptin phosphate), nutrition counseling (with a registered, licensed dietician), and exercise. Treatment led to substantial improvements in the patient's daytime glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and body weight at 3-month follow-up. Further interventions were needed to address the patient's hyperlipidemia and low bone mass. The author offers physician guidelines for making decisions on glycemic control for patients with T2DM and for managing hyperlipidemia. He also strongly recommends incorporating nutrition counseling by registered, licensed dietitians and exercise (preferably of a weight-bearing nature) into treatment plans for patients with T2DM, hyperlipidemia, and low bone mass.

  9. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  10. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  11. New STD recommendations include HIV management.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated its 1993 guidelines for STDs, adding new recommendations for treating primary and recurrent genital warts and for managing patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. The guidelines grew out of research into microbiologic cures, alleviating signs and symptoms, preventing sequelae, and preventing transmission. The guidelines recommend that people seeking treatment for STDs should be offered HIV testing and counseling. Results of a recent Alan Guttmacher Institute study of STD public health programs are included.

  12. Managing Irritability and Aggression in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Adelaide S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism and autism spectrum disorders have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. In one study up to 20% of children with autism have symptoms of irritability and aggression including aggression, severe tantrums, and deliberate self injurious behavior (Lecavalier [2006] "J. Autism Dev. Disord." 36:1101-1114.). These…

  13. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  14. Healthcare Managers' Perceptions of Patient Perpetrated Aggression and Prevention Strategies: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Baby, Maria; Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Patient or client aggression towards staff is a risk in healthcare. Healthcare takes place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community, and Aged Care facilities. A minimal amount is known regarding the existence of safety and training measures available throughout the broad range of hospital and community healthcare services. A web-based survey of the type and frequency of violence experienced by healthcare staff was sent to unit managers working in mental health and older peoples' services of District Health Boards, Non-Governmental Organisations, and Aged Care facilities across New Zealand. One hundred and forty-one managers responded to the survey with a response rate of 79.21%. Managers reported high rates of verbal aggression and assaults against staff within their services. A total of 60% of respondents stated that an increase in assaults against staff was due to an increase in violent events and 43.1% related this to increased staff awareness and reporting of violent events to management. Communication skills and de-escalation training were provided across approximately 95% of organisations. The availability of safety measures including panic buttons, personal alarms, use of security personnel, and police assistance were more widely available and accessible within hospital settings and the community sector was found to mostly rely on police for assistance when violence occurs. The perception of violence is high in healthcare. Prevention and management training is provided in public hospital and aged care setting but not so much in NGOs. All areas of healthcare provision could benefit from increased evidence based aggression prevention programmes. PMID:27127851

  15. Healthcare Managers' Perceptions of Patient Perpetrated Aggression and Prevention Strategies: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Baby, Maria; Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Patient or client aggression towards staff is a risk in healthcare. Healthcare takes place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community, and Aged Care facilities. A minimal amount is known regarding the existence of safety and training measures available throughout the broad range of hospital and community healthcare services. A web-based survey of the type and frequency of violence experienced by healthcare staff was sent to unit managers working in mental health and older peoples' services of District Health Boards, Non-Governmental Organisations, and Aged Care facilities across New Zealand. One hundred and forty-one managers responded to the survey with a response rate of 79.21%. Managers reported high rates of verbal aggression and assaults against staff within their services. A total of 60% of respondents stated that an increase in assaults against staff was due to an increase in violent events and 43.1% related this to increased staff awareness and reporting of violent events to management. Communication skills and de-escalation training were provided across approximately 95% of organisations. The availability of safety measures including panic buttons, personal alarms, use of security personnel, and police assistance were more widely available and accessible within hospital settings and the community sector was found to mostly rely on police for assistance when violence occurs. The perception of violence is high in healthcare. Prevention and management training is provided in public hospital and aged care setting but not so much in NGOs. All areas of healthcare provision could benefit from increased evidence based aggression prevention programmes.

  16. Mindfulness-Based Program for Management of Aggression Among Youth: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth have shown indulgence in various high-risk behaviors and violent activities. Yoga-based approaches have been used for the management of psychological problems. The present work explores the role of mindfulness-based program in the management of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic information schedule, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and World Health Organization quality of life were administered on 50 subjects in the age range of 18-25 years at pre- and post-mindfulness-based program level. Results: It revealed the presence of feeling of well-being and ability to relax themselves; changes in score of anger, hostility, physical, and verbal aggression; and enhancement of quality of life in the physical and environment domains at 1 month follow-up. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based program has shown changes in aggression expression/control and implies integration of it in available program for the management of aggression among youth. PMID:27335516

  17. Effectiveness of an Afterschool-Based Aggression Management Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staecker, Emma; Puett, Eli; Afrassiab, Shayda; Ketcherside, Miranda; Azim, Sabiya; Rhodes, Darson; Wang, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A school-community partnership team implemented an aggression management curriculum in an afterschool program as an early-intervention strategy at the upper elementary level. Although statistically significant differences in physical or psychological aggression were not found, the partnership team gained a better understanding of evidence-based…

  18. Does aggressive and expectant management of severe preeclampsia affect the neurologic development of the infant?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Arif Aktuğ; Kapudere, Bilge; Eken, Meryem Kurek; İlhan, Gülşah; Dırman, Şükriye; Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Deniz, Engin; Karatekin, Güner; Çöğendez, Ebru; Api, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare and evaluate the influences of expectant and aggressive management of severe preeclampsia on the first year neurologic development of the infants in pregnancies between 27 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Methods: Seventy women with severe preeclampsia between 27 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in the study. 37 patients were managed aggressively (Group 1) and 33 patients were managed expectantly (Group 2). Glucocorticoids, magnesium sulfate infusion and antihypertensive drugs were administered to each group. After glucocorticoid administration was completed Group 1 was delivered either by cesarean section or vaginal delivery. In Group 2 magnesium sulfate infusion was stopped after glucocorticoid administration was completed. Antihypertensive drugs were given, bed rest and intensive fetal monitorization were continued in this group. Results: The average weeks of gestation, one minute and five minute apgar scores and hospitalization time in intensive care unit were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Three neonatal complications in Group 2 and five in Group 1 were detected according to the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II and one pathologic case was detected in both groups following neurologic examination. Neonatal mortality was seen in seven patients in Group 1 and one in Group 2. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal mortality and morbidity and maternal morbidity (P > 0.05). The average latency period was 3.45 ± 5.48 days in Group 2 and none in Group 1. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the first year neurological development of infants whose mothers underwent either expectant and aggressive management for severe preeclampsia. PMID:26770571

  19. Clinician perceptions of personal safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression in a forensic psychiatric setting.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Daffern, M

    2006-02-01

    Inpatient mental health clinicians need to feel safe in the workplace. They also require confidence in their ability to work with aggressive patients, allowing the provision of therapeutic care while protecting themselves and other patients from psychological and physical harm. The authors initiated this study with the predetermined belief that a comprehensive and integrated organizational approach to inpatient aggression was required to support clinicians and that this approach increased confidence and staff perceptions of personal safety. To assess perceptions of personal safety and confidence, clinicians in a forensic psychiatric hospital were surveyed using an adapted version of the Confidence in Coping With Patient Aggression Instrument. In this study clinicians reported the hospital as safe. They reported confidence in their work with aggressive patients. The factors that most impacted on clinicians' confidence to manage aggression were colleagues' knowledge, experience and skill, management of aggression training, use of prevention and intervention strategies, teamwork and the staff profile. These results are considered with reference to an expanding literature on inpatient aggression. It is concluded that organizational resources, policies and frameworks support clinician perceptions of safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression. However, how these are valued by clinicians and translated into practice at unit level needs ongoing attention.

  20. Effect of anger management education on mental health and aggression of prisoner women

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Elaheh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: “Uncontrolled anger” threats the compatible and health of people as serious risk. The effects of weaknesses and shortcomings in the management of anger, from personal distress and destruction interpersonal relationships beyond and linked to the public health problems, lack of compromises, and aggressive behavior adverse outcomes. This study investigates the effects of anger management education on mental health and aggression of prisoner women in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The single-group quasi-experimental (pretest, posttest) by prisoner women in the central prison of Isfahan was done. Multi-stage random sampling method was used. Initially, 165 women were selected randomly and completed the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28, and among these, those with scores >78 (the cut point) in aggression scale was selected and among them 70 were randomly selected. In the next step, interventions in four 90 min training sessions were conducted. Posttest was performed within 1-month after the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software. Results: Data analysis showed that anger management training was effective in reducing aggression (P < 0.001) and also had a positive effect on mental health (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the importance of aggression in consistency and individual and collective health and according to findings, presented educational programs on anger management is essential for female prisoners. PMID:27512697

  1. Ocean management plan includes array of recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore appeared in Monterey, California in June 1998 for a National Oceans Conference, some of the salt water spray from the Pacific Ocean must have clung to them.As a follow-up to the conference, the Clinton Administration on September 2 issued an interagency report to help guide federal efforts in establishing a comprehensive ocean policy.The report, which touches upon a number of global issues including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contains nearly 150 recommendations.

  2. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. PMID:24075704

  3. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context.

  4. Aggressive surgery for management of recurrent intraabdominal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roseman, J M; Minton, J P

    1983-06-01

    With the evolution of effective multimodality control of various tumors, the role of surgery for recurrent malignancies is emerging as significant factor in not only maintaining that control, but in permitting the possibility of late cure of certain, even advanced intraabdominal malignancies. Several patients with Stage IV colon or ovarian carcinoma were evaluated and found to benefit from such an aggressive surgical approach with the result of long term control as well as apparent clinical cure in the several instances. These possibilities are becoming increasingly significant as progress is made in the various treatment modalities for neoplastic diseases.

  5. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  6. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing.

  7. Uncommon perineal tumours: caution with aggressive surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Duchalais, Emilie; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Regenet, Nicolas; Meurette, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    An asymptomatic 66-year-old woman showed a large perineal mass extending close to pelvic organs on MRI. CT-guided needle biopsies revealed a desmoid tumour (DT). The patient refused radical surgery. Four years later, the tumour had marginally increased in size and was still asymptomatic. The revision of earlier biopsies then revealed typical aspects of aggressive angiomyxoma (AA). AA and DT are rare mesenchymal tumours of low-grade malignancy, usually of large size, that occurs in female pelvi-perineal region. Radical resection with wide margins is classically advocated in such tumours in order to prevent the high risk of recurrences. However, due to a slow growth, rare infiltration of adjacent organs and a very low metastatic potential, a watchful waiting policy can be proposed when high postoperative morbidity is expected. In order to propose the accurate treatment, frontline biopsies of the tumour are essential. PMID:24243505

  8. Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy for the Management of Aggressive Fibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, Falk; Timke, Carmen; Oertel, Susanne; Hensley, Frank W.; Bischof, Marc; Muenter, Marc W.; Weitz, Juergen; Buchler, Markus W.; Lehner, Burkhard; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and Materials: Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients. Conclusion: Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.

  9. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  10. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  11. Managing aggression in a psychiatric hospital using a behaviour plan: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home. PMID:16965469

  12. Reasons for Aggressive Classroom Management and Directions for Change through Teachers' Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Salkovsky, Merav; Lewis, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether there are significant relationships between the reasons teachers provide for aggressive classroom management techniques and the type of professional education created to help them reduce their reliance on such techniques. The study reports data from a survey of 192 Australian teachers showing…

  13. Peer with Intellectual Disabilities as a Mindfulness-Based Anger and Aggression Management Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    A young man with intellectual disabilities (ID) and mental illness, who had previously been taught to successfully manage his aggressive behavior by using "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet," reported that he shared his mindfulness practice with his peers with ID. When requested by his peers, and without any training as a therapist, he began to…

  14. Design of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chimowitz, Marc I.; Lynn, Michael J.; Turan, Tanya N.; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F.; Janis, Scott; Derdeyn, Colin P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with recent transient ischemic attack or stroke caused by 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery are at high risk of recurrent stroke on usual medical management, suggesting the need for alternative therapies for this disease. Methods The Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis trial is an ongoing, randomized, multicenter, two-arm trial that will determine whether intracranial angioplasty and stenting adds benefit to aggressive medical management alone for preventing the primary endpoint (any stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after any revascularization procedure of the qualifying lesion during follow-up, or stroke in the territory of the symptomatic intracranial artery beyond 30 days) during a mean follow-up of 2 years in patients with recent TIA or stroke caused by 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Aggressive medical management in both arms consists of aspirin 325 mg per day, clopidogrel 75mg per day for 90 days after enrollment, intensive risk factor management primarily targeting systolic blood pressure < 140 mm Hg (< 130 mm Hg in diabetics) and low density cholesterol < 70 mg / dl, and a lifetsyle modification program. The sample size required todetect a 35% reduction in the rate of the primary endpoint from angioplasty and stenting based on the log-rank test with an alpha of 0.05, 80% power, and adjusting for a 2% loss to follow-up and 5% crossover from the medical to the stenting arm is 382 patients per group. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial to compare intracranial angioplasty and stenting with medical therapy and to incorporate intensive management of multiple risk factors and a lifestyle modification program in the study design. Hopefully, the results of the trial will lead to more effective therapy for this high-risk disease. PMID:21729789

  15. Behavioral decisions for managing social distance and aggression in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Renner, Michael J; Kelly, Aislinn L

    2006-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in most zoos attracts high levels of public attention and can play an important role in conservation education. Polar bears in the wild are typically solitary; bears in captivity often house socially. This study reported behavioral evidence on how bears manage this situation and whether proximity leads to aggression. The study recorded location and behavior once per minute for 106 hr for 2 female polar bears at the Philadelphia Zoo; the samples represented all times of day bears spent in the enclosure (off-exhibit time spent in separate, indoor dens). When changing locations, 1 bear more frequently moved away from the other, effecting a net increase in interindividual distance. When either bear moved into an adjacent zone, 1 typically moved away. The bears occupied the same enclosure zone for a low proportion of time; proximity did not routinely lead to overt aggression. These data indicate polar bears make behavioral decisions, minimizing aggression, to manage social distance and that enclosure designers for solitary species--to facilitate social avoidance--should consider using topographical complexity and multiple pathways throughout.

  16. Management of locally aggressive mandibular tumours using a gas combination cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, José Thiers; Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; da Silva Tabosa, Ana Karla; Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; de Menezes, Lucas Machado

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the results of curettage followed by cryosurgery using a combination of propane, butane, and isobutane gas for several benign but locally aggressive bone tumours on the mandible. Twenty-nine patients (16 men and 13 women) participated in the study. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 87 years (mean, 23.72 years). Before enucleation and cryosurgery, some patients received prior treatment consisting of marsupialisation to decrease tumour size. Twenty-seven of the 29 patients (93.10%) showed no evidence of clinical or radiographic recurrence after treatment through enucleation and cryosurgery. Wound dehiscence, which was observed in all cases, healed by second intention. The average follow-up period was 70.55 months (range, 53-120 months). These results suggest that enucleation followed by cryosurgery is an effective therapy for managing locally aggressive mandible tumours. In addition, this treatment is a less expensive intervention than more radical procedures. PMID:23835572

  17. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  18. Optimizing arousal to manage aggression: a pilot study of sensory modulation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Van Kessel, Kirsten; Vanderpyl, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The dominant model that informs clinical training for preventing violence and managing aggression posits arousal as mediated downwards from higher cortical structures. This view results in an often-misplaced reliance on verbal and cognitive techniques for de-escalation. The emergence of sensory modulation, via the Six Core Strategies, is an alternative or complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint. Sensory-based interventions are thought to promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion, but this connection has had limited theoretical and empirical development. This paper presents results of a pilot trial of sensory-based interventions in four inpatient mental health units in New Zealand. Narrative analysis of interview and focus group data suggest that modifications to the environment and the use of soothing stimuli moderate or optimize arousal and promote an ability to adaptively regulate emotion. Findings are discussed in light of recent advances in the neurophysiology of emotional regulation and the General Aggression Model that posits arousal and maladaptive emotional regulation as precursors to aggression.

  19. Optimizing arousal to manage aggression: a pilot study of sensory modulation.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Van Kessel, Kirsten; Vanderpyl, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The dominant model that informs clinical training for preventing violence and managing aggression posits arousal as mediated downwards from higher cortical structures. This view results in an often-misplaced reliance on verbal and cognitive techniques for de-escalation. The emergence of sensory modulation, via the Six Core Strategies, is an alternative or complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint. Sensory-based interventions are thought to promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion, but this connection has had limited theoretical and empirical development. This paper presents results of a pilot trial of sensory-based interventions in four inpatient mental health units in New Zealand. Narrative analysis of interview and focus group data suggest that modifications to the environment and the use of soothing stimuli moderate or optimize arousal and promote an ability to adaptively regulate emotion. Findings are discussed in light of recent advances in the neurophysiology of emotional regulation and the General Aggression Model that posits arousal and maladaptive emotional regulation as precursors to aggression. PMID:23374543

  20. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  2. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  3. Management of large aggressive nonfunctional pituitary tumors: experimental medical options when surgery and radiation fail.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brandon A; Rutledge, W Caleb; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Oyesiku, Nelson M

    2012-10-01

    Pituitary adenomas are generally considered benign tumors; however, a subset of these tumors displays aggressive behavior and are not easily cured. The protocol for nonsurgical treatment of aggressive pituitary lesions is less standardized than that of other central nervous system tumors. Aggressive surgical treatment, radiation, dopamine agonists, antiangiogenic drugs, and other chemotherapeutics all have roles in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. More studies are needed to improve outcomes for patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.

  4. Predictors for self-directed aggression in Italian prisoners include externalizing behaviors, childhood trauma and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, E; Carli, V; Sarchiapone, M; Roy, A; Goldman, D; Enoch, M-A

    2016-06-01

    Suicidal behavior and self-mutilation can be regarded as the expression of self-directed aggression and both are common in prison populations. We investigated the influence of externalizing behaviors, depressive symptoms, childhood trauma, 5-HTTLPR variants on self-directed aggression (N = 145) in a group of 702 male Italian prisoners. Participants were comprehensively evaluated, including for psychiatric disorders, impulsive traits, lifetime aggressive behavior [Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (BGHA)], hostility, violent behavior during incarceration, depressive symptomatology [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)], childhood trauma [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)]. Logistic regression analysis showed false discovery rate corrected independent main effects of externalizing behaviors: BGHA (P = 0.001), violent behavior in jail (P = 0.007), extraversion (P = 0.015); HDRS (P = 0.0004), Axis I disorders (P = 0.015), CTQ (P = 0.004) and 5-HTTLPR genotype (P = 0.02). Carriers of 5-HTTLPR high (LA LA ), intermediate (LA LG , SLA ) activity variants were more likely to have exhibited self-directed aggression relative to the low activity (LG LG , SLG , SS) variant: high/low: odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-4.68, P = 0.007; intermediate/low: OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.09-3.68, P = 0.025. The CTQ main effect was driven by physical abuse. There was no interactive effect of 5-HTTLPR and CTQ. Secondary logistic regression analyses in (1) all suicide attempters (N = 88) and (2) all self-mutilators (N = 104), compared with controls showed that in both groups, childhood trauma (P = 0.008-0.01), depression (P = 0.0004-0.001) were strong predictors. BGHA, violent behavior in jail predicted self-mutilation (P = 0.002) but not suicide attempts (P = 0.1). This study was able to distinguish differing influences on self-directed aggression between groups of closely related

  5. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  6. Clinical assessment and management of psychiatric patients' violent and aggressive behaviors in general hospital.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook Song; Saladino, Joseph P

    2007-10-01

    Patients with co-morbid psychiatric disorders exhibiting violent and aggressive behaviors can be a challenge for nurses in medical-surgical units. They can deliver effective, safe care by assessing risk and building a rapport with the patient during the admission process; utilizing crisis prevention strategies, including appropriate medication administration, environmental, psychobiological, counseling, and health teaching interventions; and employing conflict resolution technique. Utilizing the nursing process, the nurse can provide effective therapeutic interventions to promote safety for both the patient and the nurse. PMID:18072668

  7. Is aggressive gap arthroplasty essential in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis?-a prospective clinical study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Babu, Lokesh; Jain, Manoj Kumar; Ramesh, C; Vinayaka, N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this three-year, prospective, follow-up study was to evaluate whether aggressive gap arthroplasty is essential in the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients were treated by the creation of a minimal gap of 5-8mm and insertion of an interpositional gap arthroplasty using the temporalis fascia. Eleven patients had unilateral coronoidectomy and 4 bilateral coronoidectomy based on Kaban's protocol. Preoperative assessment included recording of history, clinical and radiological examinations, personal variables, the aetiology of the ankylosis, the side affected, and any other relevant findings. Patients were assessed postoperatively by a surgeon unaware of the treatment given for a minimum of 3 years, which included measurement of the maximal incisal opening, presence of facial nerve paralysis, recurrence, and any other relevant findings. Of the 15 patients (17 joints), 12 had unilateral and three had bilateral involvement, with trauma being the most common cause. The patients were aged between 7 and 29 years (mean (SD) age 20 (8) years). Preoperative maximal incisal opening was 0-2mm in 8 cases and 2-9mm in 9. Postoperatively adequate mouth opening of 30-40mm was achieved in all cases, with no recurrence or relevant malocclusion during 3-year follow up. However, patients will be followed up for 10 years. Aggressive gap arthroplasty is not essential in the management of ankylosis of the TMJ. Minimal gap interpositional arthroplasty with complete removal of the mediolateral ankylotic mass is a feasible and effective method of preventing recurrence. PMID:23219020

  8. The Efficacy of a Response Cost-Based Treatment Package for Managing Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Larissa Kern; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1997-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a response cost treatment package for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers. Teachers removed smiley faces and reprimanded children contingent on aggressive behavior. Results indicate that this method substantially decreased aggressive behavior and was a highly acceptable classroom treatment…

  9. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  10. Managing Aggression Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: State of the Practice and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lochman, John E.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2005-01-01

    Education professionals consistently rank disruptive/aggressive student behavior as persistent and troubling, reporting various types of maladaptive behaviors ranging from talking out in class to assault. Researchers suggest that childhood aggression accounts for a high proportion of the referrals to special education for emotional and behavioral…

  11. A Mindfulness-Based Strategy for Self-Management of Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…

  12. Helping Children To Manage Emotions which Trigger Aggressive Acts: An Approach through Drama in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen

    2001-01-01

    Suggests ways in which drama can be used to: explore issues that often give rise to aggression or violence; give space to articulate and respond to emotions; model and practice non-violent response to aggression; consider the consequences of one's actions; empower children to stand up to bullying; and channel energy into performance. (TJQ)

  13. Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

  14. Emerging Contaminant Issues, Including Management Of Emerging Contaminants In Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. These chemicals are sometimes referred to as compounds of emerging concern or trace organic compounds, and include several groups of chemicals including endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pha...

  15. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  16. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  17. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  18. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  19. The efficacy of a response cost-based treatment package for managing aggressive behavior in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L K; Kelley, M L

    1997-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of a response cost treatment package for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers. Using a multiple baseline design, teachers implemented the response cost system during the treatment phases of the study. The system required teachers to remove smiley faces contingent on aggressive behavior. Each face loss was accompanied by a reprimand. If the child retained at least one smiley face at the end of the observation period, he was allowed to choose from a list of rewards. Rewards were easily administered at school. The results indicated that the response cost treatment package substantially decreased aggressive behavior and was a highly acceptable classroom treatment to teachers and parents. PMID:9086867

  20. The efficacy of a response cost-based treatment package for managing aggressive behavior in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L K; Kelley, M L

    1997-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of a response cost treatment package for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers. Using a multiple baseline design, teachers implemented the response cost system during the treatment phases of the study. The system required teachers to remove smiley faces contingent on aggressive behavior. Each face loss was accompanied by a reprimand. If the child retained at least one smiley face at the end of the observation period, he was allowed to choose from a list of rewards. Rewards were easily administered at school. The results indicated that the response cost treatment package substantially decreased aggressive behavior and was a highly acceptable classroom treatment to teachers and parents.

  1. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  2. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  3. Pharmacological Management of Agitation and Aggression in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Findling, Robert L.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Hamarman, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an "autism vignette" and then poses an evaluative question to several autism specialists, documenting their varied responses to the scenario and question posed. A 13-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit due to a recent increase in agitation and physical aggression.…

  4. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  5. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  6. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  7. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston, Texas... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Waste Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Waste Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2065 Section 60.2065 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2065 Section 60.2065 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan...

  15. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  16. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any...

  17. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  18. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  19. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families.

  20. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2901 Section 60.2901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Preconstruction Siting Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.3012 Section 60.3012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan?...

  2. 10 CFR 719.12 - What information must be included in the Legal Management Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What information must be included in the Legal Management Plan? 719.12 Section 719.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan, Staffing and Resource Plan and Annual Legal Budget § 719.12 What information must...

  3. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  4. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  5. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miftari, Rame; Topçiu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and results: A man 56 years old were diagnosed with papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland. He underwent a surgical removal of the tumor and right lobe of thyroid gland. With histopathology examination, were confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma pT4. Two weeks later he underwent total thyroidectomy and was treated with 100 mCi of J 131. Six months later, the value of thyroglobulin was found elevated above upper measured limits (more than 500 ng/ml). Patient underwent surgical removal of 10 metastatic lymph nodes in the left side of the neck and has been treated with 145 mCi of radioiodine I 131. The examination after 5 months shows elevation of thyroglobulin, more than 20000 ng/ml and focally uptake of J 131 in the left lung. Patient was treated once again with 150 mCi radioiodine J 131. Whole body scintigraphy was registered focal uptake of radioiodine in the middle of the left collarbone. After a month, patient refers the enlargement of the lymph node in the right side of the neck. Currently patient is being treated with kinase inhibitor drug sorafenib and ibandronate. We have identified first positive response in treatment. Enlarged lymph node in the neck was reduced and the patient began feeling better. Conclusion: This study suggests that some subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma appear to have more aggressive biological course. Subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma such as diffuse sclerosing carcinoma, tall cell or columnar cell and insular variants, appears to

  6. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  7. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  8. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  9. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  10. Should Leadership Talent Management in Schools Also Include the Management of Self-Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    International concerns about leadership shortages in schools have prompted a renewed research focus upon leadership talent and leadership talent management. The journey to leadership has been previously researched from the perspectives of professional development, equality of opportunity, work environment and personal characteristics. However, a…

  11. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... management measures, taking into account the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emission reductions expected to be achieved, and any other potential... include? 62.14431 Section 62.14431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management measures, taking into account the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emission reductions expected to be achieved, and any other potential... include? 62.14431 Section 62.14431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2630 Section 60.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management plan? 60.2630 Section 60.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in...

  15. Feline aggression toward family members: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Bain, Melissa; Stelow, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Feline aggression toward people is a common and potentially dangerous problem. Proper diagnosis of the underlying cause of the aggression is key in effective treatment. A complete history, including information on the people in the home, other pets, and specific incidents, is necessary to make this diagnosis. A comprehensive treatment plan typically includes management, enhancement of the cat's living environment, techniques for replacing the aggressive behavior with more appropriate behaviors, and, potentially, medication. The treatment plan must reflect the abilities and commitment of the owner.

  16. Aggressive management of an epidemic of chronic pseudophakic endophthalmitis: results and literature survey.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, N K; Fox, P D; Noble, B A; Kerr, K; Inglis, T

    1994-01-01

    Six cases of chronic endophthalmitis following extracapsular cataract extraction and lens implantation are reviewed. All were referred for tertiary management by one surgeon over a period of just over 2 years. In two of the cases coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated and in three Propionibacterium spp were retrieved. In the remaining case a mixed growth of coagulase negative staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes was cultured. The surgical management, microbiological results, and eventual visual outcome are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak of chronic pseudophakic endophthalmitis with commensal organisms from a single centre. Images PMID:8123618

  17. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Korfel, Agnieszka; Elter, Thomas; Thiel, Eckhard; Hänel, Matthias; Möhle, Robert; Schroers, Roland; Reiser, Marcel; Dreyling, Martin; Eucker, Jan; Scholz, Christian; Metzner, Bernd; Röth, Alexander; Birkmann, Josef; Schlegel, Uwe; Martus, Peter; Illerhaus, Gerard; Fischer, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established so far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Adult immunocompetent patients 65 years of age or under received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 intravenously (i.v.) Day 1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. Days 3– 5 and liposomal cytarabine 50 mg intrathecally (i.th) Day 6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. Days 1–2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. Day 2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50 mg i.th. Day 3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. Day −5, thiotepa 2×5 mg/kg i.v. Days −4 to −3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. Days −5 to −3, and autologous stem cell transplantation Day 0 (HD-ASCT). Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24), there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in 2 (8%) and progressive disease in 7 (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%±19 for all patients and 58%±22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173) PMID:23242601

  18. Aggression and Withdrawal Related Behavior within Conflict Management Progression in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method: Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old.…

  19. Aggressive Asset Management Is Earning Our Schools $125,000 in New Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Oliver

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Cambridge (Massachusetts) Public Schools' management of physical assets to generate income. Notes the need for board and superintendent commitment, outlines nine steps for developing plans, and considers 13 potential issues. Lists 21 types of assets and their estimated demand and annual income and potential uses, users, and problems.…

  20. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  3. Seasonal trends in intrapack aggression of captive wolves (Canis lupus) and wolf-dog crosses: implications for management in mixed-subspecies exhibits.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Thompson, Roger K R

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species exhibits are becoming increasingly common in the captive management of a wide range of species. Systematic evaluations of enclosures consisting of multiple subspecies, however, are relatively infrequent. The aim of this study was to measure seasonal trends in aggressive behaviors within a captive pack of wolves and wolf-dog crosses in a sanctuary setting. The frequency of intrapack social behaviors occurring within scan-sampling intervals was recorded for wolves and wolf-dog crosses during autumn, winter, and spring (2008-2009). Both subspecies displayed distinct seasonal trends in aggression. Wolf-dog crosses exhibited overall higher levels of aggression than wolves, although these instances were mostly noncontact and no significant differences were observed in the relative frequencies of aggressive behaviors between subspecies during any season. These findings suggest that wolves and wolf-dog crosses may be housed successfully given continuous behavioral monitoring, and these findings represent the first empirical account of wolf-dog cross behavior directly compared to wolves. Future studies should be conducted with similar packs to determine if this dynamic is universal. Such research will aid in the development of management and welfare strategies for captive facilities that provide permanent residences for wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

  4. Seasonal trends in intrapack aggression of captive wolves (Canis lupus) and wolf-dog crosses: implications for management in mixed-subspecies exhibits.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Thompson, Roger K R

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species exhibits are becoming increasingly common in the captive management of a wide range of species. Systematic evaluations of enclosures consisting of multiple subspecies, however, are relatively infrequent. The aim of this study was to measure seasonal trends in aggressive behaviors within a captive pack of wolves and wolf-dog crosses in a sanctuary setting. The frequency of intrapack social behaviors occurring within scan-sampling intervals was recorded for wolves and wolf-dog crosses during autumn, winter, and spring (2008-2009). Both subspecies displayed distinct seasonal trends in aggression. Wolf-dog crosses exhibited overall higher levels of aggression than wolves, although these instances were mostly noncontact and no significant differences were observed in the relative frequencies of aggressive behaviors between subspecies during any season. These findings suggest that wolves and wolf-dog crosses may be housed successfully given continuous behavioral monitoring, and these findings represent the first empirical account of wolf-dog cross behavior directly compared to wolves. Future studies should be conducted with similar packs to determine if this dynamic is universal. Such research will aid in the development of management and welfare strategies for captive facilities that provide permanent residences for wolves and wolf-dog crosses. PMID:24940635

  5. Nonoperative Management (Including Ultrasound-Guided Injections) of Proximal Biceps Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schickendantz, Mark; King, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Nonoperative management of conditions of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) involves a multifaceted approach, addressing the entire shoulder complex in addition to conditions that involve the LHBT. LHBT pathologic conditions are divided into 3 categories: inflammation, instability and rupture. This article provides an overview of a nonoperative treatment algorithm that addresses these specific categories and includes a review of ultrasound-guided injection techniques used in the diagnosis and management of LHBT disorders.

  6. CHD risk equivalents and the metabolic syndrome. Trial evidence supports aggressive management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D

    2003-08-01

    Updated guidelines issued by the National Cholesterol Education Program's 2001 Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) reaffirm the importance of intensive management of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Clinical studies also show that diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and symptomatic carotid artery disease are CHD risk equivalents that require intensive therapeutic lifestyle changes and drug therapy to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. Likewise, the metabolic syndrome is a secondary target of treatment. Drug therapy usually starts with an LDL-C-lowering agent, such as a statin. If LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals are not achieved, statin therapy should be intensified or a fibrate or niacin should be added.

  7. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  8. Clinicopathological features of aggressive B-cell lymphomas including B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphomas: a study of 44 patients from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bürgesser, María Virginia; Gualco, Gabriela; Diller, Ana; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-06-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas incorporate a wide spectrum of lymphomas that pose challenges in diagnosis as well as treatment. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 44 patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas which were classified into 3 groups based on the World Health Organization 2008 classification as follows: including 30 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 8 cases of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 6 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (BCLU). Male predominance was observed in BL and BCLU groups and the mean age varied from 29 years in BL, 61 years in DLBCL and 70 years in BCLU. Patients with BCLU presented at more advanced stages and had a higher international prognostic index. By immunohistochemistry, they shared characteristics of both BL (including more frequent expression of SOX11) and DLBCL. FISH analyses showed three cases with more than one rearrangement: one MYC/BCL2 and two BCL2/BCL6, in addition to which one case with BCL2/IGH translocation and another with MYC rearrangement were also detected. The mean follow-up survival time of BCLU was 6.6 months, which was significantly shorter in comparison to DLBCL (31 months) and BL (30 months), respectively. The importance of recognizing this BCLU group relies on its different clinical course, poor prognosis and shorter survival than DLBCL and BL. An accurate diagnosis is critical for risk stratification and to improve therapeutic approaches and outcomes.

  9. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my... your COP (provided under § 285.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in §...

  10. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.620 What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes.... Specifically, the requirements are those in: (a) 32 CFR 33.20 for State and local governments; and (b) 32...

  11. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  12. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  13. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  14. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  15. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  16. Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through mindfulness training.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Adkins, Angela D; Wahler, Robert G; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training; no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4 years of follow-up in the community.

  17. New Models of CKD Care Including Pharmacists: Improving Medication Reconciliation and Medication Management

    PubMed Central

    St Peter, Wendy L.; Wazny, Lori D.; Patel, Uptal D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic kidney disease patients are complex, have many medication-related problems (MRPs) and high rates of medication nonadherence, and are less adherent to some medications than patients with higher levels of kidney function. Nonadherence in CKD patients increases the odds of uncontrolled hypertension, which can increase the risk of CKD progression. This review discusses reasons for gaps in medication-related care for CKD patients, pharmacy services to reduce these gaps, and successful models that incorporate pharmacist care. Recent findings Pharmacists are currently being trained to deliver patient-centered care, including identification and management of MRPs and helping patients overcome barriers to improve medication adherence. A growing body of evidence indicates that pharmacist services for CKD patients, including medication reconciliation and medication therapy management, positively affect clinical and cost outcomes including lower rates of decline in glomerular filtration rates, reduced mortality, and fewer hospitalizations and hospital days, but more robust research is needed. Team-based models including pharmacists exist today and are being studied in a wide range of innovative care and reimbursement models. Summary Opportunities are growing to include pharmacists as integral members of CKD and dialysis healthcare teams to reduce MRPs, increase medication adherence, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24076556

  18. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  19. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  20. An Evaluation of a Flight Deck Interval Management Algorithm Including Delayed Target Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Barmore, Bryan; Leonard, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature air traffic management technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise timebased scheduling in the terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools enabling precise schedule conformance; and Interval Management (IM), which consists of flight deck automation that enables aircraft to achieve or maintain precise in-trail spacing. During high demand operations, TMA-TM may produce a schedule and corresponding aircraft trajectories that include delay to ensure that a particular aircraft will be properly spaced from other aircraft at each schedule waypoint. These delayed trajectories are not communicated to the automation onboard the aircraft, forcing the IM aircraft to use the published speeds to estimate the target aircraft's estimated time of arrival. As a result, the aircraft performing IM operations may follow an aircraft whose TMA-TM generated trajectories have substantial speed deviations from the speeds expected by the spacing algorithm. Previous spacing algorithms were not designed to handle this magnitude of uncertainty. A simulation was conducted to examine a modified spacing algorithm with the ability to follow aircraft flying delayed trajectories. The simulation investigated the use of the new spacing algorithm with various delayed speed profiles and wind conditions, as well as several other variables designed to simulate real-life variability. The results and conclusions of this study indicate that the new spacing algorithm generally exhibits good performance; however, some types of target aircraft speed profiles can cause the spacing algorithm to command less than optimal speed control behavior.

  1. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  2. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-06-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within.

  3. An update on inflammatory arthropathies including pharmacologic management and preoperative considerations.

    PubMed

    Regule, David

    2010-04-01

    This article provides an update and overview to the clinical presentations of inflammatory arthropathies. Subtleties to clinical presentations are discussed. Clues are presented which helps the reader arrive at more precise diagnostic labeling. Additionally, pharmacotherapy will be discussed, including precautions in considering the best therapy for the patient with suspected inflammatory, autoimmune, degenerative or neuropathic pain conditions. Finally, preoperative evaluations, management and risks of this patient population are reviewed. Emphasis will be on whether "cardiac clearance" should be requested based on an easy to use algorithm of cardiac risk factors. Finally recommendations based on recent literature of whether immunosuppressants should be withheld preoperatively.

  4. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  5. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  6. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  7. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  8. Think First: Addressing Aggressive Behavior in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This highly practical book presents a complete anger and aggression management training program for middle and high school students. The volume incorporates a newly revised version of the author's proven "Think First" manual, which includes step-by-step skills training guidelines and 20 reproducible handouts and forms. Also provided are a clear…

  9. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.105 What must be... Management Standard. (6) Ensure that: (i) Its Environmental Management Plan is available to laboratory..., Laboratory Environmental Management Standard performance data, assessment and audit results and...

  10. Operational Dataset Update Functionality Included in the NCAR Research Data Archive Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Worley, S. J.; Schuster, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Growing complexity, volume, and reliance on operationally created datasets poses challenges to the centers tasked with archiving and curating this information. Past tools focused on data delivered via media, such as tape, or data downloaded by single dataset customized ftp scripting. Presently nearly all data are acquired via network interactions, which can happen many times per day. Prior archive management technologies do not scale to this new paradigm. The Research Data Archive Management System (RDAMS) was developed to meet this challenge and has been implemented to support archive management within the Research Data Archive (RDA) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). RDAMS is driven by open source based databases and utilities, and is designed to support the complete data archive cycle by fetching, interrogating, archiving, and providing long-term research data stewardship. A good example of RDAMS functionality is found in the utility developed to specifically manage operational dataset updates, and can be applied to any dataset that requires periodic updating. The RDAMS dataset update utility (DSUPDT) accomplishes four basic tasks: 1) contact and query a remote server to see if new or modified data are available, 2) move data from a remote host to a local system and verify data transfer integrity, 3) execute any required data processing steps including metadata harvesting, 4) archive data to local disk and backup media systems. To accomplish these tasks across a diverse variety of datasets, DSUPDT incorporates a broad base of functionality. For example, it can be configured to run according to many different data set requirements, handles multiple web protocols, automatically recovers from system outages at the remote or local site, can execute 3rd party data manipulation software, and accommodates irregular data delivery schedules. Currently over 150 RDA dataset products are configured to be under DSUPDT control, with datasets being updated

  11. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment... Management Services North America, South Haven Community Hospital, Huffmaster Inc., and Williamson Employment..., including on-site leased workers of Bosch Management Services North America, South Haven Community...

  12. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount.

  13. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  14. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    PubMed

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  15. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Technologies, EEsof Division, including on-site leased workers from Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS... Employment and Training Administration Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Westlake Village, CA, Santa Rosa, CA, Santa Clara,...

  16. 75 FR 11919 - Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... to the production of advanced wound care products such as adhesive dressings, non-adhesive dressings... Employment and Training Administration Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Including On... workers of Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Largo, Florida, including...

  17. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.W.

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  18. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A; Ardill, J; Bax, N; Breen, D J; Caplin, M E; Corrie, P; Davar, J; Davies, A H; Lewington, V; Meyer, T; Newell-Price, J; Poston, G; Reed, N; Rockall, A; Steward, W; Thakker, R V; Toubanakis, C; Valle, J; Verbeke, C; Grossman, A B

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines update previous guidance published in 2005. They have been revised by a group who are members of the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society with endorsement from the clinical committees of the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Society for Endocrinology, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (and its Surgical Specialty Associations), the British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology and others. The authorship represents leaders of the various groups in the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society, but a large amount of work has been carried out by other specialists, many of whom attended a guidelines conference in May 2009. We have attempted to represent this work in the acknowledgements section. Over the past few years, there have been advances in the management of neuroendocrine tumours, which have included clearer characterisation, more specific and therapeutically relevant diagnosis, and improved treatments. However, there remain few randomised trials in the field and the disease is uncommon, hence all evidence must be considered weak in comparison with other more common cancers. PMID:22052063

  19. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... source must implement those measures considered practical and feasible, based on the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emissions reductions... management plan? 62.14590 Section 62.14590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source must implement those measures considered practical and feasible, based on the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures, the emissions reductions... management plan? 62.14590 Section 62.14590 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management measures, taking into account the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the... components of solid waste from the health care waste stream in order to reduce the amount of toxic emissions..., cardboard, plastics, glass, battery, or metal recycling, or purchasing recycled or recyclable products....

  2. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  3. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436

  4. Manual ventilation therapy and aggressive potassium supplementation in the management of respiratory failure secondary to severe hypokalaemia in a cat with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Daste, Thomas; Dossin, Olivier; Reynolds, Brice S; Aumann, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was referred for progressive muscle weakness and dyspnoea. The cat had a 2-month history of severe weight loss, small intestinal diarrhoea, polyphagia and polyuria/polydipsia. Biochemical analysis and venous blood gas evaluation revealed severe hypokalaemia [1.7 mmol/l; reference interval (RI): 3.5-5.1 mmol/l] and hypoventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide = 68 mmHg; RI: 34-38 mmHg). Aggressive potassium supplementation was initiated. The cat was manually ventilated until serum potassium increased to 3 mmol/l. A diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) was made based on clinical signs and serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (0.1 μg/l; RI: 12-82 μg/l). Medical management of the EPI resulted in clinical recovery.

  5. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum presenting with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum: successful management with early aggressive surgery and multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luís; Alexandrino, Henrique; Soares Leite, Júlio; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2015-12-16

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant neoplasm and its treatment usually involves surgery associated, in some cases, depending on the staging, with chemoradiotherapy. Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum is a highly lethal infection of the perineum, perirectal tissues and genitals, requiring emergency surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and control of sepsis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum as the first clinical manifestation of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, in which successful management consisted of early and aggressive surgical debridement, followed by multimodal therapy with curative intent. 2 years and 6 months after surgery the patient is well, with no evidence of local or systemic relapse.

  6. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  7. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  8. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  9. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 285.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  10. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...., Local Information Services, Inc., Mindlance, Inc., Mobius, Inc., Net2source, Inc., Pyramid Consulting... Vidhwan, Inc., IDC Technologies, Inc., Local Information Services, Inc., Mindlance, Inc., Mobius, Inc... Employment and Training Administration UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  11. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  12. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  13. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  14. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  15. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  16. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  17. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  18. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  19. Intercat aggression: restoring harmony in the home: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pachel, Christopher L

    2014-05-01

    Intercat aggression is a common problem within multicat households. Diagnosis and treatment requires an understanding of the social structure of free-living cats and of how those interactions are impacted by confinement and household management practices. There are multiple causes of aggression between cats within a home, and treatment plans should be customized to account for the diagnosis and behavior pattern identified. Some cases of intercat aggression can be treated successfully without requiring full separation of the involved cats. In cases where separation is required, treatment includes steps for successful reintroduction and reintegration. Several situational and maintenance medication options can be used to improve the response to treatment.

  20. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... responsibilities, training, pollution prevention activities, and performance review. (7) A system for conducting... procedures to be implemented for laboratory waste. (12) Provisions for information dissemination and training... Management Plan. (4) Determine whether laboratory wastes are solid wastes under RCRA and, if so, whether...

  1. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... responsibilities, training, pollution prevention activities, and performance review. (7) A system for conducting... procedures to be implemented for laboratory waste. (12) Provisions for information dissemination and training... Management Plan. (4) Determine whether laboratory wastes are solid wastes under RCRA and, if so, whether...

  2. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... responsibilities, training, pollution prevention activities, and performance review. (7) A system for conducting... procedures to be implemented for laboratory waste. (12) Provisions for information dissemination and training... Management Plan. (4) Determine whether laboratory wastes are solid wastes under RCRA and, if so, whether...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., elements such as segregation and recycling of paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, food waste and... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., elements such as segregation and recycling of paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, food waste and... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On...

  5. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... was published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2010 (75 FR 71460). At the request of the...

  6. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transportation and lodging providers (e.g., Government-contract air carriers, rental car companies, trains... title). Note to § 301-73.1: The E-Gov Travel Service (ETS) fulfills the requirements of paragraphs (a... management reports on reservation and ticketing activities. (See § 301-73.106 for specific services...

  7. Individuals with Mental Illness Can Control Their Aggressive Behavior through Mindfulness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a…

  8. Urologist's Practice Patterns Including Surgical Treatment in the Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Korean Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Yul; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Park, Hyun Jun; Moon, Ki Hak; Kim, Sae Woong; Kim, Soo Woong; Cho, Kang Su; Moon, Du Geon; Min, Kweonsik; Yang, Sang Kuk; Son, Hwancheol; Park, Kwangsung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose According to previous studies, the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Korea ranges from 11.3% to 33%. However, the actual practice patterns in managing patients with PE is not well known. In this study, we have endeavored to determine how contemporary urologists in Korea manage patients with PE. Materials and Methods The e-mailing list was obtained from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians. A specifically designed questionnaire was e-mailed to the 2,421 urologists in Korea from May 2012 to August 2012. Results Urologists in Korea diagnosed PE using various criteria: the definition of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (63.4%), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (43.8%), International Statistical Classification of Disease, 10th edition (61.7%), or perceptional self-diagnosis by the patient himself (23.5%). A brief self-administered questionnaire, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, was used by only 42.5% of the urologists. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy was the main treatment modality (91.5%) for PE patients. 40.2% of the urologists used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 47.6% behavior therapy, and 53.7% local anesthetics. Further, 286 (54.3%) urologists managed PE patients with a surgical modality such as selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN). Conclusions A majority of Korean urologists diagnose PE by a multidimensional approach using various diagnostic tools. Most urologists believe that medical treatment with an SSRI is effective in the management of PE. At the same time, surgical treatment such as SDN also investigated as one of major treatment modality despite the lack of scientific evidence. PMID:24459656

  9. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  10. Shuttle avionics and the goal language including the impact of error detection and redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship is examined between the space shuttle onboard avionics and the ground test computer language GOAL when used in the onboard computers. The study is aimed at providing system analysis support to the feasibility analysis of a GOAL to HAL translator, where HAL is the language used to program the onboard computers for flight. The subject is dealt with in three aspects. First, the system configuration at checkout, the general checkout and launch sequences, and the inventory of subsystems are described. Secondly, the hierarchic organization of onboard software and different ways of introducing GOAL-derived software onboard are described. Also the flow of commands and test data during checkout is diagrammed. Finally, possible impact of error detection and redundancy management on the GOAL language is discussed.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS IN A GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) WITH MULTIMODAL THERAPY INCLUDING AMANTADINE SULPHATE.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimal; Wu, Elke; Kou, Cissy; Martelli, Paolo; Khong, Lee Foo; Larson, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    In 2002 a 23-yr-old female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) presented with left hind limb lameness presumably due to osteoarthritis. For the next five years, arthritic episodes were managed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen at 2 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d., then reduced to 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. and withdrawn. Radiographs revealed osteoarthritis in various joints and lumbar spondylosis. In 2007 glucosamine and chondroitin at 1.65 g p.o. b.i.d. and a polyunsaturated fatty acid at 1 capsule p.o. s.i.d. By 2008, arthritic episodes were becoming more difficult to successfully manage and higher doses and longer durations of treatment with carprofen were needed (2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and by August 2009 episodic treatment was no longer successful so the carprofen was continued indefinitely at 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. In November 2009 carprofen was increased to 2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. An NMDA antagonist amantadine sulphate was trialed and after 10 days at 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. the clinical signs resolved. Since then it has been maintained on carprofen at 1 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d., amantadine sulphate 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. and the neutraceuticals as above with no further relapses of arthritic pain.

  12. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS IN A GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) WITH MULTIMODAL THERAPY INCLUDING AMANTADINE SULPHATE.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimal; Wu, Elke; Kou, Cissy; Martelli, Paolo; Khong, Lee Foo; Larson, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    In 2002 a 23-yr-old female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) presented with left hind limb lameness presumably due to osteoarthritis. For the next five years, arthritic episodes were managed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen at 2 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d., then reduced to 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. and withdrawn. Radiographs revealed osteoarthritis in various joints and lumbar spondylosis. In 2007 glucosamine and chondroitin at 1.65 g p.o. b.i.d. and a polyunsaturated fatty acid at 1 capsule p.o. s.i.d. By 2008, arthritic episodes were becoming more difficult to successfully manage and higher doses and longer durations of treatment with carprofen were needed (2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and by August 2009 episodic treatment was no longer successful so the carprofen was continued indefinitely at 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. In November 2009 carprofen was increased to 2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. An NMDA antagonist amantadine sulphate was trialed and after 10 days at 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. the clinical signs resolved. Since then it has been maintained on carprofen at 1 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d., amantadine sulphate 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. and the neutraceuticals as above with no further relapses of arthritic pain. PMID:27010295

  14. Towards Improved Management of Tropical Invertebrate Fisheries: Including Time Series and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests. PMID:24614075

  15. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed that the correct identity of the subject... Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant Group, and Teleworkers Located Throughout the... was published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2010 (75 FR 57981). The certification...

  16. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  17. Current approaches to the management of plantar heel pain syndrome, including the role of injectable corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Pribut, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Plantar heel pain syndrome, which has a multifactorial and widely disputed etiology, affects more than 2 million people annually. A survey was conducted of members of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine about their strategies for managing plantar heel pain syndrome, especially the role of injectable corticosteroids. The respondents tended to be experienced (10-24 years in practice) podiatric physicians with a concentration in sports medicine. They reported that for early-stage plantar heel pain syndrome they generally recommend avoidance of wearing flat shoes and walking barefoot (92%), use of over-the-counter arch supports and heel cushions (90%), regular stretching of the calf muscles (88%), strapping of the foot (75%), cryotherapy applied directly to the affected part of the foot (67%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy (60%). When these measures fail to relieve heel pain, most of the responding podiatric physicians recommend using custom orthotic devices (60%) and corticosteroid injections (60%) as intermediate therapy. Surgical plantar fasciotomy (88%), cast immobilization (77%), and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (69%) are generally recommended as late-stage therapy for resistant cases. A staged approach seems to yield the best results in treatment of this common condition.

  18. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level. PMID:26893178

  19. Studying aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies).

    PubMed

    Mundiyanapurath, Sibu; Certel, Sarah; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    Aggression is an innate behavior that evolved in the framework of defending or obtaining resources. This complex social behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In many organisms, aggression is critical to survival but controlling and suppressing aggression in distinct contexts also has become increasingly important. In recent years, invertebrates have become increasingly useful as model systems for investigating the genetic and systems biological basis of complex social behavior. This is in part due to the diverse repertoire of behaviors exhibited by these organisms. In the accompanying video, we outline a method for analyzing aggression in Drosophila whose design encompasses important eco-ethological constraints. Details include steps for: making a fighting chamber; isolating and painting flies; adding flies to the fight chamber; and video taping fights. This approach is currently being used to identify candidate genes important in aggression and in elaborating the neuronal circuitry that underlies the output of aggression and other social behaviors.

  20. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  1. Diagnosis, impact, and management of focal hyperhidrosis: treatment review including botulinum toxin therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Cohen, Goldie; Solish, Nowell; Murray, Christian A

    2007-02-01

    Idiopathic localized hyperhidrosis, called for hyperhidrosis, affects almost 3% of the US population. The most frequent anatomic sites of involvement include the axillae, palms, soles, and face. For those affected, this condition can be extremely socially debilitating and interfere with work activities. Until recently, frequently ineffective topical regimens or problematic surgical procedures have been the treatments of choice. Since 1996, intracutaneous injections of botulinum toxin have been used as a minimally invasive treatment for this condition with numerous studies documenting safety, efficacy, and extremely high levels of patient satisfaction. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

  2. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse.

  3. [Myoarthropathy of the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. Pain therapy management and relaxation instead of aggressive surgery].

    PubMed

    Türp, J C

    2003-05-01

    Temporomandibular pain is often characterized by a mismatch between symptoms and findings. The dentist's well-established therapeutic strategies for the management of acute pain are therefore frequently not effective in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Instead, dentists should apply the tried and tested principles that are applied in general medicine to the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal pain (e.g. arthritic pain or fibromyalgia). When consulted by patients with rheumatic diseases, physicians should routinely enquire whether they also experience temporomandibular pain.

  4. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  5. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Remote monitoring as a key innovation in the management of cardiac patients including those with implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This Introduction to the Supplement provides a brief history of remote monitoring, discusses its current status, and indicates the bright future that it possesses with a broad application in many branches of cardiology, at least including arrhythmias, heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease in addition to the management of implantable electronic devices.

  8. 45 CFR 309.75 - What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a Tribal IV-D plan? 309.75 Section 309.75 Public Welfare...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD...

  9. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  10. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  11. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the proposed multiyear project, timeline, and budget information required by 34 CFR 75.112 and 75.117... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  12. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  13. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  14. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  15. Aggressive and nonaggressive children's moral judgments and moral emotion attributions in situations involving retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

  16. Src: Marker or Actor in Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Gillet, Germain; Rimokh, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urologic practitioners is whether an apparently organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) is actually aggressive or not. The dilemma is to specifically identify among all prostate tumors the very aggressive high-grade cancers that will become life-threatening by developing extra-prostatic invasion and metastatic potential and the indolent cancers that will never modify a patient’s life expectancy. A choice must be made between several therapeutic options to achieve the optimal personalized management of the disease that causes as little harm as possible to patients. Reliable clinical, biological, or pathological markers that would enable distinctions to be made between aggressive and indolent PCas in routine practice at the time of initial diagnosis are still lacking. The molecular mechanisms that explain why a PCa is aggressive or not are also poorly understood. Among the potential markers and/or actors in PCa aggressiveness, Src and other members of the Src kinase family, are valuable candidates. Activation of Src-dependent intracellular pathways is frequently observed in PCa. Indeed, Src is at the cross-roads of several pathways [including androgen receptor (AR), TGFbeta, Bcl-2, Akt/PTEN or MAPK, and ERK …], and is now known to influence some of the cellular and tissular events that accompany tumor progression: cell proliferation, cell motility, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resistance to apoptosis, angiogenesis, neuroendocrine differentiation, and metastatic spread. Recent work even suggests that Src could also play a part in PCa initiation in coordination with the AR. The aim of this review is to gather data that explore the links between the Src kinase family and PCa progression and aggressiveness. PMID:25184116

  17. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  18. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  19. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  20. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  1. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  2. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  3. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  4. Cyproterone to treat aggressivity in dementia: a clinical case and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca M; Davies, Simon J C; Christmas, David M; Baxter, Hazel; Cullum, Sarah; Nutt, David J

    2011-01-01

    Aggressivity is a common problem in the management of elderly patients with dementia. Medications currently used to diminish aggressive behaviour in dementia can have problematic side effects. We present a case and systematic review of the current knowledge about the use of cyproterone acetate to treat aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality related behaviours) in dementia. An 82-year-old man required psychiatric inpatient admission due to agitation and aggressivity and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. After failed trials of atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine 100 mg/day and risperidone 1 mg/day), drugs for dementia (memantine 20 mg/day and rivastigmine 9 mg/day) and benzodiazepines (lorazepam 0.5-1 mg prn) he was started on cyproterone acetate titrated up to 50 mg twice daily. After two weeks he was calmer and did not express aggressivity. Two months later he was discharged to a community placement where he subsequently remained settled on cyproterone. We reviewed literature on the use of cyproterone in aggressivity (excluding hypersexuality) associated with dementia. We searched the main medical databases including articles in English, Spanish, French and Italian. Only one randomized double-blind trial was found, comparing cyproterone with haloperidol (n = 27). Cyproterone was more effective controlling aggressivity and had lower incidence of side effects. In the one uncontrolled naturalistic observational study identified (n = 19), cyproterone was associated with significant reductions in aggressivity without causing major side effects. Further literature was limited to theoretical discussions. Despite there being evidence to support our observations of a useful role for cyproterone in aggressivity in dementia, further studies are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic option.

  5. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  6. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  7. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  8. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  9. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  10. Reactive Aggression: Understanding and Helping Children Who Respond to Others with Aggressive Behavior. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Thomas P.

    This Boys' Town paper for parents examines the reactive aggression of children who respond aggressively to what they view as provocation. The paper differentiates between reactive and proactive aggression by presenting examples of each. Factors that can increase aggression in families are noted, including punishment acceleration, crossover,…

  11. Impulsive versus premeditated aggression in the prediction of violent criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined (a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and (b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders.

  12. Impulsive versus Premeditated Aggression in the Prediction of Violent Criminal Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders. PMID:25043811

  13. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  14. Adolescents' experience with workplace aggression: school health implications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyn R; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Beery, Theresa A; Gates, Donna M

    2013-12-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future workplace aggression. Semistructured interviews were used to gather participants' proposed responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive incidents in the workplace. Conventional content analysis identified patterns and themes among the participants' responses. Results indicated adolescent employees' proposed responses to workplace aggression are similar to other forms of aggression such as peer-bullying and teen dating violence. Education and training are needed within the school setting to promote appropriate responses to various forms of aggression encountered by adolescents. Implications for school health professionals' involvement in addressing responses to such aggression and further research opportunities are explored.

  15. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  16. Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression.

  17. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  18. Association of Aggression and Non-Suicidal Self Injury: A School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Ma, Ying; Guo, Yong; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Yu, Yizhen; Wang, Jiaji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. Methods This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants’ emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. Results The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in ‘minor NSSI’, 11.9% in ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’ in those who had poor emotional management ability. Conclusion These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24205132

  19. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  20. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  1. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  2. An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John; Coyne, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have found that girls may be just as aggressive as boys when manipulative forms of aggression, such as gossiping and spreading rumors, are included. These forms of aggression are known by 3 different names: indirect aggression, relational aggression, and social aggression. This review examines their commonalities and differences, and concludes that they are essentially the same form of aggression. We show that analogous forms are not found in other species. We offer a functional account: indirect aggression is an alternative strategy to direct aggression, enacted when the costs of direct aggression are high, and whose aim is to socially exclude, or harm the social status of, a victim. In this light, we consider sex differences and developmental trends and the impact of this aggression on victims. We conclude that indirect, relational, and social aggression are much more similar than they are different, and we suggest ways in which future research can be facilitated by integrating the three areas under an adaptive framework.

  3. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Twenge, Jean M; Quinlivan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationship between interpersonal rejection and aggression. Four bodies of research are summarized: laboratory experiments that manipulate rejection, rejection among adults in everyday life, rejection in childhood, and individual differences that may moderate the relationship. The theoretical mechanisms behind the effect are then explored. Possible explanations for why rejection leads to anger and aggression include: rejection as a source of pain, rejection as a source of frustration, rejection as a threat to self-esteem, mood improvement following aggression, aggression as social influence, aggression as a means of reestablishing control, retribution, disinhibition, and loss of self-control. PMID:16768650

  4. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  5. Endodontic Management of Maxillary First Molar with Five Root Canals, Including Two Distobuccal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Sinha, Ashish Amit; Prakash, Prem; Jaiswal, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Multiple canals in the root are part of the normal morphology of the tooth. A canal may sometimes be overlooked, however, and this may lead to failure of treatment. The first step in successful endodontic treatment, therefore, is gaining access to the pulp chamber and locating all the canals. In order to achieve this goal, practitioners need to be familiar with all possible variations in root canal morphology, and should thoroughly explore roots to ensure that all canals are identified, debrided, and obturated. Here, we report the diagnosis, treatment planning, and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with five root canals, including two distobuccal root canals, in a 22-year-old woman. PMID:26961335

  6. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  7. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  8. 41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annual mail management report to GSA? Your annual report must— (a) Identify your agency mail manager; in addition you must promptly report the name of the agency mail manager whenever there is a change of the... accomplishments and plans to improve the economy and efficiency of mail operations in the current and future...

  9. 41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... annual mail management report to GSA? Your annual report must— (a) Identify your agency mail manager; in addition you must promptly report the name of the agency mail manager whenever there is a change of the... accomplishments and plans to improve the economy and efficiency of mail operations in the current and future...

  10. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  11. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group.

  12. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-01-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  13. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  14. Identifying Girls Who Use Relational Aggression: A Proposed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2012-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to compare perceptions of relational aggression (RA) of adolescent girls (n = 282) and their teachers (n = 15) in New Zealand, and to explore strategies for teachers to effectively manage RA in the classroom. Results indicated that younger adolescent girls view physical aggression as more acceptable than older girls,…

  15. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  16. Substance use, aggression perpetration, and victimization: temporal co-occurrence in college males and females.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C; Baucom, Brian R; Bennett, Diana C; Guran, Elyse L

    2013-09-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and whether attitudes justifying aggression strengthen those associations. College student participants (N = 378, 32% males) self-selected into an online study in which they reported on 2 days of alcohol/drug use and on aggression perpetration and victimization (including physical, psychological and electronic aggression, and sexual coercion) with friends and dating partners. Using regression to test for nonequivalence of predictor and outcome variables, we found bidirectional effects for males only. Males' substance use was associated with an increased likelihood on the same day of aggression perpetration and of aggression victimization; males' aggression perpetration and aggression victimization were associated with an increased likelihood of substance use on the same day. Females did not show significant contingencies between substance use and aggression in either direction. Males' attitudes justifying male-to-female aggression were associated with their aggression perpetration and victimization and their justification of female-to-male aggression strengthened the link between substance use and aggression perpetration. With interpersonal aggression and substance use being significant problems on college campuses, many colleges offer separate preventive intervention programs aimed at these public health challenges; this study suggests possible benefits of an integrated approach that addresses connections between alcohol/drug use and aggression.

  17. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  18. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  19. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  20. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  1. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  2. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  3. Psychoanalytic views of aggression: some theoretical problems.

    PubMed

    Pedder, J

    1992-06-01

    Various problems in relation to psychoanalytic theories of aggression are considered in a review which is by no means exhaustive but includes areas which have puzzled and interested the author. First to be considered is why the concept of aggression as a major drive was a relative late-comer in psychoanalysis; next the contentious concept of a 'death instinct' and some of the factors in Freud's lifetime which may have contributed to both. Then it is suggested that we seem to have theories of aggression which might be called primary or secondary in two different senses. First is the question whether aggression is innate or secondary to frustration. In another sense, primary and secondary theories of aggression seem to survive paralleling Freud's original primary and secondary theories of anxiety. In this sense the primary theory survives as an explanation of psychosomatic disorder. Lastly, the link between suicide and murder is considered and the turning of aggression against the self in depression and self-destructive attacks. PMID:1633126

  4. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  5. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy Management, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  6. 41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... service provider to ship parts and supplies from a materiel distribution center (see the definition of... publication called “Marketips,” which provides information about supplies and services available through GSA... Systems Manager, Executive Mail Center Manager, Mailpiece Quality Control Specialist, Certified...

  7. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  8. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex

    PubMed Central

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A.; Kotb, Mohammed M.; Said, Hatem G.; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M.; ElKady, Hesham A.; ElAssal, Maher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. Methods In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. Results After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex. PMID:25104891

  9. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  10. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  11. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  12. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  13. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  14. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  15. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD.

  16. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Agitation and Aggression in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Celina S; Chau, Sarah A; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Lanctôt, Krista L; Herrmann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression, especially in the moderate to severe stages of the illness. The limited efficacy and high-risk profiles of current pharmacotherapies for the management of agitation and aggression in AD have driven the search for safer pharmacological alternatives. Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of medications that target the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The behavioural effects of ECS medications, as well as their ability to modulate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, make targeting this system potentially relevant in AD. This article summarizes the literature to date supporting this rationale and evaluates clinical studies investigating cannabinoids for agitation and aggression in AD. Letters, case studies, and controlled trials from four electronic databases were included. While findings from six studies showed significant benefits from synthetic cannabinoids—dronabinol or nabilone—on agitation and aggression, definitive conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, short trial duration, and lack of placebo control in some of these studies. Given the relevance and findings to date, methodologically rigorous prospective clinical trials are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids for the treatment of agitation and aggression in dementia and AD. PMID:26271310

  17. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  18. Sex differences in aggression: a rejoinder and reprise.

    PubMed

    Maccoby, E E; Jacklin, C N

    1980-12-01

    A meta analysis of observational studies of peer-directed aggression by children aged 6 and younger yields a highly significant sex difference. Out of 32 studies, z values reflected higher male aggression in 24, no difference in 8, higher female aggression in none. Furthermore, boys' aggression is most often displayed in the presence of male partners. Evidence is presented that the sex difference is probably not merely an artifact of higher rates of male activity or social interaction. Existing cross-cultural evidence also shows higher rates of male aggression, as does most of the work on free-living primates. Specifically, the 3 observational studies of chimpanzees show considerably more aggression in males. Evidence for a hormonal contribution to male aggression is clear in animals and inconclusive in human beings, although the existing human findings are consistent with such a contribution. Recent evidence on the differential socialization of boys and girls supports our earlier view: that boys do not receive more reinforcement for aggression than girls, and that rates of punishment are also similar once the differential base rates in aggression are taken into account. The role of self-socialization (including choice of same-sex models) is discussed, and the view is expressed that this probably depends upon the development of certain cognitions about sex identity which normally do not develop until a later age than the age at which a consistent sex difference in aggression first appears.

  19. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  1. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  2. Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…

  3. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs. PMID:27387554

  4. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs.

  5. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  6. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  7. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

  8. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently. PMID:25358302

  9. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts.

  10. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  11. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  12. Aggressive Behavior in the Pre-Verbal Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Georgia

    Directors, teachers, parents, and mental health professionals in child care centers were interviewed about aggressive behavior of preverbal children to determine the caregivers' level of understanding about children's emotional development. The definition of aggressive behavior included hitting, biting, pushing, scratching, pinching, grabbing,…

  13. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  14. Factors affecting wounding aggression in a colony of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert C; Nash, Leanne T; Scarry, Clara JoAnn; Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) display higher levels of aggression in captivity than in the wild. One of the challenges of captive management, therefore, is to balance the chimpanzees' need for social interaction with managements' desire to minimize wounding and aggression. Various captive studies have examined the effects of individual and social variables on the frequency of wounding aggression, but none have examined these variables simultaneously. We collected retrospective wounding data for severe wounds from 83 captive chimpanzees (36 males, 47 females) from January 1993 to December 2003. The context of the wounding event, including individual age and sex, group age and sex composition, group duration, and portion of the week (weekday vs. weekend) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables had a significant effect on the probability of a severe wounding event. The sex and age composition of the group, group duration, and portion of the week had a statistically significant association with wounding. All-male groups (Odds Ratio (OR)=6.738) had the highest risk of wounding aggression, with uni-male groups (OR=3.311) having the next largest. Compared to individuals in all sub-adult groups, individuals in either all-adult (OR=4.516) or mixed-age (OR=3.587) groups had a higher risk of wounding. There was an inverse association between group duration and wounding (OR=0.821). Finally, there was an increased risk of wounding during the work week (OR=1.653). These results suggest that captive management should pay close attention to group composition, as well as levels of human activity, when devising strategies to reduce captive chimpanzee aggression. PMID:19688864

  15. Predicting Change in Children’s Aggression and Victimization Using Classroom-level Descriptive Norms of Aggression and Pro-social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Sterett H.; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed. PMID:19480888

  16. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  17. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  18. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Martin J; Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2016-07-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  19. Anger Management Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Palardy, Nicole R.; McElroy, Heather K.; Phillips, Nancy; Holmes, Khiela J.

    2004-01-01

    Two anger management interventions for aggressive children, Anger Coping and Coping Power, are described in this review article, including conceptual underpinnings, session format and content, and outcome research findings. Important issues and considerations in the implementation of such interventions are also presented. Overall, Anger Coping and…

  20. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases.

  1. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  2. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  3. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  4. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  5. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  6. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  7. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  8. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  9. "And Then a Huge, Huge Giant Grabbed Me!" Aggression in Children's Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacigalupa, Chiara; Wright, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Children's stories, like children's play, often contain aggressive elements. This research study identified the themes and ideas that children between the ages of 2 and 6 years old included in 290 dictated stories with aggressive elements. Among the stories that contained aggressive elements, 42% were dictated by girls, and 57% were dictated by…

  10. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  11. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Soroush, Ali; Zakiei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS): components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. Methods: The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012-2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male) were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form), and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and canonical correlation. Results: The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extroversion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender) and aggression. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. Conclusions: According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems for the students

  12. Neurotransmitters regulating feline aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A; Schubert, K

    1995-01-01

    The experiments described in this review reveal that the expression and modulation of aggressive responses in the cat are organized by two distinct sets of pathways. One set of pathways is associated with the elicitation of a specific form of attack behavior. It includes the medial hypothalamus and its projections to the PAG for the expression of defensive rage behavior and the lateral hypothalamus and its descending projections for the expression of predatory attack behavior. The primary focus of the present review is upon the analysis of defensive rage behavior. It was demonstrated that the pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the PAG, which appears to be essential for elicitation of defensive rage, is powerfully excitatory and utilizes excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The other pathways examined in this review arise from different nuclei of the amygdala and are modulatory in nature. Here, two facilitatory systems have been identified. The first involves a projection system from the basal complex of amygdala that projects directly to the PAG. Its excitatory effects are manifest through excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The second facilitatory pathway arises from the medial nucleus of the amygdala. However, its projection system is directed to the medial hypothalamus rather than the PAG. Its neurotransmitter appears to be substance P that acts upon NK1 receptors within the medial hypothalamus (see Figure 10). It has yet to be determined whether substance P acts upon any of the other neurokinin receptor subtypes. It should also be pointed out that the substance P pathway from the medial amygdala to the medial hypothalamus functions to suppress predatory attack behavior elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. In this network, it is likely that the modulatory effects of the medial amygdala require the presence of a second, inhibitory pathway from the medial hypothalamus that innervates the

  13. Changing Care Staff Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Aggressive Behaviour in a Residential Treatment Unit for Persons with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a training procedure to improve staff skills in the preventative and reactive management of severely challenging behaviors in a small residential treatment unit found reduced (though not statistically significant) behavioral incidents, use of major reactive strategies (restraint and emergency medication), and staff and resident…

  14. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P < 0.001), and received (W = 0.369, P = 0.042). In terms of pair bonds, females re-paired with the same individuals across years more frequently (between 58% and 100% from year to year) than they switched mates, and no bonds were established between pre-existing and introduced individuals. These findings indicate a high degree of stability in aggression and pair bonding behavior in this population of captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs. PMID:26882002

  15. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P < 0.001), and received (W = 0.369, P = 0.042). In terms of pair bonds, females re-paired with the same individuals across years more frequently (between 58% and 100% from year to year) than they switched mates, and no bonds were established between pre-existing and introduced individuals. These findings indicate a high degree of stability in aggression and pair bonding behavior in this population of captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs.

  16. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  17. Investigating Teachers' Explanations for Aggressive Classroom Discipline Strategies in China and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip; Lewis, Ramon; Wang, Bingxin

    2012-01-01

    Student misbehaviour can provoke aggressive teacher management (e.g. yelling in anger), adversely effecting students' learning and attitudes toward school. To investigate this phenomenon, data were obtained from 75 Chinese (typically Eastern) and 192 Victorian (typically Western) secondary teachers who self-reported aggressive management. Results:…

  18. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  19. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  20. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  1. The role of emotions in depression and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Malonda, Elisabeth; Samper, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is a broad and heterogeneous diagnostic grouping, central to which is depressed mood or inability to enjoy most activities. Depressive symptoms are frequently accompanied by conduct problems stemming from anger. It is very important to know the interrelation of these emotions very well to be able to help adolescents to manage them more easily. The main aim of this article is to present the problem of interaction between negative affects (emotional instability, anger state and trait, physical and verbal aggression and depression) analyzing the different relationship through the time in spanish sample. Material and Methods The sample included 470 adolescents (192 boys and 225 girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia (Spain). The mean age was 14.70 in the first wave. Structural equations modelling was employed to explore two longitudinal models. Results The results show differences based on sex, and that an internalised variable, like emotional instability, is relevant to prevent the appearance of depression directly in girls and also the later appearance of aggression as long as anger mediates, in both boys and girls, so the control of anger becomes an important goal to control the rest of the negative affects. Conclusions This results has consequences in the preparation of all programmes that try to establish an emotional control on adolescents, as not only has to be taken into account as a direct goal the control of externalised emotions like anger, but internalised emotions like emotional instability have to be taken into account also. Furthermore, it is also made apparent that not only the punctual explosions and externalisation of anger have to be worked on, but the temperamental aspects which are the base of anger trait have to be worked on too. Key words:Emotional instability, anger, depression, aggression, negative emotions, adolescence. PMID:27545395

  2. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  3. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.

  4. Executive Functions in Children: Associations with Aggressive Behavior and Appraisal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Mesha L.; Weiss, Bahr; Lochman, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how deficits in executive functioning and distortions in appraisal processing are related to subtypes of aggressive behavior. The sample included 83 boys assessed using multi-informant reports and performance measures. Deficits in two executive functions, response inhibition and planning ability were related primarily to reactive aggression. Hostile attributional biases moderated relations between planning ability and proactive and reactive aggression subtypes, with minimal relations between planning deficits and aggression at low levels of hostile attributional bias. As the level of hostile attributional bias increased, the relation between planning deficits and reactive aggression became increasingly large in a positive direction whereas the relation between planning deficits and proactive aggression became increasingly negative. Additionally, hostile encoding moderated the relation between behavioral inhibition and reactive aggressive behavior. Results also suggested a mediational role for response inhibition in the relation between planning ability and reactive aggression. PMID:19408113

  5. Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Changtae; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidences indicate that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has a higher risk of developing aggression and violent behavior. A few correlation studies between IAD and aggression have implicated a common biological mechanism. However, neurobiological approaches to IAD and aggression have not yet been studied. Methods: A literature search for studies for Internet addiction disorder or aggression was performed in the PubMed database and we selected articles about neurobiology of IAD or aggression. Results: This review includes (a) common neural substrates such as the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system between aggression and IAD; (b) common neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, opiate and nicotine between aggression and IAD. Conclusions: Through reviewing the relevant literature, we suggested the possibility of common neurobiology between the two psychiatric phenomena and direction of research on aggression in IAD. PMID:25215210

  6. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  7. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  8. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Sexual Aggression between Residents in Nursing Homes: Literature Synthesis for an Underrecognized Issue

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Tony; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Evidence exists suggesting that most sexual aggression against older adults occurs in long-term care facilities. Fellow residents are the most common perpetrators, often due to inappropriate hypersexual behavior caused by dementing illness. This resident-to-resident sexual aggression (RRSA) is defined as sexual interactions between long-term care residents that in a community setting would likely be construed as unwelcome by at least one of the recipients and have high potential to cause physical or psychological distress in one or both of the involved. Although RRSA may be common and physical and psychological consequences for victims may be significant, this phenomenon has received little direct attention from researchers to date. We review the existing literature and relevant related research examining elder sexual abuse and hypersexual behavior to describe the epidemiologic features of this phenomenon, including risk factors for perpetrators and victims. Preventing and managing sexual aggression in nursing homes is made more challenging due to the legitimate and recognized need for nursing home residents, even those with advanced dementing illness, to sexually express themselves. We discuss the ethical dilemma this situation creates and the need to evaluate the capacity to consent to sexual activity among residents with dementing illness and to re-evaluate capacity as the diseases progress. We offer suggestions for managing RRSA incidents and for future research, including the importance of designing effective interventions. PMID:20840462

  10. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  11. Role of antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis: A review of clinical trials in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Annapurna; Baiju, C. S.; Ahuja, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is well-recognized fact that periodontal diseases are caused by multifactorial etiologies, in which microorganisms play an important role. An essential component of therapy is to eliminate or manage these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means by scaling and root planning which is ineffective in some of the aggressive periodontal diseases. These aggressive diseases involve particular groups of microorganisms which are not eliminated by mechanical means; and they require anti-infective therapy, which includes local and systemic antimicrobials. This approach of therapy is of interest to periodontist due to the aforementioned shortcomings of conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A manual and electronic search was made for human studies up to March 2011 that presented clinical and microbiological data for the efficacy of a systemic antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis along with scaling and root planning. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, quality assessment, and determination of outcome measures, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Results: Only three randomized controlled human trials qualified, and they concluded that both scaling and root planing (SRP) mono-therapy and SRP with antibiotics proves beneficial in improving clinical and microbiological parameters in aggressive periodontitis. Better results were seen in SRP with antibiotic groups as compared with SRP alone. Conclusion: Because of the insufficient quantity and heterogenecity of studies, no adequate evidence could be gathered to use the beneficial effects of these antibiotics along with SRP in aggressive periodontitis compared with SRP alone. PMID:23162322

  12. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals.

  13. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G

    2008-01-01

    Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin

  14. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  15. Western land managers will need all available tools for adapting to climate change, including grazing: a critique of Beschta et al.

    PubMed

    Svejcar, Tony; Boyd, Chad; Davies, Kirk; Madsen, Matthew; Bates, Jon; Sheley, Roger; Marlow, Clayton; Bohnert, David; Borman, Mike; Mata-Gonzàlez, Ricardo; Buckhouse, John; Stringham, Tamzen; Perryman, Barry; Swanson, Sherman; Tate, Kenneth; George, Mel; Ruyle, George; Roundy, Bruce; Call, Chris; Jensen, Kevin; Launchbaugh, Karen; Gearhart, Amanda; Vermeire, Lance; Tanaka, John; Derner, Justin; Frasier, Gary; Havstad, Kris

    2014-06-01

    In a previous article, Beschta et al. (Environ Manag 51(2):474-491, 2013) argue that grazing by large ungulates (both native and domestic) should be eliminated or greatly reduced on western public lands to reduce potential climate change impacts. The authors did not present a balanced synthesis of the scientific literature, and their publication is more of an opinion article. Their conclusions do not reflect the complexities associated with herbivore grazing. Because grazing is a complex ecological process, synthesis of the scientific literature can be a challenge. Legacy effects of uncontrolled grazing during the homestead era further complicate analysis of current grazing impacts. Interactions of climate change and grazing will depend on the specific situation. For example, increasing atmospheric CO₂ and temperatures may increase accumulation of fine fuels (primarily grasses) and thus increase wildfire risk. Prescribed grazing by livestock is one of the few management tools available for reducing fine fuel accumulation. While there are certainly points on the landscape where herbivore impacts can be identified, there are also vast grazed areas where impacts are minimal. Broad scale reduction of domestic and wild herbivores to help native plant communities cope with climate change will be unnecessary because over the past 20-50 years land managers have actively sought to bring populations of native and domestic herbivores in balance with the potential of vegetation and soils. To cope with a changing climate, land managers will need access to all available vegetation management tools, including grazing.

  16. Western Land Managers will Need all Available Tools for Adapting to Climate Change, Including Grazing: A Critique of Beschta et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejcar, Tony; Boyd, Chad; Davies, Kirk; Madsen, Matthew; Bates, Jon; Sheley, Roger; Marlow, Clayton; Bohnert, David; Borman, Mike; Mata-Gonzàlez, Ricardo; Buckhouse, John; Stringham, Tamzen; Perryman, Barry; Swanson, Sherman; Tate, Kenneth; George, Mel; Ruyle, George; Roundy, Bruce; Call, Chris; Jensen, Kevin; Launchbaugh, Karen; Gearhart, Amanda; Vermeire, Lance; Tanaka, John; Derner, Justin; Frasier, Gary; Havstad, Kris

    2014-06-01

    In a previous article, Beschta et al. (Environ Manag 51(2):474-491, 2013) argue that grazing by large ungulates (both native and domestic) should be eliminated or greatly reduced on western public lands to reduce potential climate change impacts. The authors did not present a balanced synthesis of the scientific literature, and their publication is more of an opinion article. Their conclusions do not reflect the complexities associated with herbivore grazing. Because grazing is a complex ecological process, synthesis of the scientific literature can be a challenge. Legacy effects of uncontrolled grazing during the homestead era further complicate analysis of current grazing impacts. Interactions of climate change and grazing will depend on the specific situation. For example, increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperatures may increase accumulation of fine fuels (primarily grasses) and thus increase wildfire risk. Prescribed grazing by livestock is one of the few management tools available for reducing fine fuel accumulation. While there are certainly points on the landscape where herbivore impacts can be identified, there are also vast grazed areas where impacts are minimal. Broad scale reduction of domestic and wild herbivores to help native plant communities cope with climate change will be unnecessary because over the past 20-50 years land managers have actively sought to bring populations of native and domestic herbivores in balance with the potential of vegetation and soils. To cope with a changing climate, land managers will need access to all available vegetation management tools, including grazing.

  17. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  18. The (non)relation between empathy and aggression: surprising results from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Johnson, Jarrod A

    2014-05-01

    Assumptions regarding the importance of empathy are pervasive. Given the impact these assumptions have on research, assessment, and treatment, it is imperative to know whether they are valid. Of particular interest is a basic question: Are deficits in empathy associated with aggressive behavior? Previous attempts to review the relation between empathy and aggression yielded inconsistent results and generally included a small number of studies. To clarify these divergent findings, we comprehensively reviewed the relation of empathy to aggression in adults, including community, student, and criminal samples. A mixed effects meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies involving 106 effect sizes revealed that the relation between empathy and aggression was surprisingly weak (r = -.11). This finding was fairly consistent across specific types of aggression, including verbal aggression (r = -.20), physical aggression (r = -.12), and sexual aggression (r = -.09). Several potentially important moderators were examined, although they had little impact on the total effect size. The results of this study are particularly surprising given that empathy is a core component of many treatments for aggressive offenders and that most psychological disorders of aggression include diagnostic criteria specific to deficient empathic responding. We discuss broad conclusions, consider implications for theory, and address current limitations in the field, such as reliance on a small number of self-report measures of empathy. We highlight the need for diversity in measurement and suggest a new operationalization of empathy that may allow it to synchronize with contemporary thinking regarding its role in aggressive behavior. PMID:24364745

  19. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  20. The association between salivary hormone levels and children's inpatient aggression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barzman, Drew H; Mossman, Douglas; Appel, Kacey; Blom, Thomas J; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Ekhator, Nosa N; Patel, Bianca; DelBello, Melissa P; Sorter, Michael; Klein, David; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Aggression is a common management problem for child psychiatry hospital units. We describe an exploratory study with the primary objective of establishing the feasibility of linking salivary concentrations of three hormones (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], and cortisol) with aggression. Between May 2011 and November 2011, we recruited 17 psychiatrically hospitalized boys (age 7-9 years). We administered the Brief Rating of Aggression by Children and Adolescents (BRACHA) and Predatory-Affective Aggression Scale (PAAS) upon admission. Saliva samples were collected from the participants during a 24-h period shortly after admission: immediately upon awakening, 30 min later, and again between 3:45 and 7:45 P.M. Nursing staff recorded Overt Aggression Scale ratings twice a day during hospitalization to quantify aggressive behavior. The salivary cortisol concentrations obtained from aggressive boys 30 min after awakening trended higher than levels from the non-aggressive boys (p = 0.06), were correlated with the number of aggressive incidents (p = 0.04), and trended toward correlation with BRACHA scores (p = 0.06). The aggressive boys also showed greater morning-to-evening declines in cortisol levels (p = 0.05). Awakening levels of DHEA and testosterone were correlated with the severity of the nearest aggressive incident (p < 0.05 for both). The BRACHA scores of the aggressive boys were significantly higher than scores of the non-aggressive boys (p < 0.001). Our data demonstrate the feasibility of collecting saliva from children on an inpatient psychiatric unit, affirm the utility of the BRACHA in predicting aggressive behavior, and suggest links between salivary hormones and aggression by children who undergo psychiatric hospitalization.

  1. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  2. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  3. The relation between poor sleep, impulsivity and aggression in forensic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Spreen, Marinus; Lancel, Marike

    2014-01-17

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with disturbed sleep. Poor sleep can attenuate emotional control, including the regulation of aggression, and thus, may increase the risk of impulsive, aggressive acts. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of sleep problems to subjective and objective aggressiveness and impulsivity in a forensic psychiatric population. Questionnaires on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), chronic severe insomnia (Sleep Diagnosis List), aggressiveness (Aggression Questionnaire) and impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) were completed by 96 forensic psychiatric inpatients, admitted to two forensic facilities in the Netherlands. To obtain more objective measurements of aggression and impulsivity, observational scores on a professional instrument to assess the risk of future aggression (Historical Clinical Future-30) and reported aggressive incidents were collected from files. Results showed that a worse sleep quality and higher insomnia scores were significantly associated with self-reported aggression and impulsivity, clinician-rated hostility and involvement in aggressive incidents within the facility. Whether a participant was professionally judged as impulsive could not be predicted by sleep quality or the insomnia score. To a large extent the results of this study support the hypothesis that poor sleep is related to impulsive, aggressive behavior in forensic psychiatric patients. It is worthwhile to examine the protective effect of treatment of sleep difficulties on aggressive reactivity in (forensic) psychiatric populations. PMID:24184508

  4. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed.

  5. Hormone-dependent aggression in male and female rats: experiential, hormonal, and neural foundations.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1992-01-01

    Hormone-dependent aggression in both male and female rats includes the distinctive behavioral characteristics of piloerection and lateral attack. In males the aggression is dependent on testicular testosterone and is commonly known as intermale aggression. In females, the aggression is most commonly observed as maternal aggression and is dependent on hormones whose identity is only beginning to emerge. The present review examines the experiential events which activate hormone-dependent aggression, the relation of the aggression to gonadal hormones, and the neural structures that participate in its modulation. In males and females, the aggression is activated by cohabitation with a conspecific of the opposite sex, by competitive experience, and by repeated exposure to unfamiliar conspecifics. In the female, the presence of pups also activates aggression. In both males and females, hormones are necessary for the full manifestation of the aggression. The essential hormone appears to be testosterone in males and a combination of testosterone and estradiol in females. The information available suggests the neural control systems for hormone-dependent aggression may be similar in males and females. It is argued that hormone-dependent aggression is behaviorally and biologically homologous in male and female rats.

  6. The role of the school environment in relational aggression and victimization.

    PubMed

    Elsaesser, Caitlin; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2013-02-01

    Research conducted over the last decade has documented both the high rates of and serious consequences associated with both victimization and perpetration of relational aggression. This study examines risk for involvement in relational aggression and victimization among middle school youth, evaluating both individual beliefs about violence, as well as aspects of the school environment, including interpersonal school climate and school responsiveness to violence. A sample of 5,625 primarily urban minority middle school youth (49.2 % female) participating in a violence prevention project completed measures of relational aggression and victimization as well as indicators of individual beliefs about aggression, school norms for aggression, student-teacher and student-student interpersonal climate, and school responsiveness to violence. Unlike results previously found for physical aggression, no school-level indicator of climate was related to relational aggression or victimization. However, individual beliefs about aggression and individual perceptions of the school environment were related strongly to both the perpetration of and victimization by relational aggression. These results suggest not only that individual beliefs and perceptions of the school environment are important in understanding perpetration and victimization of relational aggression, but also that risk for involvement in relational aggression is distinct from that of physical aggression. Implications for school interventions are discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  7. One-sided and mutually aggressive couples: Differences in attachment, conflict prevalence, and coping.

    PubMed

    Burk, William J; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated concurrent links between adolescent romantic couples' reports of aggression (relational and physical) and relationship functioning (e.g., attachment security, conflict prevalence, coping strategies, jealousy, and affiliative and romantic relationship quality) using a pattern-oriented approach. The sample included 194 romantic partner dyads (Mage=16.99 years for females and Mage=18.41 years for males). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of relational and physical aggression, ranging from nonaggressive couples (42%), to those characterized by aggressive females (18%), aggressive males (14%), physically aggressive females (20%), and mutually aggressive females and males (6%). Clusters in which one partner was perceived as either relationally or physically aggressive were characterized by higher rates of conflict, less adaptive coping, and more jealousy (particularly in males). The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with high rates of conflict, a deficit in reflection and emotion regulation in conflict situations, and a lack of affiliative relationship qualities. The discussion focuses on the formative character of aggression in these early romantic relations, the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning, and the gender-specific functions of aggression in relationships characterized by unilateral aggression.

  8. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  9. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  10. Aggression at Age 5 as a Function of Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine, Gender, and Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Bennett, David; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood aggression at age 5 in a multiple risk model that includes cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and gender as predictors. Methods Aggression was assessed in 206 children by using multiple methods including teacher report, parent report, child’s response to hypothetical provocations, and child’s observed behavior. Also examined was a composite score that reflected high aggression across contexts. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of variance in each of the aggression measures and the composite was explained by the predictors. The variables that were independently related differed depending on the outcome. Cocaine exposure, gender, and environmental risk were all related to the composite aggression score. Conclusions Cocaine exposure, being male, and a high-risk environment were all predictive of aggressive behavior at 5 years. It is this group of exposed boys at high environmental risk that is most likely to show continued aggression over time. PMID:15827351

  11. Mediators of Aggression Among Young Adult Offspring of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The current paper explores the connection between maternal depression and offspring aggression during the transition to adulthood, expanding the scope of prior research on this topic. Both family-level factors (including parent-child relationship quality and maternal relationship quality) and youth factors (including depression history and social functioning in mid-adolescence) were tested as potential mediators in a longitudinal community sample of 710 youth at ages 15 and 20. The results suggest that maternal depression confers a risk for higher levels of aggressive behavior by offspring at age 20. Structural Equation Models suggested that the association between maternal depression and youth aggression is fully mediated by youth history of depression by mid-adolescence, even when accounting for the stability of aggression between ages 15 and 20. Parent-child relationship quality, youth social functioning, and maternal relationship quality were not unique mediators of this association. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:20919790

  12. A comparison of methodologies to test aggression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Way, Gregory P; Ruhl, Nathan; Snekser, Jennifer L; Kiesel, Alexis L; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-04-01

    Aggression is a psychological construct that is commonly used to classify zebrafish behavior. Aggression is a complex trait that can be difficult to accurately measure. The literature on fish behavior describes many different methodologies to examine aggression, which, we believe, have not been compared in a formal manner. In this study we observed 19 individual zebrafish (Danio rerio) and quantified bites, lateral displays, charges, darts, and time near the stimulus in six common assays used to measure aggression. The methodologies included an inclined mirror assay, two flat mirror assays with different acclimation periods, a live conspecific assay, a clay model stimulus assay, and a video recording assay. Our results indicate high repeatability in most aggressive behaviors over time, which confirms the value of each assay to measure personality. However, our results also indicate significant differences between the assays. Specifically, assays using a flat mirror or live conspecific as a stimulus for aggression elicited more attempted bites than an inclined mirror, a clay model stimulus, or a video recording stimulus. Furthermore, the inclined mirror stimulus provoked more darts than any other assay. The results suggest the need for researchers to consider specific research goals when selecting the appropriate stimulus to provoke aggression in zebrafish.

  13. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics. PMID:26100892

  14. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Aggression in Personality Disordered Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Royce; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurochemical studies have pointed to a modulatory role in human aggression for a variety of central neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as cytokines. While animal studies of cytokines suggest an aggression-facilitating role for central cytokines, especially for interleukin-1β and other cytokines, no cerebrospinal fluid studies of cytokines have yet been reported in regard to human aggression. Methods: Basal lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from 38 physically healthy subjects with DSM-5 Personality Disorder and assayed for cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 (log IL-6) and cerebrospinal fluid soluble IL-1 Receptor II protein in the context of their relationship with measures of aggression. Results: Cerebrospinal fluid soluble interleukin-1 Receptor II (r=.35, r2 = .12, P= .03), but not log interleukin-6 (r = -.05, r2 = .00, P= .76), levels were positively correlated with a composite measure of aggression. Adding relevant covariates, including cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, to the statistical model doubled the strength of this relationship (partial r = .54, r2 = .29, P= .002). No relationship was seen with history of suicidal behavior or with any measure of impulsivity, negative affectivity, or of general dimensions of personality. Conclusion: These data suggest a positive relationship between at least one inflammatory cytokine in the central nervous system and aggression in human subjects. This finding adds to the complex picture of the central neurochemistry of impulsive aggression in human subjects. PMID:25650410

  16. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  17. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  18. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  19. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Landewe, R; Lukas, C; Bolosiu, H D; Breedveld, F; Dougados, M; Emery, P; Ferraccioli, G; Hazes, J M W; Klareskog, L; Machold, K; Martin‐Mola, E; Nielsen, H; Silman, A; Smolen, J; Yazici, H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. Methods In accordance with EULAR's “standardised operating procedures”, the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10 European countries. The group defined the focus of the process, the target population, and formulated an operational definition of “management”. Each participant was invited to propose issues of interest regarding the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen issues for further research were selected by use of a modified Delphi technique. A systematic literature search was carried out. Evidence was categorised according to usual guidelines. A set of draft recommendations was proposed on the basis of the research questions and the results of the literature search.. The strength of the recommendations was based on the category of evidence and expert opinion. Results 15 research questions, covering the entire spectrum of “management of early arthritis”, were formulated for further research; and 284 studies were identified and evaluated. Twelve recommendations for the management of early arthritis were selected and presented with short sentences. The selected statements included recognition of arthritis, referral, diagnosis, prognosis, classification, and treatment of early arthritis (information, education, non‐pharmacological interventions, pharmacological treatments, and monitoring of the disease process). On the basis of expert opinion, 11 items were identified as being important for future research. Conclusions 12 key recommendations for the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis were developed, based on evidence in the literature and expert consensus. PMID:16396980

  20. The dynamic appraisal of situational aggression: an instrument to assess risk for imminent aggression in psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Ogloff, James R P; Daffern, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has attempted to delineate the demographic and clinical characteristics of high-risk psychiatric patients and identify salient modifiable aspects of aggression prone environments. Recently, there has also been increased interest in the development and testing of structured schemes for the assessment of risk for aggression within inpatient psychiatric settings. Although some of these methods show acceptable predictive validity, their ability to inform day-to-day treatment and management decisions is limited. The current research was designed to identify existing and novel risk factors that would assist staff to identify and manage the risk for aggression in psychiatric inpatient populations. Results showed that assessments supported by structured risk measures were more accurate than unaided clinical judgements based only on nurses' clinical experience and knowledge of the patient alone. Seven test items emerged that were maximally effective at identifying acute psychiatric patients at risk for engaging in inpatient violence within 24 hours; these items have been combined in the development of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression. Empirical analyses and clinical experience support the efficacy of the instrument in assisting clinical staff in the identification and management of inpatient aggression.

  1. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  2. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  3. Managing bundled payments.

    PubMed

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system. PMID:21548437

  4. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  5. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  7. Tachykinin-expressing neurons control male-specific aggressive arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-16

    Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. PMID:24439378

  8. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Lazebny, Oleg E; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A; Dronova, Daria A; Karelin, Dmitri V; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Shibalev, Dmitri V; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)--the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17-70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born.

  9. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  10. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  11. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  12. Developing Anger and Aggression Control in Youth in Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Recreation and park personnel can be influential in beginning a concerted and systematic effort to develop anger- and aggression-management programs for youth. The article outlines examples of anger- and aggression-control program content, typical training procedures, possible program sessions, and organizational implementation. (SM)

  13. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

  14. Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz

    2009-01-01

    With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808

  15. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  16. The Relation Between Trait Mindfulness and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  17. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  18. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  19. Experimental Functional Analysis of Aggression in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, Rachel; Shaw, Rebecca; Burrow, Caroline; Horsler, Kate; Allen, Debbie; Oliver, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background: Kinship theory suggests that genomic imprinting could account for phenotypic behaviors that increase (in the case of Angelman syndrome) or decrease (for Prader-Willi syndrome) the drive to access social resources (adult contact) depending on the imprinting parent-of-origin. Difficult to manage behaviors, such as aggression that is…

  20. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  1. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  2. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-09-22

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild. PMID:26378216

  3. Role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    This article critically reviews the evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis and discusses the study approaches commonly used to identify genetic risk factors of this disease. Available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations in multiple genes, combined with environmental effects. Syndromic periodontal diseases include certain monogenic disorders that express phenotypes showing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the genetic triggering factors of most of these syndromes have been identified. Other periodontal disease phenotypes seem to occur through different genetic predisposition patterns. Case-control and genome-wide studies have been used to investigate the association with gene polymorphisms. Association studies and the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis suggest a significant genetic component in the increased predisposition to this disease. There is evidence to support the contribution of a few major genes or of multiple small-effects genes. In addition, there is evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Early studies suggested an X-linked mode of transmission of aggressive periodontitis, and subsequent studies support an autosomal mode. Genetic studies have the potential to improve the screening programs of subjects at risk for developing aggressive periodontitis and may enhance treatment outcome through gene therapy.

  4. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  5. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-09-22

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild.

  6. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  7. Serotonin depletion-induced maladaptive aggression requires the presence of androgens.

    PubMed

    Studer, Erik; Näslund, Jakob; Andersson, Erik; Nilsson, Staffan; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as well as the percentage amount of social behavior spent on attack but not that spent on threat - i.e. that it induces a pattern of unrestricted, maladaptive aggression - in gonadectomized C57Bl/6 male mice receiving testosterone replacement; in contrast, it failed to reinstate aggression in those not given testosterone. Whereas these results suggest the pro-aggressive effect of testosterone to be independent of serotonin, and not caused by an inhibition of serotonergic activity, the pCPA-induced induction of maladaptive aggression appears to require the presence of the hormone. In line with these findings, pCPA enhanced the total time of attack as well the relative time spent on attacks but not threats also in wild-type gonadally intact male C57Bl/6 mice, but failed to reinstate aggression in mice rendered hypo-aggressive by early knock-out of androgen receptors in the brain (ARNesDel mice). We conclude that androgenic deficiency does not dampen aggression by unleashing an anti-aggressive serotonergic influence; instead serotonin seems to modulate aggressive behavior by exerting a parallel-coupled inhibitory role on androgen-driven aggression, which is irrelevant in the absence of the hormone, and the arresting of which leads to enhanced maladaptive aggression.

  8. Serotonin Depletion-Induced Maladaptive Aggression Requires the Presence of Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Erik; Näslund, Jakob; Andersson, Erik; Nilsson, Staffan; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as well as the percentage amount of social behavior spent on attack but not that spent on threat – i.e. that it induces a pattern of unrestricted, maladaptive aggression – in gonadectomized C57Bl/6 male mice receiving testosterone replacement; in contrast, it failed to reinstate aggression in those not given testosterone. Whereas these results suggest the pro-aggressive effect of testosterone to be independent of serotonin, and not caused by an inhibition of serotonergic activity, the pCPA-induced induction of maladaptive aggression appears to require the presence of the hormone. In line with these findings, pCPA enhanced the total time of attack as well the relative time spent on attacks but not threats also in wild-type gonadally intact male C57Bl/6 mice, but failed to reinstate aggression in mice rendered hypo-aggressive by early knock-out of androgen receptors in the brain (ARNesDel mice). We conclude that androgenic deficiency does not dampen aggression by unleashing an anti-aggressive serotonergic influence; instead serotonin seems to modulate aggressive behavior by exerting a parallel-coupled inhibitory role on androgen-driven aggression, which is irrelevant in the absence of the hormone, and the arresting of which leads to enhanced maladaptive aggression. PMID:25978464

  9. Characteristics and Clinical Management of a Cluster of 3 Patients With Ebola Virus Disease, Including the First Domestically Acquired Cases in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liddell, Allison M.; Davey, Richard T.; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Varkey, Jay B.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Tseggay, Gebre K.; Badidi, Oghenetega; Faust, Andrew C.; Brown, Katia V.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Barrett, Kevin; Wolcott, Mark J.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Weinstein, Gary L.; Weinmeister, Kenney; Sutton, Shelby; Hazbun, Munir; Albariño, César G.; Reed, Zachary; Cannon, Debi; Ströher, Ute; Feldman, Mark; Ribner, Bruce S.; Lane, H. Clifford; Fauci, Anthony S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 26 000 cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been reported in western Africa, with high mortality. Several patients have been medically evacuated to hospitals in the United States and Europe. Detailed clinical data are limited on the clinical course and management of patients with EVD outside western Africa. Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and management of a cluster of patients with EVD, including the first cases of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection acquired in the United States. Design Retrospective clinical case series. Setting Three U.S. hospitals in September and October 2014. Patients First imported EVD case identified in the United States and 2 secondary EVD cases acquired in the United States in critical care nurses who cared for the index case patient. Measurements Clinical recovery, EBOV RNA level, resolution of Ebola viremia, survival with discharge from hospital, or death. Results The index patient had high EBOV RNA levels, developed respiratory and renal failure requiring critical care support, and died. Both patients with secondary EBOV infection had nonspecific signs and symptoms and developed moderate illness; EBOV RNA levels were moderate, and both patients recovered. Limitation Both surviving patients received uncontrolled treatment with multiple investigational agents, including convalescent plasma, which limits generalizability of the results. Conclusion Early diagnosis, prompt initiation of supportive medical care, and moderate clinical illness likely contributed to successful outcomes in both survivors. The inability to determine the potential benefit of investigational therapies and the effect of patient-specific factors that may have contributed to less severe illness highlight the need for controlled clinical studies of these interventions, especially in the setting of a high level of supportive medical care. Primary Funding Source None. PMID:25961438

  10. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  11. A study of patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis at disease onset

    PubMed Central

    Kaunzner, Ulrike W; Kumar, Gaurav; Askin, Gulce; Gauthier, Susan A; Nealon, Nancy N; Vartanian, Timothy; Perumal, Jai S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identify aggressive onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS) and describe its clinical course. Methods AOMS patients were identified from a multiple sclerosis (MS) database based on a set of criteria. The subsequent clinical course of AOMS patients was then reviewed with the goal of potentially identifying the best approaches to manage these patients. Results Fifty-eight of 783 (7.4%) patients in the MS database met the criteria for AOMS, and 43 patients who had complete data for the duration of their follow-up were included in the subsequent analysis. The mean duration of the follow-up was 54 months. Thirty-five patients (81%) were started on a conventional first-line agent (injectable therapies for MS). Only two of these 35 patients (5.7%) had no evidence of disease activity. Twenty-two of 35 patients suffering from refractory disease were switched to a more aggressive treatment (natalizumab, rituximab, alemtuzumab, cyclophosphamide). Eight patients were started on aggressive treatment as their initial therapy, and seven of these eight (87.5%) patients showed no evidence of disease activity. Conclusion With recognition of the crucial significance of early optimal treatment during the potential window of opportunity for best long-term outcomes, we describe AOMS within 1 year of disease onset and discuss possible treatment considerations for these patients. PMID:27536112

  12. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  13. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  14. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  15. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  16. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  17. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  18. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  19. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  20. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  1. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential. PMID:25058416

  2. The value of a multi-specialty service, including genitourinary medicine, dermatology and urology input, in the management of male genital dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Fernando, I

    2015-09-01

    We undertook a retrospective case note review of our monthly multi-specialty penile dermatoses clinic (which includes clinicians from Genitourinary medicine, Dermatology and Urology), to examine conditions presenting to the service, and compare clinical management and outcomes with other similar services in the UK. Over the 3-year study period, 226 patients were reviewed over 240 individual episodes. Lichenoid conditions were the most common category of genital pathologies seen (n = 60, 24%), but non-specific balanitis was the most common individual diagnosis (n = 55, 22%). Other common conditions seen included eczema and psoriasis (n = 28, 11%), Zoon/plasma cell balanitis (n = 26, 10%), malignancy/pre-malignant change (n = 25, 10%) and infective conditions (n = 24, 9%). The clinic had a biopsy rate of 10%; the most common indication was for confirmation of a clinical suspicion of malignancy/pre-malignancy. There was a high clinical-to-histological correlation in the biopsies of 79%. The most common treatment prescribed was topical corticosteroids and the clinic had a high discharge rate of 93%, the majority of patients discharged back to General Practice.

  3. Profilin 1 is a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Aggressiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Zerefos, Panagiotis G.; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Esteban, Sergio; Frantzi, Maria; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Anagnou, Nikolaos P.; Roubelakis, Maria G.; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Vlahou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Of the most important clinical needs for bladder cancer (BC) management is the identification of biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. Urine is a “gold mine” for biomarker discovery, nevertheless, with multiple proteins being in low amounts, urine proteomics becomes challenging. In the present study we applied a fractionation strategy of urinary proteins based on the use of immobilized metal affinity chromatography for the discovery of biomarkers for aggressive BC. Urine samples from patients with non invasive (two pools) and invasive (two pools) BC were subjected to immobilized metal affinity chromatography fractionation and eluted proteins analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, band excision and liquid chromatography tandem MS. Among the identified proteins, multiple corresponded to proteins with affinity for metals and/or reported to be phosphorylated and included proteins with demonstrated association with BC such as MMP9, fibrinogen forms, and clusterin. In agreement to the immobilized metal affinity chromatography results, aminopeptidase N, profilin 1, and myeloblastin were further found to be differentially expressed in urine from patients with invasive compared with non invasive BC and benign controls, by Western blot or Elisa analysis, nevertheless exhibiting high interindividual variability. By tissue microarray analysis, profilin 1 was found to have a marked decrease of expression in the epithelial cells of the invasive (T2+) versus high risk non invasive (T1G3) tumors with occasional expression in stroma; importantly, this pattern strongly correlated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. The functional relevance of profilin 1 was investigated in the T24 BC cells where blockage of the protein by the use of antibodies resulted in decreased cell motility with concomitant decrease in actin polymerization. Collectively, our study involves the application of a fractionation method of urinary proteins and as one main result of this analysis reveals the

  4. Psychophysiological correlates of aggression and violence: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2008-08-12

    This paper reviews existing psychophysiological studies of aggression and violent behaviour including research employing autonomic, electrocortical and neuroimaging measures. Robust physiological correlates of persistent aggressive behaviour evident in this literature include low baseline heart rate, enhanced autonomic reactivity to stressful or aversive stimuli, enhanced EEG slow wave activity, reduced P300 brain potential response and indications from structural and functional neuroimaging studies of dysfunction in frontocortical and limbic brain regions that mediate emotional processing and regulation. The findings are interpreted within a conceptual framework that draws on two integrative models in the literature. The first is a recently developed hierarchical model of impulse control (externalizing) problems, in which various disinhibitory syndromes including aggressive and addictive behaviours of different kinds are seen as arising from common as well as distinctive aetiologic factors. This model represents an approach to organizing these various interrelated phenotypes and investigating their common and distinctive aetiologic substrates. The other is a neurobiological model that posits impairments in affective regulatory circuits in the brain as a key mechanism for impulsive aggressive behaviour. This model provides a perspective for integrating findings from studies employing different measures that have implicated varying brain structures and physiological systems in violent and aggressive behaviour. PMID:18434285

  5. Variance components of aggressive behavior in genetically highly connected Pietrain populations kept under two different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Appel, Anne K; Voß, Barbara; Tönepöhl, Björn; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is a standard management procedure in commercial pig production and is often associated with a period of intense and physically damaging aggression. Aggression is considered a problem for animal welfare and production. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the genetic background of aggressive behavior traits at mixing of unfamiliar gilts under 2 different housing conditions. Therefore, a total of 543 purebred Pietrain gilts, from 2 nucleus farms (farm A: n = 302; farm B: n = 241) of 1 breeding company, were tested at an average age of 214 d (SD 12.2 d) for aggressive behavior by 1 observer. Observations included the frequencies of aggressive attack and reciprocal fighting during mixing with unfamiliar gilts. On farm A 41% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, whereas 59% were purebred Landrace or Duroc gilts. On the farm B 42% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, and 58% purebred Large White gilts. The average size of the newly mixed groups of gilts was 28 animals on farm A and 18 animals on farm B. The Pietrain gilts from the 2 herds were genetically closely linked. They were the offspring of 96 sires, with 64% of these sires having tested progeny in both farms. There were clear differences in the housing of the animals between the 2 farms. The test pen on farm A had a solid concrete floor littered with wooden shavings and was equipped with a dry feeder. On farm B there was a partly slatted floor, and the gilts were fed by an electronic sow feeder. Mean space allowance was 2.6 m(2)/gilt on farm A and 3.9 m(2)/gilt on farm B. Although large interindividual differences existed, gilts from farm B performed numerically more aggressive attack (mean 1.12, SD 1.42 vs. mean 0.71, SD 1.20) and reciprocal fighting (mean 0.78, SD 0.98 vs. mean 0.44, SD 0.82) when compared with gilts from farm A. The heritabilities and additive genetic variances for behavioral traits were estimated with a linear animal model and were on a low level

  6. Guidelines on the management of, and exposure to, rash illness in pregnancy (including consideration of relevant antibody screening programmes in pregnancy).

    PubMed

    Morgan-Capner, P; Crowcroft, N S

    2002-03-01

    These guidelines, produced by the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) aim to help decision making in the investigation and management of pregnant women who have 'a rash compatible with a systemic viral illness', or who have contact with a person with such an illness. They address particularly rubella, parvovirus B19, and varicella-zoster virus infection, but consider other infective causes of rash illness in the United Kingdom. The guidelines give the magnitude and degrees of risk to the fetus in terms of outcomes for the gestation at which maternal infection occurs. Recent changes in epidemiology and management lead to the following specific advice, which both updates and re-affirms established guidelines. All pregnant women with a non-vesicular rash illness should be investigated simultaneously for rubella and parvovirus B19 infection. All pregnant women who have had significant contact with a person suffering from a non-vesicular illness should be investigated for asymptomatic parvovirus B19 infection, and for asymptomatic rubella infection unless there is satisfactory evidence of past rubella infection (vaccine or natural infection). A significant contact is defined as being in the same room for over 15 minutes, or face-to-face contact. Specific investigation to detect asymptomatic rubella reinfection is not advised. It is essential to confirm by adequate laboratory investigation all cases of possible rubella and parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. Management of proven rubella in pregnancy should be based on established risks of adverse outcome. Women with proven parvovirus B19 infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy should be followed by regular, ultrasound scanning, and referred to Regional Units of Fetal Medicine if hydrops fetalis is detected. Parvovirus B19 antibody screening in pregnancy is not advised, and consensus has been reached on the procedures to be followed for rubella antibody screening, including the concentration of antibody that

  7. [Verbal aggression against health-care staff: results of a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Richter, D

    2014-09-01

    Verbal aggression against health-care staff can induce considerable stress. Compared to physical aggression, systematic studies on verbal aggression are lacking.A qualitative focus group study was conducted in several clinical settings in north-western Germany: acute mental health care, forensic mental health care, children and adolescent psychiatry, residential care for mentally ill persons, general hospital, and nursing home. 74 staff members from various professions participated in 8 focus groups.Various forms of verbal aggression were reported, from verbal abuse over threats to non-compliant behaviour. Backgrounds for verbal aggression by patients were usually non-satisfaction with the situation or the treatment, organisational problems, and mental disorders. Staff reported about various coping strategies such as ignorance and rationalisation, but also helplessness. Compared to physical aggression, the severity of verbal aggression was rated non-uniformly. A clear boundary between verbal aggression and 'normal' speech acts could not be drawn, as subjective and individual factors play an important role while interpreting aggressive acts.Verbal aggression is a relevant stressor for health-care staff which has been widely neglected in care institutions. Prevention efforts may include situational coping (e. g., communication training) and psychological coping (e. g., resilience enhancement).

  8. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

  9. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  10. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  11. Ventral premammillary nucleus as a critical sensory relay to the maternal aggression network

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Simone C.; Guimarães, Cibele Carla; Furigo, Isadora Clivatti; Sukikara, Marcia Harumi; Baldo, Marcus V. C.; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Canteras, Newton S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal aggression is under the control of a wide variety of factors that prime the females for aggression or trigger the aggressive event. Maternal attacks are triggered by the perception of sensory cues from the intruder, and here we have identified a site in the hypothalamus of lactating rats that is highly responsive to the male intruder—the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv). The PMv is heavily targeted by the medial amygdalar nucleus, and we used lesion and immediate-early gene studies to test our working hypothesis that the PMv signals the presence of a male intruder and transfers this information to the network organizing maternal aggression. PMv-lesioned dams exhibit significantly reduced maternal aggression, without affecting maternal care. The Fos analysis revealed that PMv influences the activation of hypothalamic and septal sites shown to be mobilized during maternal aggression, including the medial preoptic nucleus (likely to represent an important locus to integrate priming stimuli critical for maternal aggression), the caudal two-thirds of the hypothalamic attack area (comprising the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent tuberal region of the lateral hypothalamic area, critical for the expression of maternal aggression), and the ventral part of the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (presently discussed as being involved in controlling neuroendocrine and autonomic responses accompanying maternal aggression). These findings reveal an important role for the PMv in detecting the male intruder and how this nucleus modulates the network controlling maternal aggression. PMID:23918394

  12. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  13. The neurobiological basis of human aggression: A review on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Waltes, Regina; Chiocchetti, Andreas G; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Aggression is an evolutionary conserved behavior present in most species including humans. Inadequate aggression can lead to long-term detrimental personal and societal effects. Here, we differentiate between proactive and reactive forms of aggression and review the genetic determinants of it. Heritability estimates of aggression in general vary between studies due to differing assessment instruments for aggressive behavior (AB) as well as age and gender of study participants. In addition, especially non-shared environmental factors shape AB. Current hypotheses suggest that environmental effects such as early life stress or chronic psychosocial risk factors (e.g., maltreatment) and variation in genes related to neuroendocrine, dopaminergic as well as serotonergic systems increase the risk to develop AB. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the genetics of human aggression based on twin studies, genetic association studies, animal models, and epigenetic analyses with the aim to differentiate between mechanisms associated with proactive or reactive aggression. We hypothesize that from a genetic perspective, the aminergic systems are likely to regulate both reactive and proactive aggression, whereas the endocrine pathways seem to be more involved in regulation of reactive aggression through modulation of impulsivity. Epigenetic studies on aggression have associated non-genetic risk factors with modifications of the stress response and the immune system. Finally, we point to the urgent need for further genome-wide analyses and the integration of genetic and epigenetic information to understand individual differences in reactive and proactive AB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Influence of Alcohol Expectancies and Intoxication on Men’s Aggressive Unprotected Sexual Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-01-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their post-incident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol’s influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work. PMID:20939645

  15. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...--Very High Level of Wetland and Goose Management--The most aggressive wetlands management techniques... Moderate Level of Goose Management--This alternative combines aggressive wetlands management options with...

  16. Psychopathy and aggression: when paralimbic dysfunction leads to violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models, which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  17. Psychopathy & Aggression: When Paralimbic Dysfunction Leads to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  18. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. PMID:24748546

  19. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Chester, David S.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants’ aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression. PMID:24748546

  20. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  1. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  2. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  3. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  4. A Comparison of Passive Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) has historically played an important role in clinical theorizing and was diagnosable prior to the DSM-IV, in which the construct was relabeled ‘negativistic’, expanded to include negative affective symptoms, and appendicized. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the expansion of PAPD to include content related to negative moods and non-specific personality pathology compromised its discriminant validity. In an undergraduate sample (N = 1215), a self-report measure of PAPD was only moderately related to NEGPD and showed less diagnostic overlap with other PDs than NEGPD. Furthermore, a conjoint factor analysis yielded a strong first factor (moodiness) which appeared less specific to passive aggressive behavior than three other factors (irresponsibility, inadequacy and contempt). We conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the DSM. PMID:22329420

  5. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  6. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  7. Examining the correlates of aggression among male and female Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Taft, Casey T; Monson, Candice M; Hebenstreit, Claire L; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of general aggression among a nationally representative sample of male and female Vietnam veterans (N = 1,632). Findings indicated that the rates of aggression for men and women were 41% and 32%, respectively, and men appeared to perpetrate relatively more acts of severe aggression. Correlates of aggression for men included lower socioeconomic status and age, minority status, unemployment, degree of exposure to the malevolent war-zone environment and perceived threat in the war zone, posttraumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. For women, only lower age and unemployment were associated with aggression. Findings highlight the importance of developing models for aggression among those experiencing military deployments.

  8. Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

  9. Management of Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hoak, David A; Lutsep, Helmi L

    2016-09-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is a common cause of stroke worldwide, causing approximately 10 % of strokes in the USA and up to 50 % in Asian populations. Recurrent stroke risks are particularly high in those with a stenosis of 70 % or more and a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke. Warfarin has been associated with higher major hemorrhage rates and no reduction of recurrent stroke compared to aspirin in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis. After early trials showed the feasibility of stenting, two randomized trials compared stenting plus medical management to medical management alone in symptomatic intracranial stenosis. Stenting was linked with increased risk and showed no benefit in any subpopulation of patients. Aggressive medical management in the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial was associated with half the risk of stroke compared to that in similar patients in a previous symptomatic intracranial stenosis trial after adjustment of confounding characteristics. Aggressive medical management comprises risk factor control, including a target systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg, a low density lipoprotein <70 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1C <7.0 %, and lifestyle management that incorporates exercise, smoking cessation and weight management, and the use of antithrombotics. PMID:27443379

  10. Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma.

    PubMed

    Görgün, Ömer; Salduz, Ahmet; Kebudi, Rejin; Özger, Harzem; Bilgiç, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation. PMID:27499324

  11. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

  12. Molecular Profiling of Aggressive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Gazzola, Anna; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Pileri, Stefano A.; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, several studies of molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas were performed. In particular, it was shown that DLBCL can be distinguished in two different entities according to GEP. Specifically, ABC and GCB subtypes were characterized by having different pathogenetic and clinical features. In addition, it was demonstrated that DLBCLs are distinct from BL. Indeed, the latter is a unique molecular entity. However, relevant pathological differences emerged among the clinical subtypes. More recently, microRNA profiling provided further information concerning BL-DLBCL distinction as well as for their subclassification. In this paper, the authors based on their own experience and the most updated literature review, the main concept on molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:22190944

  13. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  14. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  15. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  16. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee.

  17. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Clare C; Coombs, Chelsey B; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ''gets under the skin'' resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee's early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  18. Neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic.

  19. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  20. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  1. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  2. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  3. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  4. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  5. Adolescent disclosure and concealment: longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls.

  6. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  7. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide. PMID:26202623

  8. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  9. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers.

    PubMed

    Gossman, Michael S; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D; Mallick, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient׳s sex; patient׳s age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient׳s medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  10. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, Michael S.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D.; Mallick, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  11. Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Attributes of Aggressive Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toblin, R.L.; Schwartz, D.; Hopmeyer Gorman, A.; Abou-ezzeddine, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of children who are concurrently aggressive and victimized by their peers. The characteristics of these ''aggressive victims'' were examined in comparison to bullies, passive victims, and normative comparison children. The sample included 240 urban Los Angeles elementary school…

  12. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  13. Effectiveness, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Aggressive Children with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Reed, Michael D.; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; McNamara, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide an initial description of the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics (PK) of quetiapine in aggressive children with conduct disorder (CD). Method: This 8-week, open-label outpatient trial, enrolled patients ages 6 to 12 years with CD. Outcome measures included the Rating of Aggression Against People and/or Property Scale…

  14. Youth Aggression and Violence: Risk, Resilience, and Prevention. ERIC Digest #E602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christle, Christine A.; Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    This brief paper summarizes the current literature concerning youth aggression and violence especially risk, resilience, and prevention. It summarizes risk factors for aggression and violence including child characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity, risk-taking, emotional disturbance), home conditions (e.g., harsh and ineffective parental discipline,…

  15. Neuropsychological Factors in the Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper addresses the neuropsychological evaluation of impulsive aggression in emotionally disturbed students. Specific complications of organic aggressive syndrome include its unpredictable nature and basis in organic etiology. Characteristically, there is a sudden onset of unprovoked rage and violence accompanied by a drastic change in…

  16. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  17. A Meta-Analysis of the Distinction between Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W.; Merk, Welmoet W.

    2007-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation…

  18. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  19. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt, 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome. PMID:24906982

  20. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Klump, Kelly L; Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome.

  1. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Foon, Kenneth A.; Takeshita, Kenichi; Zinzani, Pier L.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL) comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence, there is a need for more effective therapies for all three diseases. Increased understanding of the molecular features of aggressive BCL has led to the development of a range of novel therapies, many of which target the tumor in a tailored manner and are summarized in this paper. PMID:22536253

  2. Association between childhood trauma and aggression in male prisoners.

    PubMed

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Cuomo, Chiara; Marchetti, Marco; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-30

    Childhood trauma and aggression were examined in 540 male prisoners. The Thus 540 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview, completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (BGHA) interview. There were significant correlations between CTQ scores and BGHA scores. Also prisoners with CTQ scores above the median had significantly higher BGHA scores than prisoners with CTQ scores below the median. Significantly more of the prisoners with CTQ scores above the median had more than one conviction, and significantly more had convictions as minors, and had exhibited violent behavior in prison. However, in logistic regression analyses that included possible confounding variables, CTQ scores related only to violence in prison while BGHA scores related to violent crime, having more than one conviction, conviction as a minor, and violence in prison. The relationship between CTQ and BGHA scores suggests the possibility that childhood trauma may be one determinant of aggression in prisoners. PMID:18976816

  3. “Blurred Lines?”1 Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    patrons and staff that support sexual aggression and better management of the highly sexualized and sexist environments of most bars. PMID:24588839

  4. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J

    1995-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 2, participants reported their mood before and after the showing of a violet or nonviolent videotape. High trait aggressive individuals felt more angry after viewing the violent videotape than did low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 3, participants first viewed either a violent or a nonviolent videotape and then competed with an "opponent" on a reaction time task in which the loser received a blast of unpleasant noise. Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low trait aggressive individuals.

  5. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  6. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  7. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  8. A Social Cognitive Learning Theory of Homophobic Aggression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The current study used social cognitive theory as a framework to investigate self-reported homophobic aggressive behavior at school. Participants included 863 students of 49 classes, enrolled in Grades 9-13 in 10 Italian public high schools. The results from the multilevel mediation model (1-2-1) showed that class-level homophobic attitudes toward…

  9. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  10. Schizophrenia and impulsive aggression: a heuristic inquiry with forensic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of a violent act committed by an offender with schizophrenia typically focuses on whether the act was due to distortions in thought or perception, i.e., delusions or hallucination. An important but less appreciated feature is the impulsivity of the act, which can have forensic and therapeutic implications. Here a modification of Barratt's classification of aggressive behavior is presented that includes premeditated (instrumental), medical (secondary), impulsive (expressive), and compulsive (instrumental and expressive) aggression. Violence due to a mental condition such as schizophrenia is considered medical, but even aggression motivated by delusions or hallucinations can also be characterized as impulsive, premeditated, or compulsive.Although research on aggression and schizophrenia is limited with regard to the impulsivity-premeditation dimension and difficult to compare, current evidence suggests this to be an important consideration in the assessment of aggression in individuals with schizophrenia, important both forensically and therapeutically. Future research on the impulsive-premeditated quality of aggressive acts by offenders with schizophrenia--research wherein aggressive behavior is defined, situational context is clarified, and diagnostic criteria are explicitly followed--should further refine our understanding of the nature of aggressive acts associated with schizophrenia. Findings from such research will undoubtedly inform assessment, treatment, and forensic relevance of schizophrenia-related physical aggression.

  11. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z=2.35, p=0.019) and stressful life events (z=2.32, p=0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  12. The Role of Executive Functions in the Control of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Ulrike M.; Kopyciok, Robert P. J.; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people. PMID:21747775

  13. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.

  14. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  15. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  16. Short-day aggression is independent of changes in cortisol or glucocorticoid receptors in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Rendon, Nikki M; Greives, Timothy J; Romeo, Russell D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Testosterone mediates aggression in many vertebrates. In some species, aggression remains high during the non-breeding season (e.g., winter), when testosterone levels are low. In Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we have demonstrated photoperiodic changes in aggression with hamsters housed in short, "winter-like" days displaying significantly more territorial aggression than long-day animals, despite low levels of testosterone. The mechanisms by which photoperiod regulates aggression, however, remain largely unknown. Adrenocortical hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) have been implicated in mediating seasonal aggression; circulating concentrations of these hormones have been correlated with aggression in some species. The goal of this study was to examine the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors in mediating photoperiodic changes in aggression in male Siberian hamsters. Males were housed in long or short days and treated with either exogenous cortisol or vehicle. Circulating levels of cortisol, adrenal cortisol content, and aggression were quantified. Lastly, photoperiodic effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were quantified in limbic brain regions associated with aggression, including medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Short-day hamsters were more aggressive than long-day hamsters, however cortisol treatment did not affect aggression. Photoperiod had no effect on serum or adrenal cortisol or GR levels in the brain regions examined. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in cortisol levels do not cause increases associated with short-day aggression, and further that GR protein levels are not associated with photoperiodic changes in aggression. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role of adrenocortical steroids in mediating seasonal aggression.

  17. [Aggressions towards nurses in emergency departments: an international literature review].

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Lorenzo; Bambi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a widespread phenomenon in every kind of settings. Among these ones there are emergency departments (ED), that have distinctive features as like the large daily number of patients' presentations, and high emotional content or stressing situations related to the management of diagnostic-therapeutic priorities. We reviewed the medical and nursing literature to quantify the international widespread of aggressions towards nurses working in EDs, distinguish the typologies and the perpetrators, and identify the consequences on victims and healthcare organizations. Original papers were searched using Medline, CINHAL, and Medscape databases.  35 research articles met the inclusion criteria, but 6 were not retrieved. The rate of verbal abuses reported by ED nurses varies from 50% to 100% of those who were surveyed, while physical violence ranges between 16.7% and 72%. Patients and relatives are the main perpetrators, followed by doctors, and, only in lower percentages, by nurses colleagues. Alcohol, drugs abuse, and overcrowding in EDs are acknowledged as motivating factors for violent events. Under-reporting of aggressions is frequent up to the 80% of victims, and some papers report that nurses consider assaults as a normal part of their work. There is a direct relation between aggressions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disturb syndrome. Moreover there is a sense of continuous fear in nurses, causing the likelihood of workplace leaving. Special educational courses seem to be effective in diminishing the number of aggressions and to adopt adequate adaptive behaviors. 

  18. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  19. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure.

  20. The social status of aggressive students across contexts: the role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade.

    PubMed

    Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Aggressive and impulsive behavior in Alzheimer’s disease and progression of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola; Pąchalska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are numerous, including worsening of mood, psychotic symptoms, aggressive and impulsive behaviours, and many others. It is generally assumed that there exists a relationship between the severity of dementia and aggressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aggressive and impulsive behaviours and cognitive function disorders in AD patients. Material/Methods Forty-eight AD patients living in a nursing home were included in the research group on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The subjects underwent two years of naturalistic observation. The intensity of agitation and aggressive behaviours was assessed on the basis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cog (ADAS-cog) was used to assess cognitive function. Pharmacotherapy administered during the observation period was also taken into account. Results Thirty-one patients completed the two year long observation. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficiencies demonstrated a greater intensity of aggressive and impulsive behaviours, as assessed using the CMAI scale. Aggression escalated together with the development of dementia disorders. The intensity of dementia disorders was most significantly connected with physical agitation and verbal aggression. The use of neuroleptics and mood stabilisers decreased the progression of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Conclusions There is a relationship between cognitive functioning disorders and the intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. More severe forms of dementia are connected with greater intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours as the disease progresses. Periodical administration of pharmacotherapy may reduce the development of aggressive behaviours. PMID:22367129

  2. Establishing research and management priorities for invasive water primroses (Ludwigia spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical report provides background information on invasive, aquatic Ludwigia species to assist aquatic resource managers. The report includes a description of the problems caused by these invasive plant species and why their current aggressive spread should concern resource managers and poli...

  3. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development. PMID:25910418

  4. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  5. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  6. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness.

  7. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  8. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  9. Single dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Li, Ran; Kravitz, Edward A

    2013-04-01

    Monoamines, including dopamine (DA), have been linked to aggression in various species. However, the precise role or roles served by the amine in aggression have been difficult to define because dopaminergic systems influence many behaviors, and all can be altered by changing the function of dopaminergic neurons. In the fruit fly, with the powerful genetic tools available, small subsets of brain cells can be reliably manipulated, offering enormous advantages for exploration of how and where amine neurons fit into the circuits involved with aggression. By combining the GAL4/upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system with the Flippase (FLP) recombination technique, we were able to restrict the numbers of targeted DA neurons down to a single-cell level. To explore the function of these individual dopaminergic neurons, we inactivated them with the tetanus toxin light chain, a genetically encoded inhibitor of neurotransmitter release, or activated them with dTrpA1, a temperature-sensitive cation channel. We found two sets of dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression, one from the T1 cluster and another from the PPM3 cluster. Both activation and inactivation of these neurons resulted in an increase in aggression. We demonstrate that the presynaptic terminals of the identified T1 and PPM3 dopaminergic neurons project to different parts of the central complex, overlapping with the receptor fields of DD2R and DopR DA receptor subtypes, respectively. These data suggest that the two types of dopaminergic neurons may influence aggression through interactions in the central complex region of the brain involving two different DA receptor subtypes. PMID:23530210

  10. Asymmetry in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressive behavior: a continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Perach-Barzilay, N; Tauber, A; Klein, E; Chistyakov, A; Ne'eman, R; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is aimed at causing damage or pain to another individual. Aggression has been associated with structural and functional deficits in numerous brain areas, including the dorsolateral region of the prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), typically related to inhibition and impulse control. In this study, we used inhibitory continuous theta-burst magnetic stimulation (cTBS) to explore the role of the right and left DLPFC in aggression. Sixteen healthy right-handed volunteers underwent two sessions involving random, real and sham, right and left DLPFC stimulations. These sessions were followed by the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary task that was specially designed to assess participants' aggressive tendencies by measuring the patterns of their reactive aggression (a response to a perceived provocation) and proactive aggression (an aggressive act with goal-oriented purposes). Results indicate that using cTBS to target the left DLPFC was associated with a greater increase in aggressive responses than right DLPFC stimulation. This pattern of results was found for both reactive and proactive types of aggressive reactions. It is concluded that DLPFC asymmetry is involved in modulating reactive and proactive aggression. Our results are in line with recent studies suggesting that the left DLPFC plays a major role in aggressive behavior. PMID:22963204

  11. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26837478

  13. Excessive Aggression as Model of Violence: A Critical Evaluation of Current Preclinical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. Objectives How valid, reliable, productive and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? Methods The rationale, key methodological features, supporting data and arguments as well as their disadvantages and limitations of the most frequently used animal models for excessive aggressive behavior are summarized and their validity and reliability are evaluated. Results Excessive aggressive behavior is validly and reliably seen in (1) a proportion of feral-derived rats and selectively bred mice, (2) rats with compromised adrenal function resulting in a hypoglucocorticoid state, (3) a significant minority of mice, rats and monkeys after consumption of a moderate dose of alcohol, and (4) resident animals of various species after social instigation. Limitations of these procedures include restrictive animal research regulations, the requirement of expertise in surgical, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, and the behaviorally impoverished mouse strains that are used in molecular genetics research. Promising recent initiatives for novel experimental models include aggressive behaviors that are evoked by optogenetic stimulation and induced by the manipulation of early social experiences such as isolation rearing or social stress. Conclusions One of the most significant challenges for animal models of excessive, potentially abnormal aggressive behavior is the characterization of distinctive neurobiological mechanisms that differ from those governing species-typical aggressive behavior. Identifying novel targets for effective intervention requires increased understanding of the distinctive molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms for each type of abnormal aggressive behavior. PMID:23430160

  14. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  15. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others. PMID:23627957

  16. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  17. [Aggressive clients in Dutch veterinary practice].

    PubMed

    Barbonis, T S A E; Endenburg, N

    2007-05-15

    Aggressive clients seem to be becoming more common. This article describes a study in which questionnaires on client behaviour were sent to veterinary assistants and veterinarians in randomly selected practices in the Netherlands. Results showed that 26.4% of the veterinarians and 29.3% of the assistants had experienced aggressive clients in the last year. Age, experience, and sex of the veterinarian or assistant did not influence the frequency with which aggressive clients were encountered. The same was true for the type of veterinary practice (companion animals, farm animals, horses, etc). The risk of encountering aggressive clients was higher among practices in large towns and in practices with a small turnover Of the veterinarians who had encountered aggressive clients at least once in their career, 31% has taken some kind of action after the aggressive encounter Nearly a quarter (24.9%) of veterinary practices have adopted a Risk Inventarization and Evaluation (RI&E) approach to preventing client aggression and 26.6% of practices have adopted another approach. While veterinarians tend not to consider aggression a big problem, they are often open to the suggestion that more attention should be paid to aggression in veterinary practice. PMID:17578228

  18. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  19. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  20. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  1. Aggression, conflict resolution, popularity, and attitude to school in Russian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Timentschik, Vera M; Burkova, Valentina N

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of aggression and conflict-managing skills on popularity and attitude to school in Russian adolescents. Three types of aggression (physical, verbal, and indirect), constructive conflict resolution, third-party intervention, withdrawal, and victimization were examined using the Peer-Estimated Conflict Behavior (PECOBE) inventory [Bjorkquist and Osterman, 1998]. Also, all respondents rated peer and self-popularity with same-sex classmates and personal attitude to school. The sample consisted of 212 Russian adolescents (101 boys, 111 girls) aged between 11 and 15 years. The findings attest to significant sex differences in aggression and conflict resolution patterns. Boys scored higher on physical and verbal aggression, and girls on indirect aggression. Girls were socially more skillful than boys in the use of peaceful means of conflict resolution (they scored higher on constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention). The attributional discrepancy index (ADI) scores were negative for all three types of aggression in both sexes. Verbal aggression is apparently more condemned in boys than in girls. ADI scores were positive for constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention in both genders, being higher in boys. In girls, verbal aggression was positively correlated with popularity. In both sexes, popularity showed a positive correlation with constructive conflict resolution and third-party intervention, and a negative correlation with withdrawal and victimization. Boys who liked school were popular with same-sex peers and scored higher on constructive conflict resolution. Girls who liked school were less aggressive according to peer rating. They also rated higher on conflict resolution and third-party intervention. Physical aggression was related to age. The results are discussed in a cross-cultural perspective.

  2. Effects of sex, status, and mating cues on expected aggressive responses.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Heather K; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Nagoshi, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sex, status, and mating cues on expected aggression was examined via three scenario-based studies in which participants imagined themselves in a situation with a same-sex instigator of a provocation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a scenario, which included one of two levels of status of instigator (high, low), one of two levels of attractiveness of the instigator (unattractive, attractive), and one of two levels of provocation (apology, insult). Sex and dispositional aggressivity were also included in a full factorial design. Based on evolutionary psychology ideas, we anticipated that status and attractiveness would differentially influence expected aggression for men vs. women. Participants in Experiment 1 were instructed to imagine that they were alone, whereas participants in Experiments 2 and 3 imagined themselves in a situation that included mating-related primes. In general expected aggression was greater for aggression-prone participants and under conditions of provocation and/or a high-status instigator. Experiments 2 and 3 found that, in the context of mate competition, sex differences in the effects of instigator provocation, status, and attractiveness emerged: greater aggressivity now only predicted more aggression for males but not females who were insulted; aggression was highest for females confronting an unattractive, high-status instigator and for males confronting an attractive, high-status instigator; females were more likely to aggress against a high-status instigator, regardless of being in a steady relationship or a first date situation, but males were only more likely to aggress against a high-status instigator in a first date situation.

  3. Threatened Retaliation as an Inhibitor of Human Aggression: Mediating Effects of the Instrumental Value of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    Whereas threatened punishment proves effective under conditions where the instrumental value of aggressive behavior is quite low, the following techniques of control may work better in situations where the value of aggression is relatively high: (1) the use of restrained, non-aggressive models; (2) empathic arousal among aggressors; or (3)…

  4. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  5. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  6. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  7. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    1982-01-01

    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  8. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  9. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  10. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  11. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. PMID:26345359

  12. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  13. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

  14. A meta-analysis of the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Polman, Hanneke; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W; Merk, Welmoet W

    2007-08-01

    The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation varied considerably between studies, from -.10 to .89. Observational assessment and tilt/noise tasks were associated with smaller correlations than questionnaires. Within the large group of questionnaire studies, studies disentangling the form and function of aggression found lower correlations than studies that did not disentangle form and function. Among questionnaire studies, higher reliability was associated with larger correlations. Effect size did not depend on other study characteristics such as sample type, age, and informant type. It is concluded that reactive and proactive aggression are most clearly distinguished with behavioral observations and questionnaires that unravel form and functions of aggression.

  15. Toward a Relationship Perspective on Aggression among Schoolchildren: Integrating Social Cognitive and Interdependence Theories

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional psychological approach of studying aggression among schoolchildren in terms of individual differences in aggression and in victimization has been valuable in identifying prevalence rates, risk, and consequences of involvement in aggression. However, it is argued that a focus on aggressor-victim relationships is warranted based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Such a shift in focus requires modification and integration of existing theories of aggression, and this paper integrates social cognitive theory and interdependence theory to suggest a new, interdependent social cognitive theory of aggression. Specifically, this paper identifies points of overlap and different foci between these theories, and it illustrates their integration through a proposed model of the emergence of aggressor-victim interactions and relationships. The paper concludes that expanding consideration to include aggressor-victim relationships among schoolchildren offers considerable theoretical, empirical, and intervention opportunities. PMID:26985397

  16. A Review of Existing Relational Aggression Programs: Strengths, Limitations, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that involvement in relational aggression is associated with serious adjustment problems, including concurrent and future social maladjustment (e.g., problematic friendships; rejection), internalizing problems (e.g., depressive symptoms), and school avoidance. Despite the burgeoning literature focusing on the harmful and damaging nature of relationally aggressive behavior, this research has only recently begun to be used to inform school-based prevention and intervention programming. This article reviews the developmental research related to relational aggression and presents a systematic examination of nine published school-based prevention and intervention programs to prevent relational aggression. Programs reviewed target preschool through eighth-grade students. Strengths and limitations of each program are discussed. Recommendations are offered for future research to develop and validate school-based programming for relational aggression, and implications for school psychologists are discussed. PMID:21666876

  17. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control. PMID:22242256

  18. Repulsed by violence: disgust sensitivity buffers trait, behavioral, and daily aggression.

    PubMed

    Pond, Richard S; Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Deckman, Timothy; Bonser, Ian M; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Many models of aggression include negatively valenced emotions as common elicitors of aggressive behavior. Yet, the motivational direction of these emotions is not taken into account. The current work explored whether sensitivity to a negative emotion associated with behavioral avoidance-disgust-will predict lower levels of aggression. Five studies tested the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity predicts less aggression. In Study 1 (N = 92), disgust sensitivity predicted less trait physical and verbal aggression. In Study 2 (N = 268), participants high in disgust sensitivity were less likely to behave aggressively towards a stranger on a reaction-time task. In Study 3 (N = 51), disgust sensitivity was associated with less intimate partner violence inclinations. Study 4 (N = 247) replicated this effect longitudinally. In Study 5 (N = 166), each domain of disgust (i.e., moral, sexual, and pathogen disgust) had a buffering effect on daily aggression when daily experiences activated those specific domains. These results highlight the usefulness of considering the motivational direction of an emotion when examining its influence on aggression. PMID:21707194

  19. The interplay between values and aggression in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Benish-Weisman, Maya

    2015-05-01

    Values, or the guiding standards of adolescents' lives, influence which behaviors are considered more justified than others. The relationship between values and social behavior has been established across many studies including the relationship of values and aggression. But only a few studies have examined these relationships among youth. Moreover, a question that remains open is the direction of these relationships. The present study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations between values and peer nominated aggression in 3 time points with a 1-year interval (8th grade-10th grade) in a sample of 678 Israeli adolescents (51.2% girls). Students completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001) and 6 items of peer nominations of aggression. As hypothesized, I found positive associations between aggression and self-enhancement and openness to change values concurrently. Similarly, I obtained negative associations between aggression and self-transcendence and conservation values. Moreover, crossed-lagged models revealed that self-enhancement values were positively associated with aggression 1 year later. The association between aggression and future self-enhancement values, however, was not significant. Finally, I found mutual associations between self-transcendence values and aggression across time.

  20. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.