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Sample records for aggressive management including

  1. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  2. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  3. Student Aggression: Prevention, Management, and Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…

  4. [Aggressive vertebral hemangiomas: optimization of management tactics].

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, M N; Manukovskiĭ, V A; Zharinov, G M; Kandyba, D V; Tsibirov, A A; Savello, A V; Svistov, D V

    2012-01-01

    Today vertebral hemangioma is not completely understood entity, neither its pathogenesis nor optimal treatment is determined. Nowadays in majority of clinics in this country ineffective radiotherapy remains the first-line treatment. We analyzed results of treatment of 205 patients (286 lesions) with aggressive hemangiomas operated in Department of Neurosurgery of Military Medical Academy and Department of Nuclear Medicine of of Russian Scientific Center of Radiological and Surgical Technologies (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) since 1999 till 2009. Percutaneus vertebroplasty was performed in 167 lesions, radiotherapy was applied in 119 aggressive hemangiomas. Vertebroplasty is more effective for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas in comparison with radiotherapy. Signs of hemangiomas aggression, indications for surgery, and tactics of management were determined. Use of percutaneous vertebroplasty for treatment of aggressive hemangiomas resulted in fast recovery of the patients. This procedure is minimally invasive, it reduces hospital stay and duration of recovery.

  5. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  6. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  7. Aggressive bronchoscopic management of plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Preciado, Diego; Verghese, Susan; Choi, Sukgi

    2010-07-01

    Plastic bronchitis or "Bronchitis Plastica" is a rare disease characterized by the formation of thick, tenacious, arborizing mucofibrinous tracheobronchial casts that result in life-threatening airway obstruction and pulmonary failure. We review three children who developed recurrent plastic bronchitis after undergoing a Fontan procedure for single ventricle physiology. Case series of three patients with plastic bronchitis at a tertiary referral children's hospital. All patients required repeated bronchoscopies, one requiring four separate ones over a week's period, for removal of the rigid casts. Extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was needed in two children because of severe respiratory failure. All were also managed with adjunctive intensive medical support. Pulmonary function returned to normal in all children, but recurred 2 months later in one who subsequently expired due to pulmonary failure. Plastic bronchitis is an unusual condition of unknown cause that occurs in multiple clinical settings, but especially in those children who have undergone a Fontan operation. Management of this distressing situation is difficult and early diagnosis and aggressive measures to remove rigid casts combined with intensive medical care are necessary. The intrinsic cardiopulmonary physiology of children with Fontan procedures, including the risk of arrhythmias, hypo-oxygenation, and pulmonary hypertension make this condition even more complex.

  8. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  9. Development of a modified prognostic index of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: a possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-03-24

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma to construct a new large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor level (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium level (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein level (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors using the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, medial overall survival was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a new promising risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy.

  10. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Theil, Jacob; Beisner, Brianne; Hill, Ashley; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-02

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  11. The Impact of Teachers' Aggressive Management Techniques on Students' Attitudes to Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Riley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that teachers' aggressive classroom management impacts negatively on students. The authors compared student reaction to teachers' use of aggressive management techniques in Australia, China, and Israel. Reactions included distraction negativity toward teachers and perceptions that teachers' responses were unjustified,…

  12. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  13. Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Ilana R

    2003-03-01

    Canine aggression directed to human beings is a common presenting complaint and requires attention to safety issues and behavior modification to minimize the risks of future aggression. Dogs may bite familiar people, including family members, or unfamiliar people for a variety of reasons. Anxiety plays an important role in aggression regardless of its target or circumstances. Effective management of aggression may include education and safety counseling for owners, lifestyle changes for dogs and owners, avoidance of provocations when possible, and behavior modification to minimize the risk of future bites. Drug therapy may be indicated to facilitate behavior modification or to reduce reactivity in the dog.

  14. Managing aggression in the emergency department: promoting an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Rintoul, Yvonne; Wynaden, Dianne; McGowan, Sunita

    2009-04-01

    Incidents of aggression are frequent occurrences in hospitals, particularly the emergency department. Aggression creates instability in the environment, impacts on patient care outcomes and leads to increased levels of stress in staff. Regular exposure to aggression in the workplace can have detrimental effects on health professionals' ongoing quality of life. The emergency department is a gateway to care and is heavily populated 24h a day. Therefore, it is essential that all health professionals are confident and well prepared to manage aggression. Based upon a review of the literature this paper outlines the causes of aggression and provides an interdisciplinary action plan for intervening with aggressive patients in the emergency department. The importance of interdisciplinary ownership and the well planned management of aggression are outlined. When well managed, the impact of aggression can be limited. Stability in the emergency department ensures that health professionals can be responsive to the community's needs for emergency care. This leads to the provision of effective and timely care and a stable work environment for all health professionals.

  15. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  16. Collaborative management of a young patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Raju, M A K V; Sunny, James; Cyriac, Rajesh; Bhat, Subraya; Mohandas, Ashil A; Divya, Beemavarapu

    2014-01-01

    What are the orthodontic treatment possibilities, limitations and risks inherent in patients with periodontal disorders, particularly active periodontal disease? This case report describes the interface between orthodontics, periodontics and restorative dentistry in the management of a 25-year-old young man with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

  17. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  18. Frequency, Characteristics and Management of Adolescent Inpatient Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ≥1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI−: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI−: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136

  19. Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei Fen; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    In Singapore, anecdotal evidence suggests that nurses are concerned about managing aggressive incidents in the emergency department. In this study, registered nurses' perceptions of managing aggressive patients in an emergency department were explored. Ten registered nurses from the emergency department of an acute public hospital in Singapore were interviewed. Four overarching themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) impact of aggressive patients on nurses; (ii) nursing assessment of aggressive behaviors; (iii) nursing management of aggressive behaviors; and (iv) organizational support and responsiveness. Further research is required to better support nurses to deliver optimal care for aggressive patients and achieve positive and effective outcomes.

  20. Behavioral Management Leads to Reduction in Aggression in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Angela J.; Duke, Suzanne G.; George, Michelle; Scott, James

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Aggression is common in children and adolescents admitted to psychiatric inpatient units. Few interventions for reducing aggressive behaviors have been identified. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a milieu-based behavioral management program on the frequency of aggressive behaviors in a child and adolescent mental health…

  1. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  2. Managing Irritability and Aggression in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Adelaide S.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism and autism spectrum disorders have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. In one study up to 20% of children with autism have symptoms of irritability and aggression including aggression, severe tantrums, and deliberate self injurious behavior (Lecavalier [2006] "J. Autism Dev. Disord." 36:1101-1114.). These…

  3. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  4. Mindfulness-Based Program for Management of Aggression Among Youth: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Mahendra P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth have shown indulgence in various high-risk behaviors and violent activities. Yoga-based approaches have been used for the management of psychological problems. The present work explores the role of mindfulness-based program in the management of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic information schedule, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and World Health Organization quality of life were administered on 50 subjects in the age range of 18-25 years at pre- and post-mindfulness-based program level. Results: It revealed the presence of feeling of well-being and ability to relax themselves; changes in score of anger, hostility, physical, and verbal aggression; and enhancement of quality of life in the physical and environment domains at 1 month follow-up. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based program has shown changes in aggression expression/control and implies integration of it in available program for the management of aggression among youth. PMID:27335516

  5. Anger & Aggression Management in Young Adolescents: An Experimental Validation of the SCARE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the SCARE program; an anger management program developed with high school students. Adolescents (n=207) exposed to the SCARE program had significantly lower levels of anger and aggression, slightly higher anger control, and lower scores on aggressive and violent attitudes a year after exposure. (Contains…

  6. Effectiveness of an Afterschool-Based Aggression Management Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staecker, Emma; Puett, Eli; Afrassiab, Shayda; Ketcherside, Miranda; Azim, Sabiya; Rhodes, Darson; Wang, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A school-community partnership team implemented an aggression management curriculum in an afterschool program as an early-intervention strategy at the upper elementary level. Although statistically significant differences in physical or psychological aggression were not found, the partnership team gained a better understanding of evidence-based…

  7. Does aggressive and expectant management of severe preeclampsia affect the neurologic development of the infant?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Arif Aktuğ; Kapudere, Bilge; Eken, Meryem Kurek; İlhan, Gülşah; Dırman, Şükriye; Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Deniz, Engin; Karatekin, Güner; Çöğendez, Ebru; Api, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare and evaluate the influences of expectant and aggressive management of severe preeclampsia on the first year neurologic development of the infants in pregnancies between 27 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Methods: Seventy women with severe preeclampsia between 27 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in the study. 37 patients were managed aggressively (Group 1) and 33 patients were managed expectantly (Group 2). Glucocorticoids, magnesium sulfate infusion and antihypertensive drugs were administered to each group. After glucocorticoid administration was completed Group 1 was delivered either by cesarean section or vaginal delivery. In Group 2 magnesium sulfate infusion was stopped after glucocorticoid administration was completed. Antihypertensive drugs were given, bed rest and intensive fetal monitorization were continued in this group. Results: The average weeks of gestation, one minute and five minute apgar scores and hospitalization time in intensive care unit were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Three neonatal complications in Group 2 and five in Group 1 were detected according to the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II and one pathologic case was detected in both groups following neurologic examination. Neonatal mortality was seen in seven patients in Group 1 and one in Group 2. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal mortality and morbidity and maternal morbidity (P > 0.05). The average latency period was 3.45 ± 5.48 days in Group 2 and none in Group 1. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the first year neurological development of infants whose mothers underwent either expectant and aggressive management for severe preeclampsia. PMID:26770571

  8. Pharmacological management of persistent hostility and aggression in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Victoroff, Jeff; Coburn, Kerry; Reeve, Alya; Sampson, Shirlene; Shillcutt, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of aggressive behaviors is higher among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than among persons without such disorders. This phenomenon represents a risk to the well-being of patients, their families, and society. The authors undertook a systematic review of the English language literature to determine the efficacy of neuropharmacological agents for the management of hostility and aggression among persons with SSDs. The search combined findings from the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Ninety-two full text articles were identified that reported relevant findings. The American Academy of Neurology criteria were used to determine levels of evidence. Paliperidone-extended release is probably effective for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs who have not been preselected for aggression (Level B). Clozapine is possibly more effective than haloperidol for the management of overt aggression and possibly more effective than chlorpromazine for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs who have not been preselected for aggression (Level C). Clozapine is also possibly more effective than olanzapine or haloperidol for reducing aggression among selected physically assaultive inpatients (Level C). Adjunctive propranolol, valproic acid, and famotidine are possibly effective for reducing some aspects of hostility or aggression among inpatients with SSDs (Level C). Paliperidone-extended release currently appears to be the agent for the management of hostility among inpatients with SSDs for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy.

  9. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part I).

    PubMed

    Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  10. Ocean management plan includes array of recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore appeared in Monterey, California in June 1998 for a National Oceans Conference, some of the salt water spray from the Pacific Ocean must have clung to them.As a follow-up to the conference, the Clinton Administration on September 2 issued an interagency report to help guide federal efforts in establishing a comprehensive ocean policy.The report, which touches upon a number of global issues including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contains nearly 150 recommendations.

  11. Effect of anger management education on mental health and aggression of prisoner women

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Elaheh; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: “Uncontrolled anger” threats the compatible and health of people as serious risk. The effects of weaknesses and shortcomings in the management of anger, from personal distress and destruction interpersonal relationships beyond and linked to the public health problems, lack of compromises, and aggressive behavior adverse outcomes. This study investigates the effects of anger management education on mental health and aggression of prisoner women in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The single-group quasi-experimental (pretest, posttest) by prisoner women in the central prison of Isfahan was done. Multi-stage random sampling method was used. Initially, 165 women were selected randomly and completed the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28, and among these, those with scores >78 (the cut point) in aggression scale was selected and among them 70 were randomly selected. In the next step, interventions in four 90 min training sessions were conducted. Posttest was performed within 1-month after the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software. Results: Data analysis showed that anger management training was effective in reducing aggression (P < 0.001) and also had a positive effect on mental health (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the importance of aggression in consistency and individual and collective health and according to findings, presented educational programs on anger management is essential for female prisoners. PMID:27512697

  12. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context.

  13. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part II).

    PubMed

    Cork, Alison; Ferns, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a global problem. In our first paper, we highlighted the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication, the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the importance of developing positive nurse/service user relationships. In this second paper, we discuss personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  14. Comprehensive management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Frank L; Sanai, Nader; Chi, John H; Dowd, Christopher F; Chin, Cynthia; Tihan, Tarik; Chou, Dean; Weinstein, Philip R; Ames, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Conservative surgical strategies are appropriate for most symptomatic hemangiomas causing cord compression without instability or deformity. Even so, complete intralesional spondylectomy following embolization of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas with circumferential vertebral involvement can be safely accomplished. Such a spondylectomy can also prevent recurrence of hemangiomas. Transarterial embolization without decompression is an effective treatment for painful intraosseous hemangiomas. Vertebroplasty is useful for improving pain symptoms, especially when vertebral body compression fracture has occurred in patients without neurological deficit, but is less effective in providing long-term pain relief.

  15. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  16. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing.

  17. Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy for the Management of Aggressive Fibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, Falk; Timke, Carmen; Oertel, Susanne; Hensley, Frank W.; Bischof, Marc; Muenter, Marc W.; Weitz, Juergen; Buchler, Markus W.; Lehner, Burkhard; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and Materials: Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients. Conclusion: Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.

  18. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  19. Successful management of aggressive fibromatosis of the neck using wide surgical excision: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive fibromatosis is a benign tumor, thought to arise from deep musculoaponeurotic structures, rarely found in the head or neck. However, when it does occur in the head and neck region, it tends to be more aggressive and associated with significant morbidity, which may be attributed to the vital vascular, neurological or anatomical structures in close proximity. Case presentation We report the case of a 39-year-old Pakistani man who presented with a two-month history of a lump on the right side of his neck. The mass was excised and histopathological analysis revealed a case of aggressive fibromatosis. Conclusion Due to the rarity of the condition no guidelines are available on the indications and extent of each modality. Due to its aggressive behavior and tendency to invade local structures and recur, a multi-modality management strategy is usually employed. On the basis of this case, we suggest that aggressive surgery is a viable management option and may be successfully used as a single modality treatment. PMID:21707981

  20. Peer with Intellectual Disabilities as a Mindfulness-Based Anger and Aggression Management Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    A young man with intellectual disabilities (ID) and mental illness, who had previously been taught to successfully manage his aggressive behavior by using "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet," reported that he shared his mindfulness practice with his peers with ID. When requested by his peers, and without any training as a therapist, he began to…

  1. Reasons for Aggressive Classroom Management and Directions for Change through Teachers' Professional Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Salkovsky, Merav; Lewis, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether there are significant relationships between the reasons teachers provide for aggressive classroom management techniques and the type of professional education created to help them reduce their reliance on such techniques. The study reports data from a survey of 192 Australian teachers showing…

  2. Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

  3. Causes and management of aggression and violence in a forensic mental health service: perspectives of nurses and patients.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Geoffrey; Piccirillo, Maria; Alderman, Nick

    2013-12-01

    Nurses' attitudes about the causes and management of aggression affects their choice of intervention. We aimed to compare the attitudes held by patients and staff in a forensic mental health service with the Management of Aggression and Violence Attitudes Scale, and examine the factor validity of the tool in this setting by conducting a prospective comparative questionnaire survey. Staff (n = 72) and patient (n = 98) attitudes differed to a limited extent. Confirmatory factor analysis refuted the previously reported structure of the tool. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three underlying factors related to modifiability of aggression, hands on management, and hands off management. Patients were more optimistic than nurses about the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. Male patients and those with diagnoses other than personality disorder were significantly more likely to agree about modifiability than controls. Forensic inpatients recognize the need for the use of a range of techniques to prevent and manage aggression and violence, but selected groups are most likely to believe that aggression is modifiable. Prevention and management of aggression training should emphasize the modifiability of aggressive behaviour. The development of measures of modifiability and management style would assist in the evaluation of training and would offer new avenues for research.

  4. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: clinical and pathologic review of 10 cases including a subset with aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Quick, Charles M; Howitt, Brooke E; Dal Cin, Paola; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is currently regarded as a neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and a wide anatomic distribution. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the female genital tract are rare, and to date reported cases behaved indolently. We describe, herein, 10 cases of uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, 3 of which had an aggressive clinical course. Subject age ranged from 29 to 73 years. Tumors were composed of spindle and epithelioid myofibroblastic cells admixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a variably myxoid stroma. Two growth patterns, myxoid and fascicular (leiomyoma-like), were noted. All tumors were positive for ALK expression by immunohistochemistry, which was stronger in the myxoid areas. Smooth muscle marker and CD10 expression was variable in extent, but typically positive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK rearrangements was positive in both fascicular and myxoid areas in all 8 cases tested. Three subjects showed clinical evidence of tumor aggressiveness as defined by extrauterine spread, local recurrence, or distant metastasis. Aggressive tumors were larger, had a higher proportion of myxoid stroma, and higher mitotic activity than indolent tumors. Tumor cell necrosis was seen only in cases with adverse outcome. This is the first report to describe aggressive biological behavior in uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. This diagnosis is often underappreciated and merits inclusion in the differential diagnosis of myxoid mesenchymal lesions of the uterus, particularly because patients with an aggressive course may benefit from targeted therapy.

  5. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  6. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  7. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  8. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of acute epiglottitis managed with minimally aggressive surgical intervention: Case report.

    PubMed

    Gollapalli, Rajesh Babu; Naiman, Ana Nusa; Merry, David

    2015-07-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis secondary to epiglottitis is rare. The standard treatment of this severe condition has long been early and aggressive surgical debridement and adequate antimicrobial therapy. We report the case of an immunocompetent 59-year-old man who developed cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of acute epiglottitis. We were able to successfully manage this patient with conservative surgical treatment (incision and drainage, in addition to antibiotic therapy) that did not involve aggressive debridement.

  9. Predictors for self-directed aggression in Italian prisoners include externalizing behaviors, childhood trauma and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, E; Carli, V; Sarchiapone, M; Roy, A; Goldman, D; Enoch, M-A

    2016-06-01

    Suicidal behavior and self-mutilation can be regarded as the expression of self-directed aggression and both are common in prison populations. We investigated the influence of externalizing behaviors, depressive symptoms, childhood trauma, 5-HTTLPR variants on self-directed aggression (N = 145) in a group of 702 male Italian prisoners. Participants were comprehensively evaluated, including for psychiatric disorders, impulsive traits, lifetime aggressive behavior [Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (BGHA)], hostility, violent behavior during incarceration, depressive symptomatology [Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)], childhood trauma [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)]. Logistic regression analysis showed false discovery rate corrected independent main effects of externalizing behaviors: BGHA (P = 0.001), violent behavior in jail (P = 0.007), extraversion (P = 0.015); HDRS (P = 0.0004), Axis I disorders (P = 0.015), CTQ (P = 0.004) and 5-HTTLPR genotype (P = 0.02). Carriers of 5-HTTLPR high (LA LA ), intermediate (LA LG , SLA ) activity variants were more likely to have exhibited self-directed aggression relative to the low activity (LG LG , SLG , SS) variant: high/low: odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-4.68, P = 0.007; intermediate/low: OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.09-3.68, P = 0.025. The CTQ main effect was driven by physical abuse. There was no interactive effect of 5-HTTLPR and CTQ. Secondary logistic regression analyses in (1) all suicide attempters (N = 88) and (2) all self-mutilators (N = 104), compared with controls showed that in both groups, childhood trauma (P = 0.008-0.01), depression (P = 0.0004-0.001) were strong predictors. BGHA, violent behavior in jail predicted self-mutilation (P = 0.002) but not suicide attempts (P = 0.1). This study was able to distinguish differing influences on self-directed aggression between groups of closely related

  10. Is aggressive gap arthroplasty essential in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis?-a prospective clinical study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Babu, Lokesh; Jain, Manoj Kumar; Ramesh, C; Vinayaka, N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this three-year, prospective, follow-up study was to evaluate whether aggressive gap arthroplasty is essential in the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients were treated by the creation of a minimal gap of 5-8mm and insertion of an interpositional gap arthroplasty using the temporalis fascia. Eleven patients had unilateral coronoidectomy and 4 bilateral coronoidectomy based on Kaban's protocol. Preoperative assessment included recording of history, clinical and radiological examinations, personal variables, the aetiology of the ankylosis, the side affected, and any other relevant findings. Patients were assessed postoperatively by a surgeon unaware of the treatment given for a minimum of 3 years, which included measurement of the maximal incisal opening, presence of facial nerve paralysis, recurrence, and any other relevant findings. Of the 15 patients (17 joints), 12 had unilateral and three had bilateral involvement, with trauma being the most common cause. The patients were aged between 7 and 29 years (mean (SD) age 20 (8) years). Preoperative maximal incisal opening was 0-2mm in 8 cases and 2-9mm in 9. Postoperatively adequate mouth opening of 30-40mm was achieved in all cases, with no recurrence or relevant malocclusion during 3-year follow up. However, patients will be followed up for 10 years. Aggressive gap arthroplasty is not essential in the management of ankylosis of the TMJ. Minimal gap interpositional arthroplasty with complete removal of the mediolateral ankylotic mass is a feasible and effective method of preventing recurrence.

  11. Brain Ischemia in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage: Pathophysiological Reasoning for Aggressive Diagnostic Management

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Daniel; Arkuszewski, Michal; Rudzinski, Wojciech; Melhem, Elias R.; Krejza, Jaroslaw

    2013-01-01

    Summary Patients with intracranial hemorrhage have to be managed aggressively to avoid or minimize secondary brain damage due to ischemia, which contributes to high morbidity and mortality. The risk of brain ischemia, however, is not the same in every patient. The risk of complications associated with an aggressive prophylactic therapy in patients with a low risk of brain ischemia can outweigh the benefits of therapy. Accurate and timely identification of patients at highest risk is a diagnostic challenge. Despite the availability of many diagnostic tools, stroke is common in this population, mostly because the pathogenesis of stroke is frequently multifactorial whereas diagnosticians tend to focus on one or two risk factors. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain ischemia in patients with intracranial hemorrhage are not yet fully elucidated and there are several important areas of ongoing research. Therefore, this review describes physiological and pathophysiological aspects associated with the development of brain ischemia such as the mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide effects on the cerebrovascular system, neurovascular coupling and respiratory and cardiovascular factors influencing cerebral hemodynamics. Consequently, we review investigations of cerebral blood flow disturbances relevant to various hemodynamic states associated with high intracranial pressure, cerebral embolism, and cerebral vasospasm along with current treatment options. PMID:24355179

  12. Canine aggression toward unfamiliar people and dogs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Lore I

    2008-09-01

    Aggression toward unfamiliar dogs and people is a common problem arising most commonly from fear and territoriality. A number of factors contribute to its development, including socialization deficits, hormones, and genetic and neurophysiologic components. These factors are discussed in this article, as are management and behavior modification approaches for controlling aggression.

  13. A Mindfulness-Based Strategy for Self-Management of Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…

  14. Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

  15. Trisomy 18: A single-center evaluation of management trends and experience with aggressive obstetric or neonatal intervention.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Akila; Jacobs, Adam P; Tang, Ying; Neely, Cherry; Philips, Joseph B; Biggio, Joseph R; Robin, Nathaniel H; Edwards, Rodney K

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all prenatal and postnatal diagnoses of trisomy 18 (T18) from 2004 to 2014 at a single tertiary referral center in the southern United States to evaluate the natural history and perinatal outcomes associated with T18 over the past decade. We analyzed pregnancy outcome, mode of delivery, and for live-births, the number and types of neonatal interventions, and characterized interventions as aggressive or non-aggressive. Survival analyses were conducted based on mode of delivery and aggressive compared to non-aggressive interventions. A total of 167 cases of T18 were identified, 150 with available records. There were 141 (94.0%) with full T18; the remainder had mosaicism (1.3%), a translocation (0.7%), or an isochromosome 18 (4.0%). Most diagnoses were prenatal (73.3%, n = 110). Of the 150 patients, there were 54 live births: 21 (38.9%) delivered vaginally, 32 (59.3%) delivered by cesarean, and mode of delivery could not be ascertained for one. Median duration of survival was 12 days (interquartile range 3-90 days). Over time, there were no changes toward increased intervention (obstetric or neonatal). For the 49 neonates who received some intervention, there was no significant difference in survival time between neonates receiving aggressive (n = 36, median survival 24 days, interquartile range 6-247) and non-aggressive (n = 13, median survival 30 days, interquartile range 8-148) intervention (P = 0.90). There was similarly no difference in neonatal survival based on mode of delivery (P = 0.79). Survival of infants with T18 is not improved with aggressive obstetric or neonatal care.

  16. 78 FR 12359 - Wipro Limited, Wipro Technologies, Alliance Managers Including Remote Workers and Workers in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wipro Limited, Wipro Technologies, Alliance Managers Including Remote... Technologies, Alliance Managers, including remote workers and workers in Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois, Mountain... report to East Brunswick, New Jersey (Wipro Limited, Wipro Technologies, Alliance Managers)....

  17. MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: biology, entity, differential diagnosis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Xu, Xiaolu; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    MYC, a potent oncogene located at chromosome locus 8q24.21, was identified initially by its involvement in Burkitt lymphoma with t(8;14)(q24;q32). MYC encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that accentuates many cellular functions including proliferation, growth and apoptosis. MYC alterations also have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior. There are several regulatory factors and dysregulated signaling that lead to MYC up-regulation in B-cell lymphomas. One typical example is the failure of physiological repressors such as Bcl6 or BLIMP1 to suppress MYC over-expression. In addition, MYC alterations are often developed concurrently with other genetic alterations that counteract the proapoptotic function of MYC. In this review, we discuss the physiologic function of MYC and the role that MYC likely plays in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. We also summarize the role MYC plays in the diagnosis, prognostication and various strategies to detect MYC rearrangement and expression. PMID:26416427

  18. Management of pulseless and apneic trauma patients: are aggressive measures justified?

    PubMed

    Lo, Chong-Jeh; Chang, Wen-Ling

    2007-01-01

    This study prospectively examined the care of trauma patients in extremis on presentation to a tertiary medical center between January 2000 and August 31, 2002. There were 144 patients who presented without a pulse or spontaneous respiration and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (mean age, 41.5+/-2.3 years; male-to-female ratio, 105:39). Successfully resuscitated patients, who were either admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) or who were taken to the operating room for surgical exploration, had significantly shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (14.55+/-1.64 minutes vs. 33.32+/-1.23 minutes; P < 0.001) and received less amounts of epinephrine than those who died in the emergency room (P < 0.05). One hundred sixteen patients died in the emergency room. Nineteen admitted patients died within 24 hours of presentation. Nine patients survived beyond 24 hours and all of them were admitted directly to the SICU for the management of brain injury. Six patients were taken to the operating room for surgical exploration to control the bleeding; all of them died in the operating room or shortly thereafter in the SICU. No patient in this study survived to be discharged. The financial cost of successfully resuscitated patients was significantly higher than that of patients who died in the emergency room (P < 0.001). Instead of insisting on aggressive measures to resuscitate trauma patients in extremis on presentation, the authors suggest we should redirect that fervor toward efforts made to promote trauma awareness and injury prevention programs.

  19. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  20. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must... additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source considers practical and feasible, considering the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must... additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source considers practical and feasible, considering the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does the Federal travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as... must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation... of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation... of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements.... The plan must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures...

  7. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements.... The plan must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or... use of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or... use of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as... must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the...

  11. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  12. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  13. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  14. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  15. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston,...

  16. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided.

  17. Pharmacological Management of Agitation and Aggression in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Findling, Robert L.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Hamarman, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an "autism vignette" and then poses an evaluative question to several autism specialists, documenting their varied responses to the scenario and question posed. A 13-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation presented to the inpatient psychiatric unit due to a recent increase in agitation and physical aggression.…

  18. Management of Aggression in a Male-Dominated Culture: Samoan Migrant Women in Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Ineke Maria

    "Spirit possession" of Samoan women is a subconscious channel for venting aggression in a male-dominated society. Research conducted in the Los Angeles Samoan community which retains many of its traditional Samoan values showed that authority and allocation of resources are vested in men; women take care of children and home and are…

  19. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... Before June 20, 1996 Waste Management Plan § 62.14431 What must my waste management plan include? Your waste management plan must identify both the feasibility of, and the approach for, separating...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... Before June 20, 1996 Waste Management Plan § 62.14431 What must my waste management plan include? Your waste management plan must identify both the feasibility of, and the approach for, separating...

  1. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  3. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  4. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  5. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Preconstruction Siting Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste... must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the...

  7. 10 CFR 719.12 - What information must be included in the Legal Management Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What information must be included in the Legal Management Plan? 719.12 Section 719.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan, Staffing and Resource Plan and Annual Legal Budget § 719.12 What information must...

  8. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  9. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  12. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  13. The Simpson grading revisited: aggressive surgery and its place in modern meningioma management.

    PubMed

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent advances in radiotherapy and neuroimaging have called into question the traditional role of aggressive resections in patients with meningiomas. In the present study the authors reviewed their institutional experience with a policy based on maximal safe resections for meningiomas, and they analyzed the impact of the degree of resection on functional outcome and progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 901 consecutive patients with primary meningiomas (716 WHO Grade I, 174 Grade II, and 11 Grade III) who underwent resections at the University Hospital of Bonn between 1996 and 2008. Clinical and treatment parameters as well as tumor characteristics were analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS The median follow-up was 62 months. PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.6% and 86.0%, respectively. Younger age, higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, and convexity tumor location, but not the degree of resection, were identified as independent predictors of a good functional outcome (defined as KPS Score 90-100). Independent predictors of PFS were degree of resection (Simpson Grade I vs II vs III vs IV), MIB-1 index (< 5% vs 5%-10% vs >10%), histological grade (WHO I vs II vs III), tumor size (≤ 6 vs > 6 cm), tumor multiplicity, and location. A Simpson Grade II rather than Grade I resection more than doubled the risk of recurrence at 10 years in the overall series (18.8% vs 8.5%). The impact of aggressive resections was much stronger in higher grade meningiomas. CONCLUSIONS A policy of maximal safe resections for meningiomas prolongs PFS and is not associated with increased morbidity.

  14. Electrolyte derangement in cerebral malaria: a case for a more aggressive approach to the management of hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Enwere, G C; Ota, M O; Obaro, S K

    2000-09-01

    Although hyponatraemia has been consistently shown to occur in a large proportion of children with cerebral malaria, no statistical relationship has been established between the incidence of hyponatraemia and that of malaria-attributable mortality. However, hyponatraemia is not a benign state in other conditions (such as meningitis) or in surgical patients, and is likely to add to malarial deaths. The high mortality rate seen among cases of cerebral malaria, despite all efforts to curb it, therefore calls for a more aggressive approach to the management of hyponatraemia. Current methods for the administration of hypotonic saline and isotonic glucose solutions need review. In addition, children admitted with cerebral malaria should have their electrolyte status monitored to identify new or ongoing hyponatraemia. When hyponatraemia is discovered, it should be quickly and actively corrected.

  15. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  16. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  17. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  18. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  19. Should Leadership Talent Management in Schools Also Include the Management of Self-Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    International concerns about leadership shortages in schools have prompted a renewed research focus upon leadership talent and leadership talent management. The journey to leadership has been previously researched from the perspectives of professional development, equality of opportunity, work environment and personal characteristics. However, a…

  20. Implications for managed care for improving outcomes in Parkinson's disease: balancing aggressive treatment with appropriate care.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jack J

    2011-10-01

    Disability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is due not only to progressive impairment in balance, gait, and motor-related tasks, but also to several nonmotor symptoms affecting autonomic, neuropsychiatric, and sensory functions. The prevalence of PD in the United States is rising due to the expanding elderly population. Direct medical costs associated with PD are significant and influenced by level of disability and associated complexity of management. As new treatments are made available, reevaluation of treatment benefits and paradigms is warranted, for both motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD, to better manage outcomes. In addition to evaluation of symptomatic therapies for PD, attention to advances in disease-modifying therapies and to management of nonmotor symptoms should be an integral component of PD surveillance in the managed care environment.

  1. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... management of laboratory wastes and from the reuse, recycling or disposal of such materials outside the... containers including packaging, bottles, or test tube racks. (10) The procedures relevant to the safe...

  2. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management of laboratory wastes and from the reuse, recycling or disposal of such materials outside the... containers including packaging, bottles, or test tube racks. (10) The procedures relevant to the safe...

  3. Metabolic syndrome in South Asian immigrants: more than low HDL requiring aggressive management.

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sunita; Henkhaus, Rebecca; Wick, Jo; Vacek, James; Gupta, Kamal; Dong, Lei; Butler, Merlin G

    2011-03-16

    Aggressive clinical and public health interventions have resulted in significant reduction in coronary artery disease (CAD) worldwide. However, South Asian immigrants (SAIs) exhibit the higher prevalence of CAD and its risk factors as compared with other ethnic populations. The objective of the current study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), its association with high density Lipoprotein (HDL) function, Apo lipoprotein A-I (APOA1) gene polymorphisms, and sub-clinical CAD using common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) as a surrogate marker. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on SAIs aged 35-65 years. Dysfunctional/pro-inflammatory (Dys-HDL) was determined using novel cell free assay and HDL inflammatory index. Six intronic APOA1 gene polymorphisms were analyzed by DNA sequencing. According to the International Diabetes Federation definition, MS prevalence was 29.7% in SAIs without CAD and 26% had HDL inflammatory index ≥ 1 suggesting pro-inflammatory Dys-HDL. Six novel APOA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed with logistic regression, three SNPs (G2, G3, and G5) were found to be significantly associated with MS (p = 0.039, p = 0.038, p = 0.054). On multi-variate analysis, MS was significantly associated with BMI > 23 (P = 0.005), Apo-A-I levels (p = 0.01), and Lp [a] (p < 0.0001). SAIs are known to be at a disproportionately high risk for CAD that may be attributed to a high burden for MS. There is need to explore and understand non-traditional risk factors with special focus on Dys-HDL, knowing that SAIs have low HDL levels. Large prospective studies are needed to further strengthen current study results.

  4. Aggressive giant cell lesion of the jaws: a review of management options and report of a mandibular lesion treated with denosumab.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, John Edward; Bowe, Conor; Murphy, Colm; Toner, Mary; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-11-01

    Giant cell lesions (GCLs), previously referred to as giant cell granulomas, are benign tumors of the jaws of unknown etiology. Surgical management of aggressive GCLs is challenging, as these lesions demonstrate a tendency to recur following surgical removal. In addition, surgical treatment can be associated with significant morbidity. In an attempt to reduce both the extent of morbidity and the recurrence rate following surgery, a number of pharmacologic therapies have been advocated on the basis of assumptions about the predominant cell types and receptors, for the management of these lesions. This report describes the use of denosumab, an agent originally used for its anti-resorptive effects, in the management of an aggressive GCL of the mandible in an older patient, who was unsuitable for extensive surgery and in whom treatment with intralesional triamcinolone had proved unsuccessful. Denosumab may be a viable alternative or adjunct to surgery in the management of GCLs of the jaws.

  5. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  6. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  7. Aggression and Withdrawal Related Behavior within Conflict Management Progression in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Laura; Westlund, Karolina; Ljungberg, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method: Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old.…

  8. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  9. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  10. Nonoperative Management (Including Ultrasound-Guided Injections) of Proximal Biceps Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schickendantz, Mark; King, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Nonoperative management of conditions of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) involves a multifaceted approach, addressing the entire shoulder complex in addition to conditions that involve the LHBT. LHBT pathologic conditions are divided into 3 categories: inflammation, instability and rupture. This article provides an overview of a nonoperative treatment algorithm that addresses these specific categories and includes a review of ultrasound-guided injection techniques used in the diagnosis and management of LHBT disorders.

  11. Seasonal trends in intrapack aggression of captive wolves (Canis lupus) and wolf-dog crosses: implications for management in mixed-subspecies exhibits.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Thompson, Roger K R

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species exhibits are becoming increasingly common in the captive management of a wide range of species. Systematic evaluations of enclosures consisting of multiple subspecies, however, are relatively infrequent. The aim of this study was to measure seasonal trends in aggressive behaviors within a captive pack of wolves and wolf-dog crosses in a sanctuary setting. The frequency of intrapack social behaviors occurring within scan-sampling intervals was recorded for wolves and wolf-dog crosses during autumn, winter, and spring (2008-2009). Both subspecies displayed distinct seasonal trends in aggression. Wolf-dog crosses exhibited overall higher levels of aggression than wolves, although these instances were mostly noncontact and no significant differences were observed in the relative frequencies of aggressive behaviors between subspecies during any season. These findings suggest that wolves and wolf-dog crosses may be housed successfully given continuous behavioral monitoring, and these findings represent the first empirical account of wolf-dog cross behavior directly compared to wolves. Future studies should be conducted with similar packs to determine if this dynamic is universal. Such research will aid in the development of management and welfare strategies for captive facilities that provide permanent residences for wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

  12. Prediction and Prevention of Aggression and Seclusion by Early Screening and Comprehensive Seclusion Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack; Konrad, S. Shane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identification and skilled management of aggressive patients are a continued safety concern for inpatient psychiatric settings. We studied aggression reduction and the use of seclusion and restraints on our inpatient unit by developing aggression management tools. Our objectives were to systematically identify potential aggressors among admitted patients within 24 to 48 hours of admission and develop a seclusion documentation form that simultaneously trains staff to use less restrictive interventions while collecting data on its use. Methods: Prior to patient assessment and data collection, we systematically trained all medical staff on interviewing patients using the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool. We prospectively screened 229 consecutive admissions using the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool and determined its inter-rater reliability and predictive validity. We systematically recorded the use of a variety of interventions, including seclusion, when applicable. We also documented details of acts of aggression on a comprehensive form and collected demographics, casemix severity, and outcomes. Results: Twenty-two acutely ill patients were responsible for 68 violent acts, all identified by the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool. There were highly significant differences between aggressive and nonaggressive groups for length-ofstay, cost of hospitalization, and illness complexity. With the use of the new form, seclusion decreased from 32 percent to 22.4 percent in 2007. Our current use of seclusion is 0.1/1000 patient hours in 2011. Conclusion: The seclusion documentation form appropriately guides aggression management with less restrictive alternatives to seclusion, once potentially aggressive patients have been identified by screening. PMID:22984650

  13. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my... your COP (provided under § 285.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in §...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Waste Management... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which Modification or Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Waste Management... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  16. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  17. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  18. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  19. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? 37.620 Section 37.620 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award...

  20. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? 37.620 Section 37.620 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award...

  1. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence.

  2. Do employers voluntarily include patient protections in self-insured managed care plans?

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Janice S; Hall, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Managed care patient protection laws passed by states do not apply to health plans sponsored by self-insured employers, although 54% of workers who receive health insurance coverage through their employer are in self-insured plans. In-depth interviews conducted in five states with employers offering self-insured health benefits and with other knowledgeable market informants provide evidence that self-insured managed care plans nonetheless include important features that strengthen subscribers' access to medical providers. Less common in these plans were features providing for independent external appeal of coverage denials and for protecting network providers from undue influence by plan administrators.

  3. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  4. Sensory modulation intervention and behaviour support modification for the treatment of severe aggression in Huntington's disease. A single case experimental design.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Caroline A; Brown, Anahita

    2015-10-13

    Aggression is common in Huntington's disease. However, at present there are no standard guidelines for managing aggression in Huntington's sufferers due to a lack of empirical research. This paper presents a case study of the treatment of very high levels of aggression with sensory modulation and behaviour support intervention in a Huntington's sufferer. The client exhibited a range of aggressive behaviours, including physical aggression to people, furniture and objects, and verbal aggression. Following an eight week baseline phase, five weeks of sensory modulation intervention were employed. A behaviour support plan was then implemented as an adjunct to the sensory intervention, with aggressive behaviour systematically audited for a further 11 weeks. The results indicate a significant reduction in reported levels of aggression during the combined sensory modulation and behaviour support phase, compared to both the baseline and the sensory modulation therapy alone phases. This case study highlights the efficacy non-pharmacological interventions may have for reducing aggression in HD.

  5. 41 CFR 102-192.90 - What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What must we include in our annual mail management report to GSA? 102-192.90 Section 102-192.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  6. Toxicity of aggressive multimodality therapy including cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate with radiation and/or surgery for advanced head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Posner, M.R.; Ervin, T.J.; Fabian, R.L.; Miller, D.

    1982-05-01

    A combined modality regimen employing induction chemotherapy with cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate followed by surgery and/or radiation therapy was initiated in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In the first 23 patients treated with this program there was a 90% response rate to induction chemotherapy (9% CR and 81% PR). Toxicity associated with radiotherapy, but not surgery, was increased with 11 of 23 patients (48%) who experienced some toxicity during or immediately after radiotherapy. Mucositis was worse than expected and severe delayed mucositis was seen in 2 patients, one of whom required hospitalization. Late complications, possibly related to therapy included one myocardial infarction and one episode of hypoglycemia, both of which were fatal. One other patient voluntarily failed to take prescribed oral leucovorin, dying of unrescued methotrexate toxicity during adjuvant therapy, a questionable suicide. Further follow-up analysis of failure will be necessary to determine if the value of a combined modality regimen in producing an increased cure rate and long term survival will out weigh increased toxicity.

  7. Practice parameter for the prevention and management of aggressive behavior in child and adolescent psychiatric institutions, with special reference to seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Masters, Kim J; Bellonci, Christopher; Bernet, William; Arnold, Valerie; Beitchman, Joseph; Benson, R Scott; Bukstein, Oscar; Kinlan, Joan; McClellan, Jon; Rue, David; Shaw, Jon A; Stock, Saundra

    2002-02-01

    This parameter reviews the current state of the prevention and management of child and adolescent aggressive behavior in psychiatric institutions, with particular reference to the indications and use of seclusion and restraint. It also presents guidelines that have been developed in response to professional, regulatory, and public concern about the use of restrictive interventions with aggressive patients with regard to personal safety and patient rights. The literature on the use of seclusion, physical restraint, mechanical restraint, and chemical restraint is reviewed, and procedures for carrying out each of these interventions are described. Clinical and regulatory agency perspectives on these interventions are presented. Effectiveness, indications, contraindications, complications, and adverse effects of seclusion and restraint procedures are addressed. Interventions are presented to provide more opportunities to promote patient independence and satisfaction with treatment while diminishing the necessity of using restrictive procedures.

  8. Summary of the practice parameter for the prevention and management of aggressive behavior in child and adolescent psychiatric institutions with special reference to seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Masters, K J; Bellonci, C; Bernet, W; Arnold, V; Beitchman, J; Benson, S; Bukstein, O; Kinlan, J; McClellan, J; Rue, D; Shaw, J A; Stock, S; Kroeger, K

    2001-11-01

    This parameter reviews the current state of the prevention and management of child and adolescent aggressive behavior in psychiatric institutions, with particular reference to the indications and use of seclusion and restraint. It also presents guidelines that have been developed in response to professional, regulatory, and public concern about the use of restrictive interventions with aggressive patients with regard to personal safety and patient rights. The literature on the use of seclusion, physical restraint, mechanical restraint, and chemical restraint is reviewed, and procedures for carrying out each of these interventions are described. Clinical and regulatory agency perspectives on these interventions are presented. Effectiveness, indications, contraindications, complications, and adverse effects of seclusion and restraint procedures are addressed. Interventions are presented to provide more opportunities to promote patient independence and satisfaction with treatment while diminishing the necessity of using restrictive procedures.

  9. Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through mindfulness training.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Adkins, Angela D; Wahler, Robert G; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training; no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4 years of follow-up in the community.

  10. An Evaluation of a Flight Deck Interval Management Algorithm Including Delayed Target Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Barmore, Bryan; Leonard, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature air traffic management technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise timebased scheduling in the terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools enabling precise schedule conformance; and Interval Management (IM), which consists of flight deck automation that enables aircraft to achieve or maintain precise in-trail spacing. During high demand operations, TMA-TM may produce a schedule and corresponding aircraft trajectories that include delay to ensure that a particular aircraft will be properly spaced from other aircraft at each schedule waypoint. These delayed trajectories are not communicated to the automation onboard the aircraft, forcing the IM aircraft to use the published speeds to estimate the target aircraft's estimated time of arrival. As a result, the aircraft performing IM operations may follow an aircraft whose TMA-TM generated trajectories have substantial speed deviations from the speeds expected by the spacing algorithm. Previous spacing algorithms were not designed to handle this magnitude of uncertainty. A simulation was conducted to examine a modified spacing algorithm with the ability to follow aircraft flying delayed trajectories. The simulation investigated the use of the new spacing algorithm with various delayed speed profiles and wind conditions, as well as several other variables designed to simulate real-life variability. The results and conclusions of this study indicate that the new spacing algorithm generally exhibits good performance; however, some types of target aircraft speed profiles can cause the spacing algorithm to command less than optimal speed control behavior.

  11. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  12. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality Assurance, Shelton, Connecticut. The Department's Notice... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... firm worker group should read: Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global...

  13. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  14. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  15. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  16. Operational Dataset Update Functionality Included in the NCAR Research Data Archive Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Z.; Worley, S. J.; Schuster, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Growing complexity, volume, and reliance on operationally created datasets poses challenges to the centers tasked with archiving and curating this information. Past tools focused on data delivered via media, such as tape, or data downloaded by single dataset customized ftp scripting. Presently nearly all data are acquired via network interactions, which can happen many times per day. Prior archive management technologies do not scale to this new paradigm. The Research Data Archive Management System (RDAMS) was developed to meet this challenge and has been implemented to support archive management within the Research Data Archive (RDA) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). RDAMS is driven by open source based databases and utilities, and is designed to support the complete data archive cycle by fetching, interrogating, archiving, and providing long-term research data stewardship. A good example of RDAMS functionality is found in the utility developed to specifically manage operational dataset updates, and can be applied to any dataset that requires periodic updating. The RDAMS dataset update utility (DSUPDT) accomplishes four basic tasks: 1) contact and query a remote server to see if new or modified data are available, 2) move data from a remote host to a local system and verify data transfer integrity, 3) execute any required data processing steps including metadata harvesting, 4) archive data to local disk and backup media systems. To accomplish these tasks across a diverse variety of datasets, DSUPDT incorporates a broad base of functionality. For example, it can be configured to run according to many different data set requirements, handles multiple web protocols, automatically recovers from system outages at the remote or local site, can execute 3rd party data manipulation software, and accommodates irregular data delivery schedules. Currently over 150 RDA dataset products are configured to be under DSUPDT control, with datasets being updated

  17. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  18. Think First: Addressing Aggressive Behavior in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This highly practical book presents a complete anger and aggression management training program for middle and high school students. The volume incorporates a newly revised version of the author's proven "Think First" manual, which includes step-by-step skills training guidelines and 20 reproducible handouts and forms. Also provided are…

  19. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Laboratory Environmental Management Plan. (4) A system for identifying and tracking legal and other... laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.105 What must...

  20. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  1. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  2. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  3. 75 FR 11919 - Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Including On... workers of Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound Management-Largo Division, Largo, Florida, including on-site... were employed on-site at the Largo, Florida location of Smith and Nephew, Inc., Wound...

  4. 76 FR 2710 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On.... working within the Mailing Solutions Management Division who are located in remote work sites, including... partially separated from employment on or after June 23, 2009, through September 10, 2010, and all...

  5. 75 FR 11920 - Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Technologies, EEsof Division, including on-site leased workers from Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS... Employment and Training Administration Agilent Technologies, Eesof Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt and Managed Business Solutions (MBS), Westlake Village, CA, Santa Rosa, CA, Santa Clara,...

  6. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  7. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A; Ardill, J; Bax, N; Breen, D J; Caplin, M E; Corrie, P; Davar, J; Davies, A H; Lewington, V; Meyer, T; Newell-Price, J; Poston, G; Reed, N; Rockall, A; Steward, W; Thakker, R V; Toubanakis, C; Valle, J; Verbeke, C; Grossman, A B

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines update previous guidance published in 2005. They have been revised by a group who are members of the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society with endorsement from the clinical committees of the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Society for Endocrinology, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (and its Surgical Specialty Associations), the British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology and others. The authorship represents leaders of the various groups in the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society, but a large amount of work has been carried out by other specialists, many of whom attended a guidelines conference in May 2009. We have attempted to represent this work in the acknowledgements section. Over the past few years, there have been advances in the management of neuroendocrine tumours, which have included clearer characterisation, more specific and therapeutically relevant diagnosis, and improved treatments. However, there remain few randomised trials in the field and the disease is uncommon, hence all evidence must be considered weak in comparison with other more common cancers. PMID:22052063

  8. Role of ADAMTS13 in the management of thrombotic microangiopathies including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil; Rutherford, Cynthia; Matevosyan, Karen; Shen, Yu-Min; Sarode, Ravi

    2013-11-01

    The clinical presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) and other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) can often be similar. The role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) in diagnosing TTP is accepted by most researchers but continues to be debated in a few studies. We report the experience of our single-centre academic institution, where ADAMTS13 is used to diagnose TTP and guide plasma exchange (PLEX). Patients presenting to our institution with thrombotic microangiopathy (60 patients) between January 2006 and December 2012 were divided into two groups based on ADAMTS13 activity and clinical history. Patients with ADAMTS13 activity <10% were included in the TTP (n = 30) cohort while patients with activity >11% were classified as 'other microangiopathies' (TMA, n = 30). PLEX was only initiated in patients with a high likelihood of TTP and discontinued when the baseline ADAMTS13 activity was >11%. Patients with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (TTP group) showed significant presenting differences: lower platelet counts, less renal dysfunction, higher presence of neurological abnormalities, and greater haemolysis markers as compared to non-deficient patients (TMA group). Most importantly, patients without severe ADAMTS13 deficiency were safely managed without increased mortality despite receiving no PLEX or discontinuing PLEX after a short course (upon availability of ADAMTS13 results). In conclusion, ADAMTS13 can be used to diagnose TTP and guide appropriate PLEX therapy.

  9. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  10. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 285.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  11. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  12. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  13. 30 CFR 585.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... under § 585.627(d)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (as provided in § 585.614(b)) or GAP...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, or metals; or the use of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass, batteries, or metals; or the use of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and...

  16. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  17. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  18. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  19. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  20. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  1. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application? 611.2 Section 611.2 Education Regulations of the...

  2. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? 170.807 Section 170.807 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.807 What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

  3. Manual ventilation therapy and aggressive potassium supplementation in the management of respiratory failure secondary to severe hypokalaemia in a cat with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Daste, Thomas; Dossin, Olivier; Reynolds, Brice S; Aumann, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was referred for progressive muscle weakness and dyspnoea. The cat had a 2-month history of severe weight loss, small intestinal diarrhoea, polyphagia and polyuria/polydipsia. Biochemical analysis and venous blood gas evaluation revealed severe hypokalaemia [1.7 mmol/l; reference interval (RI): 3.5-5.1 mmol/l] and hypoventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide = 68 mmHg; RI: 34-38 mmHg). Aggressive potassium supplementation was initiated. The cat was manually ventilated until serum potassium increased to 3 mmol/l. A diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) was made based on clinical signs and serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (0.1 μg/l; RI: 12-82 μg/l). Medical management of the EPI resulted in clinical recovery.

  4. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  5. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? (a) At a minimum, an IRR TFMMS system must include components for: (1) Uniformly...

  6. 25 CFR 170.807 - What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must BIA include when it develops an IRR... What must BIA include when it develops an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? (a) At a minimum, an IRR TFMMS system must include components for: (1) Uniformly...

  7. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. This Part 2 includes chapters on implementation guidance for operational configuration management, implementation guidance for design reconstitution, and implementation guidance for material condition and aging management. Appendices are included on design control, examples of design information, conduct of walkdowns, and content of design information summaries.

  8. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... components of solid waste from the health care waste stream in order to reduce the amount of toxic emissions... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What must my waste management plan... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on...

  10. Empathic deficits and alexithymia in trauma-related impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Teten, Andra L; Miller, Lisa A; Bailey, Sara D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Kent, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Our long term interest is to develop a developmental model of impulsive aggression based on a confluence of social, psychological and biological features. This approach incorporates neurobiological research, which has identified language processing deficits as a unique characteristic of impulsive aggressors and extends it to include emotional deficits. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we examined whether empathy and alexithymia were associated with impulsive aggression. Regressions were performed to explore the associations among impaired empathy, alexithymia, impulsive aggression, verbal and physical general aggression. Among impulsive aggressive veterans (n=38) recruited from a VA trauma clinic, alexithymia predicted impulsive aggression and empathic deficits predicted verbal aggression. Neither emotional awareness deficit predicted general physical aggression in this middle-aged sample. Results suggested that empathic deficits were associated with general verbal aggression, but alexithymia was uniquely associated with impulsive aggression. Consideration of alexithymia in impulsive aggression has implications for its etiology, prevention and treatment.

  11. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  12. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  13. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  14. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  15. Use of deslorelin acetate implants to control aggression in a multi-male group of Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis).

    PubMed

    Raines, Janis A; Fried, John J

    2016-05-01

    Aggression among male animals can be difficult to manage in captive populations, and several strategies including separation, castration, and behavioral modification have been used with varying degrees of success. Many aggression issues are normal sequela from hormonal fluctuations occurring when an animal reaches sexual maturity or during the breeding season, and multi-male groups can be especially problematic as the individuals vie for dominance. In this case, aggression in an all-male group of Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) has been managed successfully with serial deslorelin implantation for the past 5 years. Zoo Biol. 35:201-204, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Small Business Management Volume IV: Final Report. An Adult Education Program. Development, Demonstration and Evaluation of Management Education Programs for Small Business Entrepreneurs, Including Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; Swanson, Gordon I.

    The purpose of the small business management program is to help families improve the effectiveness of their business operation and enable them to reach family and business goals. Similar to a successful program in farm management education operational in Minnesota since 1952, the program includes classroom instruction, small group instruction,…

  17. Shuttle avionics and the goal language including the impact of error detection and redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    The relationship is examined between the space shuttle onboard avionics and the ground test computer language GOAL when used in the onboard computers. The study is aimed at providing system analysis support to the feasibility analysis of a GOAL to HAL translator, where HAL is the language used to program the onboard computers for flight. The subject is dealt with in three aspects. First, the system configuration at checkout, the general checkout and launch sequences, and the inventory of subsystems are described. Secondly, the hierarchic organization of onboard software and different ways of introducing GOAL-derived software onboard are described. Also the flow of commands and test data during checkout is diagrammed. Finally, possible impact of error detection and redundancy management on the GOAL language is discussed.

  18. Towards improved management of tropical invertebrate fisheries: including time series and gender.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests.

  19. Towards Improved Management of Tropical Invertebrate Fisheries: Including Time Series and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Håkansson, Elin; Carlsson, Anna; Magnusson, Madeleine; Jiddawi, Narriman S.

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate harvesting is an important livelihood in tropical settings providing income and food for numerous populations throughout the world. However, the lack of research, policy and management directed towards this livelihood hinders the analysis of time trends to evaluate invertebrate resources status. Another missing aspect is the consideration of gender analysis, i.e., the different roles and interests of men and women engaged in this activity. Based on interviews, catch assessments and inventories this multi-disciplinary study from Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar, Tanzania) shows how unregulated harvesting of invertebrates may result in sharp declines in animal abundance over a relatively short period of time (2005 to 2010), threatening the sustainability of the fishery. Specifically, the results show that catches in general, and prime target species of gastropods and bivalves in particular, had been significantly reduced in number and size. Interviews revealed gender disparities; female harvesters experienced less access to good fishing/collecting grounds and species of high value, which subsequently resulted in lower individual income. This is tightly linked to women's reproductive roles, which not only leads to limited mobility but also lessen their chances to accumulate livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social and human capital) thus impacting livelihood strategies. To protect invertebrate resources from overexploitation, and assure a constant flow of income and food for future generations, this case study illustrates the need for formal monitoring to assess changes in invertebrate resources, and possible ecological consequences, over time. Managers and policy-makers must also address gender to evaluate the contribution of all resource users, their capacity to cope with changing conditions, as well as specific interests. PMID:24614075

  20. MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS IN A GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) WITH MULTIMODAL THERAPY INCLUDING AMANTADINE SULPHATE.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nimal; Wu, Elke; Kou, Cissy; Martelli, Paolo; Khong, Lee Foo; Larson, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    In 2002 a 23-yr-old female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) presented with left hind limb lameness presumably due to osteoarthritis. For the next five years, arthritic episodes were managed with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen at 2 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d., then reduced to 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. and withdrawn. Radiographs revealed osteoarthritis in various joints and lumbar spondylosis. In 2007 glucosamine and chondroitin at 1.65 g p.o. b.i.d. and a polyunsaturated fatty acid at 1 capsule p.o. s.i.d. By 2008, arthritic episodes were becoming more difficult to successfully manage and higher doses and longer durations of treatment with carprofen were needed (2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and by August 2009 episodic treatment was no longer successful so the carprofen was continued indefinitely at 1 mg/kg p.o. s.i.d. In November 2009 carprofen was increased to 2 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. An NMDA antagonist amantadine sulphate was trialed and after 10 days at 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. the clinical signs resolved. Since then it has been maintained on carprofen at 1 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d., amantadine sulphate 200 mg p.o. s.i.d. and the neutraceuticals as above with no further relapses of arthritic pain.

  1. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What should I include in my waste... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What should I include in my waste... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as paper, cardboard, plastics, glass... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What should I include in my waste... Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model Rule-Waste...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November 30, 1999 or for Which Modification or Reconstruction Is Commenced on or After June 1, 2001 Waste... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What should I include in my...

  5. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse.

  6. Management of lacerated and swollen tongue after convulsive seizure with a mouth protector: interprofessional collaboration including dentists in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Reiko; Soga, Yoshihiko; Moriya, Yoshie; Okui, Akemi; Takeuchi, Tetsuo; Sato, Kenji; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    We encountered a 74-year-old male patient with tongue laceration after convulsive seizures under intensive care. The tongue showed severe swelling, and the right ventral surface had been lacerated by his isolated and pointed right lower canine. Our university hospital has established a perioperative management center, and is promoting interprofessional collaboration, including dentists, in perioperative management. Dentists collaborating in the perioperative management center took dental impressions, with the support of anesthesiologists who opened the patient's jaw under propofol sedation, to produce a mouth protector. By raising the patient's bite, the completed mouth protector prevented the isolated tooth from contacting the tongue and protected the lacerated wound. Use of the mouth protector prevented the lacerated tongue from coming into contact with the pointed tooth, and the tongue healed gradually. These findings underscore that interprofessional collaboration including dentists can improve the quality of medical care.

  7. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  8. Remote monitoring as a key innovation in the management of cardiac patients including those with implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This Introduction to the Supplement provides a brief history of remote monitoring, discusses its current status, and indicates the bright future that it possesses with a broad application in many branches of cardiology, at least including arrhythmias, heart failure, and ischaemic heart disease in addition to the management of implantable electronic devices.

  9. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  10. A Positive Behavioral Approach for Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    PubMed

    Tolisano, Peter; Sondik, Tracey M; Dike, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Aggression toward self and others by complex patients admitted to forensic psychiatric settings is a relatively common yet extremely difficult behavior to treat. Traditional interventions in forensic inpatient settings have historically emphasized control and management over treatment. Research over the past several years has demonstrated the value of behavioral and psychosocial treatment interventions to reduce aggression and to increase prosocial skill development in inpatient forensic population. Positive behavioral support (PBS) offers a comprehensive approach that incorporates the science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in support of patients with challenging behaviors, including aggression and violence. In this article, we describe a PBS model to treat aggression in forensic settings. PBS includes a comprehensive functional assessment, along with four basic elements: ecological strategies, positive programming, focused support strategies, and reactive strategies. Other key components are described, including data collection, staff training, fidelity checks to ensure correct implementation of the plan, and ongoing monitoring and revision of PBS strategies, according to treatment outcomes. Finally, a behavioral consultation team approach within the inpatient forensic setting is recommended, led by an assigned doctoral-level psychologist with specialized knowledge and training in behavioral methods. The behavioral consultation team works directly with the unit treatment team and the identified patient to develop, implement, and track a plan that may extend over several weeks to several months including transition into the community. PBS can offer a positive systemic impact in forensic inpatient settings, such as providing a nonpharmacologic means to address aggression, reducing the incidences of restraint and seclusion, enhancing staff proficiency in managing challenging patient presentations, and reducing recidivism when used as part of the bridge to

  11. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  12. [The OPTIMISE study (Optimal Type 2 Diabetes Management Including Benchmarking and Standard Treatment]. Results for Luxembourg].

    PubMed

    Michel, G

    2012-01-01

    The OPTIMISE study (NCT00681850) has been run in six European countries, including Luxembourg, to prospectively assess the effect of benchmarking on the quality of primary care in patients with type 2 diabetes, using major modifiable vascular risk factors as critical quality indicators. Primary care centers treating type 2 diabetic patients were randomized to give standard care (control group) or standard care with feedback benchmarked against other centers in each country (benchmarking group). Primary endpoint was percentage of patients in the benchmarking group achieving pre-set targets of the critical quality indicators: glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol after 12 months follow-up. In Luxembourg, in the benchmarking group, more patients achieved target for SBP (40.2% vs. 20%) and for LDL-cholesterol (50.4% vs. 44.2%). 12.9% of patients in the benchmarking group met all three targets compared with patients in the control group (8.3%). In this randomized, controlled study, benchmarking was shown to be an effective tool for improving critical quality indicator targets, which are the principal modifiable vascular risk factors in diabetes type 2.

  13. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  14. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed.

  15. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  16. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  17. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  18. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  19. Differences in cortisol response affect the distinction of observed reactive and proactive aggression in children with aggressive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J

    2008-01-01

    Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations.

  20. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  1. Shift, Interrupted: Strategies for Managing Difficult Patients Including Those with Personality Disorders and Somatic Symptoms in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Moukaddam, Nidal; AufderHeide, Erin; Flores, Araceli; Tucci, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Difficult patients are often those who present with a mix of physical and psychiatric symptoms, and seem refractory to usual treatments or reassurance. such patients can include those with personality disorders, those with somatization symptoms; they can come across as entitled, drug-seeking, manipulative, or simply draining to the provider. Such patients are often frequent visitors to Emergency Departments. Other reasons for difficult encounters could be rooted in provider bias or countertransference, rather than sole patient factors. Emergency providers need to have high awareness of these possibilities, and be prepared to manage such situations, otherwise workup can be sub-standard and dangerous medical mistakes can be made.

  2. An Investigation of Turkish Preservice Teachers' Aggression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…

  3. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  4. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  5. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  6. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  7. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  8. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  9. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  10. Impulsive versus premeditated aggression in the prediction of violent criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M; Conner, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined (a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and (b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders.

  11. Impulsive versus Premeditated Aggression in the Prediction of Violent Criminal Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Christie, Michael; Priddy, Brittany M.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Past aggression is a potent predictor of future aggression and informs the prediction of violent criminal recidivism. However, aggression is a heterogeneous construct and different types of aggression may confer different levels of risk for future violence. In this prospective study of 91 adults in a pretrial diversion program, we examined a) premeditated versus impulsive aggression in the prediction of violent recidivism during a one-year follow-up period, and b) whether either type of aggression would have incremental validity in the prediction of violent recidivism after taking into account frequency of past general aggression. Findings indicate that premeditated, but not impulsive, aggression predicts violent recidivism. Moreover, premeditated aggression remained a predictor of recidivism even with general aggression frequency in the model. Results provide preliminary evidence that the assessment of premeditated aggression provides relevant information for the management of violent offenders. PMID:25043811

  12. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  13. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  14. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.

  15. Association of Aggression and Non-Suicidal Self Injury: A School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Ma, Ying; Guo, Yong; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Yu, Yizhen; Wang, Jiaji

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. Methods This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants’ emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. Results The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in ‘minor NSSI’, 11.9% in ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of ‘minor NSSI’ and ‘moderate/severe NSSI’ in those who had poor emotional management ability. Conclusion These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24205132

  16. Brief mindfulness induction could reduce aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Yusainy, Cleoputri; Lawrence, Claire

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments have shown that one's ability to refrain from acting on aggressive impulses is likely to decrease following a prior act of self-control. This temporary state of self-control failure is known as ego-depletion. Although mindfulness is increasingly used to treat and manage aggressive behaviour, the extent to which mindfulness may counteract the depletion effect on aggression is yet to be determined. This study (N=110) investigated the effect of a laboratory induced one-time mindfulness meditation session on aggression following depletion. Aggression was assessed by the intensity of aversive noise blast participants delivered to an opponent on a computerised task. Depleted participants who received mindfulness induction behaved less aggressively than depleted participants with no mindfulness induction. Mindfulness also improved performance on a second measure of self-control (i.e., handgrip perseverance); however, this effect was independent of depletion condition. Motivational factors may help explain the dynamics of mindfulness, self-control, and aggression.

  17. Predicting change in children's aggression and victimization using classroom-level descriptive norms of aggression and pro-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Sterett H; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; DeRosier, Melissa E

    2009-08-01

    This study examined aggressive and pro-social classroom descriptive norms as predictors of change in aggression and victimization during middle childhood. Participants included 948 children in third through fifth grade. Measures of teacher-reported aggressive and peer-reported pro-social descriptive norms were completed at the onset of the study. Children completed self-report measures of aggression and victimization on three occasions during one academic year. Multilevel growth models were analyzed to determine the amount of student-reported change in aggression and victimization attributable to the classroom norm variables. Results indicated that students in classrooms with higher initial mean levels of aggression reported larger increases in aggression and victimization over the school year. In contrast, boys with higher initial levels of aggression reported smaller increases in aggression than boys with lower initial levels of aggression, and both boys and girls with higher initial aggression reported declining victimization over the school year. Pro-social classroom norms were unrelated to change in aggression and victimization. The implications of the findings for future studies on the influence of classroom social norms as well as interventions for aggression and victimization are discussed.

  18. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J.; Pauley, Christopher R.; Stulberg, Jennifer R.; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Background In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13–15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Results Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player’s social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players’ need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. Conclusion This study provides a better understanding of the players’ motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules. PMID:27258426

  19. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  20. An Exploration of Costs of Community-Based Specialist Health Service Provision for the Management of Aggressive Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro; Deb, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the UK, people with intellectual disabilities who exhibit aggressive behaviour often receive community-based specialist health services from a community learning disability team (CLDT). Our aim was to estimate costs associated with this provision and to identify predictors of higher costs. Method: Costs were estimated for 60 adults…

  1. An Aboriginal-driven program to prevent, control and manage nutrition-related "lifestyle" diseases including diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Michael; Bridge, Ernie; Martin, David; Jones, Timothy; Spargo, Randolph M; Shephard, Mark; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related so-called "lifestyle" diseases, including obesity, and cardiovascular and chronic renal disease, are very prevalent in Australian Aboriginal people and contribute to their high rates of chronic illness and premature mortality. An Aboriginal-driven, community-based health protection, health promotion and improved disease detection, management and care program was introduced in four remote, discrete communities in the far north of Western Australia (WA) in order to attempt to prevent these disorders through community-based lifestyle modification. More energetic screening for early risk factors is involved as well as early dietary and exercise interventions and medical treatment, when indicated. Distinctive features of this program include its Aboriginal initiatives and perspectives, committed partnerships between the communities, the Unity of First People of Australia of Australia (UFPA) and its carers, the communities' health care providers, external clinical specialists, other external agencies and a locally-operated point-of-care (POC) pathology testing capability that is conducted by local and UFPA personnel. The POC component is quality managed by Flinders University. These features have ensured the viability of the program in three of the communities; the other one decided not to continue with the program despite risks of serious long-term health consequences. The pre-program prevalence of diabetes in screened adults was almost 40% and in adults aged (35 years was almost 60%. After several months of the program's operation, there have been positive changes in knowledge about food, nutrition, exercise and disease and altered attitudes and behaviours related to dietary and exercise patterns. There have also been improvements in weight control and in pathology test results relevant to the risk of subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  3. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression.

  4. Drugs and aggression readily mix; so what now?

    PubMed

    Pihl, Robert O; Sutton, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Intoxicated aggression is both a dangerous and a costly problem for society, with alcohol being involved in over 50% of violent crimes, and the cost of alcohol-consumption-related crime being estimated at $205 billion in the United States alone. First, the authors reviewed the substantial evidence for the connection between alcohol consumption and aggression, and then they examined the risk factors for this problem. These included societal/cultural factors, such as availability and alcohol expectancies, and individual factors, such as demographic characteristics, personality, comorbid disorders, individual differences in response to alcohol, and cognitive functioning. Finally, interventions were suggested focusing on policy, alcohol sellers, treatments for alcohol abuse and dependency, anger management, pharmacology, and low executive functioning. Further efforts are still needed to target interventions to specific risk factors.

  5. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  6. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  7. A randomized, controlled trial of disease management modules, including telepsychiatric care, for depression in rural primary care.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Donald M; Marks, Shayna; Wegelin, Jacob; Callahan, Edward J; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2007-02-01

    Introduction. Disease management modules (DMM), including education, tracking, support, and medical care, have improved health for patients with asthma and diabetes. For rural patients, novel ways of delivery are needed to access clinical expertise from urban or academic specialists. Telemedicine (telephone and televideo) could be instrumental in this process, though no randomized, controlled trials have assessed their effectiveness.Methods. Self-report and structured psychiatric interviews were used to screen potential depressed subjects. Subjects were randomized to: 1) usual care with a DMM using telephone and self-report questionnaires; or 2) a DMM using telephone, questionnaires, and monthly televideo psychiatric consultation emphasizing primary care physician (PCP) skill development. Subjects' depressive symptoms, health status, and satisfaction with care were tabulated at three, six, and 12 months after study entry.Results. There was significant clinical improvement for depression in both groups, with a trend toward significance in the more intensive module. Satisfaction and retention was superior in the more intensive group. There was no overall change in health functioning in either group.Conclusions. Intensive modules using telepsychiatric educational interventions toward PCPs may be superior, but the most critical ingredient may be administrative tracking of patients, prompted intervention by PCPs, and (when necessary) new ideas by a specialist.

  8. Impact of a Malaria-Control Project in Benin That Included the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M.; Deming, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on early-childhood mortality, we evaluated a malaria-control project in Benin that implemented IMCI and promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods. We conducted a before-and-after intervention study that included a nonrandomized comparison group. We used the preceding birth technique to measure early-childhood mortality (risk of dying before age 30 months), and we used health facility surveys and household surveys to measure process indicators. Results. Most process indicators improved in the area covered by the intervention. Notably, because ITNs were also promoted in the comparison area children's ITN use increased by about 20 percentage points in both areas. Regarding early-childhood mortality, the trend from baseline (1999–2001) to follow-up (2002–2004) for the intervention area (13.0% decrease; P < .001) was 14.1% (P < .001) lower than was the trend for the comparison area (1.3% increase; P = .46). Conclusions. Mortality decreased in the intervention area after IMCI and ITN promotion. ITN use increased similarly in both study areas, so the mortality impact of ITNs in the 2 areas might have canceled each other out. Thus, the mortality reduction could have been primarily attributable to IMCI's effect on health care quality and care-seeking. PMID:21566036

  9. Registration of aggressive incidents in an adolescent forensic psychiatric unit and implications for further practice.

    PubMed

    Tremmery, S; Danckaerts, M; Bruckers, L; Molenberghs, G; De Hert, M; Wampers, M; De Varé, J; de Decker, A

    2014-09-01

    Although aggression is part of daily life in psychiatric units for adolescents, empirical data on its prevalence are sparse. Only few studies have described prevalence of aggressive incidents in adolescent psychiatric wards, and data in forensic psychiatric care are even more limited. Available studies reported high prevalence rates of aggression, ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 incidents of aggression per day across (forensic) child and adolescent psychiatric units. Between 27 and 78 % of all admitted youth committed an aggressive act. In this study, we collected systematically registered data of all aggressive incidents from the first 2 years (2010-2012) on a newly established forensic adolescent psychiatric unit, which used a formal aggression management program embedded in the social competence model, which is based on early intervention in the 'chain of behavior' to prevent any further escalation. The inclusion of also minor aggressive incidents is unique in the literature and the clinical relevance is highlighted. A mean of one incident a day took place, with each adolescent involved in at least one incident. Notably, 1.7 aggressive incidents per month made seclusion of restraint use necessary. Based on the social competence theory, the aggression management model suggests intervening early in the cascade of aggression, in order to prevent further escalation and reduce the need for intrusive interventions. Evidence supported that aggression is a contextual event, as external factors clearly influence the incidence of aggression. Aggression management should be built on both relational and structural security.

  10. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group.

  11. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  12. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy Management, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 76 FR 65718 - Tenaska Power Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tenaska Power Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Tenaska Power Management, LLC's application for market-based...

  14. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  15. [Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schuwey-Hayoz, Aline; Needham, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland Patient aggression in psychiatry is a prominent problem for all concerned. In this prospective survey we registered and analysed all violent incidents of patients in a cantonal psychiatric hospital in Switzerland in order to determine the characteristics of aggression. The Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) was utilised. During the study period 815 patients were admitted to the hospital. 71 (63.4%) of the 110 violent incidents were perpetrated by male patients. The majority of aggressive incidents were perpetrated in the vicinity of the rooms of the patients and were triggered mainly by the refusal to adhere to the demands of the patient or by patients' use of toxic substances. The most frequent type of aggression was of a verbally aggressive nature and the principal target was nursing personnel who felt threatened in most of the cases. In order to terminate the aggression the most predominant measure was communication with the patient and coercive measures. This study demonstrates clearly that aggression concerns psychiatric nursing personnel and points to the recommendation to reinforce measures of security and to predictive measures to ameliorate the management of aggression.

  16. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  17. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  18. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

  19. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  20. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  1. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression.

  2. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  3. A case of aggressive solid pseudopapillary neoplasm: Comparison of clinical and pathologic features with non-aggressive cases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Kojun; Okada, Katsuya; Aikawa, Masayasu; Koyama, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) may have an aggressive clinical course, but clinical predictors of this condition have not been thoroughly evaluated. We performed a retrospective study of 11 cases of SPN managed in our hospital between January 2007 and April 2015. Of these 11 cases, we encountered a single case with an aggressive clinical course. Histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical features were compared to identify predictors of poor prognosis. The 11 patients comprised four women and seven men with a median age of 41 years (range, 26-58 years). Clinical symptoms were nonspecific and the median tumor size was 4.6 cm (range, 1.4-18 cm). The patient with an aggressive clinical course developed multiple liver metastases within three months and died seven months after surgery. Pathological features of the tumor in this case included lymph node metastases, a diffuse growth pattern, extensive tumor necrosis, high mitotic rate, and immunohistochemistry. These features were not observed in patients who survived without recurrence at a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 6-82 months). Characteristic pathological features and a high proliferative index, as assessed by Ki-67 staining, may predict poor outcome in cases of SPN.

  4. Iranian nurses' experiences of aggression in psychiatric wards: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Malek Fereidooni; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi

    2013-10-01

    Aggression from psychiatric patients is a constant problem for care providers that causes major problems in the therapeutic environment, and may have negative effects on the quality of care. Since recognition of aggression with regard to cultural background leads to better control of aggression in the psychiatric wards, this study has been done to clarify Iranian nurses' experiences of aggression in psychiatric wards. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted to explore experiences of nurses. Data analysis revealed four themes: (1) Damage resulting from aggression, (2) Aggression catalysts, (3) Contagious nature of aggression, and (4) Various control strategies. There are various causes for in-patients' aggression, and nurses use various approaches to control it. These approaches are influenced by personnel, facilities, and ward environment. Identifying these factors and strategies can contribute to better management of aggression and, thus, better quality of care in psychiatric wards.

  5. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  6. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  7. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  8. Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Priday, Lee J.; Ireland, Carol A.; Chu, Simon; Kilcoyne, Jennifer; Mulligan, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk. Aims To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management - 20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)). Method Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus was on aggression in hospital. Results The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4 years) and was specific to certain types of aggression. Conclusions The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting is considered. Declaration of interest J.L.I., C.A.M. and J.K. are employed by the trust where the data were collected. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703760

  9. Well-being at workplace through mindfulness: Influence of Yoga practice on positive affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Umesh; Kumari, Sony; Akhilesh, K. B.; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mindfulness is about being aware of internal and external stimuli by witnessing the act in a nonjudgmental manner. Earlier researches suggest that positive affectivity (PA) is negatively related to negative affectivity, aggression, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Aim: The present study examined the effect of mindfulness developed through Yoga practices on aggression and PA among working professionals involved in CWB. Materials and Methods: A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled design was used with a study sample of Yoga group (n = 80) and control group (n = 80) for a duration of 10 weeks. Yoga module that included Asanas, Pranayama, meditation, and Yogic theories were taught to the Yoga group. Mild to moderate physical exercises and management theories were taught to the control group. Measurements of aggression and PA scores were taken at the baseline and postintervention for assessment. Results: At the baseline, there was no significant difference in the variable scores between both the groups. Postintervention results revealed that Yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in aggression and significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in PA in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: When compared with the control group at the end of the intervention, the Yoga group scores were significantly lower for aggression and higher for PA. PMID:27833364

  10. Roles of outcome expectations and self-efficacy in preschoolers' aggression.

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, M; Yuzawa, M

    2001-06-01

    The present study examined preschool boys' beliefs for the outcome of aggression and their perceptions of self-efficacy for aggressive behaviors. 23 preschoolers (mean age 6.3 yr.; 12 aggressive boys and 11 nonaggressive boys) were presented stories about provocative situations and asked about three expectations for aggression: positive outcomes, peer rejection, and morality. Another 18 preschoolers (mean age 6.3 yr.; 9 aggressive boys and 9 nonaggressive boys) rated their self-efficacy for four strategies: aggression, verbal persuasion, seeking help from a teacher, and withdrawal. Aggressive preschoolers did not expect a negative outcome in the form of peer-rejection in response to aggression as much as nonaggressive boys, although the groups did not differ in their expectations of positive outcomes and morality. Also, aggressive preschoolers were more confident about aggression in situations including teasing or criticism but less confident about verbal persuasion than nonaggressive preschoolers.

  11. Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…

  12. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Design Specifications Document Including Specifications for Product and Course Design System Management and Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The design specifications for the United States Naval Academy leadership course developed by Westinghouse Learning Corporation are presented in this report, covering course system design, management, and evaluation. EM 010 418 through EM 010 447 and EM 010 451 through EM 010 512 are related documents, with the final report appearing under EM 010…

  13. Experts' Recommendations for Treating Maladaptive Aggression in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Correll, Christoph U.; Findling, Robert L.; Lucas, Judith; Crystal, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment for children and adolescents with clinically significant aggression is common and often involves the use of antipsychotic medications. Increasingly, pediatricians are initiating or managing such treatments despite limited evidence on optimal diagnostic, psychosocial, and medication approaches for pediatric aggression. Aims The objective of this study was to gather clinicians' and researchers' expertise concerning the treatment of maladaptive aggression, using expert consensus survey methods to aid the development of guidelines for pediatricians and psychiatrists on the outpatient treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth (T-MAY). Methods Forty-six experts (psychiatrists, pediatricians, and researchers) with >10 years of clinical and/or research experience in the treatment of pediatric aggression completed a 27-item survey (>400 treatment alternatives) about optimal diagnostic, psychosocial, and medication treatments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. Results Expert consensus methodology clearly differentiated optimal versus nonoptimal treatment strategies for maladaptive aggression. In contrast to current practice trends, results indicated that experts support the use of psychosocial interventions and parent education and training before the use of medication for maladaptive aggression at every stage of medication treatment, from diagnosis to maintenance to medication discontinuation. Conclusion Overall findings indicate that evidence-informed strategies for outpatient treatment of pediatric maladaptive aggression, guided by systematically derived expert opinions, are attainable. In light of the gap between the research literature and clinical practice, expert consensus opinion supports specific practices for optimal outpatient management in children and adolescents with severe and persistent behavioral difficulties. PMID:22196314

  14. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

  15. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  16. Moderating effects of family environment on the association between children’s aggressive beliefs and their aggression trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ANDREAS, JASMINA BURDZOVIC; WATSON, MALCOLM W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how children’s aggressive beliefs and their family environments combine to influence the development of child aggression from middle childhood into adolescence. We utilized a “variable-centered” empirical approach, specifically examining whether children’s aggressive beliefs represent a risk factor for their aggressive behaviors and whether this risk can be moderated by children’s family environment. These questions were tested with individual growth modeling, using the data from a community-representative sample of 440 mother–child dyads, interviewed four times over a 6-year study period. The accelerated longitudinal design of the study enabled examination of children’s aggression trajectories from age 7 to age 19. The results supported the hypothesis that elevated aggressive beliefs in children represent a risk factor for aggression, as higher aggressive beliefs were associated with greater aggression at the youngest age, as well as with increased aggression over time. However, as hypothesized, family environment moderated this association, such that changes in children’s aggression over time were contingent upon the interaction of their aggressive beliefs with family environment. Specifically, aggression was reduced in children with high aggressive beliefs if they experienced better than average family environment, which included less family conflict and more family cohesion. PMID:19144230

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  18. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up.

  19. 75 FR 20390 - Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch Management Services North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Robert Bosch LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Bosch... February 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Robert Bosch ] LLC, including on-site leased workers of Bosch... certification of eligibility to apply for adjustment assistance was issued for all workers of Robert Bosch...

  20. Morbidly obese parturient: Challenges for the anaesthesiologist, including managing the difficult airway in obstetrics. What is new?

    PubMed

    Rao, Durga Prasada; Rao, Venkateswara A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the fundamental aspects of obesity, pregnancy and a combination of both. The scientific aim is to understand the physiological changes, pathological clinical presentations and application of technical skills and pharmacological knowledge on this unique clinical condition. The goal of this presentation is to define the difficult airway, highlight the main reasons for difficult or failed intubation and propose a practical approach to management Throughout the review, an important component is the necessity for team work between the anaesthesiologist and the obstetrician. Certain protocols are recommended to meet the anaesthetic challenges and finally concluding with "what is new?" in obstetric anaesthesia.

  1. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts.

  2. Analyses of extreme precipitation and runoff events including uncertainties and reliability in design and management of urban water infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for assessment of uncertainties and hence effects on reliability of design and management of stormwater pipes due to the prevalence of urban floods trigged by modification of land cover and high precipitation intensities respectively due to increasing urbanization and changing climate. Observed annual maximum series (AMS) of extreme precipitation intensities of 17 durations (1-min to 1440-min) and runoff records of 27 years from a 21.255 ha (23% impervious, 35% built-up and 41% open areas) Risvollan catchment in Trondheim City were used. Using a balanced bootstrap resampling (BBRS) with frequency analysis, we quantified considerable uncertainty in precipitation and runoff quantiles due to the sampling variability of systematic observations (e.g., -43% to +49% relative differences from the quantile estimates for the original sample). These differences are higher than suggested increase in design rainfall and floods by many countries for climate change adjustment. The uncertainties in IDF curves and derived design storm hyetographs are found to have large effects on the reliability of sizing of stormwater pipes. The study also indicated low validity of the assumptions on extreme precipitation and runoff relationships in the return period-based method for the partially paved urban catchment: (i) maximum of only 46% of the AMS of extreme precipitation and runoff events occurred concurrently and (ii) T-year return period extreme precipitation events do not necessarily result in T-year flood events. These indicate that there are effects of snowmelt seasonality, and probably catchment moisture states and interactions between the flows in subsurface media and pipes. The results substantiate the need for better understanding of relationships between precipitation and runoff extremes and urban runoff generation process, and importance of uncertainty assessment and application of reliability-based methods for design and management of water infrastructure.

  3. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy☆

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  4. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  5. Tickling, Punching, and Poking: Mock Aggressive Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Green, Shavonda

    Several hypotheses have been generated about the functions of mock aggression, including its association with dominance. This paper describes a study that expanded this line of research by interviewing college students about a broad array of mock aggressive behaviors and their contexts, targets, benefits, and functions. The hypotheses were that:…

  6. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  7. Preclinical Testing of a New MR Imaging Approach to Distinguish Aggressive from Indolent Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    aggressiveness including histologic analysis, Ki-67 proliferative assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, LDH-A expression, cellularity, and micro...assay determinations of cancer aggressiveness including histologic analysis, Ki-67 proliferative assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, LDH-A...distinguish aggressive prostate cancers from indolent disease based on up- regulated lactate - dehydrogenase (LDH) conversion of HP-pyruvate to lactate and

  8. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  9. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors.

  10. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  11. Aggression Reduction Strategies: Effective and Ineffective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests several intervention qualities (punishment, catharsis, and cohabitation) characteristic of approaches that do and do not yield violence-reducing outcomes. Proposes more effective perspectives on youth violence intervention including complexity, prescriptiveness, situationality, and aggression-as-learned behavior. (Author/JDM)

  12. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  13. Interplay between Friends' Aggression and Friendship Quality in the Development of Child Aggression during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Lacourse, Eric; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the unique and combined role of friendship quality and friends' aggression in regard to the persistence of young children's physical aggression from kindergarten to grade 2. The sample included 1555 children (808 girls) assessed annually using teacher ratings. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., the social…

  14. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Besag, Frank; Ettinger, Alan B.; Mula, Marco; Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.

    2016-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment. We review the common neurotransmitter systems and brain regions implicated in both epilepsy and aggression, including the GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline systems and the hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and temporal lobes. Few controlled clinical studies have used behavioral measures to specifically examine aggression with AEDs, and most evidence comes from adverse event reporting from clinical and observational studies. A systematic approach was used to identify relevant publications, and we present a comprehensive, evidence-based summary of available data surrounding aggression-related behaviors with each of the currently available AEDs in both adults and in children/adolescents with epilepsy. A psychiatric history and history of a propensity toward aggression/anger should routinely be sought from patients, family members, and carers; its presence does not preclude the use of any specific AEDs, but those most likely to be implicated in these behaviors should be used with caution in such cases. PMID:27255267

  15. When Play Presents Problems--Resources for Managing Common Play Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Susan; Klugman, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    Discusses negative aspects of young children's free play, including aggression, sharing, violent themes, and the exclusion of children with disabilities. Offers resources to early childhood educators for managing these concerns. (JPB)

  16. Gene expression profiles of metabolic aggressiveness and tumor recurrence in benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Morales, José Manuel; Mata, Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, José; San Miguel, Teresa; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors.

  17. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  18. Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability With Dystonia Managed Using Chemodenervation Including Alcohol Neurolysis and Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sun; Oh, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) is a rare complication of brain injury. Symptoms of PAID include diaphoresis, hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, and tachypnea accompanied by hypertonic movement. Herein, we present the case of a 44-year-old female patient, who was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalopathy caused by thyroid papillary cancer. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of PAID. On the basis that the symptoms were unresponsive to antispastic medication and her liver function test was elevated, we performed alcohol neurolysis of the musculocutaneous nerve followed by botulinum toxin type A (BNT-A) injection into the biceps brachii and brachialis. Unstable vital signs and hypertonia were relieved after chemodenervation. Accordingly, alcohol neurolysis and BNT-A injection are proposed as a treatment option for intractable PAID. PMID:25932429

  19. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  20. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  1. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  2. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  3. Australian Teachers' Views of Their Effectiveness in Behaviour Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    Teachers (N=125) in Brisbane (Queensland, Australia) completing the Teacher Manageability Scale rated themselves as more effective in behavior management than 182 Ohio teachers. Behaviors difficult to manage included lack of communication, task dependency, negative aggressiveness, cognitive confusion, and inattention. Personal efficacy was the…

  4. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  5. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Soroush, Ali; Zakiei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS): components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. Methods: The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012-2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male) were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form), and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and canonical correlation. Results: The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extroversion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender) and aggression. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. Conclusions: According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems for the students

  6. Inter-annual patterns of aggression and pair bonding in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Nathan B; Wey, Tina W; Exnicios, Megan; Benham, Caroline; Hinton, Mitchell G; Lantz, Samantha; Atherton, Carolyn; Forde, Debbie; Karubian, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Because zoos typically house animals for extended periods of time, longitudinal studies can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing animal care and management. For example, information on patterns of aggression and mating behavior across years can be used to monitor well-being, assess response to changes to group composition, and promote successful reproduction. Here, we report on patterns of aggression and pair bonding by American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) at the Audubon Zoo, New Orleans USA across 4 years (2012-2015), a period that included a simultaneous introduction and removal of individuals in 2014. At the population level, overall rates and social network indices of aggressive interactions were relatively stable over the study period, without a strong signal of the 2014 replacement event. At the individual level, flamingos exhibited a high degree of within-individual consistency in levels of aggression initiated (W = 0.530, P < 0.001), and received (W = 0.369, P = 0.042). In terms of pair bonds, females re-paired with the same individuals across years more frequently (between 58% and 100% from year to year) than they switched mates, and no bonds were established between pre-existing and introduced individuals. These findings indicate a high degree of stability in aggression and pair bonding behavior in this population of captive flamingos, at both the population and individual level. Longitudinal studies such as this one provide an opportunity to better our understanding of flamingos and other long-lived, group-living animals along with their management needs, especially in terms of maintaining social cohesion in captivity and improving captive breeding programs.

  7. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  8. Why the Prevention of Aggressive Disruptive Behaviors in Middle School Must Begin in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer-Chase, Marlene; Rhodes, Warren A.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that the course and malleability of maladaptive behaviors are partly rooted in early aggressive behaviors occurring in poorly managed classrooms. Encourages teacher education training programs incorporate classroom management training. Concludes that the nature and severity of aggressive behaviors in middle school depend on effective…

  9. Investigating Teachers' Explanations for Aggressive Classroom Discipline Strategies in China and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip; Lewis, Ramon; Wang, Bingxin

    2012-01-01

    Student misbehaviour can provoke aggressive teacher management (e.g. yelling in anger), adversely effecting students' learning and attitudes toward school. To investigate this phenomenon, data were obtained from 75 Chinese (typically Eastern) and 192 Victorian (typically Western) secondary teachers who self-reported aggressive management. Results:…

  10. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  11. "And Then a Huge, Huge Giant Grabbed Me!" Aggression in Children's Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacigalupa, Chiara; Wright, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Children's stories, like children's play, often contain aggressive elements. This research study identified the themes and ideas that children between the ages of 2 and 6 years old included in 290 dictated stories with aggressive elements. Among the stories that contained aggressive elements, 42% were dictated by girls, and 57% were dictated by…

  12. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  13. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    PubMed Central

    Benditz, Achim; Greimel, Felix; Auer, Patrick; Zeman, Florian; Göttermann, Antje; Grifka, Joachim; Meissner, Winfried; von Kunow, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking. Methods All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS). A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward. Results From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0) on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2). Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0), whereas patient satisfaction significantly increased (mean 9.8, ±0.4; p<0.05). Among 49 anonymized hospitals, our clinic stayed on first rank in terms of lowest maximum pain and patient satisfaction over the period. Conclusion Results were already acceptable at the beginning of benchmarking a standardized pain management concept. But regular benchmarking, implementation of feedback mechanisms, and staff education made the pain management concept even more successful. Multidisciplinary teamwork

  14. Case report: late aggressive meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Stein, M E; Drumea, K; Guilbord, J N; Ben-Itzhak, O; Kuten, A

    1995-10-01

    The clinical, radiological and pathological findings in a 28-year-old female patient who developed aggressive meningioma 20 years after prophylatic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are described here. Only four cases of late atypical/aggressive meningioma following PCI were detected in a thorough search of the literature. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and PCI, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumour, including aggressive meningioma.

  15. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  16. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  18. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone) to the effect of the first (stimulant). We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic). Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years) with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder) accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant) was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual comparison was stimulant

  19. The role of emotions in depression and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Malonda, Elisabeth; Samper, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is a broad and heterogeneous diagnostic grouping, central to which is depressed mood or inability to enjoy most activities. Depressive symptoms are frequently accompanied by conduct problems stemming from anger. It is very important to know the interrelation of these emotions very well to be able to help adolescents to manage them more easily. The main aim of this article is to present the problem of interaction between negative affects (emotional instability, anger state and trait, physical and verbal aggression and depression) analyzing the different relationship through the time in spanish sample. Material and Methods The sample included 470 adolescents (192 boys and 225 girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia (Spain). The mean age was 14.70 in the first wave. Structural equations modelling was employed to explore two longitudinal models. Results The results show differences based on sex, and that an internalised variable, like emotional instability, is relevant to prevent the appearance of depression directly in girls and also the later appearance of aggression as long as anger mediates, in both boys and girls, so the control of anger becomes an important goal to control the rest of the negative affects. Conclusions This results has consequences in the preparation of all programmes that try to establish an emotional control on adolescents, as not only has to be taken into account as a direct goal the control of externalised emotions like anger, but internalised emotions like emotional instability have to be taken into account also. Furthermore, it is also made apparent that not only the punctual explosions and externalisation of anger have to be worked on, but the temperamental aspects which are the base of anger trait have to be worked on too. Key words:Emotional instability, anger, depression, aggression, negative emotions, adolescence. PMID:27545395

  20. Phenotyping of aggressive behavior in golden retriever dogs with a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Schilder, M B H; de Vries, H; Leegwater, P A J; van Oost, B A

    2006-11-01

    Reliable and valid phenotyping is crucial for our study of genetic factors underlying aggression in Golden Retriever dogs. A mail questionnaire based on the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ; Hsu and Serpell, 2003, JAVMA 223(9):1293-1300) was used to assess behavioral phenotypes. Owners of 228 Golden Retrievers completed the questionnaire. These dogs had been referred to our clinic for aggression problems several years earlier or they were related to aggressive dogs. In this paper, three sets of results are presented, which indicate that behavior scores from the CBARQ can be applied to genetic studies. First, factor analysis demonstrated that CBARQ items can be grouped into 10 behavioral traits, including three types of aggression: stranger-directed aggression, owner-directed aggression, and dog-directed aggression. The results were remarkably similar to those reported by Hsu and Serpell. The aggression scores showed considerable variation in our dog families, which is a prerequisite for genetic studies. Second, retrospective questions enabled us to study changes in the aggressive behavior of the dogs in the course of time. After an average time interval of 4.3 years, over 50% of the dogs had become less aggressive. Third, we analyzed data obtained with an aggression test of 83 dogs. Two out of the three CBARQ aggression factors were also found in the aggression test data.

  1. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  2. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  3. Workplace victimization: aggression from the target's perspective.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Karl; Thau, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research on workplace victimization, which we define as acts of aggression perpetrated by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended target. We compare several types of victimizing behaviors that have been introduced into the organizational psychology literature to illustrate differences and similarities among them. We then review studies looking at who is likely to become a victim of aggression. Predictors include personality, demographic, behavioral, structural, and organizational variables. We also review research on coping strategies for victimization, which include problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. We conclude with a summary of challenges for victimization research. These include addressing the proliferation of constructs and terms into the literature, attempting to clarify inconclusive findings, and using theory to guide the selection of study variables.

  4. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  5. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts.

  6. Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Changtae; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidences indicate that Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has a higher risk of developing aggression and violent behavior. A few correlation studies between IAD and aggression have implicated a common biological mechanism. However, neurobiological approaches to IAD and aggression have not yet been studied. Methods: A literature search for studies for Internet addiction disorder or aggression was performed in the PubMed database and we selected articles about neurobiology of IAD or aggression. Results: This review includes (a) common neural substrates such as the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system between aggression and IAD; (b) common neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, opiate and nicotine between aggression and IAD. Conclusions: Through reviewing the relevant literature, we suggested the possibility of common neurobiology between the two psychiatric phenomena and direction of research on aggression in IAD. PMID:25215210

  7. Patterns of aggression among captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber).

    PubMed

    Hinton, Mitchell G; Bendelow, Annie; Lantz, Samantha; Wey, Tina W; Schoen, Lee; Brockett, Robin; Karubian, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many species of flamingo are endangered in the wild but common in zoos, where successful captive breeding programs are a management priority. Unlike their counterparts in the wild, captive flamingo individuals are easy to mark and follow, facilitating longitudinal data collection on social dynamics that may affect reproduction. We studied a captive group of American Flamingos at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA to document patterns of aggression between individuals during the onset of breeding. We used a social network approach to test whether overall aggression would be higher during courtship or following establishment of pair bonds. Aggression was higher following pair bond establishment than during courtship, suggesting that individuals in our study population may compete more intensely for resources such as nesting sites than for mates. We also found that males were more aggressive than females during all stages of the study period and that there was a positive relationship between age and aggression in males during the pair-bond stage. We discuss these findings in light of management practices for captive populations of flamingos and general patterns of aggression in social animals.

  8. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  9. Staff confidence in dealing with aggressive patients: a benchmarking exercise.

    PubMed

    McGowan, S; Wynaden, D; Harding, N; Yassine, A; Parker, J

    1999-09-01

    Interacting with potentially aggressive patients is a common occurrence for nurses working in psychiatric intensive care units. Although the literature highlights the need to educate staff in the prevention and management of aggression, often little, or no, training is provided by employers. This article describes a benchmarking exercise conducted in psychiatric intensive care units at two Western Australian hospitals to assess staff confidence in coping with patient aggression. Results demonstrated that staff in the hospital where regular training was undertaken were significantly more confident in dealing with aggression. Following the completion of a safe physical restraint module at the other hospital staff reported a significant increase in their level of confidence that either matched or bettered the results of their benchmark colleagues.

  10. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  11. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G

    2008-01-01

    Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin

  12. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression.

  13. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  14. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  15. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Landewe, R; Lukas, C; Bolosiu, H D; Breedveld, F; Dougados, M; Emery, P; Ferraccioli, G; Hazes, J M W; Klareskog, L; Machold, K; Martin‐Mola, E; Nielsen, H; Silman, A; Smolen, J; Yazici, H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. Methods In accordance with EULAR's “standardised operating procedures”, the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10 European countries. The group defined the focus of the process, the target population, and formulated an operational definition of “management”. Each participant was invited to propose issues of interest regarding the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis. Fifteen issues for further research were selected by use of a modified Delphi technique. A systematic literature search was carried out. Evidence was categorised according to usual guidelines. A set of draft recommendations was proposed on the basis of the research questions and the results of the literature search.. The strength of the recommendations was based on the category of evidence and expert opinion. Results 15 research questions, covering the entire spectrum of “management of early arthritis”, were formulated for further research; and 284 studies were identified and evaluated. Twelve recommendations for the management of early arthritis were selected and presented with short sentences. The selected statements included recognition of arthritis, referral, diagnosis, prognosis, classification, and treatment of early arthritis (information, education, non‐pharmacological interventions, pharmacological treatments, and monitoring of the disease process). On the basis of expert opinion, 11 items were identified as being important for future research. Conclusions 12 key recommendations for the management of early arthritis or early rheumatoid arthritis were developed, based on evidence in the literature and expert consensus. PMID:16396980

  16. Effects of inhaled Linalool in anxiety, social interaction and aggressive behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Linck, V M; da Silva, A L; Figueiró, M; Caramão, E B; Moreno, P R H; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-07-01

    Aromatherapy uses essential oils (EOs) for several medical purposes, including relaxation. The association between the use of aromas and a decrease in anxiety could be a valuable instrument in managing anxiety in an ever increasing anxiogenic daily life style. Linalool is a monoterpene commonly found as the major volatile component of EOs in several aromatic plant species. Adding to previously reported sedative effects of inhaled linalool, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhaled linalool on anxiety, aggressiveness and social interaction in mice. Additionally, we investigated the effects of inhaled linalool on the acquisition phase of a step-down memory task in mice. Inhaled linalool showed anxiolytic properties in the light/dark test, increased social interaction and decreased aggressive behavior; impaired memory was only seen the higher dose of linalool. These results strengthen the suggestion that inhaling linalool rich essential oils can be useful as a mean to attain relaxation and counteract anxiety.

  17. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  18. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  19. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  20. Organizational risk management and nurses' perceptions of workplace risk associated with sharps including needlestick injuries in nurses in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kable, Ashley K; Guest, Maya; McLeod, Mary

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine nurse reported organizational risk management and nurses' perceptions of workplace risk associated with sharps-related injuries. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a sample of nurses from the New South Wales Nurses' Association, Australia in 2007 (n =7423), and there were 1301 eligible participants. Overall, 73% participants reported that organizational policies were followed in the event of a "sharps including needlestick" injury. Participants reported working in sharps safety oriented organizations, routine hepatitis B vaccination, sharps disposal containers at point-of-use locations and availability of safety engineered devices in their organizations. Sharps including needlestick injury data were not routinely provided to staff, many nurses reported recapping and just one-third had recently attended sharps injury prevention training. Nurses' perceptions of risk associated with sharps including needlestick injury were variable. Health-care organizations are responsible for provision of safe workplaces and work practices, policies, workplace culture and prevention strategies, and appropriate responses when nurses are injured. These results have been used to propose recommendations to improve some of these risk management strategies.

  1. Ability emotional intelligence and its relation to aggression across time and age groups.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Esperanza; Salguero, José M; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been associated with several indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including aggressive behavior, but the relevant research has been mostly cross-sectional, focused on adults, and limited to trait EI measures (García-Sancho, Salguero & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014; Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, ). The present work explored the relationship between Ability Emotional Intelligence (AEI) and aggression in both adults and adolescents using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We conducted two studies. Study 1 aimed to provide preliminary evidence about the relationship between AEI and aggression in adults. As literature has shown personality traits act as a strong predictor of aggression, study 1 also examined the potential incremental validity of AEI beyond personality traits in 474 undergraduate students (M = 22.76, SD = 5.13). The results indicated AEI explains a significant amount of unique variance for physical aggression, but not for verbal aggression after controlling personality traits. Study 2 aimed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between EI and aggression in 151 adolescents (M = 14.74, SD = 0.84). AEI predicted physical aggression over time, but it did not predict verbal aggression. Results from both studies suggest a negative and significant relationship between AEI and physical aggression, however contrary our expectations, it did not for verbal aggression. These results highlight the important explanatory role of emotional abilities in physical aggressive conducts and the implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression. PMID:26635666

  3. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed.

  4. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  5. Ameloblastoma: an aggressive lesion of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Suma, M S; Sundaresh, K J; Shruthy, R; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-10-09

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. Among all types of ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma is believed to be locally aggressive lesion that has the tendency for recurrence. In this report we present a large multicystic ameloblastoma in the left body-ramus region of the mandible in a 55-year-old woman. This large lesion was diagnosed with the help of CT and was successfully managed by hemimandibulectomy with simultaneous reconstruction using iliac crest bone.

  6. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  7. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-07-07

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics.

  8. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  10. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  11. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  12. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  13. Psychotherapeutic approaches to aggressive and violent patients.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J E; Spillmann, M K

    1997-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral strategies and a broad range of group, family, couples, and milieu treatment approaches have been developed for the psychotherapy of aggressive and violent patients. These methods have been carried out in diverse settings ranging from hospitals and prisons to individual outpatient practices and have been applied across diverse populations including adults with mental retardation, dementia, and brain injury; children with attention deficit and conduct disorders and autism; recurrent violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder; and individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, mood disorders, or medical illnesses such as hypertension. Bridging these different strategies are the underlying principles of psychotherapy with aggressive and violent patients. These include ensuring the safety of clinician, patient, and potential victims as the foremost concern; developing a finely detailed assessment of aggressive and violent acts and of the antecedents, assumptions, and consequences that are attached to them; formulating well-defined goals and striving for clear communication to achieve consistency in the pursuit of these goals between therapist and patient, and among therapist and other clinicians, staff, and relevant family members or agencies; specifying ahead of time well-considered outcome measures to be used to gauge the effectiveness of treatment; and maintaining a healthy vigilance for countertransferential and similar reactions and a willingness to use consultation as an integral part of treatment.

  14. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  15. Anger under Control: Neural Correlates of Frustration as a Function of Trait Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression. PMID:24205247

  16. Implications for the prevention of aggressive behavior within psychiatric hospitals drawn from interpersonal communication theory.

    PubMed

    Daffern, Michael; Day, Andrew; Cookson, Amy

    2012-05-01

    Although interpersonal style is a defining feature of personality and personality disorder and is commonly identified as an important influence on aggressive behavior, treatment completion, and the development of an effective therapeutic alliance, it is rarely considered in practice guidelines for preventing, engaging, and managing patients at risk of aggression. In this article, the authors consider three potential applications of interpersonal theory to the care and management of patients at risk of aggression during hospitalization: (a) preventing aggression through theoretically grounded limit setting and de-escalation techniques, (b) developing and using interventions to alter problematic interpersonal styles, and (c) understanding therapeutic ruptures and difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Interpersonal theory is proposed to offer a unifying framework that may assist development of intervention and management strategies that can help to reduce the occurrence of aggression in institutional settings.

  17. Person-Centered Primary Care Strategies for Assessment of and Intervention for Aggressive Behaviors in Dementia.

    PubMed

    Desai, Anand; Wharton, Tracy; Struble, Laura; Blazek, Mary

    2017-02-01

    With an increase in the number of individuals affected by dementia, it is imperative for health care providers to be well versed in the most effective ways to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as aggression. Aggression can be particularly hard to manage because it creates risk of harm for formal and informal caregivers, and options for medical intervention are complex and situation dependent. Although multiple guidelines for management of aggression in dementia are available in the literature, their scope is widespread and suggested treatments often vary, making decision making difficult to navigate for busy clinicians. Using a composite case as a model, the current article provides guidelines that take outpatient providers through the steps needed to provide effective treatment for aggression in individuals with dementia. Shifting the current focal point of health care for aggressive dementia patients toward a more person-centered approach will have a positive impact on patient care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 9-17.].

  18. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  19. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

  20. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  1. Aggression between siblings: Associations with the home environment and peer bullying.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, verbal, stealing and teasing, and combined into composite measures of victimization and perpetration. Regression analysis identified associations with demographic characteristics, family and sibling composition, parent-child relationships and socioeconomic status and explored the link between sibling aggression and involvement in peer bullying. Using a broad definition, sibling aggression was found to be widespread, with 46% of all participants being victimized and 36% perpetrating aggression. Household and family characteristics, including a large family size, male siblings, and financial difficulties were associated with greater rates of sibling aggression. Parenting behavior showed the strongest relationship: harsh parenting increased the risk of sibling aggression while positive parenting protected against it. Sibling aggression was also homotypically related to involvement in peer bullying. Victimization by siblings significantly increased the odds of being a victim of peer bullying, and perpetrators of sibling aggression were more likely to be both peer bullies and bully-victims. Considering the adverse effects of sibling aggression on physical and mental health, the study provides pointers for efforts to reduce the risk of sibling aggression. Furthermore, the link with peer bullying suggests that school anti-bullying efforts should also take account of children's sibling relationships. Aggr. Behav. 41:14-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  3. Aggression and recent substance abuse: absence of association in psychiatric emergency room patients.

    PubMed

    Dhossche, D M

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse has been linked to aggression in community and psychiatric samples. A retrospective chart review in 311 consecutive psychiatric emergency room patients was conducted to assess the association of substance abuse and aggression in an acute psychiatric setting. Various indices of substance abuse, including positive urine toxicology for alcohol, cocaine, and/or cannabis, were not associated with aggressive behavior. Patients with positive toxicology for cocaine were less frequently aggressive than cocaine-negative patients. Among aggressive patients, the presence of psychotic symptoms was the most important factor associated with admission. These findings suggest that aggression is not a common acute manifestation of recent substance abuse in psychiatric emergency room patients. Selection factors in this population and the specifics of an acute psychiatric setting may obscure the association, if any. Acute psychosis seems to have a more important role in this setting. Future studies should focus on the prevention and early treatment of aggression in psychotic emergency room patients.

  4. Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz

    2009-01-01

    With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808

  5. The Factor Structure of the Aggression Questionnaire With Violent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Cathrine; Nunes, Kevin L; Cortoni, Franca

    2017-02-01

    The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) is a self-report measure of aggressiveness commonly employed in nonforensic and forensic settings and is included in violent offender pre- and posttreatment assessment batteries. The aim of the current study was to assess the fit of the four-factor model of the AQ with violent offenders ( N = 271), a population for which the factor structure of the English version of the AQ has not previously been examined. Confirmatory factor analyses did not yield support for the four-factor model of the original 29-item AQ. Acceptable fit was obtained with the 12-item short form, but careful examination of the relationships between the latent factors revealed that the four subscales of the AQ may not represent distinct aspects of aggressiveness. Our findings call into question whether the AQ optimally measures trait aggressiveness among violent offenders.

  6. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  7. Experimental Functional Analysis of Aggression in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachan, Rachel; Shaw, Rebecca; Burrow, Caroline; Horsler, Kate; Allen, Debbie; Oliver, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background: Kinship theory suggests that genomic imprinting could account for phenotypic behaviors that increase (in the case of Angelman syndrome) or decrease (for Prader-Willi syndrome) the drive to access social resources (adult contact) depending on the imprinting parent-of-origin. Difficult to manage behaviors, such as aggression that is…

  8. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. "Teaching them a lesson?" A qualitative exploration of underlying motivations for driver aggression.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety.

  10. Aggressive behaviors and treatable risk factors of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Yi-Dong; Xun, Guang-Lei; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Shi, Li-Juan; Xiao, Lu; Wu, Ren-Rong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Ou, Jian-Jun

    2017-03-07

    Aggressive behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common. We conducted this study to describe the aggressive mode of preschool children with ASD and examine the associations between specific aggressive behaviors and two treatable factors: sleep problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In total, 577 typically developing (TD) children and 490 children with ASD were investigated in this study. The Institute for Basic Research - Modified Overt Aggression Scale (IBR-MOAS) was used to assess aggressive behaviors. Children's social impairments, sleep problems and ADHD symptoms were also measured with specific scales. The total IBR-MOAS score was significantly higher (worse) in the TD group [4.47 (5.36)] than in the ASD group [3.47 (5.63), P = 0.004]. The aggressive modes differed between groups: when compared with each other, the TD group received higher scores on Verbal and Physical Aggression Toward Others (all P < 0.01), while the ASD group had higher scores on Physical Aggression Against Self (P = 0.006). The linear regression model demonstrated that the aggressive behaviors of children with ASD were significantly associated with two treatable factors: sleep problems and ADHD symptoms. These findings have substantial clinical implications: treatment of these two risk factors may be helpful in managing aggressive behavior in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  12. Patterns of women's aggression against partners and others: broadening our understanding of violence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Echo A; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Research on women's aggression typically focuses on relational aggression. However, the study of violence must include multiple forms of violence such as aggression against partners and non-partner others, while also considering victimization experiences by partners and non-partners. The focus of this study is the multiple experiences of violence (perpetration and victimization) of women who are incarcerated. Incarcerated women are likely to experience higher rates of both than women in community settings, but most will be released in a brief period of time. Using a random sample (N = 580) we conducted cluster analyses to identify five patterns of women's aggression. Clusters varied depending on the target/s of aggression (i.e., partner and/or others), and type of aggression (i.e., physical and/or intimidation). Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine the relationship between women's membership in a perpetration cluster and their victimization. Victimization history was related to an increased risk of perpetrating aggression, and varied depending on the target and type of aggression. Our findings provide support that research and interventions addressing women's use of aggression must also address their victimization history. Furthermore, results indicate that for some women, aggression towards partners and others is related. Future research should investigate multiple forms of aggression.

  13. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

  14. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  15. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part II: Management. Report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee For International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Doherty, M; Bardin, T; Pascual, E; Barskova, V; Conaghan, P; Gerster, J; Jacobs, J; Leeb, B; Lioté, F; McCarthy, G; Netter, P; Nuki, G; Perez‐Ruiz, F; Pignone, A; Pimentão, J; Punzi, L; Roddy, E; Uhlig, T; Zimmermann‐Gòrska, I

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop evidence based recommendations for the management of gout. Methods The multidisciplinary guideline development group comprised 19 rheumatologists and one evidence based medicine expert representing 13 European countries. Key propositions on management were generated using a Delphi consensus approach. Research evidence was searched systematically for each proposition. Where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk, odds ratio, and incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio were calculated. The quality of evidence was categorised according to the level of evidence. The strength of recommendation (SOR) was assessed using the EULAR visual analogue and ordinal scales. Results 12 key propositions were generated after three Delphi rounds. Propositions included both non‐pharmacological and pharmacological treatments and addressed symptomatic control of acute gout, urate lowering therapy (ULT), and prophylaxis of acute attacks. The importance of patient education, modification of adverse lifestyle (weight loss if obese; reduced alcohol consumption; low animal purine diet) and treatment of associated comorbidity and risk factors were emphasised. Recommended drugs for acute attacks were oral non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral colchicine (ES = 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 1.50)), or joint aspiration and injection of corticosteroid. ULT is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, arthropathy, tophi, or radiographic changes of gout. Allopurinol was confirmed as effective long term ULT (ES = 1.39 (0.78 to 2.01)). If allopurinol toxicity occurs, options include other xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol desensitisation, or a uricosuric. The uricosuric benzbromarone is more effective than allopurinol (ES = 1.50 (0.76 to 2.24)) and can be used in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency but may be hepatotoxic. When gout is associated with the use of diuretics, the

  16. The outcome of group parent training for families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant/aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Danforth, Jeffrey S; Harvey, Elizabeth; Ulaszek, Wendy R; McKee, Tara Eberhardt

    2006-09-01

    The effects of group parent training on parent behavior, and on the behavior of 45 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and defiant aggressive behavior, were evaluated with a pre-post design. Parent training included didactics on the features and etiology of ADHD and its relationship to defiant/aggressive behavior, as well as parenting skills that adhered to parameters established in the Behavior Management Flow Chart (BMFC). The logic that guided the construction of the program and the unique aspects in the form and content of the parent training are identified. Outcome data show that training reduced childrens' hyperactive, defiant, and aggressive behavior, improved parenting behavior, and reduced parent stress. These data are comparable to previous outcome research evaluating the efficacy of parent training with the BMFC. The advantages of programs that are efficacious in group settings are discussed.

  17. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.

  18. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  19. The value of a multi-specialty service, including genitourinary medicine, dermatology and urology input, in the management of male genital dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Fernando, I

    2015-09-01

    We undertook a retrospective case note review of our monthly multi-specialty penile dermatoses clinic (which includes clinicians from Genitourinary medicine, Dermatology and Urology), to examine conditions presenting to the service, and compare clinical management and outcomes with other similar services in the UK. Over the 3-year study period, 226 patients were reviewed over 240 individual episodes. Lichenoid conditions were the most common category of genital pathologies seen (n = 60, 24%), but non-specific balanitis was the most common individual diagnosis (n = 55, 22%). Other common conditions seen included eczema and psoriasis (n = 28, 11%), Zoon/plasma cell balanitis (n = 26, 10%), malignancy/pre-malignant change (n = 25, 10%) and infective conditions (n = 24, 9%). The clinic had a biopsy rate of 10%; the most common indication was for confirmation of a clinical suspicion of malignancy/pre-malignancy. There was a high clinical-to-histological correlation in the biopsies of 79%. The most common treatment prescribed was topical corticosteroids and the clinic had a high discharge rate of 93%, the majority of patients discharged back to General Practice.

  20. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  1. Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analytic procedures were used to test the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, empathy/desensitization, and prosocial behavior. Unique features of this meta-analytic review include (a) more restrictive methodological quality inclusion criteria than in past…

  2. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Doherty, M; Arden, N; Bannwarth, B; Bijlsma, J; Gunther, K; Hauselmann, H; Herrero-Beaumont, G; Jordan, K; Kaklamanis, P; Leeb, B; Lequesne, M; Lohmander, S; Mazieres, B; Martin-Mola, E; Pavelka, K; Pendleton, A; Punzi, L; Swoboda, B; Varatojo, R; Verbruggen, G; Zimmermann-Gorska, I; Dougados, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: The multidisciplinary guideline development group comprised 18 rheumatologists, 4 orthopaedic surgeons, and 1 epidemiologist, representing 14 European countries. Each participant contributed up to 10 propositions describing key clinical aspects of hip OA management. Ten final recommendations were agreed using a Delphi consensus approach. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and HTA reports were searched systematically to obtain research evidence for each proposition. Where possible, outcome data for efficacy, adverse effects, and cost effectiveness were abstracted. Effect size, rate ratio, number needed to treat, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio were calculated. The quality of evidence was categorised according to the evidence hierarchy. The strength of recommendation was assessed using the traditional A–D grading scale and a visual analogue scale. Results: Ten key treatment propositions were generated through three Delphi rounds. They included 21 interventions, such as paracetamol, NSAIDs, symptomatic slow acting disease modifying drugs, opioids, intra-articular steroids, non-pharmacological treatment, total hip replacement, osteotomy, and two general propositions. 461 studies were identified from the literature search for the proposed interventions of efficacy, side effects, and cost effectiveness. Research evidence supported 15 interventions in the treatment of hip OA. Evidence specific for the hip was strikingly lacking. Strength of recommendation varied according to category of research evidence and expert opinion. Conclusion: Ten key recommendations for the treatment of hip OA were developed based on research evidence and expert consensus. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these recommendations were evaluated and the strength of recommendation was scored. PMID:15471891

  3. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hand osteoarthritis: Report of a Task Force of the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; Doherty, M; Leeb, B F; Alekseeva, L; Arden, N K; Bijlsma, J W; Dinçer, F; Dziedzic, K; Häuselmann, H J; Herrero‐Beaumont, G; Kaklamanis, P; Lohmander, S; Maheu, E; Martín‐Mola, E; Pavelka, K; Punzi, L; Reiter, S; Sautner, J; Smolen, J; Verbruggen, G; Zimmermann‐Górska, I

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To develop evidence based recommendations for the management of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The multidisciplinary guideline development group comprised 16 rheumatologists, one physiatrist, one orthopaedic surgeon, two allied health professionals, and one evidence based medicine expert, representing 15 different European countries. Each participant contributed up to 10 propositions describing key clinical points for management of hand OA. Final recommendations were agreed using a Delphi consensus approach. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Science Citation Index, AMED, Cochrane Library, HTA, and NICE reports was used to identify the best available research evidence to support each proposition. Where possible, the effect size and number needed to treat were calculated for efficacy. Relative risk or odds ratio was estimated for safety, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio was used for cost effectiveness. The strength of recommendation was provided according to research evidence, clinical expertise, and perceived patient preference. Results Eleven key propositions involving 17 treatment modalities were generated through three Delphi rounds. Treatment topics included general considerations (for example, clinical features, risk factors, comorbidities), non‐pharmacological (for example, education plus exercise, local heat, and splint), pharmacological (for example, paracetamol, NSAIDs, NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents, COX‐2 inhibitors, systemic slow acting disease modifying drugs, intra‐articular corticosteroids), and surgery. Of 17 treatment modalities, only six were supported by research evidence (education plus exercise, NSAIDs, COX‐2 inhibitors, topical NSAIDs, topical capsaicin, and chondroitin sulphate). Others were supported either by evidence extrapolated from studies of OA affecting other joint sites or by expert opinion. Strength of recommendation varied according to level of evidence, benefits and harms/costs of

  4. Predictors of aggressive clinical phenotype among immunohistochemically confirmed atypical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    Despite formal pathological criteria, not all atypical pituitary adenomas display clinically aggressive behavior. We set out to determine which factors predict a clinically aggressive phenotype among a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from April 2008 to July 2015. Of 569 pituitary adenomas, 47 (8.3%) patients were surgically treated for atypical adenomas as defined by the WHO criteria. Clinically aggressive adenomas were defined as occurring in those patients who necessitated additional therapeutic intervention after the index (first) surgery, including additional surgery, medical therapy, or radiosurgery. Forty-seven patients with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of atypical adenomas were identified and of these, 23 were noted to have a clinically aggressive course. Among the remaining 24 patients, the disease remained quiescent after the index surgery. On univariate analysis, clinically aggressive lesions were more likely to have a larger axial diameter on MRI (2.9±1.9cm vs. 1.9±0.7cm, p=0.02), greater incidence of cavernous sinus invasion (65.2% vs. 20.8%, p<0.01), and greater incidence of clival extension (60.9% vs. 0, p<0.01) on preoperative imaging. The two groups were equivalent with regard to immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, HGH, LH, FSH, PRL, and TSH. Clinically aggressive lesions, however, trended towards a greater average MIB-1 proliferative index (7.5%±4.9 vs. 6.0%±3.6, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, the MIB-1 proliferative index trended towards statistical significance (p=0.06) as an independent predictor of clinical aggressiveness. Atypical pituitary adenomas are defined by a rigid set of immunohistochemical markers, but not all necessarily demonstrate an aggressive clinical phenotype.

  5. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-09-22

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild.

  6. Revisiting the comparative outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2012-10-01

    We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.

  7. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  8. Heterospecific aggression bias towards a rarer colour morph

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; Sowersby, Will; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Colour polymorphisms are a striking example of phenotypic diversity, yet the sources of selection that allow different morphs to persist within populations remain poorly understood. In particular, despite the importance of aggression in mediating social dominance, few studies have considered how heterospecific aggression might contribute to the maintenance or divergence of different colour morphs. To redress this gap, we carried out a field-based study in a Nicaraguan crater lake to investigate patterns of heterospecific aggression directed by the cichlid fish, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis, towards colour polymorphic cichlids in the genus Amphilophus. We found that H. nicaraguensis was the most frequent territorial neighbour of the colour polymorphic A. sagittae. Furthermore, when manipulating territorial intrusions using models, H. nicaraguensis were more aggressive towards the gold than dark colour morph of the sympatric Amphilophus species, including A. sagittae. Such a pattern of heterospecific aggression should be costly to the gold colour morph, potentially accounting for its lower than expected frequency and, more generally, highlighting the importance of considering heterospecific aggression in the context of morph frequencies and coexistence in the wild. PMID:26378216

  9. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  10. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  11. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  12. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  13. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  14. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  15. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  16. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  17. Profilin 1 is a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Aggressiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Zerefos, Panagiotis G.; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Esteban, Sergio; Frantzi, Maria; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Anagnou, Nikolaos P.; Roubelakis, Maria G.; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Vlahou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Of the most important clinical needs for bladder cancer (BC) management is the identification of biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. Urine is a “gold mine” for biomarker discovery, nevertheless, with multiple proteins being in low amounts, urine proteomics becomes challenging. In the present study we applied a fractionation strategy of urinary proteins based on the use of immobilized metal affinity chromatography for the discovery of biomarkers for aggressive BC. Urine samples from patients with non invasive (two pools) and invasive (two pools) BC were subjected to immobilized metal affinity chromatography fractionation and eluted proteins analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, band excision and liquid chromatography tandem MS. Among the identified proteins, multiple corresponded to proteins with affinity for metals and/or reported to be phosphorylated and included proteins with demonstrated association with BC such as MMP9, fibrinogen forms, and clusterin. In agreement to the immobilized metal affinity chromatography results, aminopeptidase N, profilin 1, and myeloblastin were further found to be differentially expressed in urine from patients with invasive compared with non invasive BC and benign controls, by Western blot or Elisa analysis, nevertheless exhibiting high interindividual variability. By tissue microarray analysis, profilin 1 was found to have a marked decrease of expression in the epithelial cells of the invasive (T2+) versus high risk non invasive (T1G3) tumors with occasional expression in stroma; importantly, this pattern strongly correlated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. The functional relevance of profilin 1 was investigated in the T24 BC cells where blockage of the protein by the use of antibodies resulted in decreased cell motility with concomitant decrease in actin polymerization. Collectively, our study involves the application of a fractionation method of urinary proteins and as one main result of this analysis reveals the

  18. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  19. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. Methods and analysis The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three ‘all-comer’ studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. Ethics and dissemination The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and

  20. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    PubMed

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2016-07-22

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.

  1. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  2. Management options for echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cysts: a review including Australian Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Ultrasonologists consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Bethune, M

    2007-08-01

    Echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cysts are common findings at the midtrimester ultrasound. These findings have been linked with an increased risk of Down syndrome and trisomy 18. Most fetuses with these findings will, however, not have chromosomal abnormalities, especially when these findings are isolated. Patients experience considerable anxiety when informed of these findings and require extensive counselling in order to minimize anxiety not only about aneuploidy but also about the structure and development of the heart and brain. Although early studies showed an association with aneuploidies, several recent studies have cast doubt on this association. Many of the early studies were carried out in high-risk populations or in populations that had not had the benefit of other screening tests. Many Australian and New Zealand patients will access screening tests designed to detect these aneuploidies before presenting for a midtrimester ultrasound. Patients who have been screened by nuchal translucency, maternal serum screening or some combination of the two will already have had most cases of Down syndrome and trisomy 18 detected, and any soft marker found will almost certainly be a false positive. It is time to rethink the management of these markers. Recent evidence indicates that if these markers are found in isolation in an otherwise low-risk pregnancy, then there is minimal or no increase in the risk of Down syndrome or trisomy 18: these markers should be considered normal variants. The Australian Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Ultrasonologists consensus statement on these markers is included.

  3. Pornography and Sexual Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Dial-a- Porn .......................................8a Videocassettes.................................... 9 Pornographic Magazines...well known pornographic film, DeeR Throat, cost only M25,000 to produce, and has earned more than $50 million in profits.10 DIAL-A- PORN Dial-a- Porn has...Estimated costs for establishing a twenty-five dial-a- porn utility, including advertising, is $25,000.1 1 A typical dial-a- porn recording delivers an

  4. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  5. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  6. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie D.; McCauley, Spencer A.; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. Results: PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. Conclusions: PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation. PMID:26745682

  7. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday (PRAISE) Program. PRAISE is a 20-session classroom-based universal prevention program, designed to be appropriate and responsive to the needs of youth within the urban school context. Results suggest strong acceptability for the program and feasibility of implementation. Further, the program was especially beneficial for girls. For instance, girls in classrooms randomly assigned to the PRAISE Program demonstrated higher levels of knowledge for social information processing and anger management techniques and lower levels of relational aggression following treatment as compared to similar girls randomly assigned to a no-treatment control condition. Further, relationally aggressive girls exhibited similar benefits from the program (greater knowledge and lower levels of relational aggression) plus lower levels of overt aggression following treatment as compared to relationally aggressive girls within the control classrooms. In contrast, the program was not associated with improvements for boys across most measures. The significance and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21686034

  8. Comparative analysis of the brain transcriptome in a hyper-aggressive fruit fly, Drosophila prolongata.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Ayumi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Kadota, Koji; Nozawa, Masafumi; Shibata, Tomoko F; Ishikawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animals, but its intensity differs between species. In a model animal of genetics, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic basis of aggressive behavior has been studied intensively, including transcriptome analyses to identify genes whose expression level was associated with intra-species variation in aggressiveness. However, whether these genes are also involved in the evolution of aggressiveness among different species has not been examined. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis in the brain of Drosophila prolongata to identify genes associated with the evolution of aggressiveness. Males of D. prolongata were hyper-aggressive compared with closely related species. Comparison of the brain transcriptomes identified 21 differentially expressed genes in males of D. prolongata. They did not overlap with the list of aggression-related genes identified in D. melanogaster, suggesting that genes involved in the evolution of aggressiveness were independent of those associated with the intra-species variation in aggressiveness in Drosophila. Although females of D. prolongata were not aggressive as the males, expression levels of the 21 genes identified in this study were more similar between sexes than between species.

  9. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Troy A. W.; Ohan, Jeneva L.; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex. PMID:23446839

  10. The influence of alcohol expectancies and intoxication on men's aggressive unprotected sexual intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-10-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their postincident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol's influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work.

  11. Functions of Aggression and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent Criminality and Friends' Gang Membership.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Li, Xiang; Chan, Wei Teng

    2016-03-02

    This study examined the relationships between two functions of aggression (i.e., reactive and proactive) and delinquency, including the moderating effects of parent criminality and friends' gang membership, in a sample of 1,027 Singaporean adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with age ranging from 12 to 19 years (M = 14.10, SD = 1.15). Findings suggested that both reactive aggression and proactive aggression significantly and positively predicted delinquency (after controlling for proactive aggression and reactive aggression, respectively), with proactive aggression being a stronger predictor. Friends' gang membership was found to moderate the relationship between reactive aggression and delinquency, and proactive aggression and delinquency, with stronger moderator effects for the latter. Those who were aggressive proactively and who had friends in a gang appear to be impacted most negatively with respect to delinquency. Parent criminality did not moderate these relationships. These findings highlight the need to effectively address the issues of child and adolescent aggression. Also, developing positive peer relations early is crucial for delinquency prevention.

  12. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  13. Ventral premammillary nucleus as a critical sensory relay to the maternal aggression network

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Simone C.; Guimarães, Cibele Carla; Furigo, Isadora Clivatti; Sukikara, Marcia Harumi; Baldo, Marcus V. C.; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Canteras, Newton S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal aggression is under the control of a wide variety of factors that prime the females for aggression or trigger the aggressive event. Maternal attacks are triggered by the perception of sensory cues from the intruder, and here we have identified a site in the hypothalamus of lactating rats that is highly responsive to the male intruder—the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv). The PMv is heavily targeted by the medial amygdalar nucleus, and we used lesion and immediate-early gene studies to test our working hypothesis that the PMv signals the presence of a male intruder and transfers this information to the network organizing maternal aggression. PMv-lesioned dams exhibit significantly reduced maternal aggression, without affecting maternal care. The Fos analysis revealed that PMv influences the activation of hypothalamic and septal sites shown to be mobilized during maternal aggression, including the medial preoptic nucleus (likely to represent an important locus to integrate priming stimuli critical for maternal aggression), the caudal two-thirds of the hypothalamic attack area (comprising the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent tuberal region of the lateral hypothalamic area, critical for the expression of maternal aggression), and the ventral part of the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (presently discussed as being involved in controlling neuroendocrine and autonomic responses accompanying maternal aggression). These findings reveal an important role for the PMv in detecting the male intruder and how this nucleus modulates the network controlling maternal aggression. PMID:23918394

  14. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  15. Psychopathy & Aggression: When Paralimbic Dysfunction Leads to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nathaniel E.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopaths can be alarmingly violent, both in the frequency with which they engage in violence and the gratuitous extent of their violent acts. Indeed, one principal utility of the clinical construct of psychopathy is in predicting future violent behavior in criminal offenders. Aggression is a complex construct that intersects psychopathy at many levels. This chapter provides a review of psychopathy as a clinical construct including the most prominent cognitive and neurobiological models which serve to account for its pathophysiology. We then describe how the brain abnormalities implicated in psychopathy may lead to diverse behavioral outcomes, which can include aggression in its many forms. PMID:24306955

  16. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression.

  17. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  18. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  19. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  20. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  1. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  2. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  3. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, Michael S.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D.; Mallick, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  4. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers.

    PubMed

    Gossman, Michael S; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D; Mallick, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient׳s sex; patient׳s age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient׳s medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  5. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  6. Unintentional Misreporting on Self-Report Measures of Sexually Aggressive Behavior: An Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoё D

    2017-04-07

    The development of effective sexual aggression prevention programs for men relies on data garnered from studies using self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration. However, few studies have focused on understanding and improving self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration. The current study used open-ended interviews to explore the nature and frequency of community men's (N = 34) unintentional misreporting-including both overreporting and underreporting-on two self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration: the Sexual Experiences Survey-Long Form Perpetration (SES-LFP; Koss et al., 2007) and the Sexual Strategies Scale (SSS; Strang, Peterson, Hill, & Heiman, 2013a). Item misinterpretation led to both overreporting and underreporting of sexual aggression, although underreporting was more common. Men's interpretations of items, decision-making processes, and reasons for producing discrepant reports across measures were analyzed and discussed. Results could help inform efforts to refine self-report measurement of men's sexual aggression.

  7. Relational aggression and marital quality: A five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Carroll, Jason S; Smith, Nathan J; Yang, Chongming; Holmgren, Hailey G; Johnson, Chad

    2017-04-01

    Relational aggression occurs in many different contexts, including in romantic relationships. The current study examined associations between two subtypes of relational aggression (love withdrawal and social sabotage) and marital quality over a 5-year time period. Participants consisted of 311 married couples who completed a number of questionnaires on relational aggression and relationship quality once a year over a 5-year period. Results revealed that relational aggression was highly stable over time and that women used more relational aggression than men. Men's use of social sabotage and love withdrawal were bidirectionally related to both partners' perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Conversely, only women's use of love withdrawal was related to her own perceptions of poor marital quality over time. Collectively, these results suggest that relational aggression by men may be less common, though particularly toxic in a marital relationship. Couples are encouraged to find healthier ways of coping with problems in relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  9. Examining the correlates of aggression among male and female Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Taft, Casey T; Monson, Candice M; Hebenstreit, Claire L; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of general aggression among a nationally representative sample of male and female Vietnam veterans (N = 1,632). Findings indicated that the rates of aggression for men and women were 41% and 32%, respectively, and men appeared to perpetrate relatively more acts of severe aggression. Correlates of aggression for men included lower socioeconomic status and age, minority status, unemployment, degree of exposure to the malevolent war-zone environment and perceived threat in the war zone, posttraumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. For women, only lower age and unemployment were associated with aggression. Findings highlight the importance of developing models for aggression among those experiencing military deployments.

  10. The Relation Between Compulsive Sexual Behaviors and Aggression in a Substance-Dependent Population

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Research supports a high comorbidity between compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) and SUDs, which are both classified by increased impulsivity. Literature has also indicated that increased impulsivity and substance use are associated with aggression. However, no known research has examined the relationship between CSBs and aggression among a substance dependent population. The purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship. Participants included 349 male patients in treatment for SUDs. Results indicated that after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and age, CSBs were significantly associated with total aggression, aggressive attitudes, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. This is the first known study to examine this relationship, thus continued research is needed to extend and replicate these findings. PMID:27445453

  11. Methodological issues in defining aggression for content analyses of sexually explicit material.

    PubMed

    McKee, Alan

    2015-01-01

    There exists an important tradition of content analyses of aggression in sexually explicit material. The majority of these analyses use a definition of aggression that excludes consent. This article identifies three problems with this approach. First, it does not distinguish between aggression and some positive acts. Second, it excludes a key element of healthy sexuality. Third, it can lead to heteronormative definitions of healthy sexuality. It would be better to use a definition of aggression such as Baron and Richardson's (1994) in our content analyses, that includes a consideration of consent. A number of difficulties have been identified with attending to consent but this article offers solutions to each of these.

  12. Aggressive Chordomas: Clinical Outcome of 13 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Pala, Elisa; Calabrò, Teresa; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Katzouraki, Galatia; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Pneumaticos, Spyros G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    The authors reviewed the files of all patients with chordomas who were admitted and treated at their institutions from 1975 to 2012. Patients were categorized by early local recurrence and metastasis. Aggressive clinical behavior was defined as local recurrence and metastasis within 24 months of diagnosis and adequate treatment (wide en bloc resection with microscopically negative tumor margins). According to these criteria, 13 patients (14.3%) had aggressive chordomas, including 7 men and 6 women, with mean age of 54 years (range, 37-65 years) at diagnosis and treatment. All patients had preoperative tumor biopsy, followed by resection with partial (7 patients) or total sacrectomy (6 patients). In all cases, biopsy and histologic analysis of resected tumor specimens showed conventional chordomas. Resection margins were wide (grossly negative) in 6 patients and wide contaminated in 7 patients. Mean maximum tumor diameter was 11.8 cm (range, 5-21 cm). Mean follow-up was 43 months (range, 8-131 months). Rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and death were evaluated. At the last follow-up, all patients had local recurrence at a mean of 13 months (range, 5-22 months). Histologic examination of recurrent tumors showed a dedifferentiated chordoma with a fibrosarcoma component in 2 patients and no histologic change in the remaining patients. In addition, 8 patients had metastases at a mean of 13 months (range, 4-24 months) and died of their disease. All histologic findings of metastatic lesions were similar to those of primary tumors. Early diagnosis of aggressive tumors requires close follow-up of patients with chordomas. Metastasis is common, with resultant poor survival. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e248-e254.].

  13. Neurobiology of aggression and violence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2011-09-01

    There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome 22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies suggest that the Val158Met polymorphism of this gene affects COMT activity. Methionine (Met)/Met homozygote schizophrenia patients show 4- to 5-fold lower COMT activity than valine (Val)/Val homozygotes, and some but not all studies have found an association with aggression and violence. Recently, a new functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene, Ala72Ser, was found to be associated with homicidal behavior in schizophrenia, but this finding warrants further replication. Studies published so far indicate that an association with the monoamine oxidase A, B, or tryptophan hydroxylase 1 genes is unlikely. Data for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene are conflicting and limited. Data from the limited number of neuroimaging studies performed to date are interesting. Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service: Use of the HCR-20.

    PubMed

    Gunenc, Cevher; O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Despite evidence about the negative effects of verbal aggression in mental health wards there is little research about its prevalence or about the factors that predict the behaviour among inpatients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service, and to examine the relationship of verbal aggression with risk factors for aggression in the risk assessment tool HCR-20 in order to establish whether, and with which factors, the behaviour can be predicted. Verbal aggression was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) over a 3-month period across a heterogeneous patient group (n = 613). Over half the patients (n = 341, 56%) engaged in 1594 incidents of verbal aggression. The HCR-20 total, clinical, and risk management subscale scores predicted verbal aggression, though effect sizes were not large. Item-outcome analysis revealed that impulsivity, negative attitudes, and non-compliance with medication were the best predictors of verbal aggression and, therefore, should be targeted for intervention. There are key synergies between factors predicting verbal aggression and the core mental health nursing role. Nurses, therefore, are in a prime position to develop and implement interventions that may reduce verbal aggression in mental health inpatients.

  15. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  16. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  17. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  18. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  19. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  2. Medical management of autism.

    PubMed

    De Ocampo, Anna C; Jacobs, Jeannine M

    2006-10-01

    The primary care physician should be knowledgeable about the medical issues that children with ASD encounter and also be aware of available treatment options. Included among these are: identification of seizures, treatment of sleep problems, aggressive management of chronic constipation and GERD as well as timely referral for preventive dental care. Due to the scarcity of sub-specialists (Pediatric Neurologist, Developmental Pediatrician, Child Psychiatrist/ Psychologist) managing children with ASD, the primary care physician should likewise be familiar with medication options for challenging behaviors. More importantly, there needs to be a close collaboration and communication between the family, the sub-specialist and the child's primary care physician.

  3. Establishing research and management priorities for invasive water primroses (Ludwigia spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This technical report provides background information on invasive, aquatic Ludwigia species to assist aquatic resource managers. The report includes a description of the problems caused by these invasive plant species and why their current aggressive spread should concern resource managers and poli...

  4. EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT)

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, A; Arden, N; Dougados, M; Doherty, M; Bannwarth, B; Bijlsma, J; Cluzeau, F; Cooper, C; Dieppe, P; Gunther, K; Hauselmann, H; Herrero-Beaumont, G; Kaklamanis, P; Leeb, B; Lequesne, M; Lohmander, S; Mazieres, B; Mola, E; Pavelka, K; Serni, U; Swoboda, B; Verbruggen, A; Weseloh, G; Zimmermann-Gorska, I

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease encountered throughout Europe. A task force for the EULAR Standing Committee for Clinical Trials met in 1998 to determine the methodological and logistical approach required for the development of evidence based guidelines for treatment of knee OA. The guidelines were restricted to cover all currently available treatments for knee OA diagnosed either clinically and/or radiographically affecting any compartment of the knee.
METHODS—The first stage was the selection of treatment modalities to be considered. The second stage comprised a search of the electronic databases Medline and Embase using a combination of subject headings and keywords. All European language publications in the form of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, and observational studies were included. During stage three all the relevant studies were quality scored. The summary statistics for validated outcome measures, when available, were recorded and, where practical, the numbers needed to treat and the effect size for each treatment were calculated. In the fourth stage key clinical propositions were determined by expert consensus employing a Delphi approach. The final stage ranked these propositions according to the available evidence. A second set of propositions relating to a future research agenda was determined by expert consensus using a Delphi approach.
RESULTS—Over 2400 English language publications and 400 non-English language publications were identified. Seven hundred and forty four studies presented outcome data of the effects of specific treatments on knee OA. Quantitative analysis of treatment effect was possible in only 61 studies. Recommendations for the management of knee OA based on currently available data and expert opinion are presented. Proposals for a future research agenda are highlighted.
CONCLUSIONS—These are the first clinical guidelines on knee

  5. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway as well as the family of RAS oncogenes and BRAF as a member of the RAF protein family and the aberrant expression of microRNAs miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b all play major roles in tumor initiation and progression of aggressive PTC. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC. PMID:24955023

  6. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  7. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  8. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  9. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  10. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  11. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  12. Effectiveness, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Aggressive Children with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Reed, Michael D.; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; McNamara, Nora K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide an initial description of the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics (PK) of quetiapine in aggressive children with conduct disorder (CD). Method: This 8-week, open-label outpatient trial, enrolled patients ages 6 to 12 years with CD. Outcome measures included the Rating of Aggression Against People and/or Property Scale…

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Social Skills Training Program for Physically Aggressive Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Frank J.

    This study replicated a social skills training program previously designed to eliminate verbally aggressive behavior in six institutionalized elderly, by substituting physical acts of aggression for verbal ones. The treatment package consisted of instructions, modeling, role playing, and feedback. Dependent measures included confirmed incidents of…

  14. The Relation of Locus of Control, Anger, and Impulsivity to Boys' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Annie M.; Lochman, John E.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to discover how anger, locus of control, and impulsivity are related to aggression. Two pathways to aggression were examined: a cognitive/schema pathway and an emotion/impulsivity pathway. The sample included 242 fourth- and fifth-grade boys. Using data from several questionnaires, teachers reported on levels of reactive and…

  15. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  16. Proactive and Reactive Aggression and Peer Delinquency: Implications for Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research has found that proactive and reactive aggression differentially relate to many variables, including peer relations. However, no research has examined the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer delinquency, an important proximal predictor of adolescent antisocial behavior. The current study examined the…

  17. The Use and Acceptance of Sexually Aggressive Tactics in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Cleveland, Koss, and Lyon's (1999) research on rape tactics to a sample of college men by examining the use and acceptance of sexually aggressive tactics. Participants included 297 male undergraduate students who filled out instruments assessing for a history of sexual aggression and other personality…

  18. Neuropsychological Factors in the Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper addresses the neuropsychological evaluation of impulsive aggression in emotionally disturbed students. Specific complications of organic aggressive syndrome include its unpredictable nature and basis in organic etiology. Characteristically, there is a sudden onset of unprovoked rage and violence accompanied by a drastic change in…

  19. “Blurred Lines?”1 Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    patrons and staff that support sexual aggression and better management of the highly sexualized and sexist environments of most bars. PMID:24588839

  20. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, David; Murthy, Varsha; Reddy, Vineela Katam; Pillai, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis previously termed as juvenile periodontitis is characterised by rapid destruction of the periodontium at a relatively young age. Rehabilitation of these patients is often challenging and difficult. Controlling the disease and restoring periodontal health is essential for successful prosthodontic rehabilitation. This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation of a young adult patient with generalised aggressive periodontitis. Treatment objectives included plaque control, prevention of further attachment loss, reduction/elimination of pockets, and prosthetic rehabilitation to enhance aesthetics and restore masticatory function. One year recall evaluation revealed stable periodontal support with no further loss of attachment and no other complications. PMID:25743856

  1. Strategies for nurse leaders to address aggressive and violent events.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    According to a 2010 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 48% of all nonfatal injuries from occupational assaults and violent acts occur in healthcare and social service settings. A recent increase in workplace violence has been noted causing a heightened awareness among nurses. Information is scarce both in the literature and in healthcare settings regarding the proper steps to take in the event that violence occurs and de-escalation techniques for aggressive behavior do not work. Nurse leaders should prioritize time to become involved in developing and implementing workplace violence policies including offering education for nurses to deal with aggressive behaviors and violent acts and, learn de-escalation techniques.

  2. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhood antisocial behavior, given their notably different etiologies and developmental trajectories (Burt, 2012). The current study sought to examine the phenotypic and etiologic associations of maternal negativity with aggressive and rule-breaking antisocial behavior, respectively. Participants included 824 mothers and their twin children between the ages of 6 and 10. Our results highlighted clear etiologic distinctions in the associations of aggression and rule-breaking with maternal negativity. Aggression was associated with maternal negativity via both genetic and environmental factors, whereas the association between non-aggressive rule-breaking and maternal negativity was entirely environmental in origin. These findings provide additional support for the presence of meaningful distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of antisocial behavior, and highlight the complex relationship between parenting and child outcome. PMID:24906982

  3. Aggression and Violence in Sport: Moving Beyond the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, David N.; Petscher, Yaacov; Stanley, Christopher T.; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the latest in a series of articles published in The Sport Psychologist in recent years on aggression and violence in sport (Kerr, 1999, 2002; Tenenbaum, Sacks, Miller, Golden, & Doolin, 2000; Tenenbaum, Stewart, Singer, & Duda, 1997). While these respective articles have presented dissenting views on the nature and prevention of aggression and violence in sport, the present paper proposes that much of the apparent disagreement is semantic in nature. Thus, this paper begins by clarifying some definitional issues before specifying both areas of agreement and continued dissention among recent authors. Major emphases in this paper include the importance of adopting preventative rather than reactive measures to reduce the dangers associated with aggression and violence in sport, as well as the manner in which adult sport norms affect youth sport environments. In addition, several broader issues, which have emerged from these recent published debates, are presented for future consideration. PMID:26855638

  4. An Exploration of Relational Aggression in the Nursing Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Dellasega, Cheryl; Volpe, Rebecca L.; Edmonson, Cole; Hopkins, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study provides a 1st look at relational aggression (RA) and the consequences among nurses. Background Interpersonal hostility, bullying, and a toxic work environment can impact patient care delivery as well as nurses’ personal health and job satisfaction. Methods The Relational Aggression Assessment Survey (RAAS), measuring aggressors, victims and bystanders, was used to measure RA in a sample of 842 nurses. Additional variables measured included a demographic profile, job satisfaction and intent to leave. Results Nurses were most likely to identify with victim behaviors, but a minority of nurses reported relying on aggressor behaviors and bystander behaviors. There was a positive correlation among aggressor, victim and bystander items, suggesting overlap in roles. Conclusions A few relationally aggressive individuals can create a toxic work environment. Interventions to address RA among nurses must be tested, as well as strategies for improving job satisfaction and promoting healthy work environments through positive relationships. PMID:24662690

  5. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  6. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  7. The Consistency of Aggressive Behavior across Time and Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.

    Results of a longitudinal study conducted over a 21-year period indicated that aggressive behavior remains stable across time, situations, and generations within families. Data were first collected by a survey of all third-grade schoolchildren in a semirural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870 children (with a modal age…

  8. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  9. 40 CFR 13.10 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; documentation. 13.10 Section 13.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.10 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) EPA takes actions... documentation, including the Claims Collection Litigation Report required § 13.33, is retained in...

  10. Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervova, Irina

    1999-01-01

    Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

  11. Adolescent Aggression: Effects of Gender and Family and School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Perez, Sergio Murgui; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Ruiz, David Moreno

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of family and classroom environments on the development of particular individual characteristics, including level of empathy, attitude to institutional authority and perceived social reputation, and the role these characteristics may in turn play in school aggression. Participants were 1319 adolescents aged…

  12. The role of executive functions in the control of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Ulrike M; Kopyciok, Robert P J; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people.

  13. Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of pediatric ADHD with associated aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bianca D; Barzman, Drew H

    2013-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with symptoms of aggression in children and adolescents. Clinically, this is complex because aggression can be from hyperactivity and impulsivity, or could be a distinct symptom from a comorbid diagnosis. Past research has recommended first treating the primary disorder of ADHD. Stimulants are the most common treatment for pediatric ADHD, which can be helpful in decreasing aggressive behaviors. Alpha-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine (ATX) are non-stimulant medications for ADHD and aggression, but more research is necessary to compare these drugs to stimulants. If aggressive symptoms do not improve from treating the primary disorder, aggression can be treated separately. Risperidone, lithium, valproic acid, clonidine, and guanfacine have shown positive results in reducing aggression, but studies including children with aggression and ADHD are limited. The variability in treatment tolerability in patients has stimulated research in pharmacogenetics for ADHD. Although this field is still emerging, research has found evidence supporting a link between the response rate of methylphenidate and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and a link between the metabolism rate of atomoxetine and hepatic cytochrome 450 isozymes. Pharmacogenetics may be relevant to ADHD and associated aggression. Further research in pharmacogenetics will strive to identify patterns of genetic variations that can tailor individual treatments.

  14. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  15. Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non-aggressive offending.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence.

  16. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  17. [Aggressions towards nurses in emergency departments: an international literature review].

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Lorenzo; Bambi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a widespread phenomenon in every kind of settings. Among these ones there are emergency departments (ED), that have distinctive features as like the large daily number of patients' presentations, and high emotional content or stressing situations related to the management of diagnostic-therapeutic priorities. We reviewed the medical and nursing literature to quantify the international widespread of aggressions towards nurses working in EDs, distinguish the typologies and the perpetrators, and identify the consequences on victims and healthcare organizations. Original papers were searched using Medline, CINHAL, and Medscape databases.  35 research articles met the inclusion criteria, but 6 were not retrieved. The rate of verbal abuses reported by ED nurses varies from 50% to 100% of those who were surveyed, while physical violence ranges between 16.7% and 72%. Patients and relatives are the main perpetrators, followed by doctors, and, only in lower percentages, by nurses colleagues. Alcohol, drugs abuse, and overcrowding in EDs are acknowledged as motivating factors for violent events. Under-reporting of aggressions is frequent up to the 80% of victims, and some papers report that nurses consider assaults as a normal part of their work. There is a direct relation between aggressions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disturb syndrome. Moreover there is a sense of continuous fear in nurses, causing the likelihood of workplace leaving. Special educational courses seem to be effective in diminishing the number of aggressions and to adopt adequate adaptive behaviors. 

  18. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  19. Short-day aggression is independent of changes in cortisol or glucocorticoid receptors in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Rendon, Nikki M; Greives, Timothy J; Romeo, Russell D; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Testosterone mediates aggression in many vertebrates. In some species, aggression remains high during the non-breeding season (e.g., winter), when testosterone levels are low. In Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), we have demonstrated photoperiodic changes in aggression with hamsters housed in short, "winter-like" days displaying significantly more territorial aggression than long-day animals, despite low levels of testosterone. The mechanisms by which photoperiod regulates aggression, however, remain largely unknown. Adrenocortical hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) have been implicated in mediating seasonal aggression; circulating concentrations of these hormones have been correlated with aggression in some species. The goal of this study was to examine the role of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptors in mediating photoperiodic changes in aggression in male Siberian hamsters. Males were housed in long or short days and treated with either exogenous cortisol or vehicle. Circulating levels of cortisol, adrenal cortisol content, and aggression were quantified. Lastly, photoperiodic effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were quantified in limbic brain regions associated with aggression, including medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Short-day hamsters were more aggressive than long-day hamsters, however cortisol treatment did not affect aggression. Photoperiod had no effect on serum or adrenal cortisol or GR levels in the brain regions examined. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in cortisol levels do not cause increases associated with short-day aggression, and further that GR protein levels are not associated with photoperiodic changes in aggression. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role of adrenocortical steroids in mediating seasonal aggression.

  20. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  1. Evaluation of protein biomarkers of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostic multibiomarker signatures in prostate cancer (PCa) may improve patient management and provide a bridge for developing novel therapeutics and imaging methods. Our objective was to evaluate the association between expression of 33 candidate protein biomarkers and time to biochemical failure (BF) after prostatectomy. Methods PCa tissue microarrays were constructed representing 160 patients for whom clinicopathologic features and follow-up data after surgery were available. Immunohistochemistry for each of 33 proteins was quantified using automated digital pathology techniques. Relationships between clinicopathologic features, staining intensity, and time to BF were assessed. Predictive modeling using multiple imputed datasets was performed to identify the top biomarker candidates. Results In univariate analyses, lymph node positivity, surgical margin positivity, non-localized tumor, age at prostatectomy, and biomarkers CCND1, HMMR, IGF1, MKI67, SIAH2, and SMAD4 in malignant epithelium were significantly associated with time to BF. HMMR, IGF1, and SMAD4 remained significantly associated with BF after adjusting for clinicopathologic features while additional associations were observed for HOXC6 and MAP4K4 following adjustment. In multibiomarker predictive models, 3 proteins including HMMR, SIAH2, and SMAD4 were consistently represented among the top 2, 3, 4, and 5 most predictive biomarkers, and a signature comprised of these proteins best predicted BF at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions This study provides rationale for investigation of HMMR, HOXC6, IGF1, MAP4K4, SIAH2, and SMAD4 as biomarkers of PCa aggressiveness in larger cohorts. PMID:24708576

  2. Chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency: A longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Semanchin Jones, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Neglect is the most common form of maltreatment in the United States, yet its impact on development remains understudied, especially for chronic neglect. Chronic neglect is also one of the most costly burdens on child welfare systems. This study examines the effects of chronic neglect, including two subtypes (Failure to Provide and Lack of Supervision) on adolescent aggression and delinquency using a diverse longitudinal sample of youth. Chronic neglect and chronic failure to provide (ages 0-12) predicted aggression/delinquency (age 14) even after controlling for the effects of other maltreatment (ages 0-12). Chronic lack of supervision, however, did not. Gender significantly moderated these effects, suggesting that males are more likely to respond to neglect by becoming aggressive/delinquent. Finally, social problems (age 12) partially mediated for boys, and fully mediated for girls, the connections between chronic neglect and aggression/delinquency, bolstering theorizing that neglect impairs social functioning broadly. Implications include the need for further research on chronic neglect, especially in providing guidance for child welfare systems. Interventions for chronically neglected youth should include social skill development.

  3. [Global brain metastases management strategy: a multidisciplinary-based approach].

    PubMed

    Métellus, P; Tallet, A; Dhermain, F; Reyns, N; Carpentier, A; Spano, J-P; Azria, D; Noël, G; Barlési, F; Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    Brain metastases management has evolved over the last fifteen years and may use varying strategies, including more or less aggressive treatments, sometimes combined, leading to an improvement in patient's survival and quality of life. The therapeutic decision is subject to a multidisciplinary analysis, taking into account established prognostic factors including patient's general condition, extracerebral disease status and clinical and radiological presentation of lesions. In this article, we propose a management strategy based on the state of current knowledge and available therapeutic resources.

  4. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  5. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  6. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  7. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Lorant, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.

  8. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Effects of alcohol on trajectories of physical aggression among urban youth: an application of latent trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Jennings, Wesley G; Komro, Kelli A

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of physical aggression over time (ages 12-14) among urban adolescents from Chicago, IL. Data from the Project Northland Chicago (n = 3038, 49.4% female) was used. The current study sample included 1,160 Black, 1,015 Hispanic and 863 White/other adolescents for a total of 3,038 adolescents. Four trajectories of physical aggression were identified: Non-aggressive (16%), Desistors (9%), Escalators (20%) and Chronic Aggressive (55%). After adjusting for physical aggression behaviors, delinquent friends, lack of supervised time, demographic variables, smoking and marijuana use, past year alcohol users at age 11 were 2.1 times more likely to be "Escalators" and 1.9 times more likely to be in the "Chronic Aggressive" group. Gender and ethnic differences were also observed in the trajectories of physical aggression. Black youth were 2.5 times more likely to be in the "Chronic Aggressive" group. Findings highlight the importance of targeting alcohol prevention to reduce physical aggression among urban young adolescents.

  10. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  11. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  12. The relationship between drug use and sexual aggression in men across time.

    PubMed

    Swartout, Kevin M; White, Jacquelyn W

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between drug use and sexual aggression in a sample of men was examined at five time points from adolescence through the 4th year of college. Hierarchical linear modeling explored the relationship between proximal drug use and severity of sexual aggression after controlling for proximal alcohol use at each time period. Results revealed that proximal drug use was associated with sexual aggression severity: Increased drug use predicted increased severity of sexual aggression across time. A second set of analyses explored the relationship between distal marijuana use and severity of sexual aggression after controlling for distal alcohol use. Results indicated that increased marijuana use predicted increased severity of sexual aggression across time. A third set of analyses explored the relationship between distal use of other illicit drugs and severity of sexual aggression after controlling for distal alcohol use. Results mirrored those of the second set of analyses and are discussed in terms of drug use as a component of deviant lifestyles that may include sexually aggressive behavior, including implications for applied settings.

  13. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  14. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  15. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  16. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  17. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    4. Economic costs and benefits of artificial closure. This report for breach management presents protocols which specify when breach closures within the FIIS might be desirable and necessary, as well as provides recommendations for structural breach closure engineering operations which are indented to minimize negative impacts to the natural wilderness values and cultural resources within the FIIS, particularly the Otis Pike Wilderness Area. The goal of the plan is to strike a balance between protecting natural resources and allowing natural processes to operate and avoiding loss of life and excessive property damage.

  18. Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Elisa; Levitt, Mairi

    2008-11-01

    New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many studies are being conducted on personality traits such as aggressiveness and anti-social traits. The clinical applicability and implications of these studies are often discussed within the scientific community. However, little attention has so far been paid to their possible policy implications in relation to criminality management and to Criminal Law itself. Similarly, the related ethical issues arising in the field of crime control, and the tensions between enhancing security for society and protecting civil liberties, are currently under-explored. This paper investigates these ethical issues by focusing on the views of those professionals - including judges, lawyers, probation officers and social workers - who work with individuals 'deemed at risk' of violent and aggressive behaviours. It also discusses and problematizes mainstream rhetoric and arguments around the notion of 'risky individuals'.

  19. Investigation and management of an outbreak of multispecies mycobacteriosis in Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus fosteri) including the use of triple antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Strike, T B; Feltrer, Y; Flach, E; Macgregor, S K; Guillaume, S

    2017-04-01

    Disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is common in fish. Current recommendations focus on outbreak management by depopulating entire fish stocks and disinfecting tanks. Treatment is not advocated. Treatment may be appropriate, however, where individual, valuable fish are concerned. ZSL London Zoo managed an outbreak of mycobacteriosis in a valuable group of imported F1 captive-bred Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus fosteri) by depopulation, isolation, extensive testing and daily oral antibiotic treatment. Four species of Mycobacterium (M. marinum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae and M. peregrinum) were involved in this outbreak, each with unique antibiotic sensitivities. Triple therapy with rifampicin, doxycycline and enrofloxacin for 8 months was the most effective antibiotic combination, resulting in full disease resolution. No side effects were noted and, more than 18 months post-treatment, no recurrence had occurred. This is the first report of mycobacterial disease in lungfish and the first report of a polymycobacterial outbreak in fish involving these four species of Mycobacterium. This report demonstrates the value of extensive isolation and identification. Also, as therapies currently advised in standard texts did not reflect the antibiotic sensitivity of the NTM found in the fish reported here, we recommend that antibiotic treatment should always be based on sensitivity testing.

  20. Dopaminergic Regulation of Mate Competition Aggression and Aromatase-Fos Colocalization in Vasotocin Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M.; Goodson, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the BSTm. Although VT is known to facilitate mate competition aggression, the role of DA has not previously been examined. We now show that in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), mate competition aggression is inhibited by the D2 agonist quinpirole, though not the D1 agonist SKF-38393 or the D4 agonist PD168077. The D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT also inhibited aggression, but only following high dose treatment that may affect aggression via non-specific binding to D2 receptors. Central VT infusion failed to restore D2 agonist-inhibited aggression in a subsequent experiment, demonstrating that D2 does not suppress aggression by inhibiting VT release from BSTm neurons. In a final experiment, we detected D2 agonist-induced increases in immunofluorescent colocalization of the product of the immediate early gene c-fos and the steroid-converting enzyme aromatase (ARO) within VT neurons of the BSTm. Thus, although VT and DA appear to influence mate competition aggression independently, BSTm VT neurons are clearly influenced by the activation of D2 receptors, which may modify future behaviors. PMID:19540858

  1. Effects of olanzapine on aggressiveness in heroin dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Di Petta, G; D'Amore, A; Iannotta, P; Bardicchia, F; Falorni, F; Coacci, A; Strepparola, G; Campione, G; Lucchini, A; Vedda, G; Serio, G; Manzato, E; Antonioni, M; Bertacca, S; Moi, G; Zaimovic, A

    2006-09-30

    This study compared the anti-aggressiveness effects of the atypical anti-psychotic olanzapine with that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and benzodiazepines (BZD) among patients with heroin dependence submitted to opioid-agonists substitution treatment. Sixty-seven (67) patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for heroin dependence and showed aggressive personality traits, not affected by comorbid schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, accepted to participate in a 12-week prospective, observational trial. Patients were included into two subgroups in relationship with treatment, for the evaluation of the endpoints at week 12: group 1: substitution treatment in combination with OLA (32 patients); group 2: substitution treatment in combination with fluoxetine/paroxetine and clonazepam (35 patients). Efficacy measures were Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Symptoms Check List-90 (SCL 90) anger--hostility scores, incidence rates of aggressive incidents and attacks. The rates of patients who remained in treatment at week 12 in group 1, treated with OLA, and group 2, treated with SSRI and BDZ, were not significantly different (17 = 53.1% vs 16 = 45.7%). BDHI total, direct aggressiveness, verbal aggressiveness scores, SCL 90 aggressiveness scores and aggressive incidents rates showed a significantly more consistent decrease from baseline in group 1 than in group 2 subjects, in the patients who completed the treatment (p < 0.001; p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.01; p < 0.001). Among the completers, 69.3% achieved early full substance abuse remission, while 30.7% achieved partial substance abuse remission, with no significant difference between 1 and 2 treatment subgroups. Although obtained by an observational--open clinical study, with multiple limitations, our findings suggest that OLA may be useful as an adjunctive agent in reducing aggressive/hostile behaviour in heroin addicted individuals during maintenance substitution treatment. Otherwise, atypical anti

  2. Integrated Water Basin Management Including a Large Pit Lake and a Water Supply Reservoir: The Mero-Barcés Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Jordi; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Hernández-Anguiano, Horacio; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water resource managers attempt to minimize conflicts among users, preserve the environment as much as possible, and satisfy user necessities at a minimum cost. Several European directives indirectly address mine restoration policies, with a goal of minimizing negative impacts and adding social and environmental value where possible. Water management must consider water sources, ecological flows, flood control, and variability in the demands for urban, industrial, and agricultural uses. In the context of the present study, the city of A Coruña is located in Galicia (NW Spain). The water supply system for this city and surrounding municipalities (~400.000 inhabitants) is based on the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir. In cases when precipitation is scarce (e.g. no rain for more than seven consecutive months) and there is a seasonal increase in demand significantly stress the supply system so that, as occurred in 2010, shortages and water supply restrictions need to be considered. This is a clear indication of that, at present, the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir has not enough capacity to cope with a scenario of increasing water demand (due to the vegetative and seasonal increase of population) and hydric stress likely connected with the widely acknowledged climate change. In the present context of monetary resources scarcity and society concern with respect large new public work projects, the construction of a new dam is challenging. However the opportunity provided by the recent flooding of the Meirama open pit (a large mine void that has been forced-flooded for its reclamation and it is located in the headwaters of one of the rivers draining towards the Abegondo-Cecebre reservoir) proves to be a significant new asset that will help to improve the future water management scenarios under the acknowledged uncertain conditions. In this study we have studied in detail the hydrochemistry of the affected systems (lake, river and reservoir) in order to make clear whether or not the

  3. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  4. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  5. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…

  7. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  8. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  9. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  10. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  11. Progress in Treatment Development for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Focus on Agitation and Aggression. A Report from the EU/US/CTAD Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M.; Abushakra, S.; Cummings, J.; Siffert, J.; Robert, P.; Vellas, B.; Lyketsos, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as agitation and aggression is a major priority in caring for people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Agitation and aggression (A/A) are among the most disruptive symptoms, and given their impact, they are increasingly an important target for development of effective treatments. Considerable progress has been made in the last years with a growing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for NPS. The limited benefits reported in some RCTs may be accounted for by the absence of a biological link of the tested molecule to NPS and also by key methodological issues. In recent RCTs of A/A, a great heterogeneity design was found. Designing trials for dementia populations with NPS presents many challenges, including identification of appropriate participants for such trials, engagement and compliance of patients and caregivers in the trials and the choice of optimal outcome measures to demonstrate treatment effectiveness. The EU/US -CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from academia, industry, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies met in Philadelphia on November 19, 2014 to address some of these challenges. Despite potential heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and neurobiology, agitation and aggression seems to be accepted as an entity for drug development. The field appears to be reaching a consensus in using both agitation and aggression (or other NPS)-specific quantitative measures plus a global rating of change for agitation outcomes based on clinician judgment as the main outcomes. PMID:26413494

  12. Toward a Relationship Perspective on Aggression among Schoolchildren: Integrating Social Cognitive and Interdependence Theories

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional psychological approach of studying aggression among schoolchildren in terms of individual differences in aggression and in victimization has been valuable in identifying prevalence rates, risk, and consequences of involvement in aggression. However, it is argued that a focus on aggressor-victim relationships is warranted based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Such a shift in focus requires modification and integration of existing theories of aggression, and this paper integrates social cognitive theory and interdependence theory to suggest a new, interdependent social cognitive theory of aggression. Specifically, this paper identifies points of overlap and different foci between these theories, and it illustrates their integration through a proposed model of the emergence of aggressor-victim interactions and relationships. The paper concludes that expanding consideration to include aggressor-victim relationships among schoolchildren offers considerable theoretical, empirical, and intervention opportunities. PMID:26985397

  13. Moderating effects of autism on parent views of genetic screening for aggression.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E; Brandt, Rachel C; Bohannan, Joseph K

    2012-10-01

    Advances in gene-environment interaction research have revealed genes that are associated with aggression. However, little is known about parent perceptions of genetic screening for behavioral symptoms like aggression as opposed to diagnosing disabilities. These perceptions may influence future research endeavors involving genetic linkage studies to behavior, including proactive approaches for parents to avoid events leading to aggression. The purpose of this study was to solicit the perspectives of parents who have children with autism about screening for genes associated with aggression, compared to responses from those who have children without disabilities and those planning to have children. Parents of children with autism were more likely to support screening and the use of the results to seek treatment if necessary. Results are discussed in the context of surveillance screening and systematic early intervention for behavioral symptoms related to autism. The results may provide insight for clincians, researchers, policymakers, and advocacy groups related to diagnosing and treating aggression in people with autism.

  14. Parenting processes and aggression: the role of self-control among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Yalçın; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Çok, Figen

    2013-02-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of parenting processes, self-control, and aggression. Findings provided evidence of both direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal parenting processes on aggression through low self-control. Specifically, results showed that maternal closeness, paternal peer approval and both maternal and paternal monitoring were positively and directly related to low self-control, and indirectly related to aggression through low self-control. Together, parenting processes and low self-control explained 21% of the variance in aggression. Implications for self-control theory and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and perceptions of aggression.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Badırgalı Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures.

  16. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.

  17. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  18. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND IMPULSIVE AGGRESSION IN INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Coccaro, Emil F.; Solis, Oscar; Fanning, Jennifer; Lee, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) relates to one's ability to recognize and understand emotional information and then, to use it for planning and self-management. Given evidence of abnormalities of emotional processing in impulsively aggressive individuals, we hypothesized that EI would be reduced in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 43) compared with healthy (n = 44) and psychiatric (n = 44) controls. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess both Experiential EI and Strategic EI. Strategic, but not Experiential, EI was lower in IED compared with control subjects. These differences were not accounted for demographic characteristics, cognitive intelligence, or the presence of clinical syndromes or personality disorder. In contrast, the relationship between IED and Strategic EI was fully accounted for by a dimension of hostile cognition defined by hostile attribution and hostile automatic thoughts. Interventions targeted at improving Strategic EI and reducing hostile cognition will be key to reducing aggressive behavior in individuals with IED. PMID:25477263

  19. Emotional intelligence and impulsive aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Solis, Oscar; Fanning, Jennifer; Lee, Royce

    2015-02-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) relates to one's ability to recognize and understand emotional information and then, to use it for planning and self-management. Given evidence of abnormalities of emotional processing in impulsively aggressive individuals, we hypothesized that EI would be reduced in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 43) compared with healthy (n = 44) and psychiatric (n = 44) controls. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess both Experiential EI and Strategic EI. Strategic, but not Experiential, EI was lower in IED compared with control subjects. These differences were not accounted for demographic characteristics, cognitive intelligence, or the presence of clinical syndromes or personality disorder. In contrast, the relationship between IED and Strategic EI was fully accounted for by a dimension of hostile cognition defined by hostile attribution and hostile automatic thoughts. Interventions targeted at improving Strategic EI and reducing hostile cognition will be key to reducing aggressive behavior in individuals with IED.

  20. Personality and trait aggression profiles of male and female prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Falk, Örjan; Sfendla, Anis; Brändström, Sven; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra

    2017-04-01

    Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population. The majority of offenders scored distinctively high on trait aggression. There were moderate to strong associations between the personality dimensions and each of the subscales of LHA (Aggression, Self-directed Aggression and Antisocial behavior). These associations were stronger in the female offender sample. Trait aggression could be best explained by a model, which included male gender, younger age, high novelty seeking temperament and low character maturity. Our results suggest that therapies aiming at strengthening self-governance and increasing cooperativeness (focusing on character maturity) may alleviate aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders.